Davis, P.A.; Goodrich, M.T.
Ground-water flow and transport models can be thought of as a combination of conceptual and mathematical models and the data that characterize a given system. The judgment of the validity or invalidity of a model depends both on the adequacy of the data and the model structure (i.e., the conceptual and mathematical model). This report proposes a validation strategy for testing both components independently. The strategy is based on the philosophy that a model cannot be proven valid, only invalid or not invalid. In addition, the authors believe that a model should not be judged in absence of its intended purpose. Hence, a flow and transport model may be invalid for one purpose but not invalid for another. 9 refs
Mohammad Aghaei; Amin Asadollahi; Elham Vahedi; Mahdi Pirooz
To maintain and achieve optimal growth, development and to be more competitive, organizations need a comprehensive and coherent plan compatible with their objectives and goals which is called strategic planning. This research aims to analyse strategically “Etka Chain Stores” and to propose optimal strategies by using SWOT model and based on fuzzy logic. The scope of this research is limited to “Etka Chain stores in Tehran”. As instrumentation, a questioner, consisting of 138 questions, was us...
Sakál, Peter; Hrdinová, Gabriela
This article is the result of a conceptual design methodology for the development of a sustainable strategy of sustainable corporate social responsibility (SCSR) in the context of the HCS model 3E formed, as a co-author within the stated grants and dissertation. On the basis of the use of propositional logic, the SCSR procedure is proposed for incorporation into the corporate strategy of sustainable development and the integrated management system (IMS) of the industrial enterprise. The aim of this article is the proposal of the concept of development and implementation strategy of SCSR in the context of the HCS model 3E.
Delionback, L. M.
The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.
CATALINA SORIANA SITNIKOV
Full Text Available Corporations are at present operating in demanding and highly unsure periods, facing a mixture of increased macroeconomic need, competitive and capital market dangers, and in many cases, the prospect for significant technical and regulative gap. Throughout these demanding and highly unsure times, the corporations must pay particular attention to corporate strategy. In present times, corporate strategy must be perceived and used as a function of various fields, covers, and characters as well as a highly interactive system. For the corporation's strategy to become a competitive advantage is necessary to understand and also to integrate it in a holistic model to ensure sustainable progress of corporation activities under the optimum conditions of profitability. The model proposed in this paper is aimed at integrating the two strategic models, Hoshin Kanri and Integrated Strategy Model, as well as their consolidation with the principles of sound corporate governance set out by the OECD.
Fleskens, Luuk; Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike
Portuguese sites) a fire severity index under current conditions and under different technologies. The DESMICE model is informed by WB3 WOCAT database records, economic WB4 experimental results, additionally requested data on spatial variability of costs and benefits, and secondary data. It applies spatially...... multiple stakeholders in very different contexts into the modelling process, in order to enhance both the realism and relevance of outputs for policy and practice; b) site-selection modelling is being applied to land degradation mitigation to enable landscape-scale assessments of the most economically....... Biophysical models (e.g. PESERA) should be able to separate immediate and gradual aspects. Ongoing degradation in the without case is not yet implicitly considered. Analysis of robustness to climatic variability and prices is also essential. Finally, factors such as attitude towards conservation and risk...
Full Text Available Disasters related to natural hazards have increased in the last few decades. This increment makes it necessary to develop non-structural risk prevention and mitigation measures to improve people’s safety. An effective non-structural measure that can improve the preparedness of the population is a locally adapted communication campaign that is focused on natural hazards. We have developed a hypothetical communication campaign for a specific area in the north of Italy, in which hydro-geological risk is of considerable importance. The content of the campaign is defined by the combination of the requirements of the law with the results of a survey conducted in the study area. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the level of risk perception among the residents, and their attitudes towards prevention activities. The operative procedure of the campaign is modeled on advertising strategies. The campaign is designed to reach each family, and it is aimed at affecting people’s everyday life through a horizontal communication strategy that involves flyers, billboards, umbrellas and a website. The use of umbrellas as a medium for the campaign is the key. People mostly use umbrellas when it rains. Rain is linked with hydrogeological risk. As the content of the campaign is printed on the umbrellas, each time people use these umbrellas, they remember the campaign. The campaign is integrated into a broader communication program that includes meetings with stakeholders, activities in schools, and public conferences. The final goal is to foster the creation of a shared knowledge about risk in the whole population.
Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne
This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market....... The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding...
Diplomová práce je zaměřena na vytvoření konkurenční strategie malé rodinné firmy. Analyzuje současný stav firmy zabývající se statickou a projekční činností. Zkoumá působení vnějšího prostředí na firmu a analyzuje vnitřní prostředí. Definuje strategické cíle firmy, obsahuje návrh budoucí konkurenční strategie firmy a její časovou implementaci. This diploma thesis is focused on creation of competitive strategy of small family firm. It analyses current status of a company, which is speciali...
Heinrich, Bernd; Winter, Robert
Strategy planning processes often suffer from a lack of conceptual models that can be used to represent business strategies in a structured and standardized form. If natural language is replaced by an at least semi-formal model, the completeness, consistency, and clarity of strategy descriptions can be drastically improved. A strategy modelling technique is proposed that is based on an analysis of modelling requirements, a discussion of related work and a critical analysis of generic approach...
Denney, Douglas R.
Three studies to determine the effects of adult models on interrogative strategies of children (ages 6-11) are reviewed. Two issues are analyzed: (1) the comparative effectiveness of various types of modeling procedures for changing rule-governed behaviors, and (2) the interaction between observational learning and the developmental level of the…
Delionback, L. M.
New technique estimates cost of improvement in reliability for complex system. Model format/approach is dependent upon use of subsystem cost-estimating relationships (CER's) in devising cost-effective policy. Proposed methodology should have application in broad range of engineering management decisions.
Hygro-thermo-aeraulic modeling of multi-zone buildings. Proposal of a strategy for the resolution of the coupled system; Modelisation hygro-thermo-aeraulique des batiments multizones. Proposition d'une strategie de resolution du systeme couple
hygroscopic materials. Experimental conditions are simulated using the proposed model. A good overall performance of the model can be sent, if the vapour absorbed and released by building materials is represented. We are interested in a dynamic system described by a set of algebro-diffeential equations. To start the time integration of the differential equations, we need to fix a starting point. The best choice is given by the solution of the set of non-linear algebraic equations corresponding to initial stationary date. However, the resolution of this set is often found impossible. To face the numerical resolution of our problems, we called on block methods. The idea is to divide judiciously the system of equations, in such a way as to get an easy solution for each block. The physical interactions between blocks are then numerically ensured by successive global interations. After analysing our system, three principal blocks are identified: airflow block, describing inter-zonal air movements; energy block, describing temperatures in each zone; moisture block, describing air moisture content in each zone. The airflow block has a special role; it determines moisture and energy transport. A strategy to update the values of variables is also adapted to physical interaction among systems and allows rapid convergence. The proposed strategy is validated on a set of benchmark tests designed by CLIM2000 users. (author)
Perovic, S.M.; Zunic, Z.; Demajo, M.; Konjevic, N.
The problem of establishing an optimal Ecoradiological Centre Model is studied in some detail for the town of Kotor which is under the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The proposed structure of the Centre is analyzed from the view of Engineering, Education and Scientific parameters. This Model is suitable for implementation as a network Centre Model for the state of Montenegro. Further, the modelling strategy of the ecoradiological condition control of natural, construction, bio and technological systems is elaborated. The proposal includes the ecoradiological monitoring, radioactive and electromagnetic radiation processing and protection for different natural zones as well as their different geostructures, aerial and hydrogeological conditions. The programme also includes all housing objects (hotels, flats, houses, office premises etc.). Here will also be presented the radiation protection and recommendations for the implementation of Title VII of the European Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS), concerning significant increase in exposure due to natural radiation sources. Also, the proposal of Local Radiation Protection for the town of Kotor is presented. Our proposal for an Ecoradiological Centre Model presented here is in a form of a pilot programme, applicable also for other towns and states. (author)
Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.
2003-01-01 Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.
Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.
Simone, A.; Giustolisi, O.; Laucelli, D. B.
In real water distribution networks (WDNs) are present thousands nodes and optimal placement of pressure and flow observations is a relevant issue for different management tasks. The planning of pressure observations in terms of spatial distribution and number is named sampling design and it was faced considering model calibration. Nowadays, the design of system monitoring is a relevant issue for water utilities e.g., in order to manage background leakages, to detect anomalies and bursts, to guarantee service quality, etc. In recent years, the optimal location of flow observations related to design of optimal district metering areas (DMAs) and leakage management purposes has been faced considering optimal network segmentation and the modularity index using a multiobjective strategy. Optimal network segmentation is the basis to identify network modules by means of optimal conceptual cuts, which are the candidate locations of closed gates or flow meters creating the DMAs. Starting from the WDN-oriented modularity index, as a metric for WDN segmentation, this paper proposes a new way to perform the sampling design, i.e., the optimal location of pressure meters, using newly developed sampling-oriented modularity index. The strategy optimizes the pressure monitoring system mainly based on network topology and weights assigned to pipes according to the specific technical tasks. A multiobjective optimization minimizes the cost of pressure meters while maximizing the sampling-oriented modularity index. The methodology is presented and discussed using the Apulian and Exnet networks.
Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...
This paper discusses a cybernetic model of politeness strategies used in the process of making a request. The concept of systems, cybernetic models, and politeness strategies are reviewed, and the way they work together in the proposed model is examined. Politeness strategies are communication strategies used to change behavior enough to achieve…
Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Holmgren, Jens; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Purpose: Developing a strategy model which explains what organisations should focus on in their strategy work, both in terms of the environment as well as how the strategy is implemented. In addition, the purpose is to demonstrate how this can influence and improve the organisations’ performance....
The Model Omitron is a compact tokamak experiment which is designed by the Fusion Engineering Unit of ENEA and CITIF CONSORTIUM. The building of Model Omitron would allow for full testing of Omitron engineering, and partial testing of Omitron physics -at about 1/20 of the cost that has been estimated for the larger parent machine. In particular, due to the unusually large ohmic power densities (up to 100 times the nominal value in the Frascati FTU experiment), in Model Omitron the radial energy flux is reaching values comparable or higher than envisaged of the larger ignition experiments Omitron, Ignitor and Iter. Consequently, conditions are expected to occur at the plasma border in the scrape-off layer of Model Omitron, which are representative of the quoted larger experiments. Moreover, since all this will occur under ohmic heating alone, one will hopefully be able to derive an energy transport model fo the ohmic heating regime that is valid over a range of plasma parameters (in particular, of the temperature parameter) wider than it was possible before. In the Model Omitron experiment, finally - by reducing the plasma current and/or the toroidal field down to, say, 1/3 or 1/4 of the nominal values -additional topics can be tackled, such as: large safety-factor configurations (of interest for improving confinement), large aspect-ratio configurations (of interest for the investigation of advanced concepts in tokamaks), high beta (with RF heating -also of interest for the investigation of advanced concepts in tokamaks), long pulse discharges (of interest for demonstrating stationary conditions in the current profile)
Dumas, Bethany K.
It is possible to think of women's language in terms of the model implied by the following statement. Insofar as native speakers of English are concerned, the language of women in America has four sets of components: those shared with the language of men in America; those shared, in varying proportions, with other women living in patriarchies;…
Full Text Available Maria Chiara Magni,1 Laura Veneroni,1 Carlo Alfredo Clerici,2 Tullio Proserpio,3 Giovanna Sironi,1 Michela Casanova,1 Stefano Chiaravalli,1 Maura Massimino,1 Andrea Ferrari1 1Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 3Pastoral Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy Abstract: Adolescence is a particularly complex time of life, entailing physiological, psychological, and social changes that further the individual's cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Being diagnosed with cancer at this time can have important consequences on an individual's emotional and physical development, and adolescent and young adult cancer patients have particular medical and psychosocial needs. Patient–physician communications are important in any clinical relationship, but fundamental in the oncological sphere because their quality can affect the patient–physician relationship, the therapeutic alliance, and patient compliance. A major challenge when dealing with adolescent and young adult patients lies in striking the right balance between their need and right to understand their disease, treatment, and prognosis, and the need for them to remain hopeful and to protect their emotional sensitivity. We herein describe the activities of the Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, Italy in order to share a possible model of interaction with these special patients and the tactics our group has identified to help them communicate and share their thoughts. This model implies not only the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including psychologists and spirituality experts, but also the constitution of dedicated creative activities to give patients the opportunity to express feelings they would otherwise never feel at ease putting into words. These efforts seek the goal to minimize the potentially
Smith, P.A. [SAM Switzerland GmbH (Switzerland); Brommundt, J.; Mayer, G. [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden (Switzerland)] [and others
This report presents a preliminary plan for the development and application of models for the probabilistic sensitivity analyses and the deterministic calculation cases that will be used to analyse scenarios in the 2012 safety case. The plan addresses both groundwater flow modelling and radionuclide transport modelling, primarily of the repository near field and of the geosphere. It also addresses the measures that will be applied during the implementation and documentation of the calculations that will contribute to the quality assurance of the safety case. It is expected that this plan will be refined and amended as experience is gained during the carrying out of the work. (orig.)
Smith, P.A.; Brommundt, J.; Mayer, G.
This report presents a preliminary plan for the development and application of models for the probabilistic sensitivity analyses and the deterministic calculation cases that will be used to analyse scenarios in the 2012 safety case. The plan addresses both groundwater flow modelling and radionuclide transport modelling, primarily of the repository near field and of the geosphere. It also addresses the measures that will be applied during the implementation and documentation of the calculations that will contribute to the quality assurance of the safety case. It is expected that this plan will be refined and amended as experience is gained during the carrying out of the work. (orig.)
A schematized description is given of the different stages in the project. The aim is to show the development of the project and the strategies which have been chosen. The four different stages in the project are treated from the following points of view: the reasons for the choice of material models; the determination of model properties; and the control of the calculated values. In the origin plan for the project it was stated to only use a joint element model. However, it was shown to be a reasonable strategy to use both a general linear elastic model and a geometric restricted model with joint elements. During the course of the Project's development stages, it was found that a reduction in the number of rock types could be made without loss of generality. A modified strategy is suggested based on more studies of the rock bahavior and less advanced calculations in the first stages of the project.
fragmentation-integration-fragmentation-integration upward spiral. In response to the call for integrative approach to strategic management research, we propose an integrative model of global business strategy that aims at integrating not only strategy and IB but also the different paradigms within the strategy...... field. We also discuss the merit and limitation of our model....
Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich
This paper discusses an evidence-based approach to software requirements engineering. The approach is called evidence-based, since it uses publications on the specific problem as a surrogate for stakeholder interests, to formulate risks and testing experiences. This complements the idea that agile software development models are more relevant, in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The strategy is exemplified and applied to the development of a Software Requirements list used to develop software systems for patient registries.
Johnson, Peter; Foss, Nicolai Juul
This study picks up on earlier suggestions that control theory may further the study of strategy. Strategy can be formally interpreted as an idealized path optimizing heterogeneous resource deployment to produce maximum financial gain. Using standard matrix methods to describe the firm Hamiltonia...... variable of firm path, suggesting in turn that the firm's business model is the codification of the application of investment resources used to control the strategic path of value realization....
Hattie, John A. C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.
The purpose of this article is to explore a model of learning that proposes that various learning strategies are powerful at certain stages in the learning cycle. The model describes three inputs and outcomes (skill, will and thrill), success criteria, three phases of learning (surface, deep and transfer) and an acquiring and consolidation phase within each of the surface and deep phases. A synthesis of 228 meta-analyses led to the identification of the most effective strategies. The results indicate that there is a subset of strategies that are effective, but this effectiveness depends on the phase of the model in which they are implemented. Further, it is best not to run separate sessions on learning strategies but to embed the various strategies within the content of the subject, to be clearer about developing both surface and deep learning, and promoting their associated optimal strategies and to teach the skills of transfer of learning. The article concludes with a discussion of questions raised by the model that need further research.
Inaba, Misato; Inoue, Yumi; Akutsu, Satoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamagishi, Toshio
The accumulation of findings that most responders in the ultimatum game reject unfair offers provides evidence that humans are driven by social preferences such as preferences for fairness and prosociality. On the other hand, if and how the proposer's behavior is affected by social preferences remains unelucidated. We addressed this question for the first time by manipulating the knowledge that the proposer had about the responder's belief concerning the intentionality of the proposer. In a new game called the "ultimatum game with ambiguous intentions of the proposer (UGAMB)," we made the intentionality of the proposer ambiguous to the recipient. We expected and found that the proposer would make more unfair offers in this new game than in the standard ultimatum game. This expectation can be derived from either the preference-based model or the strategy model of the proposer's giving decision. The additional finding that more unfair giving in the UGAMB was not mediated by the proposer's expectation that the recipient would be more willing to accept unfair offers provided support for the preference-based model. Using a psychological measure of cognitive control, the preference-based model received additional support through a conceptual replication of the previous finding that cognitive control of intuitive drive for prosociality in the dictator game, rather than mind reading in the ultimatum game, is responsible for the difference in giving between the two games.
Leca, A.; Scripcariu, D.; Scripcariu, M.
The paper presents the results of a study carried out from a environmental protection point of view by a multi-branch team of 25 Romanian experts. A general block diagram type procedure of elaborating a national energy-environment strategy has been proposed. The sustainable development has been chosen as an overall evaluating criterion involving the fulfillment of the following conditions: the environmental protection; the best use of material, financial and human resources; the promotion of equity. For strategic objectives have been identified: increasing energy efficiency; reconsidering the existing generation capacities and their future trends; diversifying the primary resources and their suppliers; reducing the energy impacts on the environment, and three support objectives: creation of an economic and financial framework market oriented; setting up a regulatory system for efficient market operation; establishing an institutional framework for the energy sector. The fundamental concepts promoted and recommended to be used have been: sustainable development, energy efficiency, competition, integrated resources planning, demand-side management. (author). 2 figs. 4 refs
Ignatovich, Vladimir K.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.
Highlights: → We propose to put a glass sphere inside an excited gas. → Then to put a light ray inside the glass in a whispering gallery mode. → If the light is resonant to gas excitation, it will be amplified at every reflection. → In ms time the light in the glass will be amplified, and will melt the glass. → A liquid shell kept integer by electrostriction forces is the ball lightning model. -- Abstract: We propose an experiment for strong light amplification at multiple total reflections from active gaseous media.
Carola Pinto Taborga
Findings: The paper identifies some specific steps for developing a Green Supply Chain Strategy. The case study developed, demonstrates the importance of following a proper methodology based on a set of steps, it also demonstrates that some alternatives focus on improving the supply chain, such as the facilities location, can also improve the key performance indicator related with carbon emission. Originality/value: The study provides guidance for manufacturing companies in implementing their Green Supply Chain Strategy.
Learning was achieved under conditions that made the students feel comfortable, confident, happy and inspired; required their active participation; challenged them; inspired them to see the advantage of learning; and when feedback was given to them. Conclusion: Strategies for use by practitioners to optimise the learning ...
The first is a multicentre programme targeting non-fatal suicidal behaviours, known as ... Keywords: Suicide; Prevention; National strategy; South Africa. Received: 16/08/2012 ... to enter university or the open labour market).2,5,7-8. Risk factors.
Luiz Martins da Silva
Full Text Available This paper analyzes one of the basic actions of SOS-Imprensa, the mechanism to assure Media Accountability with the goal of proposing a synthesis of models for the Brazilian reality. The article aims to address the possibilities of creating and improving mechanisms to stimulate the democratic press process and to mark out and assure freedom of speech and personal rights with respect to the media. Based on the Press Social Responsibility Theory, the hypothesis is that the experiences analyzed (Communication Council, Press Council, Ombudsman and Readers Council are alternatives for accountability, mediation and arbitration, seeking visibility, trust and public support in favor of fairer media.
Full Text Available Active noise suppression for applications where the system response varies with time is a difficult problem. The computation burden for the existing control algorithms with online identification is heavy and easy to cause control system instability. A new active noise control algorithm is proposed in this paper by employing multiple model switching strategy for secondary path varying. The computation is significantly reduced. Firstly, a noise control system modeling method is proposed for duct-like applications. Then a multiple model adaptive control algorithm is proposed with a new multiple model switching strategy based on filter-u least mean square (FULMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm was implemented on Texas Instruments digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 and real time experiments were done to test the proposed algorithm and FULMS algorithm with online identification. Experimental verification tests show that the proposed algorithm is effective with good noise suppression performance.
Van Hall, Brian M
.... The basis for the proposed conceptual model builds on common and accepted latent variable and theoretical modeling techniques proposed by healthcare scholars, organizational theorists, mathematical...
A Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment was published in 2010, and a Strawman Proposal was developed in 2012 by the Coalition for Urban/Rural Environmental Stewardship, California Water Resources Board, EPA.
Lee, Andrew; Habtour, Ed; Gadsden, S. A.
Structural health prognostics and diagnosis strategies can be classified as either model or signal-based. Artificial neural network strategies are popular signal-based techniques. This paper proposes the use of helicopter blades in order to study the sensitivity of an artificial neural network to structural fatigue. The experimental setup consists of a scale aluminum helicopter blade exposed to transverse vibratory excitation at the hub using single axis electrodynamic shaker. The intent of this study is to optimize an algorithm for processing high-dimensional data while retaining important information content in an effort to select input features and weights, as well as health parameters, for training a neural network. Data from accelerometers and piezoelectric transducers is collected from a known system designated as healthy. Structural damage will be introduced to different blades, which they will be designated as unhealthy. A variety of different tests will be performed to track the evolution and severity of the damage. A number of damage detection and diagnosis strategies will be implemented. A preliminary experiment was performed on aluminum cantilever beams providing a simpler model for implementation and proof of concept. Future work will look at utilizing the detection information as part of a hierarchical control system in order to mitigate structural damage and fatigue. The proposed approach may eliminate massive data storage on board of an aircraft through retaining relevant information only. The control system can then employ the relevant information to intelligently reconfigure adaptive maneuvers to avoid harmful regimes, thus, extending the life of the aircraft.
protocols can add security to competitive situations; and analyzing the feasibility of running multi-party quantum games over metro-distance optical... games of complete informa- tion. Physics Letters A, 272:291-303, August 2000.  D. A. Meyer. Quantum Communication in Games . In S. M. Barnett, E ...feasibility of quantum games , we proposed to implement a proof-of-principle quantum public goods game , and to experimentally demonstrate that the quantum
Kumar, S.; Taylor, R.; Probert, D.
Predictions, as made in Leach et al. (A low-energy strategy for the United Kingdom. Science Reviews Ltd., Austria: International Institute for Environment and Development, 1979.) have been compared with actual values for subsequent years. Their disparities are discussed, together with the associated lessons. It would have been unreasonable to expect the 1979 predictive procedure to anticipate the 'dash for gas', but it can be realised in retrospect that greater emphasis should have been placed on the likely increasing concern (of successive governments) with environmental protection. In any strategy, the main mechanism (within a government's control) to achieve energy thrift is to raise the unit prices for (i) all fossil fuels and electricity derived from them and especially for (ii) polluting fuels for private cars and aircraft. These measures would simultaneously reduce the overall rate of environmental degradation. There should also be more introductory subsidies, provided by the state, for the implementation of all energy-thrift measures and equipment (e.g. combined heat-and-power plant), that satisfy the criterion of achieving a pay-back period of less than 7 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Ungerer, Gerard David; Cayzer, Steve
The hyper-competitive nature of e-business has raised the need for a generic way to appraise the merit of a developed business strategy. Although progress has been made in the domain of strategy evaluation, the established literature differs over the ‘tests’ that a strategy must pass to be considered well-constructed. This paper therefore investigates the existing strategy-evaluation literature to propose a more integrated and comprehensive normative strategic assessment that can be used to e...
Robaina, Martha S.; Menendez, Ibis; Valdes, Zodilina; Diaz, Milania
In breast cancer, as in most cancers, mutations usually occur in somatic cells, but sometimes occur in germ cells. The carriers of these mutations germ have up to 80% risk of having the disease course of their lives and pass it on to their offspring, they are called hereditary cancers. In this work studied 50 tested history relatives of this neoplasm from consulting advice genetic hereditary breast cancer. The tree was made pedigree of the family of each test and been classified risk using the criteria of Hampel et al. Other malignancies were identified through the analysis of pedigrees and performed syndromic classification of families. It develops an algorithm for the care of breast cancer families hereditary and plotted strategies identified by risk taking that each category implies a different intervention. It recommended to continue studying the value of marking lesions subclinical and train staff to perform this technique for its widespread use in the country. (Author)
In the present paper the main features of the OMITRON and MODEL OMITRON proposed high field tokamaks are illustrated. Of the two, OMITRON is an ambitious experiment, aimed at attaining plasma burning conditions. its key physics issues are discussed, and a comparison is carried out with corresponding physics features in ignition experiments such as IGNITOR and ITER. Chief asset and chief challenge - in both OMITRON and MODEL OMITRON is the conspicuous 20 Tesla toroidal field value on the plasma axis. The advanced features of engineering which consent such a reward in terms of toroidal magnet performance are discussed in convenient depth and detail. As for the small, propaedeutic device MODEL OMITRON among its goals one must rank the purpose of testing key engineering issues in vivo, which are vital for the larger and more expensive parent device. Besides that, however - as indicated by ad hoc performed scoping studies - the smaller machine is found capable also of a number of quite interesting physics investigations in its own right
Full Text Available We mainly study a general risk model and investigate the precommitted strategy and the time-consistent strategy under mean-variance criterion, respectively. A lagrange method is proposed to derive the precommitted investment strategy. Meanwhile from the game theoretical perspective, we find the time-consistent investment strategy by solving the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. By comparing the precommitted strategy with the time-consistent strategy, we find that the company under the time-consistent strategy has to give up the better current utility in order to keep a consistent satisfaction over the whole time horizon. Furthermore, we theoretically and numerically provide the effect of the parameters on these two optimal strategies and the corresponding value functions.
Berthelemy, Francois; Guillou, Antoine
After a discussion of the content of the Paris COP21 agreement and of its limitations, the authors outline the different risks and stakes associated with the agreement implementation: commitments must be translated into actual actions, the general ambition level should allow fixed objectives to be reached, mobilisation must live on. Then, they present a set a measures to be implemented and formulate associated proposals. These measures are to be immediately implemented, and address carbon tariffing, a new design for the financial system and a mobilisation of companies for another orientation of investments. They finally outline stakes for the COP22 and beyond, notably for the implementation of a reliable transparency system, and for indispensable North-South financial flows
This paper explores the relationship between strategy and business models. I review major researches on strategy and business models to provide a viewpoint to consider the intersections between them. The theory of strategy shifts the focus from visible competitive advantage to its internal managerial resources. The concept of business models has been discussed because a business model is considered to be a combination of internal and external business processes; it clarifies how to effectivel...
Ungerer, Gerard David
Full Text Available The hyper-competitive nature of e-business has raised the need for a generic way to appraise the merit of a developed business strategy. Although progress has been made in the domain of strategy evaluation, the established literature differs over the ‘tests’ that a strategy must pass to be considered well-constructed. This paper therefore investigates the existing strategy-evaluation literature to propose a more integrated and comprehensive normative strategic assessment that can be used to evaluate and refine a business’ s competitive strategy , adding to its robustness and survivability.
Friis, Jesper Deleuran; Lueg, Rainer; Mayanja, Remmy
There is an ongoing debate on how the concepts of strategy and business models relate to each other. Specifically, it is a puzzle whether business models determine strategies, or whether strategies precede business models (Seddon et al., 2004). Based on recent conceptual considerations (Cavalcante...... et al., 2011), the authors attempt to solve this puzzle by considering their mutual influence at different stages of the company’s business lifecycle. For that, the auhors use Scandinavian Software Company (SSC) as a case study. The initial idea of a business model is shown to shape SSC’s strategy...... in the birth phase. It is then argued that this relationship changed as SSC entered its growth phase and met competition, and the product market strategy determined the change in the business model. The researchers contribute to the currently underexplored dynamic relationship of business models and strategies...
Watkins, David; Hattie, John
Research with 1,266 Australian secondary school students supports 2 propositions critical to the motive-strategy congruence model of J. B. Biggs (1985). Students tend to use learning strategies congruent with motivation for learning, and congruent motive-strategy combinations are associated with higher average school grades. (SLD)
Bornette, G.; Tabacchi, E.; Hupp, C.; Puijalon, S.; Rostan, J.C.
1. We propose a model of plant strategies in temperate fluvial hydrosystems that considers the hydraulic and geomorphic features that control plant recruitment, establishment and growth in river floodplains. 2. The model describes first how the disturbance gradient and the grain-size of the river
Full Text Available Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE, SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs' strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies, specificity (general versus specific strategies, and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies; they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies-a reduction from the 39 strategies-and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making.
Chandra, Yanto; Jiang, Li Crystal; Wang, Cheng-Jun
Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs' strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies-a reduction from the 39 strategies-and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration... to John Cobb, Program Analyst, Office of Regional Affairs, Room 7009, Economic Development...
Roorda, Berend; Engwerda, Jacob; Schumacher, J.M.
For a proper assessment of risks associated with the trading of derivatives, the performance of hedging strategies should be evaluated not only in the context of the idealized model that has served as the basis of strategy development, but also in the context of other models. In this paper we
Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world’s largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs’ strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies―a reduction from the 39 strategies―and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making. PMID:26998970
Cech, Scott J.
Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…
Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc
One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model, proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b), which suggests that people might have access to both…
Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A
There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry.
Svee , Eric-Oluf; Giannoulis , Constantinos; Zdravkovic , Jelena
Part 3: Business Modeling; International audience; Business strategy lays out the plan of an enterprise to achieve its vision by providing value to its customers. Typically, business strategy focuses on economic value and its relevant exchanges with customers and does not directly address consumer values. However, consumer values drive customers’ choices and decisions to use a product or service, and therefore should have a direct impact on business strategy. This paper explores whether and h...
Conegundes De Jesus, Camila Kiyomi; Salerno, Mario Sergio
Patents and patent portfolios are gaining attention in the last decades, from the called 'pro-patent era' to the recent billionaire transactions involving patent portfolios. The field is growing in importance, both theoretically and practically and despite having substantial literature on new product development portfolio management, we have not found an article relating this theory to patent portfolios. Areas covered: The paper develops a systematic literature review on patent portfolio management to organize the evolution and tendencies of patent portfolio management, highlighting distinctive features of patent portfolio management. Interview with IP manager of three life sciences companies, including a leading multinational group provided relevant information about patent portfolio management. Expert opinion: Based on the systematic literature review on portfolio management, more specifically, on new product development portfolio theory, and interview the paper proposes the paper proposes a reference model to manage patent portfolios. The model comprises four stages aligned with the three goals of the NPD portfolio management: 1 - Linking strategy of the Company's NPD Portfolio to Patent Portfolio; 2 - Balancing the portfolio in buckets; 3 - Patent Valuation (maximizing valuation); 4 - Regularly reviewing the patent portfolio.
Rosenbloom, Albert A.
A model for a geriatric optometry curriculum that defines key content areas and addresses the values essential for effective practice and basic therapeutic modalities used in treatment regimens with older adults is outlined. (MSE)
Keywords: Communication skills and leadership model, construction project ..... help a manager handle stress and break tension (Gido & Clements,. 2012: 331; Harrin .... production and management of projects, the higher the demand for.
Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... (decision-making, problem-solving, listening, verbal competency, motivation, persuasion, ... Keywords: Communication skills and leadership model, construction project management, ...
Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh
This study proposes a mathematical model of Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis epidemic with saturated infection rate and recommends different control strategies to manage the spread of this disease in the community. To do this, first, a model formulation is presented to support these strategies, with quantifications of transmission and intervention parameters. To understand the nature of the initial transmission of the disease, the reproduction number [Formula: see text] is obtained by using the next-generation method. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number [Formula: see text], four different control strategies are proposed for managing disease transmission. For quantification of the prevalence period of the disease, a numerical simulation for each strategy is performed and a detailed summary is presented. Disease-free state is obtained with the help of control strategies. The threshold condition for globally asymptotic stability of the disease-free state is found, and it is ascertained that the state is globally stable. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number, it is shown that the disease can be eradicated by using the proposed strategies.
Heuvelink, Annerieke; Klein, Michel C. A.; van Lambalgen, Rianne; Taatgen, Niels A.; Rijn, Hedderik van
The focus of this paper is the development of a computational model for intelligent agents that decides on whether to acquire required information by retrieving it from memory or by interacting with the world. First, we present a task for which such decisions have to be made. Next, we discuss an
Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.
This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulation models are described, including wind turbine models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described. The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC connected active stall turbines. Finally, some simulation examples and conclusions are presented. (au)
In the 21st century, supply chain operations and relationships among supply chain partners have become highly challenging, necessitating new approaches, e.g., the development of new models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models discusses supply chain issues and models with examples from actual industrial cases. Expert authors with a wide spectrum of knowledge working in various areas of supply chain management from various geographical locations offer refreshing, novel and insightful ideas and address possible solutions using established theories and models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models features studies that have used mathematical modeling, statistical analyses and also descriptive qualitative studies. The chapters cover many relevant themes related to supply chains and logistics including supply chain complexity, information sharing, quality (six sigma), electronic Kanbans, inventory models, scheduling, purchasing and contracts. To facilitate easy reading, the chapters that deal with suppl...
Svoboda, Julia; Passmore, Cynthia
Modeling, like inquiry more generally, is not a single method, but rather a complex suite of strategies. Philosophers of biology, citing the diverse aims, interests, and disciplinary cultures of biologists, argue that modeling is best understood in the context of its epistemic aims and cognitive payoffs. In the science education literature,…
Narita, Hirohisa; Chen, Lian-Yi; Fujimoto, Hideo; Shirase, Keiichi; Arai, Eiji
Virtual manufacturing will be a key technology in process planning, because there are no evaluation tools for cutting conditions. Therefore, virtual machining simulator (VMSim), which can predict end milling processes, has been developed. The modification strategy of NC program using VMSim is proposed in this paper.
Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of the agricultural irrigation systems substantially contributes to sustainable water management. This improvement can be achieved through an automated irrigation system that includes a real-time control strategy based on the water, soil, and crop relationship. This paper presents a model driven control strategy applied to an irrigation system, in order to make an efficient use of water for large crop fields, that is, applying the correct amount of water in the correct place at the right moment. The proposed model uses a predictive algorithm that senses soil moisture and weather variables, to determine optimal amount of water required by the crop. This proposed approach is evaluated against a traditional irrigation system based on the empirical definition of time periods and against a basic soil moisture control system. Results indicate that the use of a model predictive control in an irrigation system achieves a higher efficiency and significantly reduce the water consumption.
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a strategy learning model for autonomous agents based on classification. In the literature, the most commonly used learning method in agent-based systems is reinforcement learning. In our opinion, classification can be considered a good alternative. This type of supervised learning can be used to generate a classifier that allows the agent to choose an appropriate action for execution. Experimental results show that this model can be successfully applied for strategy generation even if rewards are delayed. We compare the efficiency of the proposed model and reinforcement learning using the farmer-pest domain and configurations of various complexity. In complex environments, supervised learning can improve the performance of agents much faster that reinforcement learning. If an appropriate knowledge representation is used, the learned knowledge may be analyzed by humans, which allows tracking the learning process
of the game is, how players may manipulate the game world, etc. We present the Strategy Games Description Language (SGDL), a tree-based approach to model the game mechanics of strategy games. SGDL allows game designers to rapid prototype their game ideas with the help of our customisable game engine. We...... their games to individual players’ preferences by creating game content adaptively to how the player plays (and likes) a game. W we extend the notion of “procedural game content generation” by “game mechanics”. Game mechanics herein refer to the way that objects in a game may interact, what the goal...... present several example games to demonstrate the capabilities of the language and how to model common strategy game elements. Furthermore, we present methods to procedurally generate and evaluate game mechanics modelled in SGDL in terms of enjoyability. We argue that an evolutionary process can be used...
David Ward; Elena Rivani
Numerous models for developing strategy, defining and aligning competitive advantage have been proposed over the years (and even centuries if we consider Arian, Sun Tzu etc.) including probably the most famous of all, the 5 forces model by Porter (P5F). With publications in the field of strategy now in the thousands it is difficult to get an overall picture of how to classify and appreciate strategy tools and models. Mintzberg et al. have developed schools of thought to help alleviate and cat...
Hansson, Julia; Kaerrmarck, Urban; Levander, Thomas; Enghag, Olof; Gustavsson, Christel; Wikholm, Nanna
The study, developed in cooperation with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture, offers a proposal for a strategy to increase use of biogas as far as is economically justifiable. The proposal means that producers of biogas produced from manure is granted full compensation for the climate and environmental benefits that such production results. The proposal, if implemented, could lead to a doubling of biogas production and biogas use. No general support for upgrading to vehicle fuel and distribution of vehicle fuel is proposed because the use of vehicle fuel by itself does not involve any additional social benefits. Increased independence of fossil fuels in the transport sector is achieved with essentially the same climatic and environmental benefits but at significantly lower costs through greater use of other existing renewable fuels
The performance of high burnup fuel is affected by a number of phenomena, such as, conductivity degradation, modified radial flux profile, fission gas release from high burnup structures, PCMI, burnup dependent thermo-mechanical properties, etc. The modelling strategies of some of these phenomena are available in literature. These can be readily incorporated in a fuel modelling performance code. The computer code FAIR has been developed in BARC over the years to evaluate the fuel performance at extended burnup and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. The present paper deals with the high burnup issues in the fuel pins, their modelling strategies and results of the case studies specifically involving high burnup fuel. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper I propose a flexible trend specification for estimating DSGE models on log differences. I demonstrate this flexible trend specification on a New Keynesian DSGE model of two economies, which I consequently estimate on data from the Czech economy and the euro area, using Bayesian techniques. The advantage of the trend specification proposed is that the trend component and the cyclical component are modelled jointly in a single model. The proposed trend specification is flexible in the sense that smoothness of the trend can be easily modified by different calibration of some of the trend parameters. The results suggest that this method is capable of finding a very reasonable trend in the data. Moreover, comparison of forecast performance reveals that the proposed specification offers more reliable forecasts than the original variant of the model.
Luís Henrique Piovezan
Full Text Available Strategy models found in the literature are usually more suitable for big companies. However, small and medium enterprises (SME also need to plan their strategies, but in such a way that considers their peculiarities. In this context, this paper presents a simple method for strategy formulation and deployment in SME. This method was developed through a sequence of cases studies, developed in small companies (10 to 500 employees. The final version of this method is a seven-step framework that considers both business environment and firm core competencies. The final aim is the alignment of business and manufacturing strategies. This framework can be considered suitable for SME, since it is simple and allows saving time and scarce available resources for strategy formulation, both important issues in this kind of enterprises. Finally, a case study is presented, encompassing the analysis of the application of the final version of the method in a small Brazilian company. Key-words: Competitive Strategy, Small Business Strategy, Manufacturing Strategy.
Andersen, Ken Haste; Aksnes, Dag L.; Berge, Terje
Plankton are typically divided into phytoplankton and zooplankton in marine ecosystem models. Yet, most protists in the photic zone engage in some degree of phagotrophy, and it has been suggested that trophic strategy is really a continuum between pure phototrophs (phytoplankton) and pure...
M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique)
textabstractThe question of long-run market response lies at the heart of any marketing strategy that tries to create a sustainable competitive advantage for the firm or brand. A key challenge, however, is that only short-run results of marketing actions are readily observable. Persistence modeling
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob
account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...
Yeimy Liseth Becerra
Full Text Available A methodological proposal for defining strategies of improvement in logistics of SMEs is presented as a means to fulfill a specific objective of the project Methodological design on storage logistics, acquisition, ownership of information systems and communication for Colombian SMEs, baker subsector, which currently runs the research group SEPRO, of Universidad Nacional of Colombia and supported by Colciencias. The project corresponds to the completion of the last stage of the base project, and aims to implement the corresponding target, raised in the research project that has been developing the research group SEPRO. To do this, it was made a review of the methodology used during the execution of the basic project, as well as the state of the art of techniques used in similar research for the evaluation and definition of breeding strategies in SMEs logistics. Revised techniques were compared and a proposed methodology was configured, which consists of the techniques that represented the greatest advantages for the research development.
M. Ing. The overall purpose of this research project was to develop a proposed maintenance strategy for generator sets utilised in biogas applications. One specific biogas application, involving the use of landfill gas (LFG) to generate electrical energy, was the focal point of the research project. This is due to the fact that the author’s organisation is extensively involved with landfills and power generation through the use of LFG.
Jones, David R.
Although researchers chorus the need to support graduate students toward higher levels of writing proficiency, their findings lack a holistic model for doing so. A model emerges upon scrutiny of the factors that have been implicated in supporting writing proficiency. In the proposed model, a socialization theory fits as a proximal process into the…
Pieter J. (Riaan de Jongh
Full Text Available Background: With the increasing use of complex quantitative models in applications throughout the financial world, model risk has become a major concern. The credit crisis of 2008–2009 provoked added concern about the use of models in finance. Measuring and managing model risk has subsequently come under scrutiny from regulators, supervisors, banks and other financial institutions. Regulatory guidance indicates that meticulous monitoring of all phases of model development and implementation is required to mitigate this risk. Considerable resources must be mobilised for this purpose. The exercise must embrace model development, assembly, implementation, validation and effective governance. Setting: Model validation practices are generally patchy, disparate and sometimes contradictory, and although the Basel Accord and some regulatory authorities have attempted to establish guiding principles, no definite set of global standards exists. Aim: Assessing the available literature for the best validation practices. Methods: This comprehensive literature study provided a background to the complexities of effective model management and focussed on model validation as a component of model risk management. Results: We propose a coherent ‘best practice’ framework for model validation. Scorecard tools are also presented to evaluate if the proposed best practice model validation framework has been adequately assembled and implemented. Conclusion: The proposed best practice model validation framework is designed to assist firms in the construction of an effective, robust and fully compliant model validation programme and comprises three principal elements: model validation governance, policy and process.
Van Hall, Brian M
.... The purpose of this research is to consolidate existing literature on the latent variable of medical readiness, and to propose a composite theoretical model of medical readiness that may provide...
The paper develops a linear regression model approach that can be applied to : crash data to predict vehicle crashes. The proposed approach involves novice data aggregation : to satisfy linear regression assumptions; namely error structure normality ...
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles.
Han, Gi Yeong; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung
In this study, how the geometry splitting strategy affects the calculation efficiency was analyzed. In this study, a geometry splitting method was proposed to increase the calculation efficiency in Monte Carlo simulation. First, the analysis of the neutron distribution characteristics in a deep penetration problem was performed. Then, considering the neutron population distribution, a geometry splitting method was devised. Using the proposed method, the FOMs with benchmark problems were estimated and compared with the conventional geometry splitting strategy. The results show that the proposed method can considerably increase the calculation efficiency in using geometry splitting method. It is expected that the proposed method will contribute to optimizing the computational cost as well as reducing the human errors in Monte Carlo simulation. Geometry splitting in Monte Carlo (MC) calculation is one of the most popular variance reduction techniques due to its simplicity, reliability and efficiency. For the use of the geometry splitting, the user should determine locations of geometry splitting and assign the relative importance of each region. Generally, the splitting parameters are decided by the user's experience. However, in this process, the splitting parameters can ineffectively or erroneously be selected. In order to prevent it, there is a recommendation to help the user eliminate guesswork, which is to split the geometry evenly. And then, the importance is estimated by a few iterations for preserving population of particle penetrating each region. However, evenly geometry splitting method can make the calculation inefficient due to the change in mean free path (MFP) of particles
Vite, Aurelia; Pulido, María T; Flores-Vázquez, Juan C
Mexico has the second largest cycad diversity in the world, and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) is one of the richest biogeographic regions for these plants. Despite there is a general Cycad National Program in the country, there are no state-level cycad conservation strategies or programs. Thus the aim of this study was to propose a cycad conservation strategy for the state of Hidalgo, which is located in the Southern part of the SMO. For this, a cycad species inventory was made in the state, for which three methods were used: review of published literature; consultation in the main Mexican herbaria to verify botanical specimens; and exhaustive field research to compare findings with previously reported species and to recognize new records at the county and state level. The proposed research work strategy combined the following elements: prioritize the county and local areas with greatest cycad species richness; prioritize the species least resistant to environmental change and/or having restricted geographic distribution; and to consider the main uses of these plants by local residents. The results showed that Hidalgo has three genera and eight species ofcycads: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii and Z. vazquezii, all of which are considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This study added two new species records for Hidalgo and 21 at the county level. The species are distributed in 26 counties, of which Chapulhuacán and Pisaflores are notable for their high species richness. Hidalgo has the fourth-greatest cycad species richness among Mexican states, although its area accounts for only 1.07% of the country. The state's diversity is greater than in other states with larger area, and even than in some other entire countries in Mesoamerica. The presented state cycad conservation strategy proposes that a total of some 11,325 ha to be conserved in nine zones
Fabiana Bigão Silva
Full Text Available Empirical studies have suggested limitations on the form of application of gamification mechanics in the context of online education. These mechanics have been applied without reference to a theoretical model dedicated to this type of education. The objective of the paper is to propose a model for a gamified platform for online education that contributes to a more participatory learning, taking into account the different student profiles. Based on literature review about approaches to gamification systems design, a set of steps was followed in order to develop a generic model for a framework dedicated to online education. The model proposed is based on the Educational Gamification Design Principles proposed by Dicheva et al. (2015. The model may contribute to the promotion of participatory learning, taking into account the different student profiles. The results of such evaluation will be published in the future.
The current document establishes the strategy to be used for achieving sufficient integration between disciplines in producing Site Descriptive Models during the Site Investigation stage. The Site Descriptive Model should be a multidisciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using site investigation data from deep bore holes and from the surface as input. The modelling comprise the following iterative steps, evaluation of primary data, descriptive and quantitative modelling (in 3D), overall confidence evaluation. Data are first evaluated within each discipline and then the evaluations are checked between the disciplines. Three-dimensional modelling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space and its uncertainty) is made in a sequence, where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological model and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modelling etc. The three-dimensional description should present the parameters with their spatial variability over a relevant and specified scale, with the uncertainty included in this description. Different alternative descriptions may be required. After the individual discipline modelling and uncertainty assessment a phase of overall confidence evaluation follows. Relevant parts of the different modelling teams assess the suggested uncertainties and evaluate the feedback. These discussions should assess overall confidence by, checking that all relevant data are used, checking that information in past model versions is considered, checking that the different kinds of uncertainty are addressed, checking if suggested alternatives make sense and if there is potential for additional alternatives, and by discussing, if appropriate, how additional measurements (i.e. more data) would affect confidence. The findings as well as the modelling results are to be documented in a Site Description
Eldon H Bernstein
While the goal in the traditional model in developing markets is the elimination of poverty, we show how those critical conditions help to explain the lack of success in the United States. We propose a modified model whose goal is the creation of an entrepreneurial venture or improving the performance of an existing small enterprise.
Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro
Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.
Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Thoens, C; Falenski, A; Weiser, A A; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M
Transferring the knowledge of predictive microbiology into real world food manufacturing applications is still a major challenge for the whole food safety modelling community. To facilitate this process, a strategy for creating open, community driven and web-based predictive microbial model repositories is proposed. These collaborative model resources could significantly improve the transfer of knowledge from research into commercial and governmental applications and also increase efficiency, transparency and usability of predictive models. To demonstrate the feasibility, predictive models of Salmonella in beef previously published in the scientific literature were re-implemented using an open source software tool called PMM-Lab. The models were made publicly available in a Food Safety Model Repository within the OpenML for Predictive Modelling in Food community project. Three different approaches were used to create new models in the model repositories: (1) all information relevant for model re-implementation is available in a scientific publication, (2) model parameters can be imported from tabular parameter collections and (3) models have to be generated from experimental data or primary model parameters. All three approaches were demonstrated in the paper. The sample Food Safety Model Repository is available via: http://sourceforge.net/projects/microbialmodelingexchange/files/models and the PMM-Lab software can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pmmlab/. This work also illustrates that a standardized information exchange format for predictive microbial models, as the key component of this strategy, could be established by adoption of resources from the Systems Biology domain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Abtew, Mohammed Seid
Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved mixed-integer programming energy-source optimization model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy optimization models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.
Full Text Available Organizations inform stakeholders about their current and future activities, processes, created value, strategic intentions, and other information that may influence the established relationships. Organizations choose to communicate with stakeholders by different means and in varied ways. The annual report represents a way of communicating between companies and their stakeholders, and it is offering comprehensive information about how companies operates and creates value. The business model is an emerging concept in management literature and practice. The concept describes the logic by which a organization creates, maintains and delivers value for its stakeholders. Through annual reports organisations can communicate to stakeholders information about their business models.We investigated how information about business models is explicitly communicated through annual reports, and how this information is reffering to stakeholders. Our paper aims to reveal which stakeholders are more often mentioned when organizations are communicating about business models through annual reports. This approach shows the attention degree given by organizations to stakeholders. We perceived this from a strategic point of view, as a strategic signal. Thus, we considered if the stakeholder is mentioned more frequent in the communicated message it has a greater role in communication strategy about business model. We conducted an exploratory research and have realized a content analysis.The analysed data consist in over a thousand annual reports from 96 organizations. We analysed the informations transmitted by organizations through annual reports. The annual reports were for a time period of 12 years. Most of the selected companies are multi-business, and are operating in different industries. The results show the stakeholder’s hierarchy based on how often they were mentioned in the communicated messages about business models through annual reports. Based on our
Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.
Beattie, C.I.; Ling, K.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Bristol (GB)] [and others
The UK has implemented a system of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) to tackle the many contemporary sources of air pollution, notably transport, industry and domestic fuel burning, in a holistic manner. The current legislation stems from the Environment Act 1995, which required a National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published outlining the Governments policies with respect to the assessment and management of air quality. The NAQS, originally published in March 1997, is on a rolling programme of reviews in order to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the economic and social issues involved. Following the first review (currently at consultation state), this paper will comment on how the proposed changes may affect the LAQM process. The proposed changes will also be summarised and discussed in the context of European Union air quality objectives and the economic analysis of NAQS.
Taraft, S.; Rekioua, D.; Aouzellag, D.; Bacha, S.
Highlights: • Wind energy conversion based doubly fed induction generator controlled by matrix converter. • Operation at both sub and super-synchronous regions is possible with the proposed drive system. • Double the power generated by the DFIG at a twice of speed rated. • Sliding mode control is used to achieve active and reactive power control. - Abstract: Many strategies have been developed in last decade to optimize power extracted from wind energy conversion system where many of them can produce only 30% more than the rated power. With the considered strategy, the generated wind power can reach twice its nominal value using a fast and reliable fully rugged electrical control. Indeed, by employing a suitable control technique where the produced power in super-synchronous mode is derived from both the stator and the rotor. Also, the rotor provided power in this case grows up 100% comparing to stator rated power. However, this solution permits to maintain the wind energy conversion system operation in its stable area. The considered system consists of a double fed induction generator whose stator is connected directly to the grid and its rotor is supplied by matrix converter. In this paper, the sliding mode approach to achieve active and reactive power control is used. This latter is combined with de Perturbation and Observation Maximum Power Point Tracking used in the second operation zone. The obtained simulations results are assessed and carried out using Matlab/Simulink package and show the performance and the effectiveness of the proposed control
Full Text Available Technical innovation is often presented as the main lever to improve economical performances and livelihoods of family farmers. It is thus a way to face the variability of the socio-economical environment. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of the adoption of technical proposals from research within the range of the adaptation strategies used by farmers to maintain or even improve their livelihoods and that of their descendants. Semi-structured and structured interviews carried out on a sample of representative family farmers of South Cameroon showed that migrations, off farm activities, increase of cultivated areas, and cash crop diversification were adaptation strategies more often used by farmers than the adoption of technical proposals. The study highlighted that improving crop management sequences and performances of family farming systems could not be the sole orientation of research and development policies. The increase of farmers spatial and professional mobility points the need to develop research and development policies that focus more closely on territorial and farmers’ management and on interactions between the different sectors of the national economy.
Dwindling supplies of fossil fuels are causing countries to turn increasingly to nuclear power as a major source of energy. Although nuclear power holds out the promise of energy independence, it has a formidable drawback--it can also lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In April, the President announced a new policy designed to curb nuclear proliferation and the executive branch proposed legislation entitled 'The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977.' The strategy outlined in these documents calls for stricter export controls and safeguards as well as actions affecting uranium enrichment services, reprocessing, storing of spent fuel, and disposing of radioactive nuclear wastes. GAO analyzed this non-proliferation strategy as it relates to: Improving nuclear export controls; Strengthening international nuclear safeguards; Maintaining U.S. reliability as a supplier of uranium enrichment services; Deferring U.S. reprocessing of spent fuel as an example for others; Reducing risk of proliferation by controlling spent reactor fuel. In general, GAO concluded that the administration's strategy is constructive but noted some weaknesses which should be addressed. Some of the problems noted in this report may already have been addressed by congressional committees in their markup of the legislation
Levin, George C.
Given the limitations of the present Shuttle manifest, it is necessary for NASA to consider revision of its previous strategy for servicing satellites. This is particularly important in a period of tight budgets, when space assets will be difficult to replace. Therefore on-orbit assets take on additional value and keeping these assets operational will take on added importance. The key to maintaining these assets will be the long term strategy of developing a remote servicing capability which is space based and has a minimum reliance on the Shuttle. Such a strategy will require that the users of this servicing system design serviceable spacecraft at a high level and that these assets be located in or be capable of reaching orbits that are accessible to or compatible with the proposed servicing infrastructure. The infrastructure required to support this type of remote servicing architecture and the development of the necessary systems, tools, and procedures required to support a remote servicing architecture of this type are addressed.
Botto, Lorenzo D; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo
Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high-value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low-resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries. The counterargument is twofold: (1) in the absence of surveillance, interventions will provide fewer benefits and cost more and (2) effective surveillance is likely possible nearly everywhere, with appropriate strategies. As a base strategy, we propose "triple surveillance:" integrating surveillance of cause (folate insufficiency), of disease occurrence (NTD prevalence), and of health outcomes (morbidity, mortality, and disability). For better sustainability and usefulness, it is crucial to refocus and streamline surveillance activities (no recreational data collection), weave surveillance into clinical care (integrate in clinical workflow), and, later, work on including additional risk factors and pediatric outcomes (increase benefits at low marginal cost). By doing so, surveillance becomes not a roadblock but a preferential path to prevention and better care. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
Bromund, Carl Douglas
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis discusses the managment strategy of the Coast Guard Reserve; it examines the formulation and implmentation of strateqy. A model to develop and implement strategy is proposed, which defines the role of the budget in this strategic management process. The recent strategy of the Coast Guard Reserve is analyzed using this model.. This analysis seems to indicate that the Coast Guard Reserve had no explicit strate...
Elkhabeery, M. M.
A proposed mathematical model is presented for predicting the residual stresses caused by turning. Effects of change in tool free length, cutting speed, feed rate, and the tensile strength of work piece material on the maximum residual stress are investigated. The residual stress distribution in the surface region due to turning under unlubricated condition is determined using a deflection etching technique. To reduce the number of experiments required and build the mathematical model for these variables, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used. In addition, variance analysis and an experimental check are conducted to determine the prominent parameters and the adequacy of the model. The results show that the tensile stress of the work piece material, cutting speed, and feed rate have significant effects on the maximum residual stresses. The proposed model, that offering good correlation between the experimental and predicted results, is useful in selecting suitable cutting parameters for the machining of different materials. (author)
Phalen, R.F.; Fisher, G.L.; Moss, O.R.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Swift, D.L.
The proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model regions include the naso-oro-pharyngo-laryngeal (NOPL), the tracheobronchial (TB), the pulmonary (P), and the lymph nodes (LN). Input aerosol concentrations are derived from a consideration of particle-size-dependent inspirability. Particle deposition in the respiratory tract is modelled using the mechanisms of inertial impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. The rates of absorption of particles, and transport to the blood, have been derived from clearance data from people and laboratory animals. The effect of body growth on particle deposition is considered. Particle clearance rates are assumed to be independent of age. The proposed respiratory tract model differs significantly from the 1966 Task Group Model in that (1) inspirability is considered; (2) new sub-regions of the respiratory tract are considered; (3) absorption of materials by the blood is treated in a more sophisticated fashion; and (4) body size (and thus age) is taken into account. (author)
Three new variants of continuum-based models for an elastic subgrade are proposed. The subgrade is idealized as a homogenous, isotropic elastic layer of thickness H overlying a firm stratum. All components of the stress tensor in the subgrade are taken into account. Reasonable assumptions are made regarding the ...
Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…
Full Text Available The research is devoted to the assessment of the scientific approaches to the identification of classification features of the strategy and its types distinguished in accordance with the mentioned features. The research object is the activities of tourist companies and this determines the choice of strategies typical for the tourism field. It is substantiated that the scientific approaches to the classification of strategies are various in specific literature because of obscurity in the strategy definition, vagueness and plurality of its classified features. Due to the current research the authors have improved the classified model of strategies for tourist companies that will result in making effective management decisions directed to the development of enterprise potential under conditions of unstable and unpredictable external environment. The paper singles out the peculiarities of functioning the tourism branch, which are the following : high sensitivity to the changes in external environment; the high level of competition in the field; dynamics and the lack of necessity for the use of «far-seeing» strategies; insufficiency of information provision for the application of traditional western models and matric methods of strategy development; time gap between obtaining the service and its consumption; a great number of intermediaries; seasonal swings in demands; the sudden shift of external environment caused by cyclicity, globalization, political decisions of separate countries and etc. The article shows essential differences in the development of financial strategies of small-scale enterprises and stock companies of tourist business. It is substantiated that small-scale enterprises develop strategies directed to a higher level of personal services, occupational competence, ability and experience in designing, the best knowledge of regional conditions and flexible decisions caused by the peculiarities of the received orders. Taking into
Rosa, Pedro A. R.; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Atkins, Anthony G.
This paper draws from the 'plasticity and friction only' view of metal cutting to the presentation of new modelling strategies based on the interaction between finite elements and modern ductile fracture mechanics. The overall presentation is supported by specially designed orthogonal metal cutting experiments that were performed on Lead test specimens under laboratory-controlled conditions. Comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental results comprise a wide range of topics such as material flow, cutting forces and specific cutting pressure. The paper demonstrates that while material flow and chip formation can be successfully modelled by traditional 'plasticity and friction only' analyses, the contribution of the fracture work involved in the formation of new surfaces is essential for obtaining good estimates of cutting forces and of the specific cutting pressure
Dolores Abril Sabater
Full Text Available AIM: To determine which model of nursing is proposed by care professionals and the reason for their choice. METHOD: cross-sectional, descriptive study design. The main variable: Nursing Models and Theories. As secondary variables were collected: age, gender, years of work experience, nursing model of basic training, and course/s related. We used a self-elaborated, anonymous questionnaire, passed between April - May, 2006. Not random sample.RESULTS: 546 nurses were invited, answered 205. 38 % response rate. Virginia Henderson was the more selected model (33%, however, 42% left the question blank, 12% indicated that they wanted to work under the guidance of a model. They selected a specifically model: Knowledge of the model to their training, standardization in other centers, the characteristics of the model itself and identification with its philosophy. They are not decided by a model by ignorance, lack of time and usefulness. CONCLUSIONS: The model chosen mostly for their daily work was Virginia Henderson model, so that knowledge of a model is the main reason for their election. Professionals who choose not to use the model in their practice realize offers and calling for resources, besides to explain the lack of knowledge on this topic. To advance the nursing profession is necessary that nurse is thought over widely on the abstract concepts of the theory in our context.
Broaddus, Michelle R; Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D
We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script.
Full Text Available Cell responses can be triggered via G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs that interact with small molecules, peptides or proteins and transmit the signal over the membrane via structural changes to activate intracellular pathways. GPCRs are characterized by a rather low sequence similarity and exhibit structural differences even for functionally closely related GPCRs. An accurate structure prediction for GPCRs is therefore not straightforward. We propose a computational approach that relies on the generation of several independent models based on different template structures, which are subsequently refined by molecular dynamics simulations. A comparison of their conformational stability and the agreement with GPCR-typical structural features is then used to select a favorable model. This strategy was applied to predict the structure of the herpesviral chemokine receptor US28 by generating three independent models based on the known structures of the chemokine receptors CXCR1, CXCR4, and CCR5. Model refinement and evaluation suggested that the model based on CCR5 exhibits the most favorable structural properties. In particular, the GPCR-typical structural features, such as a conserved water cluster or conserved non-covalent contacts, are present to a larger extent in the model based on CCR5 compared to the other models. A final model validation based on the recently published US28 crystal structure confirms that the CCR5-based model is the most accurate and exhibits 80.8% correctly modeled residues within the transmembrane helices. The structural agreement between the selected model and the crystal structure suggests that our modeling strategy may also be more generally applicable to other GPCRs of unknown structure.
Castaing, C.; Cazin, B. [Electricite de France, Noisy le grand (France)
The strategy proposed by EDF in the development of a means to limit personal and collective dosimetry is recent. It follows in the steps of a policy that consisted of developing remote operation means for those activities of inspection and maintenance on the reactor, pools bottom, steam generators (SGs), also reactor building valves; target activities because of their high dosimetric cost. One of the main duties of the UTO (Technical Support Department), within the EDF, is the maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors in French Nuclear Power Plant Operations (consisting of 54 units) and the development and monitoring of specialized tools. To achieve this, the UTO has started a national think-tank on the implementation of the ALARA process in its field of activity and created an ALARA Committee responsible for running and monitoring it, as well as a policy for developing tools. This point will be illustrated in the second on reactor vessel heads.
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Bayesian inference provides a natural framework for combining experimental data with prior knowledge to develop chemical kinetic models and quantify the associated uncertainties, not only in parameter values but also in model structure. Most existing applications of Bayesian model selection methods to chemical kinetics have been limited to comparisons among a small set of models, however. The significant computational cost of evaluating posterior model probabilities renders traditional Bayesian methods infeasible when the model space becomes large. We present a new framework for tractable Bayesian model inference and uncertainty quantification using a large number of systematically generated model hypotheses. The approach involves imposing point-mass mixture priors over rate constants and exploring the resulting posterior distribution using an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The posterior samples are used to identify plausible models, to quantify rate constant uncertainties, and to extract key diagnostic information about model structure-such as the reactions and operating pathways most strongly supported by the data. We provide numerical demonstrations of the proposed framework by inferring kinetic models for catalytic steam and dry reforming of methane using available experimental data.
Leonard, Nancy; Insch, Gary S
The authors propose a multidimensional model of tacit knowledge and develop a measure of tacit knowledge in academia. They discuss the theory and extant literature on tacit knowledge and propose a 6-factor model. Experiment 1 is a replication of a recent study of academic tacit knowledge using the scale developed and administered at an Israeli university (A. Somech & R. Bogler, 1999). The results of the replication differed from those found in the original study. For Experiment 2, the authors developed a domain-specific measure of academic tacit knowledge, the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale (ATKS), and used this measure to explore the multidimensionality of tacit knowledge proposed in the model. The results of an exploratory factor analysis (n=142) followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (n=286) are reported. The sample for both experiments was 428 undergraduate students enrolled at a large public university in the eastern United States. Results indicated that a 5-factor model of academic tacit knowledge provided a strong fit for the data.
Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Brassier, Anais; Grisel, Coraline; Servais, Aude; Wippf, Julien; Dubois, Sandrine; Sireau, Nicolas; Job-Deslandre, Chantal; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; de Lonlay, Pascale
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is caused by deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase. It results in an accumulation of homogentisate which oxidizes spontaneously to benzoquinone acetate, a highly oxidant compound, which polymerises to a melanin-like structure, in a process called ochronosis. Asymptomatic during childhood, this accumulation will lead from the second decade of life to a progressive and severe spondylo-arthopathy, associated with multisystem involvement: osteoporosis/fractures, stones (renal, prostatic, gall bladder, salivary glands), ruptures of tendons/muscle/ligaments, renal failure and aortic valve disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of AKU remain poorly understood, but recent advances lead us to reconsider the treatment strategy in AKU patients. Besides the supporting therapies (pain killers, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, joints replacements and others), specific therapies have been considered (anti-oxidant, low protein diet, nitisinone), but clinical studies have failed to prove efficiency on the rheumatological lesions of the disease. Here we propose a treatment strategy for children and adults with AKU, based on a review of the latest findings on AKU and lessons from other aminoacipathies, especially tyrosinemias.
Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira
The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…
Kramberger, V [Ministry of Economy, Zagreb (Croatia); Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Croatia, Project PROHES
In this paper a proposal on the `Energy strategy of the Republic of Croatia by the year 2020` has been presented. The proposal has been worked out on the basis of the preliminary results of the project `Croatian energy sector development and organization` - PROHES printed in July 1995. The discussion on the strategy has been carried out in the bodies of the PROHES (Board of Directors and Experts Council) and supplemented with suggestions on the discussion. (author). 11 figs., 5 tabs.
Bloomfield, Robin; Chozos, Nick; Salako, Kizito
The UK government recently commissioned a research study to identify the state-of-the-art in Critical Infrastructure modelling and analysis, and the government/industry requirements for such tools and services. This study (Cetifs) concluded with a strategy aiming to bridge the gaps between the capabilities and requirements, which would establish interdependency analysis as a commercially viable service in the near future. This paper presents the findings of this study that was carried out by CSR, City University London, Adelard LLP, a safety/security consultancy and Cranfield University, defense academy of the UK.
There are two niobium isotopes generated in nuclear power plants: 95 Nb and 94 Nb. Workers and members of the public are subjects to intake these radionuclides in accident situation. For dose calculation purpose, it is very important to develop a model that describes in a more realistic way the kinetics of niobium inside of the human body. Presently the model adopted by ICRP (ICRP, 1989) is based on animal studies and describes the behavior of niobium in human being in a simple manner. The new model proposal describes the kinetics of the niobium from the intake into the blood until the excretion, doing this in a more realistic form and considering not only data from animals but data from human beings as well. For this objective, a workers group of a niobium extraction and processing industry exposed to stable niobium (93 Nb) in oxide insoluble form with associated uranium, was monitored for uranium and niobium determination in urinary and fecal excretion, by mass spectrometry. Based in the ratios of the niobium concentration in urinary and faecal excretion of this workers and animal data study, a new biokinetic model for niobium was proposed, with the followings modifications relative to ICRP model: a new compartment that represents muscular tissue; the fractions which are deposited into the compartment are modified; a third component in the retention equation of the bone tissue; introduction of recirculation between organs and blood. The new model was applied for a case of accidental intake and described adequately the experimental data
Liu, Wanping; Zhong, Shouming
The popularity of the Web improves the growth of web threats. Formulating mathematical models for accurate prediction of malicious propagation over networks is of great importance. The aim of this paper is to understand the propagation mechanisms of web malware and the impact of human intervention on the spread of malicious hyperlinks. Considering the characteristics of web malware, a new differential epidemic model which extends the traditional SIR model by adding another delitescent compartment is proposed to address the spreading behavior of malicious links over networks. The spreading threshold of the model system is calculated, and the dynamics of the model is theoretically analyzed. Moreover, the optimal control theory is employed to study malware immunization strategies, aiming to keep the total economic loss of security investment and infection loss as low as possible. The existence and uniqueness of the results concerning the optimality system are confirmed. Finally, numerical simulations show that the spread of malware links can be controlled effectively with proper control strategy of specific parameter choice.
Saputra, Arif Fajar; Motik, Suryani Sidik
The findings of this study will help CIDMAC as new venture in digital advertising industry to formulate their business strategy (Especially in the beginning of their business) to be able to compete with existing competitors and capture many opportunities ahead. The authors propose the formulation of CIDMAC's business model and DIAMOND Strategy as outlined in the implementation of business strategies in short term (1 year) and long term (3 years) that are expected to make CIDMAC business conti...
Davis, Denise M.; Clery, Carolsue
Describes the design and implementation of a Spiral Model for the introduction and repeated practice of study strategies, based on Taba's model for social studies. In a college reading and studies strategies course, key strategies were introduced early and used through several sets of humanities and social and physical sciences readings. (Contains…
Full Text Available Creativity is accepted as an important part of scientific skills. Scientific creativity proceeds from a need or urge to solve a problem, and in-volves the production of original and useful ideas or products. Existing scientific creativity theories and tests do not feature the very im-portant thinking processes, such as analogical and associative thinking, which can be consid-ered crucial in creative scientific problem solv-ing. Current study’s aim is to provide an alter-native model and explicate the associative basis of scientific creativity. Emerging from the re-viewed theoretical framework, Scientific Asso-ciations Model is proposed. This model claims that, similarity and mediation constitutes the basis of creativity and focuses on three compo-nents namely; associative thinking, analogical thinking (analogical reasoning & analogical problem solving and insight which are consid-ered to be main elements of scientific associa-tive thinking.
José Rodrigues Coura
Full Text Available Treatments for Chagas disease have been administered since the first attempts by Mayer & Rocha Lima (1912, 1914 and up to the drugs currently in use (nifurtimox and benznidazole, along with potential drugs such as allopurinol and first, second and third-generation antifungal agents (imidazoles and triazoles, in separate form. Several diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and AIDS only came under control after they were treated with associations of drugs with different mechanisms of action. This not only boosts the action of the different compounds, but also may avoid the development of parasite resistance .To this end, over the short term, we propose experimental studies on laboratory animals and clinical trials with the following associations: (i nifurtimox (8 mg/kg/day + benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day x 60 consecutive days; (ii nifurtimox (8 mg/kg/day or benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day + allopurinol (8-10 mg/kg/day x 60 days and (iii nifurtimox (8 mg/kg/day or benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day + ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole (5-6 mg/kg/day x 60 consecutive days. The doses of the drugs and the treatment schedules for the clinical trials must be adapted according to the side effects. From these, other double or triple associations could be made, using drugs with different mechanisms of action. This proposal does not exclude investigations on new drugs over the median and long terms, targeting other aspects of the metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi. Until such time as the ideal drug for specific treatment of Chagas disease might be discovered, we need to develop new strategies for achieving greater efficacy with the old drugs in associations and to develop rational experimentation with new drugs.
Hannak, Judith S.; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen
Shallow reefs (reef flats tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors’ socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers – the target group for further education and skill training – were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive ‘ecotourism zone’ while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420
Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen
Shallow reefs (reef flats impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Floods, one of the most significant natural hazards, often result in loss of life and property. Accurate hourly streamflow forecasting is always a key issue in hydrology for flood hazard mitigation. To improve the performance of hourly streamflow forecasting, a methodology concerning the development of neural network (NN based models with an enforced learning strategy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, four different NNs, namely back propagation network (BPN, radial basis function network (RBFN, self-organizing map (SOM, and support vector machine (SVM, are used to construct streamflow forecasting models. Through the cross-validation test, NN-based models with superior performance in streamflow forecasting are detected. Then, an enforced learning strategy is developed to further improve the performance of the superior NN-based models, i.e., SOM and SVM in this study. Finally, the proposed flow forecasting model is obtained. Actual applications are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed model. Moreover, comparison between the NN-based models with and without the enforced learning strategy is performed to evaluate the effect of the enforced learning strategy on model performance. The results indicate that the NN-based models with the enforced learning strategy indeed improve the accuracy of hourly streamflow forecasting. Hence, the presented methodology is expected to be helpful for developing improved NN-based streamflow forecasting models.
Strategy games are a popular genre of games with a long history, originatingfrom games like Chess or Go. The first strategy games were published as“Kriegspiele” (engl. wargames) in the late 18th century, intended for the education of young cadets. Since then strategy games were refined and transformed over two centuries into a medium of entertainment. Today’s computer strategy games have their roots in the board- and roleplaying games of the 20th century and enjoy great popularity. We use str...
Full Text Available Aim of the study is to develop a model delineating customer perceptions on wedding marketing strategies in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Main objective of this paper is to analyse a category of special events: the wedding market sector in Kaohsiung, Taiwan by examining how they attract consumers regarding their marketing strategies using the method of fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA. Based on a survey to married, in relationship and singles local citizens of Taiwan the relationships between impressions, importance, push factors with decision making was explored. To test the hypotheses of the proposed model a primary research study was conducted employing a mall intercept technique via distribution of a self-administered questionnaire within a cross sectional on-site field research context. A fsQCA modelling approach technique was employed in order to measure, estimate and confirm the different casual paths constructs, as well as to test the significance of the paths between different segments of the wedding industry. Our findings reveal that the presence of importance, push factors and decision making determines the level of consumer perception performance. However, impressions do not show significant impact on consumer perceptions.
Constructed-response items have been shown to be appropriate for cognitively diagnostic assessments because students' problem-solving procedures can be observed, providing direct evidence for making inferences about their proficiency. However, multiple strategies used by students make item scoring and psychometric analyses challenging. This study introduces the so-called two-digit scoring scheme into diagnostic assessments to record both students' partial credits and their strategies. This study also proposes a diagnostic tree model (DTM) by integrating the cognitive diagnosis models with the tree model to analyse the items scored using the two-digit rubrics. Both convergent and divergent tree structures are considered to accommodate various scoring rules. The MMLE/EM algorithm is used for item parameter estimation of the DTM, and has been shown to provide good parameter recovery under varied conditions in a simulation study. A set of data from TIMSS 2007 mathematics assessment is analysed to illustrate the use of the two-digit scoring scheme and the DTM. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have
Wang, Xinli; Cai, Wenjian; Lu, Jiangang; Sun, Youxian; Zhao, Lei
This study presents a model-based optimization strategy for an actual chiller driven dehumidifier of liquid desiccant dehumidification system operating with lithium chloride solution. By analyzing the characteristics of the components, energy predictive models for the components in the dehumidifier are developed. To minimize the energy usage while maintaining the outlet air conditions at the pre-specified set-points, an optimization problem is formulated with an objective function, the constraints of mechanical limitations and components interactions. Model-based optimization strategy using genetic algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal set-points for desiccant solution temperature and flow rate, to minimize the energy usage in the dehumidifier. Experimental studies on an actual system are carried out to compare energy consumption between the proposed optimization and the conventional strategies. The results demonstrate that energy consumption using the proposed optimization strategy can be reduced by 12.2% in the dehumidifier operation. - Highlights: • Present a model-based optimization strategy for energy saving in LDDS. • Energy predictive models for components in dehumidifier are developed. • The Optimization strategy are applied and tested in an actual LDDS. • Optimization strategy can achieve energy savings by 12% during operation
Full Text Available We are concerned with optimal investment strategy for a dual risk model. We assume that the company can invest into a risk-free asset and a risky asset. Short-selling and borrowing money are allowed. Due to lack of iterated-expectation property, the Bellman Optimization Principle does not hold. Thus we investigate the precommitted strategy and time-consistent strategy, respectively. We take three steps to derive the precommitted investment strategy. Furthermore, the time-consistent investment strategy is also obtained by solving the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. We compare the precommitted strategy with time-consistent strategy and find that these different strategies have different advantages: the former can make value function maximized at the original time t=0 and the latter strategy is time-consistent for the whole time horizon. Finally, numerical analysis is presented for our results.
Otávio José de OLIVEIRA
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the proposition of a management model specifically developed for small building design firms, aligned with their needs and particularities. The field research was conducted with a qualitative approach through the analysis of four case studies in small building design firms acting mainly in São Paulo City. The data collection was accomplished through semi-structured interviews, direct observation and analysis of documents. The proposed model includes guidance to the management of the core processes and activities of small building design firms, such as: organizational structure; strategic planning; planning and control of design process; costs management; sales management; information systems; human resources management; services added to the design; and performance evaluation. Key-words: design firms; design process; building construction.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is the development of a model that can be used as a framework for evaluators and PhD tribunal members, either during the previous administrative processing phase or at the actual exposition and viva on doctoral dissertations. To this end, once reviewed the existing literature and normative, a new proposal is laid out on the main aspects and criteria to be analysed and assessed from any given scientific work, thus introducing a tool that facilitates and specifies this work. Our model is intended to be an open proposal on which we would welcome any contribution and suggestion. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la elaboración de un modelo que pueda ser utilizado como marco de referencia por los evaluadores y miembros de tribunales de las tesis doctorales tanto en la fase previa a la tramitación administrativa como en el acto de exposición y defensa de la misma. Para ello, una vez revisada la literatura y la normativa vigente al respecto, efectuamos una propuesta sobre los principales aspectos y criterios que deben ser objeto de análisis y valoración en todo trabajo científico, y presentamos una herramienta que facilita y precisa esta tarea. Nuestro modelo constituye una propuesta abierta sobre la que esperamos aportaciones y sugerencias.
Lipsman, Nir; Khan, Osaama; Kulkarni, Abhaya V
Modern neurosurgical training is both physically and emotionally demanding, posing significant challenges, new and old, to residents as well as programs attempting to train safe, competent surgeons. Models to describe resident development, such as the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies and milestones, address the acquisition of specific skills but largely ignore the stresses and pressures unique to each stage of resident training. We propose an alternative model of resident development adapted from the developmental psychology literature. Our model identifies the challenges that must be met at each stage of junior, intermediate, and senior and chief residency, leading ultimately to an "actualized" neurosurgeon (i.e., one who has maximized his or her potential). Failure to overcome any 1 of these challenges can lead to specific long-lasting consequences, including regret, identity crisis, incompetence, and bitterness. In contrast, the actualized surgeon is one who has successfully acquired the virtues of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, productivity, leadership, competence, and wisdom. The actualized surgeon not only functions safely, confidently, and professionally, but also successfully navigates the challenges of residency and emerges from them having fulfilled his or her maximal potential. This developmental perspective provides an individualized description of healthy surgical development. Our model allows programs to identify the basis for residents who fail to progress, counsel residents during their training, and perhaps help identify resident candidates who are better prepared to meet the developmental challenges of residency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bao, Yukun; Xiong, Tao; Hu, Zhongyi
Multistep-ahead time series prediction is one of the most challenging research topics in the field of time series modeling and prediction, and is continually under research. Recently, the multiple-input several multiple-outputs (MISMO) modeling strategy has been proposed as a promising alternative for multistep-ahead time series prediction, exhibiting advantages compared with the two currently dominating strategies, the iterated and the direct strategies. Built on the established MISMO strategy, this paper proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based MISMO modeling strategy, which is capable of determining the number of sub-models in a self-adaptive mode, with varying prediction horizons. Rather than deriving crisp divides with equal-size s prediction horizons from the established MISMO, the proposed PSO-MISMO strategy, implemented with neural networks, employs a heuristic to create flexible divides with varying sizes of prediction horizons and to generate corresponding sub-models, providing considerable flexibility in model construction, which has been validated with simulated and real datasets.
Ednilson Sergio Ramalho de Souza
Full Text Available The pedagogical work with mathematical modeling assumes investigate situations of reality. However, mental models formed from the contact with the experiential world are generally incompatible with the conceptual models. So David Hestenes supports the view that one of the biggest challenges of teaching and learning in science and mathematics is to coordinate conceptual models with mental models, which led to the elaboration of a didactic in mathematical modeling: Modeling Instruction. Our goal is to present a proposal for thematic modeling cycle drawn up in hestenesianos assumptions and discuss possibilities for scientific literacy. The main question was to know how to emerge indicators for scientific literacy for the proposed cycle. This is a bibliographic research in order to identify the available literature contributions on the subject and raise the possibility and challenges for the brazilian teaching science and mathematics. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed modeling cycle can develop indicators for scientific literacy of different natures.
We used a spatially explicit population model of wolves (Canis lupus) to propose a framework for defining rangewide recovery priorities and finer-scale strategies for regional reintroductions. The model predicts that Yellowstone and central Idaho, where wolves have recently been ...
N. Basturk (Nalan); S. Grassi (Stefano); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)
markdownabstractA novel dynamic asset-allocation approach is proposed where portfolios as well as portfolio strategies are updated at every decision period based on their past performance. For modeling, a general class of models is specified that combines a dynamic factor and a vector autoregressive
Shi, Wyanet Wen
This thesis studies the design of optimal investment strategies. A strategy is considered optimal when it minimizes the variance of terminal portfolio wealth for a given level of expected terminal portfolio wealth, or equivalently, maximizes an investor's utility. We study this issue in two particular situations: when asset returns follow a continuous-time path-independent process, and when they follow a discrete-time path-dependent process. Continuous-time path-independent return mode...
Bistra Vassileva; Miroslav Nikolov
The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed concep...
Alfonso Jiménez Espinosa
Full Text Available This research-based article reflects on mathematics teacher education, and proposes a pedagogical model for this purpose, called Gradual Research Pedagogical Model (MPGI. This model considers the central curricular elements of any academic education process: student, teacher and contents, with evaluation as transversal element for analysis and feedback. The training of future teachers is constituted by three moments, each with its specific emphasis: the first is “contextualization”, which aims at having the student understand his or her new academic role, and identify and overcome his or her academic weak points, the second is “knowledge foundation”, which offers basic education in the fields of mathematics and pedagogy, as well as sensibilization towards social issues, opening up the student’s possibilities as leader and agent of change, and lastly, “knowledge immersion”, which is centered on research and the identification and study of topics and problems of the mathematical discipline as well as the pedagogical field.
Perez Casan, J.A.
Database models for highway inventories are based on classical schemes for relational databases: many related tables, in which the database designer establishes, a priori, every detail that they consider relevant for inventory management. This kind of database presents several problems. First, adapting the model and its applications when new database features appear is difficult. In addition, the different needs of different sets of road inventory users are difficult to fulfil with these schemes. For example, maintenance management services, road authorities and emergency services have different needs. In addition, this kind of database cannot be adapted to new scenarios, such as other countries and regions (that may classify roads or name certain elements differently). The problem is more complex if the language used in these scenarios is not the same as that used in the database design. In addition, technicians need a long time to learn to use the database efficiently. This paper proposes a flexible, multilanguage and multipurpose database model, which gives an effective and simple solution to the aforementioned problems. (Author)
Felisa Margarita Cordova; Claudia Durán; Juan Sepúlveda; Alfredo Fernández; Mauricio Rojas
A logistic service innovation strategy for a mining company and their key suppliers is presented, using the win-win concept with the objective of improve its position, policies, strategic objectives and relationships between companies. The strategy allows increasing the business profitability, to diminish the operational costs and the times of negotiation and learning. The chain value of the productive process is analyzed and also the business strategies of each company in order to identify t...
Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization
Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia; Li, Xin
The organizational capacity to cope with unexpected changes remains a fundamental challenge in strategy as global competition and technological innovation increase environmental uncertainty. Conventional strategy-making is often conceived as a sequential linear process where we see it as a non......-linear interaction between top-down and bottom-up mechanisms dealing with multiple actions taken throughout the organization over time. It is driven by intension but with a flexible balance between centralized (planned) and decentralized (spontaneous) activities. We adopt the principles of complementary Yin......-Yang elements and Zhong Yong balance to explain the time bound interaction between these opposing yet complementary strategy-making mechanisms where tradeoffs and synergies are balanced across hierarchical levels....
Full Text Available Development strategy of such financial market infrastructure that is able to optimize the processes of institutional component’s functioning and increase an efficiency of various operations in this market has to become an important direction of improvement and development of the financial market infrastructure. This paper aimed to rationale the development strategy of financial market infrastructure in Ukraine
This study demonstrates a methodology for using the MELCOR code to model a proposed hazard scenario within a building containing radioactive powder, and the subsequent evaluation of a leak path factor (LPF) (or the amount of respirable material which that escapes a facility into the outside environment), implicit in the scenario. This LPF evaluation will analyzes the basis and applicability of an assumed standard multiplication of 0.5 × 0.5 (in which 0.5 represents the amount of material assumed to leave one area and enter another), for calculating an LPF value. The outside release is dependsent upon the ventilation/filtration system, both filtered and un-filtered, and from other pathways from the building, such as doorways (, both open and closed). This study is presents ed to show how the multiple leak path factorsLPFs from the interior building can be evaluated in a combinatory process in which a total leak path factorLPF is calculated, thus addressing the assumed multiplication, and allowing for the designation and assessment of a respirable source term (ST) for later consequence analysis, in which: the propagation of material released into the environmental atmosphere can be modeled and the dose received by a receptor placed downwind can be estimated and the distance adjusted to maintains such exposures as low as reasonably achievableALARA.. Also, this study will briefly addresses particle characteristics thatwhich affect atmospheric particle dispersion, and compares this dispersion with leak path factorLPF methodology.
Full Text Available Configurable process models are frequently used to represent business workflows and other discrete event systems among different branches of large organizations: they unify commonalities shared by all branches and describe their differences, at the same time. The configuration of such models is usually done manually, which is challenging. On the one hand, when the number of configurable nodes in the configurable process model grows, the size of the search space increases exponentially. On the other hand, the person performing the configuration may lack the holistic perspective to make the right choice for all configurable nodes at the same time, since choices influence each other. Nowadays, information systems that support the execution of business processes create event data reflecting how processes are performed. In this article, we propose three strategies (based on exhaustive search, genetic algorithms and a greedy heuristic that use event data to automatically derive a process model from a configurable process model that better represents the characteristics of the process in a specific branch. These strategies have been implemented in our proposed framework and tested in both business-like event logs as recorded in a higher educational enterprise resource planning system and a real case scenario involving a set of Dutch municipalities.
Qudah, Ahmad Hassan
This study aimed at identify the effect of using a proposed teaching strategy based on the selective thinking in acquire mathematical concepts by Classroom Teacher Students at Al- al- Bayt University, The sample of the study consisted of (74) students, equally distributed into a control group and an experimental group. The selective thinking…
Luis C. Ortigueira
Critical control is very important in scientific management. This paper presents models of critical and counter-critical public-management strategies, focusing on the types of criticism and counter-criticism manifested in parliamentary political debates. The paper includes: (i) a normative model showing how rational criticism can be carried out; (ii) a normative model for oral critical intervention; and (iii) a general motivational strategy model for criticisms and counter-criticisms. The pap...
Cummings, William K.; Bain, Olga
With the strengthening of the global economy, contemporary societies have come to view the educational achievements of their young people as a major component of national competiveness. But there are substantial variations in the strategies employed by different nations. To maximize educational achievements, some nations believe that the provision…
Full Text Available Component-based software engineering (CBSE / Component-Based Development (CBD lays emphasis on decomposition of the engineered systems into functional or logical components with well-defined interfaces used for communication across the components. Component-based software development approach is based on the idea to develop software systems by selecting appropriate off-the-shelf components and then to assemble them with a well-defined software architecture. Because the new software development paradigm is much different from the traditional approach, quality assurance for component-based software development is a new topic in the software engineering research community. Because component-based software systems are developed on an underlying process different from that of the traditional software, their quality assurance model should address both the process of components and the process of the overall system. Quality assurance for component-based software systems during the life cycle is used to analyze the components for achievement of high quality component-based software systems. Although some Quality assurance techniques and component based approach to software engineering have been studied, there is still no clear and well-defined standard or guidelines for component-based software systems. Therefore, identification of the quality assurance characteristics, quality assurance models, quality assurance tools and quality assurance metrics, are under urgent need. As a major contribution in this paper, I have proposed QAM: Quality Assurance Model for component-based software development, which covers component requirement analysis, component development, component certification, component architecture design, integration, testing, and maintenance.
Full Text Available Most of the general public of service users have not understood the value of construction consultancy services. This inhibits market opportunities in the private sector for construction consulting services particularly in South Kalimantan. The objective of the research is to create an appropriate marketing strategy for corporation construction consultancy services in South Kalimantan.Strategies can be identified by SWOT analysis, AHP analysis and Importance Performance Analysis. This research is done by giving questionnaire to the service users and construction consulting firms in South Kalimantan. The result of the research are, a model of the marketing strategy of the construction consulting service, Strength-Opportunity strategy, grow and build strategy, service pricing strategy, and a basic strategy. This is a collaboration between the marketing-mix and service quality. Key words: AHP, construction consulting service, marketing strategy, SWOT
Miyake, Makito; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Morizawa, Yosuke; Anai, Satoshi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Aoki, Katsuya; Yoneda, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Konishi, Noboru; Fujimoto, Kiyohide
Treatment options for patients with recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy include salvage radiotherapy of the prostatic bed and/or androgen deprivation therapy. To establish an effective treatment strategy for recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy, we retrospectively analyzed the outcome of salvage radiation monotherapy in such cases. Data from 61 men who had undergone salvage radiation monotherapy for biochemical recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. In all patients, salvage radiotherapy consisted of iraradiation to the prostatic bed (70 Gy) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy techniques. Treatment outcome was analyzed to identify predictive factors of salvage radiotherapy. The biochemical recurrence-free survival after salvage radiation monotherapy at 2 and 5 years was 55% and 38%, respectively. Cox proportional regression models revealed that the independent predictive factors for biochemical recurrence were Gleason Score ≥ 8, negative surgical margin, and PSA velocity ≥ 0.38 ng/mL/year. Negative surgical margin and PSA velocity ≥ 0.8 ng/mL/year were significantly associated with poor response in the serum PSA levels after salvage radiotherapy. Based on our findings, we propose a treatment strategy for biochemical recurrent disease after radical prostatectomy. Patients with Gleason score ≤ 7, positive surgical margin, and PSA velocity < 0.38 ng/mL/year are categorized the most favorable group, so that eradication by salvage radiation monotherapy could be expected. Other patients could be divided to two groups depending on surgical margin status and PSA velocity: 1) patients who might require combination of SRT and short-term androgen deprivation therapy and 2) patients who should be treated by androgen deprivation monotherapy
The research results revealed that farmer acceptance or participation in applying different mitigation strategies is the cornerstone of this aspect. Meanwhile farmer awareness is essential for adaptation with climate change.
Felisa Margarita Cordova
Full Text Available A logistic service innovation strategy for a mining company and their key suppliers is presented, using the win-win concept with the objective of improve its position, policies, strategic objectives and relationships between companies. The strategy allows increasing the business profitability, to diminish the operational costs and the times of negotiation and learning. The chain value of the productive process is analyzed and also the business strategies of each company in order to identify the key factors involved in the strategic alliance. Contracts negotiation between the company and its suppliers is examined by SWOT analysis, Pareto´s ABC tool and expert knowledge of the process. The strategy is applied to a mining company and its key suppliers working in the modality of strategic long term alliances.
Coll, F.R.; Gray, D.R.
In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)
Krcmar, E.; Vertinsky, I.; Kooten, van G.C.
To satisfy public demands for environmental values, forest companies are facing the prospect of a reduction in wood supply and increases in costs. Some Canadian provincial governments have proposed intensifying silviculture in special zones dedicated to timber production as the means for pushing out
Li, Xin; Gammelgaard, Jens
This paper critically reviews the ownership, location, and internalization (OLI) model, and the Uppsala internationalization process (UIP) framework. Both the OLI model and the UIP model ignore to incorporate the insights of each other and fail to include corporate entrepreneurship in their analy...
Addis, Matthew; Wright, Richard
This is a report on preservation strategies, models and value-chains for digital file-based audiovisual content. The report includes: (a)current and emerging value-chains and business-models for audiovisual preservation;(b) a comparison of preservation strategies for audiovisual content including their strengths and weaknesses, and(c) a review of current preservation metadata models, and requirements for extension to support audiovisual files.
Geurts, Bernard J.; Holm, Darryl D.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.
The α-modeling strategy is followed to derive a new subgrid parameterization of the turbulent stress tensor in large-eddy simulation (LES). The LES-α modeling yields an explicitly filtered subgrid parameterization which contains the filtered nonlinear gradient model as well as a model which
Pusey, Marc; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)
How does one take a molecule, strongly asymmetric in both shape and charge distribution, and assemble it into a crystal? We propose a model for the nucleation and crystal growth process for tetragonal lysozyme, based upon fluorescence, light, neutron, and X-ray scattering data, size exclusion chromatography experiments, dialysis kinetics, AFM, and modeling of growth rate data, from this and other laboratories. The first species formed is postulated to be a 'head to side' dimer. Through repeating associations involving the same intermolecular interactions this grows to a 4(sub 3) helix structure, that in turn serves as the basic unit for nucleation and subsequent crystal growth. High salt attenuates surface charges while promoting hydrophobic interactions. Symmetry facilitates subsequent helix-helix self-association. Assembly stability is enhanced when a four helix structure is obtained, with each bound to two neighbors. Only two unique interactions are required. The first are those for helix formation, where the dominant interaction is the intermolecular bridging anion. The second is the anti-parallel side-by-side helix-helix interaction, guided by alternating pairs of symmetry related salt bridges along each side. At this stage all eight unique positions of the P4(sub3)2(sub 1),2(sub 1) unit cell are filled. The process is one of a) attenuating the most strongly interacting groups, such that b) the molecules begin to self-associate in defined patterns, so that c) symmetry is obtained, which d) propagates as a growing crystal. Simple and conceptually obvious in hindsight, this tells much about what we are empirically doing when we crystallize macromolecules. By adjusting the growth parameters we are empirically balancing the intermolecular interactions, preferentially attenuating the dominant strong (for lysozyme the charged groups) while strengthening the lesser strong (hydrophobic) interactions. In the general case for proteins the lack of a singularly defined
Wulsin, Lawson; Herman, James; Thayer, Julian F
Devising novel prevention strategies for metabolic disorders will depend in part on the careful elucidation of the common pathways for developing metabolic risks. The neurovisceral integration model has proposed that autonomic imbalance plays an important role in the pathway from acute and chronic stress to cardiovascular disease. Though generally overlooked by clinicians, autonomic imbalance (sympathetic overactivity and/or parasympathetic underactivity) can be measured and modified by methods that are available in primary care. This review applies the neurovisceral integration concept to the clinical setting by proposing that autonomic imbalance plays a primary role in the development of metabolic risks. We present a testable model, a systematic review of the evidence in support of autonomic imbalance as a predictor for metabolic risks, and specific approaches to test this model as a guide to future research on the role of stress in metabolic disorders. We propose that autonomic imbalance deserves consideration by researchers, clinicians, and policymakers as a target for early interventions to prevent metabolic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Benichou, O; Coppey, M; Moreau, M; Suet, P H; Voituriez, R
It is often necessary, in scientific or everyday life problems, to find a randomly hidden target. What is then the optimal strategy to reach it as rapidly as possible? In this article, we develop a stochastic theory for intermittent search behaviours, which are often observed: the searcher alternates phases of intensive search and slow motion with fast displacements. The first results of this theory have already been announced recently. Here we provide a detailed presentation of the theory, as well as the full derivation of the results. Furthermore, we explicitly discuss the minimization of the time needed to find the target
Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.
Gong Cheng; Changrui Yu; Kecheng Liu
In recent years, innovative applications of electronic commerce (e-commerce) are facing the challenges of mobile commerce (m-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (u-commerce). To address these challenges and improve the competitiveness of e-commerce, the three-dimensional e-commerce (3DEC) theory is proposed and a 3DEC business strategy model is built up in this study. The new conceptual 3DEC model incorporates the industrial environment analysis, SWOT analysis, and business model canvas (BMC). ...
Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy m...
Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard
and generalisations to higher order arrays are considered. Additionally, an application of the natural conjugate prior for supervised learning in the general linear model to efficiently incorporate prior information for supervised analysis is presented. Further extensions include methods to model nuisance effects...... in fMIR data thereby suppressing noise for both supervised and unsupervised analysis techniques....
Gota, Dan-Ioan; Lund, Henrik; Miclea, Liviu
This paper presents a model of the Romanian energy system with the purpose of providing a tool for the analysis of future sustainable energy strategies. The model represents the total national energy system and is detailed to the level of hourly demand and production in order to be able to analyse...... the consequences of adding fluctuating renewable energy sources to the system. The model has been implemented into the EnergyPLAN tool and has been validated in order to determine if it can be used as a reference model for other simulations. In EnergyPLAN, two different future strategy scenarios for the Romanian...... energy system are compared to the actual data of Romania of year 2008. First, a comparison is made between the 2008 model and the 2013 strategy scenario corresponding to the grid of the Romanian transmission system operator (TSO) Transelectrica. Then, a comparison is made to a second strategy scenario...
Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.
Li, Shubin; Cao, Danni
The variable speed limit (VSL) is a kind of active traffic management method. Most of the strategies are used in the expressway traffic flow control in order to ensure traffic safety. However, the urban expressway system is the main artery, carrying most traffic pressure. It has similar traffic characteristics with the expressways between cities. In this paper, the improved link transmission model (LTM) combined with VSL strategies is proposed, based on the urban expressway network. The model can simulate the movement of the vehicles and the shock wave, and well balance the relationship between the amount of calculation and accuracy. Furthermore, the optimal VSL strategy can be proposed based on the simulation method. It can provide management strategies for managers. Finally, a simple example is given to illustrate the model and method. The selected indexes are the average density, the average speed and the average flow on the traffic network in the simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed model and method are feasible. The VSL strategy can effectively alleviate traffic congestion in some cases, and greatly promote the efficiency of the transportation system.
Teshigawara, Makoto; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Sakata, Hideaki; Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Ikeda, Yujiro; Watanabe, Noboru
A pulsed spallation source for the materials science and the life science is currently developing for its construction in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project proposed jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). This report presents the analytical results of the neutronic characteristics of the coupled moderator based on the analytical results obtained by using an integrated model which has established on the extensive neutronic and technical study. Total heat deposition in a hydrogen (H 2 ) moderator working as the main moderator was about 420 W/MW. Maximum nuclear heat density in the H 2 moderator was about 1 W/cm 3 /MW. Also total heat deposition in a premoderator was about 9.2 kW/MW. The heat density of the premoderator was comparable to that of the moderator vessel made of aluminum alloy. The heat density of the premoderator and the moderator vessel is about 1.2-2 times higher than that of the hydrogen moderator. The temperature from 300 K to 400 K of the premoderator did not affect on neutron intensity of the H 2 moderator. This suggested an engineering advantage on the thermal and hydraulic design. 6000 or 7000 type of a aluminum alloy was considered from the viewpoint of the neutron beam transmission. The proton beams scattered by the proton beam window did not affect on the nuclear heating in the H 2 moderator. The heat deposition in the H 2 moderator and the neutron intensity of the H 2 moderator did not depend on the proton beam profile but it did on the distance between the proton beam and the moderator. (author)
Truckenmiller, James L.
The former HEW (Health, Education, and Welfare) National Strategy for Youth Development Model proposed a community-based program to promote positive youth development and to prevent delinquency through a sequence of youth needs assessments, needs-targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. HEW Community Program Impact Scales data obtained…
Li, Xin; Gammelgaard, Jens
– The OLI and the UIP models fail to include corporate entrepreneurship and managerial psychology in their analyses. We suggest that regulatory focus theory unifies the managerial strategic choice between position logic and opportunity logic. In addition, host country institutions affect this managerial......Purpose – This paper aims to critically review the ownership, location and internalization (OLI) model and the Uppsala internationalization process (UIP) framework. We suggest that the inclusion of concepts such as corporate entrepreneurship, host country institutions and regulatory focus...... in an integrated framework helps to explain firm internationalization. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on a review of the literature on the OLI and UIP models. In addition, it presents a conceptual model that encompasses corporate entrepreneurship, regulatory focus and institutions. Findings...
Wang, Xueying; Walton, Jay R; Parshad, Rana D
The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we develop a Markov jump process model for this strategy, and we verify that there is a positive probability for wild-type females going extinct within a finite time. Moreover, when sex-reversed Trojan females are introduced at a constant population size, we formulate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model as an approximation to the proposed Markov jump process model. Using the SDE model, we investigate the probability distribution and expectation of the extinction time of wild-type females by solving Kolmogorov equations associated with these statistics. The results indicate how the probability distribution and expectation of the extinction time are shaped by the initial conditions and the model parameters.
Nopens, I.; Benedetti, L.; Jeppsson, U.
The COST/IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 1 (BSM1) has been available for almost a decade. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of activated sludge processes. The fact that the research work related to the benchmark simulation models has resulted...... in more than 300 publications worldwide demonstrates the interest in and need of such tools within the research community. Recent efforts within the IWA Task Group on “Benchmarking of control strategies for WWTPs” have focused on an extension of the benchmark simulation model. This extension aims...... be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one week BSM1 evaluation period. In this paper, the finalised plant layout is summarised and, as was done for BSM1, a default control strategy is proposed. A demonstration of how BSM2 can be used to evaluate control strategies is also given....
The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix
Shariati, Mohammad Mahdi; Sørensen, D.
The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy provides remarkable flexibility for fitting complex hierarchical models. However, when parameters are highly correlated in their posterior distributions and their number is large, a particular MCMC algorithm may perform poorly and the resulting...... in the low correlation scenario where SG was the best strategy. The two LH proposals could not compete with any of the Gibbs sampling algorithms. In this study it was not possible to find an MCMC strategy that performs optimally across the range of target distributions and across all possible values...
Ibo van de Poel
Full Text Available Responsible research and innovation (RRI has become an important topic in the academic community and in policy circles, but it has not yet been systematically included in the innovation process of companies. We discuss how companies can integrate RRI into their corporate social responsibility (CSR policies and business strategy. To this end, we developed a conceptual model that links a company’s RRI strategy to its context, and that helps to translate the RRI strategy into activities that result in RRI outcomes. We also propose a process for developing company-specific RRI key performance indicators (KPIs that can support companies to measure RRI outcomes.
Phytoplankton models and life history strategies. ... Chaetoceros bloom of the growth season usually starts in mid March, initiated by C. socialis. ... in some species, inoculation events are controlled by endogenous biological clocks.
M.B.A. The motor industry in South Africa, (SA), is experiencing a period of turmoil that will result in its complete restructure. The globalisation of the industry and the involvement of government with the Motor Industry Development Programme, (MIDP), is forcing the development of strategies that are formulated to equip the local manufacturers to become globally competitive. The MIDP has had a major influence on the development of the industry since 1994, as it has allowed the entrance o...
Morris, Arden M
Although the capacity for integrated research and potential for translating research findings to the clinical setting have never been stronger, we are paradoxically entering a period of highly constrained funding. It is more important than ever for clinician scientists and young researchers to be strategic in the approach to funding. The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for a successful approach to appropriate grant funding agencies.
Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.
Bagi, Cedo M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Andresen, Catharine J. [Global Science & Technology, PGRD, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)
The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients.
Full Text Available The conservation and valorization of Cultural Heritage require an extensive documentation, both in properly historic-artistic terms and regarding the physical characteristics of position, shape, color, and geometry. With the use of digital photogrammetry that make acquisition of overlapping images for 3D photo modeling and with the development of dense and accurate 3D point models, it is possible to obtain high-resolution orthoprojections of surfaces.Recent years have seen a growing interest in crowdsourcing that holds in the field of the protection and dissemination of cultural heritage, in parallel there is an increasing awareness for contributing the generation of digital models with the immense wealth of images available on the web which are useful for documentation heritage.In this way, the availability and ease the automation of SfM (Structure from Motion algorithm enables the generation of digital models of the built heritage, which can be inserted positively in crowdsourcing processes. In fact, non-expert users can handle the technology in the process of acquisition, which today is one of the fundamental points to involve the wider public to the cultural heritage protection. To present the image based models and their derivatives that can be made from a great digital resource; the current approach is useful for the little-known heritage or not easily accessible buildings as an emblematic case study that was selected. It is the Vank Cathedral in Isfahan in Iran: the availability of accurate point clouds and reliable orthophotos are very convenient since the building of the Safavid epoch (cent. XVII-XVIII completely frescoed with the internal surfaces, which the architecture and especially the architectural decoration reach their peak.The experimental part of the paper explores also some aspects of usability of the digital output from the image based modeling methods. The availability of orthophotos allows and facilitates the iconographic
Shay, M.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Omberg, R.P.
A model was developed at HEDL to specifically analyze proliferation resistant strategies. The model was not designed to predict the future, but rather to provide a method for estimating the consequences of decisions affecting proliferation resistance in a rational and plausible manner. The characteristics of the model are described
The Texas High-Speed Rail (HSR) is an unprecedented US project proposed by a private company. This project has many uncertainties because it will be funded only by the private sectors and it is the first US HSR project using foreign technology. The H...
Globalization together with new information and communication technologies (ICTs) and accelerated changes in society affect the economic and social life to a great extent. In order to achieve the goals mentioned in the strategy document, the necessary arrangements were made and FATIH (Increasing the opportunities and Technology Improvement…
Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.
An important question for mathematics teachers is this: "How can we help students learn mathematics to solve everyday problems, rather than teaching them only to memorize rules and practice mathematical procedures?" Teaching students using modeling activities can help them learn mathematics in real-world problem-solving situations that…
KTH Royal Institute of Technology was founded in 1827 and it is the largest technical university in Sweden with five campuses and Around 15,000 students. KTH-dESA combines an outstanding knowledge in the field of energy systems analysis. This is demonstrated by the successful collaborations with many (UN) organizations. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa include Assessing renewable energy potentials; Analysing investment strategies; ) Assessing climate resilience; Comparing electrification options; Providing web-based decision support; and Quantifying energy access. It is conclude that Strategies required to ensure a robust and flexible energy system (-> no-regret choices); Capacity investments should be in line with national & regional strategies; Climate change important to consider, as it may strongly influence the energy flows in a region; Long-term models can help identify robust energy investment strategies and pathways that Can help assess future markets and profitability of individual projects
Franx, Gerdien; Dixon, Lisa; Wensing, Michel; Pincus, Harold
Extensive research exists that collaborative primary care-mental health models can improve care and outcomes for patients. These programs are currently being implemented throughout the United States and beyond. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and to generate an overview of strategies currently used to implement such models in daily practice. Six overlapping strategies to implement collaborative primary care-mental health models were described in 18 selected studies. We identified interactive educational strategies, quality improvement change processes, technological support tools, stakeholder engagement in the design and execution of implementation plans, organizational changes in terms of expanding the task of nurses and financial strategies such as additional collaboration fees and pay for performance incentives. Considering the overwhelming evidence about the effectiveness of primary care-mental health models, there is a lack of good studies focusing on their implementation strategies. In practice, these strategies are multifaceted and locally defined, as a result of intensive and required stakeholder engagement. Although many barriers still exist, the implementation of collaborative models could have a chance to succeed in the United States, where new service delivery and payment models, such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home and the Accountable Care Organization, are being promoted.
Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.
Rosenfeld, Leslie; Chao, Yi; Signell, Richard P.
Numerical modeling is vital to achieving the U.S. IOOS® goals of predicting, understanding and adapting to change in the ocean and Great Lakes. In the next decade IOOS should cultivate a holistic approach to coastal ocean prediction, and encourage more balanced investment among the observing, modeling and information management subsystems. We believe the vision of a prediction framework driven by observations, and leveraging advanced technology and understanding of the ocean and Great Lakes, would lead to a new era for IOOS that would not only produce more powerful information, but would also capture broad community support, particularly from the general public, thus allowing IOOS to develop into the comprehensive information system that was envisioned at the outset.
Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm
by leading newspapers. More specifically, we review how changes introduced during the on-going development of digital platforms have affected the dominant business model and its key components at the leading newspaper industry players in Denmark, and whether those changes have improved their situation......The newspaper industry is presently under pressure in at least two important ways. First, their previous business models, based on paper-based newspapers, subscription fees and sales of advertising space are threatened by new internet-based technologies. Second, the hitherto monopoly held...... by the traditional profession behind the production of news – the journalists – is challenged by the emergence of new social movements providing fast and free news, often available directly in the making. This paper discusses the emergence of online publication of news and associated innovation activities undertaken...
Uyar, A.; Ulugtekin, N. N.
In recent years, 3D models have been created of many cities around the world. Most of the 3D city models have been introduced as completely graphic or geometric models, and the semantic and topographic aspects of the models have been neglected. In order to use 3D city models beyond the task, a generalization is necessary. CityGML is an open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models. Level of Details (LoD) which is an important concept for 3D modelling, can be defined as outlined degree or prior representation of real-world objects. The paper aim is first describes some requirements of 3D model generalization, then presents problems and approaches that have been developed in recent years. In conclude the paper will be a summary and outlook on problems and future work.
Yamiley Cañizares Espinosa
Full Text Available You offer an original article; they summarize of an investigation on the formation and professional development of the educational one in third year of the Mathematics-physical career of the University of Pedagogic Sciences Felix Beaches her Morales of Villa Clara, Cuba. Their objective resided in: to carry out a proposal for the achievement of the strategic knowledge in these students, since the knowledge: personal, of the task, and strategic, they facilitate the development of the processes metacognitivos, which will guarantee the exercise of their profession. He/she was carried out a historical-logical study of the learning of twenty-nine students, a documental analysis of their student trajectory; they underwent to: observations, studies of the result of their work, and you interview. The possibility you were verified their car-knowledge as well as of the knowledge of the task until approving the exams; and the necessity of a proposal was detected that it develops the strategic knowledge. The theoretical budgets of this proposal offer work presently.
Niemeier, Brandi S; Chapp, Christopher B; Henley, Whitney B
Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their positions of support and opposition and to inform the development of effective messaging strategies. In January 2012, 1,266 undergraduate students from a midwestern university completed an online questionnaire about smoke-free campus policies. Responses were coded and analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and chi-square, independent-samples t tests, and binary logistic models. Most students who supported a smoke-free policy considered environmental or aesthetic conditions, whereas most opponents used personal freedom frames of thought. Supporters viewed smoking policies in personal terms, and opponents suggested means-ends policy reasoning. Taken together, points of reference and emotions about proposed policies provided insight about participants' perspectives to help inform effective policy advocacy efforts.
Lund, H.; Hvelplund, F.; Ingermann, K.; Kask, U.
Since the Soviet era Estonia inherited oil-shale-based electricity plants, with a capacity of 3000 MW. Oil shale now provides Estonia with very low electricity prices. However, most of the stations are very old. Half of them were built before 1965, and sooner or later the old oil shale production units will have to be replaced. Estonia will then have to face serious increases in electricity production prices. At the same time Estonia has problems in restoring its district heating systems. The prices are rising and may consumers have converted to other heating sources such as electric heating. The major long-term strategic policy choices to make in Estonia are to decide (1) whether the oil shale power stations should be replaced by new centralized production units such as new oil shale stations or nuclear power, or (2) whether the electricity production should be decentralized. In the centralized solution (oil shale or nuclear power), the domestic heating will be left to boilers or electric heating leading to a very high primary energy supply. In the decentralized solution, Estonia could benefit from the advantage of cogeneration leading to very low fuel consumption. But this latter strategy depends on the restoration of the district heating systems. This article seeks to form a strategy to improve the efficiency of the Estonian energy system by increasing the use of cogeneration. (author)
Galagali, Nikhil; Marzouk, Youssef M.
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Bayesian inference provides a natural framework for combining experimental data with prior knowledge to develop chemical kinetic models and quantify the associated uncertainties, not only in parameter values but also in model
Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S
The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.
Kyle Stephen Smith
Full Text Available Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look ‘under the hood’ of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits.
Full Text Available This paper presents a new standardized data format named Fire Markup Language (FireML, extended by the Geography Markup Language (GML of OGC, to elaborate upon the fire hazard model. The proposed FireML is able to standardize the input and output documents of a fire model for effectively communicating with different disaster management systems to ensure a good interoperability. To demonstrate the usage of FireML and testify its feasibility, an adopted forest fire spread model being compatible with FireML is described. And a 3DGIS disaster management system is developed to simulate the dynamic procedure of forest fire spread with the defined FireML documents. The proposed approach will enlighten ones who work on other disaster models' standardization work.
Jiang, W.; Wang, F.; Meng, Q.; Li, Z.; Liu, B.; Zheng, X.
This paper presents a new standardized data format named Fire Markup Language (FireML), extended by the Geography Markup Language (GML) of OGC, to elaborate upon the fire hazard model. The proposed FireML is able to standardize the input and output documents of a fire model for effectively communicating with different disaster management systems to ensure a good interoperability. To demonstrate the usage of FireML and testify its feasibility, an adopted forest fire spread model being compatible with FireML is described. And a 3DGIS disaster management system is developed to simulate the dynamic procedure of forest fire spread with the defined FireML documents. The proposed approach will enlighten ones who work on other disaster models' standardization work.
Deane, Richard P; Murphy, Deirdre J
Medical students face many challenges when learning within clinical environments. How students plan to use their time and engage with learning opportunities is therefore critical, as it may be possible to highlight strategies that optimize the learning experience at an early stage in the rotation. The aim of the study was to describe the learning drivers and proposed learning strategies of medical students for a clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology. A descriptive study of personal learning plans completed by students at the start of their clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology was undertaken. Data relating to students' learning strategies were obtained from the personal learning plans completed by students. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used. The desire to obtain a good examination result was the most significant reason why the rotation was important to students (n=67/71, 94%). Students struggled to create a specific and practical learning outcome relevant to their career interest. Target scores of students were significantly higher than their reported typical scores (Plearning resource during the rotation. Bedside tutorials were rated as likely to be the most useful learning activity and small group learning activities were rated as likely to be more useful than lectures. Most students intended to study the course material linked to their clinical program rather than the classroom-based tutorial program. The main learning driver for medical students was academic achievement, and the proposed learning strategy favored by medical students was linking their study plans to clinical activities. Medical educators should consider strategies that foster more intrinsic drivers of student learning and more student-oriented learning resources and activities.
Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo
For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.
De Nunzio , Giovanni; Thibault , Laurent; Sciarretta , Antonio
International audience; A novel eco-routing navigation strategy and energy consumption modeling approach for electric vehicles are presented in this work. Speed fluctuations and road network infrastructure have a large impact on vehicular energy consumption. Neglecting these effects may lead to large errors in eco-routing navigation, which could trivially select the route with the lowest average speed. We propose an energy consumption model that considers both accelerations and impact of the ...
Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yi, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Tao; Leng, Jun-Qiang
Signalized intersection has great roles in urban traffic system. The signal infrastructure and the driving behavior near the intersection are paramount factors that have significant impacts on traffic flow and energy consumption. In this paper, a speed guidance strategy is introduced into a car-following model to study the driving behavior and the fuel consumption in a single-lane road with multiple signalized intersections. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can reduce the fuel consumption and the average stop times. The findings provide insightful guidance for the eco-driving strategies near the signalized intersections.
Fabiola Guadalupe Arriaga-López
Full Text Available The initial objective of this research was to know the different problems that small businesses face in the municipality of Arandas in order to survive in a competitive and changing market; a convenient sample was selected that fulfilled the characteristics in Mexico as "small business". It is important to point out that most of the companies aligned to the small business criteria have similarities in terms of their administration, constitution, financing and decision management; hence the importance and relevance to describe uncertainties currently exhibited. General strategies were designed to guide small businesses to solve problems currently present, these were analyzed and focused from their positive and negative aspects, creating opportunity areas; for this, the SWOT technique was used, which allows to identify the internal and external factors that affect the performance of the organizations, using their strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats from a group perspective.
Kent, T.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.
An approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion- exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location. 4 refs., 4 figs
Kent, T.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.
This paper reports on an approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which has been developed and that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion-exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location
Zhou, Ming-Yang; Xiong, Wen-Man; Liao, Hao; Wang, Tong; Wei, Zong-Wen; Fu, Zhong-Qian
Devising effective strategies for hindering the propagation of viruses and protecting the population against epidemics is critical for public security and health. Despite a number of studies based on the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model devoted to this topic, we still lack a general framework to compare different immunization strategies in completely random networks. Here, we address this problem by suggesting a novel method based on heterogeneous mean-field theory for the SIS model. Our method builds the relationship between the thresholds and different immunization strategies in completely random networks. Besides, we provide an analytical argument that the targeted large-degree strategy achieves the best performance in random networks with arbitrary degree distribution. Moreover, the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in both artificial and real-world networks.
Following the outspoken advice saying 'scientists and engineers concerning with nuclear power promotion and safety should be responsible for clarifying how preventable or what measures should be needed to prevent severe accidents occurring at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants (NPPs)', committee on prevention of severe accidents at NPPs was established by relevant nuclear scientists and engineers involved so as to discuss basic issues to be solved from scientific and technical viewpoints. Based on the review of 'defense in depth' concept and accident analysis at Fukushima nuclear accident, four major proposals and six supplements to be established were identified such as: (1) finding mechanism of beyond imagination events for natural disaster, terrorism, and internal events, (2) reform of comprehensive safety standards and guidelines with performance basis easy to reflect latest knowledge and technology as 'back-fitting', (3) severe accidents measures, their validation, and drilling on accident management to advance procedures and develop human resources, and (4) risk communications and public disclosure of information. This article described backgrounds of committee's proposals on nuclear safety for no-more severe accidents. (T. Tanaka)
Bärenfänger, Rieke; Otto, Boris
Business models comprehensively describe the functioning of businesses in contemporary economic, technological, and societal environments. This paper focuses on the characteristics of digital business models from the perspective of capability research and develops a capability model for digital businesses. Following the design science research (DSR) methodology, multiple evaluation and design iterations were performed. Contributions to the design process came from IS/IT practice and the resea...
Jack D. Glazier
Full Text Available This article is the vehicle for purposing a model for mapping the processual change associated with disciplinary and paradigmatic development. Change of this sort is contingent on the degree of consistency achieved within theory groups. Consistency, in this case, is equated theory and paradigm dominance. The symbolic interactionist tradition supplies the assumptions on which the model is grounded. Examination of the model is accomplished by contrasting it with Thomas Kuhn’s theory. The recent history of library and information science education in the U.S. serves as context and exemplar for application of the model
Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Johansen, John; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum
that the EEA model can be used in global organizations to differentiate environmental efforts depending on the maturity stage of the individual sites. Furthermore, the model can be used to support the decision-making process regarding when organizations should embark on more complex environmental efforts......This paper presents an Environmental Excellence Self-Assessment (EEA) model based on the structure of the European Foundation of Quality Management Business Excellence Framework. Four theoretical scenarios for deploying the model are presented as well as managerial implications, suggesting...
Bocken, N.M.P.; de Pauw, I.C.; Bakker, C.A.; van der Grinten, B.
The transition within business from a linear to a circular economy brings with it a range of practical challenges for companies. The following question is addressed: What are the product design and business model strategies for
companies that want to move to a circular economy model? This paper
Mauricio Emboaba Moreira
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983 industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s (1996 sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place. A system of points and weights is developed to create a score among the 904,736 possible combinations considered. The model’s outputs are generic expansion strategies with quantitative assessments for each specific combination of elements inputted. Originality and value: The analytical model developed is original because it combines for the first time and explicitly elements of the general environment, industry environment, airline business models and the generic expansion strategy types. Besides it creates a system of scores that may be used to drive the decision process toward the choice of a specific strategic expansion path. Research implications: The analytical model may be adapted to other industries apart from the airline industry by substituting the element “airline business model” by other industries corresponding elements related to the different specific business models.
A biologically updated dose-response model is presented as an alternative to the linear-quadratic model currently in use for cancer risk assessment. The new model is based on the probability functions for misrepair and/or unrepair of DNA lesions, in terms of the radiation damage production rate in the cell (supposedly, a stem cell) and its repair-rate constant. The model makes use, interpreting it on the basis of misrepair probabilities, of the ''dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor'' of ICRP, and provides the way for a continuous extrapolation between the high and low dose-rate regions, ratifying the ''linear non-threshold hypothesis'' as the main option. Anyhow, the model throws some doubts about the additive property of the dose. (author)
Ma, K.; Thomassey, S.; Zeng, X.
In this paper we proposed a central order processing system under resource sharing strategy for demand-driven garment supply chains to increase supply chain performances. We examined this system by using simulation technology. Simulation results showed that significant improvement in various performance indicators was obtained in new collaborative model with proposed system.
Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy
The ubiquity of online social networks makes the study of social influence extremely significant for its applications to marketing, politics and security. Maximizing the spread of influence by strategically selecting nodes as initiators of a new opinion or trend is a challenging problem. We study the performance of various strategies for selection of large fractions of initiators on a classical social influence model, the Threshold model (TM). Under the TM, a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. The strategies we study are of two kinds: strategies based solely on the initial network structure (Degree-rank, Dominating Sets, PageRank etc.) and strategies that take into account the change of the states of the nodes during the evolution of the cascade, e.g. the greedy algorithm. We find that the performance of these strategies depends largely on both the network structure properties, e.g. the assortativity, and the distribution of the thresholds assigned to the nodes. We conclude that the optimal strategy needs to combine the network specifics and the model specific parameters to identify the most influential spreaders. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, and ONR.
Barr, Andrew M
.... Employing a unit of analysis of the U.S. Army healthcare system and utilizing research by Wennberg and the Institute of Medicine, a model describing healthcare quality in terms of unwarranted practice variation and healthcare outcomes...
two statistical parameters namely; linear regression coefficient of correlation (R2) and ... Keynotes: Heavy metals, Biosorption, Kinetics Models, Comparative analysis, Average Relative Error. 1. ... If the flow rate is low, a simple manual batch.
Process simulation applications require the exchange of significant amounts of data between the flowsheet environment, unit operation model, and thermodynamic server. Packing and unpacking various data types and exchanging data using structured text-based architectures, including...
Holland, Marika [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bailey, David A [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .
Laines Canepa, José Ramón; Zequeira Larios, Carolina; Valadez Treviño, Maria Elena Macías; Garduza Sánchez, Diana Ivett
State parks are highly sensitive areas of great natural importance and tourism value. Herein a case study involving a basic survey of solid waste which was carried out in 2006 in Agua Blanca State Park, Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico with two sampling periods representing the high and low tourist season is presented. The survey had five objectives: to find out the number of visitors in the different seasons, to consider the daily generation of solid waste from tourist activities, to determine bulk density, to select and quantify sub-products; and to suggest a possible treatment. A daily average of 368 people visited the park: 18,862 people in 14 days during the high season holiday (in just one day, Easter Sunday, up to 4425 visitors) and 2092 visitors in 43 days during the low season. The average weight of the generated solid waste was 61.267 kg day(-1) and the generated solid waste average per person was 0.155 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). During the high season, the average increased to 0.188 kg person(-1 ) day(-1) and during the low season, the average decreased to 0.144 kg person(-1 ) day(-1). The bulk density average was 75.014 kg m(-3), the maximum value was 92.472 kg m(-3) and the minimum was 68.274 kg m(-3). The sub-products comprised 54.52% inorganic matter; 32.03% organic matter, 10.60% non-recyclable and 2.85% others. Based on these results, waste management strategies such as reuse/recycling, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, the construction of a manual landfill and the employment of a specialist firm were suggested.
Boyer, Nathan; Gupta, Rajesh; Schevchuck, Alex; Hindnavis, Vindhya; Maliske, Seth; Sheldon, Mark; Drachman, Douglas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem
Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon clinical finding, with an incidence varying from 1.5%-4.9% in adults, and is usually considered a variant of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAA identified in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a unique management challenge, particularly if the morphology of the CAA is suspected to have provoked the acute clinical syndrome. CAA is associated with thrombus formation due to abnormal laminar flow, as well as abnormal platelet and endothelial-derived pathophysiologic factors within the CAA. Once formed, mural thrombus may potentiate the deposition of additional thrombus within aneurysmal segments. Percutaneous revascularization of CAA has been associated with complications including distal embolization of thrombus, no-reflow phenomenon, stent malapposition, dissection, and rupture. Presently, there are no formal guidelines to direct the management of CAA in patients presenting with ACS; controversies exist whether conservative, surgical, or catheter-based management should be pursued. In this manuscript, we present an extensive review of the existing literature and associated clinical guidelines, and propose a management algorithm for patients with this complex clinical scenario. Armed with this perspective, therapeutic decisions may be tailored to synthesize patient factors and preferences, individualized clinical assessment, and existing American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of ACS.
Andi Oktoriyana; Ujang Sumarwan; Hartoyo Hartoyo
This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected...
Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)
The Strategy Guideline describes how to model and interpret results of models for above grade walls. The Measure Guideline analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Warme Und Feuchte Instationar) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.
Jaenisch, G.-R.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Tabary, J.; Duvauchelle, Ph.
Code Validation is a permanent concern in computer modelling, and has been addressed repeatedly in eddy current and ultrasonic modeling. A good benchmark problem is sufficiently simple to be taken into account by various codes without strong requirements on geometry representation capabilities, focuses on few or even a single aspect of the problem at hand to facilitate interpretation and to avoid that compound errors compensate themselves, yields a quantitative result and is experimentally accessible. In this paper we attempt to address code validation for one aspect of radiographic modeling, the scattered radiation prediction. Many NDT applications can not neglect scattered radiation, and the scatter calculation thus is important to faithfully simulate the inspection situation. Our benchmark problem covers the wall thickness range of 10 to 50 mm for single wall inspections, with energies ranging from 100 to 500 keV in the first stage, and up to 1 MeV with wall thicknesses up to 70 mm in the extended stage. A simple plate geometry is sufficient for this purpose, and the scatter data is compared on a photon level, without a film model, which allows for comparisons with reference codes like MCNP. We compare results of three Monte Carlo codes (McRay, Sindbad and Moderato) as well as an analytical first order scattering code (VXI), and confront them to results obtained with MCNP. The comparison with an analytical scatter model provides insights into the application domain where this kind of approach can successfully replace Monte-Carlo calculations.
of the size of the burden of these reductions and how the financial burden is shared, ultimately Danish citizens will pay for the total efforts. Therefore, the way we deal with this challenge is crucial. An overall climate strategy should be based on cost-effective initiatives. (au)
Full Text Available Augustinus Laude,1–3 Jimmy WK Lim,1,2 Vishwanath Srinagesh,4 Louis Tong2,5–7 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, 3Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 4Krieger Eye Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Singapore National Eye Centre, 6Duke NUS Medical School, 7Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents has become a commonly used treatment method for a number of ophthalmic conditions, including age-related macular degeneration. Although anti-VEGF therapy has shown promising results for many patients, there are several aspects of its application that have not been thoroughly investigated. One of these is the development and/or escalation of concurrent dry eye syndrome. Many patients undergoing treatment are already predisposed to dry eye disease due to their age and overall ocular health. As dry eye can have a substantial impact on quality of life, it has become increasingly apparent that the clinical signs and symptoms should be closely monitored and aggressively managed. This will allow for the optimization of patient comfort and visual potential. Here, we discuss the reasons why dry eye may develop during the course of repeated ocular anti-VEGF therapy, highlighting the key concerns about current practices and proposing possible solutions to improve the outcome for the patients. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, povidone–iodine, toxicity, ocular health, chronic ophthalmic treatment
Matzen, Detlef; Tan, Adrian; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
very blurred and ill defined. This paper will try to identify the fundamental characteristics of PSS and propose a system of concepts that can be used to describe and discuss the phenomenon, for the purpose of developing new PSS solutions. Coming from a tradition of product development research......Over recent years a growing number of studies and research programmes have been conducted on the issue of product/service-systems (PSS) [1, 2] and results have been presented at this row of symposia [3, 4]. These studies usually analyse the potential of integrated solutions to reduce...... the environmental impacts of human consumption activity or optimise a company’s ability to cope with the influences arising from the emerging globalisation of economic and business activities. Since there has not been worked on a coherent terminology for the terms and concepts used in PSS research, the area remains...
Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang
Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.
E L Van Dyk
Full Text Available Africa is a continent with severe trauma. Traumatic events include experiences of child soldiers, people living in war and conflict zones, and people struggling with the HIV/AIDS pandemic. These events cause high levels of trauma. The trauma causes psychological disorders like post traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder and combat stress reaction, specific in the military environment. This article focuses on a better understanding of the implications of trauma for military people and civilians. It discusses the different theories and models of psychological debriefing. Lastly the article discusses psychological debriefing models for military forces and the civil ian population to prevent severe psychopathology after traumatic incidents in Africa.
Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M
Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.
Saebi, Tina; Foss, Nicolai Juul
-This is the author's version of the article:"Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions", European Management Journal, Volume 33, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages 201–213 Research on open innovation suggests that companies benefit differentially from adopting open innovation strategies; however, it is unclear why this is so. One possible explanation is that companies' business models are not attuned to open strategies. Ac...
Jourian, T. J.
Higher education educators commonly understand social identities, including gender, to be fluid and dynamic. Lev's (2004) model of four components of sexual identity is commonly used to demonstrate the fluidity of sex, gender, and sexuality for individuals, but it does little to address the fixedness of those constructs. Through a multipronged…
Jacobson, Trudi E.; Mackey, Thomas P.
Metaliteracy is envisioned as a comprehensive model for information literacy to advance critical thinking and reflection in social media, open learning settings, and online communities. At this critical time in higher education, an expansion of the original definition of information literacy is required to include the interactive production and…
Puhr-Westerheide, P.; Sandbaek, H.
The present paper deals with some aspects of plant control and monitoring systems as used in nuclear power plants. These aspects concern executable net models to run on computers. A short survey on the nets' environment and on some net scan strategies is given. Among the strategies are the 'topologically ordered scan' and the 'signal propagation scan'. A combined method 'topologically ordered signal propagation (TOSIP) scan' will be outlined as well as a net model data structure that allows the definition of subsystems for the use of clear structuration and dischargement to distributed systems. (author)
Oleksowicz, Selim A.; Burnham, Keith J.; Southgate, Adam; McCoy, Chris; Waite, Gary; Hardwick, Graham; Harrington, Cian; McMurran, Ross
appropriate for examination of the regenerative braking mode according to ADSS. The manoeuvres are also important for investigation of regenerative braking system properties/functionalities that are specified by the legal requirements concerning H/EVs braking systems. The last part of this paper shows simulation results for one of the proposed manoeuvres that explicitly shows the usefulness of the manoeuvre.
Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.
A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented
Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia; Li, Xin
. We adopt the frame of complementary Yin-Yang elements and Zhong Yong balance to explain the time bound interaction between these opposing yet complementary strategy-making mechanisms where tradeoffs and synergies are balanced across hierarchical levels. The model outlines how the interaction between......The organizational capacity to cope with unexpected changes remains a fundamental challenge in strategy as global competition and technological innovation increase environmental uncertainty. Whereas conventional strategy-making often is conceived as a sequential linear process, we see it as a non......-linear interaction between top-down and bottom-up mechanisms dealing with multiple actions taken throughout the organization over time. It is driven by intension but with a flexible balance between centralized (planned) and decentralized (spontaneous) activities where strategy formulation and implementation interact...
Costello, Gabriel J.; Coughlan, Chris; Donnellan, Brian; Gadatsch, Andreas
The central thesis of this chapter is that mathematical economics can provide a novel approach to the examination of offshoring business decisions and provide an impetus for future research in the area. A growing body of research indicates that projected cost savings from IT offshoring projects are not being met. Furthermore, evidence suggests that decision-making processes have been more emotional than rational, and that many offshoring arrangements have been rushed into without adequate analysis of the true costs involved. Building on the concept of mindfulness and mindlessness introduced to the IS literature by Swanson and Ramiller, a cost equation is developed using “deductive reasoning rather than inductive study” in the tradition of mathematical economics. The model endeavours to capture a wide range of both the quantitative and qualitative parameters. Although the economic model is illustrated against the background of a European scenario, the theoretical framework is generic and applicable to organisations in any global location.
Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de
To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.
Shyr, L.J.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.
Models for material disposition and dosimetry involve predictions of the biokinetics of the material among compartments representing organs and tissues in the body. Because of a lack of human data for most toxicants, many of the basic data are derived by modeling the results obtained from studies using laboratory animals. Such a biomathematical model is usually developed by adjusting the model parameters to make the model predictions match the measured retention and excretion data visually. The fitting process can be very time-consuming for a complicated model, and visual model selections may be subjective and easily biased by the scale or the data used. Due to the development of computerized optimization methods, manual fitting could benefit from an automated process. However, for a complicated model, an automated process without an optimization strategy will not be efficient, and may not produce fruitful results. In this paper, procedures for, and implementation of, an optimization strategy for a complicated mathematical model is demonstrated by optimizing a biokinetic model for 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled by beagle dogs. The optimized results using SimuSolv were compared to manual fitting results obtained previously using the model simulation software GASP. Also, statistical criteria provided by SimuSolv, such as likelihood function values, were used to help or verify visual model selections
Wix, S.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.
Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in large fires. However, convection can be as much as 10 to 20 percent of the total heat transfer to an object in a large fire. The current radioactive material transportation packaging regulations include convection as a mode of heat transfer in the accident condition scenario. The current International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series 6 packaging regulation states ''the convection coefficient shall be that value which the designer can justify if the package were exposed to the specified fire''. The current Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) packaging regulation states ''when significant, convection heat input must be included on the basis of still, ambient air at 800 degrees C (1475 degrees F)''. Two questions that can arise in an analysts mind from an examination of the packaging regulations is whether convection is significant and whether convection should be included in the design analysis of a radioactive materials transportation container. The objective of this study is to examine the convective effects on an actual radioactive materials transportation package using a regulatory and a proposed thermal boundary condition
Levine, Ariel J.; Brivanlou, Ali H.
How does the vertebrate embryo make a nervous system? This complex question has been at the center of developmental biology for many years. The earliest step in this process – the induction of neural tissue – is intimately linked to patterning of the entire early embryo, and the molecular and embryological basis these processes are beginning to emerge. Here, we analyze classic and cutting-edge findings on neural induction in the mouse. We find that data from genetics, tissue explants, tissue grafting, and molecular marker expression support a coherent framework for mammalian neural induction. In this model, the gastrula organizer of the mouse embryo inhibits BMP signaling to allow neural tissue to form as a default fate – in the absence of instructive signals. The first neural tissue induced is anterior and subsequent neural tissue is posteriorized to form the midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. The anterior visceral endoderm protects the pre-specified anterior neural fate from similar posteriorization, allowing formation of forebrain. This model is very similar to the default model of neural induction in the frog, thus bridging the evolutionary gap between amphibians and mammals. PMID:17585896
Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.
This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form....... By regarding the nominal control system as the desired model, an augmented control system is constructed through the model-matching formulation, such that the current robust control techniques can be usedto synthesize these dynamical modules. One extension of this method with respect to the performance...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...
Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Tan, Yuanshun
Highlights: • We develop novel host-parasitoid models with impulsive control strategy. • The effects of key parameters on the successful control have been addressed. • The complex dynamics and related biological significance are investigated. • The results between two types of host-parasitoid models have been discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose and analyse two type host–parasitoid models with integrated pest management (IPM) interventions as impulsive control strategies. For fixed pulsed model, the threshold condition for the global stability of the host-eradication periodic solution is provided, and the effects of key parameters including the impulsive period, proportionate killing rate, instantaneous search rate, releasing constant, survival rate and the proportionate release rate on the threshold condition are discussed. Then latin hypercube sampling /partial rank correlation coefficients are used to carry out sensitivity analyses to determine the significance of each parameters. Further, bifurcation analyses are presented and the results show that coexistence of attractors existed for a wide range of parameters, and the switch-like transitions among these attractors indicate that varying dosages and frequencies of insecticide applications and numbers of parasitoid released are crucial for IPM strategy. For unfixed pulsed model, the results show that this model exists very complex dynamics and the host population can be controlled below ET, and it implies that the modelling methods are helpful for improving optimal strategies to design appropriate IPM.
Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro
A local and gauge invariant gauge field model including Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) and QCD Lagrangian terms in its action is introduced. Surprisingly, it becomes power counting renormalizable. This occurs thanks to the presence of action terms which modify the quark propagators, to become more decreasing that the Dirac one at large momenta in a Lee-Wick form, implying power counting renormalizability. The appearance of finite quark masses already in the tree approximation in the scheme is determined by the fact that the new action terms explicitly break chiral invariance. In this starting work we present the renormalized Feynman diagram expansion of the model and derive the formula for the degree of divergence of the diagrams. An explanation for the usual exclusion of the added Lagrangian terms is presented. In addition, the primitíve divergent graphs are identified. We start their evaluation by calculating the simpler contribution to the gluon polarization operator. The divergent and finite parts both result transverse as required by gauge invariance. The full evaluation of the various primitive divergences, which are required for completely defining the counterterm Feynman expansion will be considered in coming works, for further allowing to discuss the flavour symmetry breaking and unitarity.
Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing
Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.
One major limitation of current cognitive architectures is that models are typically constructed in an “empty” architecture, and that the knowledge specifications (typically production rules) are specific to the particular task. This means that general cognitive control strategies have to be
Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem Celal
In the present study, three dimensional (3D) numerical modeling strategies of a thermosetting pultrusion process are investigated considering both transient and steady state approaches. For the transient solution, an unconditionally stable alternating direction implicit Douglas-Gunn (ADI-DG) sche...
Sloff, C.J.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Heynert, K.V.; Mohamed, Y.A.
Appropriate operation strategies that allow for sediment flushing and sluicing (sediment routing) can reduce rapid storage losses of (hydropower and water-supply) reservoirs. In this study we have shown, using field observations and computational models, that the efficiency of these operations
Hunger, Stephen P; Sung, Lillian; Howard, Scott C
Cure rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are 80-85% in high-income countries (HICs) in North America and Western Europe. However, cure rates are much lower in many low-income countries (LICs), where most cases of ALL occur. Over the past several decades partnerships ("twinning") between HIC and LIC pediatric oncology programs have led to major improvements in outcome for children with ALL in some LICs, often by developing time and resource intensive relationships that allow LIC centers to treat children with regimens similar or identical to those used in HICs. However, the resources are not available in most LICs to allow immediate introduction of intensive ALL treatment regimens similar to those used in HICs. With these thoughts in mind, we present a proposal for a systematic and graduated approach to ALL diagnosis, risk classification, and treatment in LICs. We have based the strategy and the proposed regimens on those developed by the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and Children's Oncology Group (COG) over the past several decades, beginning with a first level regimen similar to CCG therapy of the early 1980s and then layering on successive treatment intensifications proven effective in randomized clinical trials. Simple monitoring rules are included to help centers decide when they are ready to add new treatment components. This proposal provides a framework that LIC centers can use to provide effective ALL therapy, particularly in regions of the world where few children are currently being cured. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Jeppsson, Ulf; Rosen, Christian; Alex, Jens
The COST/IWA benchmark simulation model has been available for seven years. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of activated sludge processes. The fact that the benchmark has resulted in more than 100 publications, not only in Europe but also...... worldwide, demonstrates the interest in such a tool within the research community In this paper, an extension of the benchmark simulation model no 1 (BSM1) is proposed. This extension aims at facilitating control strategy development and performance evaluation at a plant-wide level and, consequently...... the changes, the evaluation period has been extended to one year. A prolonged evaluation period allows for long-term control strategies to be assessed and enables the use of control handles that cannot be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one-week BSM1 evaluation period. In the paper, the extended plant...
Full Text Available By simulating the geomagnetic fields and analyzing thevariation of intensities, this paper presents a model for calculating the objective function ofan Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUVgeomagnetic navigation task. By investigating the biologically inspired strategies, the AUV successfullyreachesthe destination duringgeomagnetic navigation without using the priori geomagnetic map. Similar to the pattern of a flatworm, the proposed algorithm relies on a motion pattern to trigger a local searching strategy by detecting the real-time geomagnetic intensity. An adapted strategy is then implemented, which is biased on the specific target. The results show thereliabilityandeffectivenessofthe proposed algorithm.
Full Text Available Customer’s trust is the most important and one of the key factors of success in e-commerce. However, trust is the essential aspects of e-banking adoption and the main element for building long-term relationships with the bank's customers. So the purpose of this research is to investigate the factors influencing on customer′s trust in e-banking services and prioritize them. Therefore, designed questionnaire was distributed among 177 electronic service customers in number of banks in the city of Karaj, Iran. Likert quintuplet scales were used to measure the variables. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (by using LISREL 8.5. The results revealed that quality of electronic services such as ease of use, privacy and security, individual characteristics of customers such as disposition to trust and features of bank such as reputation, size and dependence on government, have had the greatest effect on customer′s trust in e-banking services.
Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc
One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model, proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b), which suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategy has been supported by several recent studies. These have shown that statistical reasoners make inferences based on using information about premises in order to generate a likelihood estimate of conclusion probability. However, while results concerning counterexample reasoners are consistent with a counterexample detection model, these results could equally be interpreted as indicating a greater sensitivity to logical form. In order to distinguish these 2 interpretations, in Studies 1 and 2, we presented reasoners with Modus ponens (MP) inferences with statistical information about premise strength and in Studies 3 and 4, naturalistic MP inferences with premises having many disabling conditions. Statistical reasoners accepted the MP inference more often than counterexample reasoners in Studies 1 and 2, while the opposite pattern was observed in Studies 3 and 4. Results show that these strategies must be defined in terms of information processing, with no clear relations to "logical" reasoning. These results have additional implications for the underlying debate about the nature of human reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the system expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the duration of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strategy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.
Korshunov, G. I.; Petrushevskaya, A. A.; Lipatnikov, V. A.; Smirnova, M. S.
The strategy of quality of electronics insurance is represented as most important. To provide quality, the processes sequence is considered and modeled by Markov chain. The improvement is distinguished by simple database means of design for manufacturing for future step-by-step development. Phased automation of design and digital manufacturing electronics is supposed. The MatLab modelling results showed effectiveness increase. New tools and software should be more effective. The primary digital model is proposed to represent product in the processes sequence from several processes till the whole life circle.
Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel
A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...
Dede, Ayse Tekin
The purpose of the study is to reveal the elementary mathematics student teachers' difficulties encountered in the solution of a modelling problem, the strategies to overcome those difficulties and whether the strategies worked or not. Nineteen student teachers solved the modelling problem in their four or five-person groups, and the video records…
Gholinezhad, Hadi; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali
This paper develops a new model for redundancy allocation problem. In this paper, like many recent papers, the choice of the redundancy strategy is considered as a decision variable. But, in our model each subsystem can exploit both active and cold-standby strategies simultaneously. Moreover, the model allows for component mixing such that components of different types may be used in each subsystem. The problem, therefore, boils down to determining the types of components, redundancy levels, and number of active and cold-standby units of each type for each subsystem to maximize system reliability by considering such constraints as available budget, weight, and space. Since RAP belongs to the NP-hard class of optimization problems, a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for solving the problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying it to a well-known test problem from the literature with relatively satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A new model for the redundancy allocation problem in series–parallel systems is proposed. • The redundancy strategy of each subsystem is considered as a decision variable and can be active, cold-standby or mixed. • Component mixing is allowed, in other words components of any subsystem can be non-identical. • A genetic algorithm is developed for solving the problem. • Computational experiments demonstrate that the new model leads to interesting results.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between the elements of the Eight "S" model that affect strategic implementation and results achieved by companies. The main research question, to which the author sought an answer, was whether there was a relationship between individual elements that affect strategy implementation and the effects it brings in revenue growth. The survey covered 200 of the best-ranked Polish companies (where revenues constituted one of the ranking criteria where the level of strategic implementation was considered satisfactory. Testing of the research hypotheses has shown that the factors defined as Resources and Shared Values have a minor impact on the strategy implementation. The research also has shown that there is an additional element that could be incorporated into the model - the system of informal communication. In addition, the paper describes the interrelations between elements of the model.
Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha
Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.
Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.
Aldrich, D.C.; Bayer, A.; Schueckler, M.
To account for hourly wind direction changes, a wind shift model has been proposed. Using hourly recorded wind speed and direction data, the model modifies the angular distribution of radionuclide concentrations calculated by a straightline model, and is intended to better represent the concentrations in areas close to the reactor where potential doses might exceed the threshold level for early fatalities. 115 weather sequences were used, both with and without the proposed wind shift model, to calculate probability distributions for early fatalities. The use of the proposed model results in a reduction of the mean and peak values of that distribution by 36% and 29%, respectively. (orig./HP) [de
Hu, Jun; Dong, Huiyu; Xu, Qiang; Ling, Wencui; Qu, Jiuhui; Qiang, Zhimin
Switch of source water may induce "red water" episodes. This study investigated the impacts of water quality on iron release, dissolved oxygen consumption (ΔDO), corrosion scale evolution and bacterial community succession in cast iron pipes used for drinking water distribution at pilot scale, and proposed a source water switch strategy accordingly. Three sets of old cast iron pipe section (named BP, SP and GP) were excavated on site and assembled in a test base, which had historically transported blended water, surface water and groundwater, respectively. Results indicate that an increasing Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration accelerated iron release, but alkalinity and calcium hardness exhibited an opposite tendency. Disinfectant shift from free chlorine to monochloramine slightly inhibited iron release, while the impact of peroxymonosulfate depended on the source water historically transported in the test pipes. The ΔDO was highly consistent with iron release in all three pipe systems. The mass ratio of magnetite to goethite in the corrosion scales of SP was higher than those of BP and GP and kept almost unchanged over the whole operation period. Siderite and calcite formation confirmed that an increasing alkalinity and hardness inhibited iron release. Iron-reducing bacteria decreased in the BP but increased in the SP and GP; meanwhile, sulfur-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing and iron oxidizing bacteria increased in all three pipe systems. To avoid the occurrence of "red water", a source water switch strategy was proposed based on the difference between local and foreign water qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carolina Belotti Pedroso
Full Text Available Abstract A successful S&OP implementation can bring many benefits to organizations, and after its implementation, the S&OP process can evolve and reach higher levels of maturity. Considering that, only through a measurement system, goals and benefits can be achieved, thus, it is essential to assess S&OP maturity level. Many papers on literature adopt a quantitative perspective on S&OP, but just few of them deal with uncertainty present in S&OP decision-making, such as maturity model assessment process that carries subjectivity and uncertainty. Thus, this study proposes a decision making model based on fuzzy theory to evaluate and to categorize S&OP maturity levels and to suggest strategies to increase S&OP maturity. A pilot application was conducted in two manufacturing organizations that have implemented the S&OP process. The results, according to the performance presented, suggest different actions must be taken in terms of ensuring enablers to S&OP implementation.
Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)
The Strategy Guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy's research team Building Science Corporation, 1) describes how to model and interpret results of models for above-grade walls, and 2) analyzes the failure thresholds and criteria for above-grade walls. A library of above-grade walls with historically successful performance was used to calibrate WUFI (Wärme und Feuchte instationär) software models. The information is generalized for application to a broad population of houses within the limits of existing experience.
Duong, Veasna; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ong, Sivuth; Mey, Channa; Choeung, Rithy; Ly, Sowath; Bourhy, Hervé; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe
The diagnosis of dog-mediated rabies in humans and animals has greatly benefited from technical advances in the laboratory setting. Approaches to diagnosis now include the detection of rabies virus (RABV), RABV RNA, or RABV antigens. These assays are important tools in the current efforts aimed at the global elimination of dog-mediated rabies. The assays available for use in laboratories are reviewed herein, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, which vary with the types of sample analyzed. Depending on the setting, however, the public health objectives and use of RABV diagnosis in the field will also vary. In non-endemic settings, the detection of all introduced or emergent animal or human cases justifies exhaustive testing. In dog RABV-endemic settings, such as rural areas of developing countries where most cases occur, the availability of or access to testing may be severely constrained. Thus, these issues are also discussed along with a proposed strategy to prioritize testing while access to rabies testing in the resource-poor, highly endemic setting is improved. As the epidemiological situation of rabies in a country evolves, the strategy should shift from that of an endemic setting to one more suitable for a decreased rabies incidence following the implementation of efficient control measures and when nearing the target of dog-mediated rabies elimination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji keefektifan pembelajaran CORE (Connect, Organize, Reflect, Extend pada pembelajaran geometri transformasi dengan strategi pengelompokan yang berbeda ditinjau dari kemampuan penalaran, prestasi, dan self efficacy. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan populasi siswa kelas XI IPA SMA yang baru pertama kali mempelajari materi geometri transformasi. Sampel penelitian sebanyak dua kelas masing-masing terdiri atas 40 siswa. Siswa belajar dengan dikelompokkan secara berpasangan atau kelompok kecil. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik tes dan nontes serta dianalisis dengan teknik statistik deskriptif dan inferensial (Manova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran CORE strategi berpasangan maupun kelompok kecil efektif ditinjau dari Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimum kemampuan penalaran, prestasi dan self efficacy yang ditetapkan, tetapi tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan di antara kedua strategi pengelompokan tersebut. Repeated measures analysis of variance menunjukkan bahwa kompleksitas materi pembelajaran memengaruhi prestasi belajar secara signifikan. Semakin kompleks materi pembelajaran, penggunaan strategi kelompok kecil lebih baik daripada berpasangan. Kata kunci: CORE, kemampuan penalaran, prestasi belajar, self efficacy THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DYAD STRATEGY DURING MATHEMATICS LEARNING BASED ON CORE MODEL Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of an instruction, namely CORE (Connect, Organize, Reflect, Extend model, for learning geometry transformation in different grouping strategies (by dyads and small-group work, in terms of reasoning ability, achievement, and self-efficacy. This study was a quasi-experimental research with the entire population of science 11th graders who were novices in geometry transformation. The research samples were two classes which respectively consist of 40 students. Students learned all material either in dyads or small
Logistic regression is one of the most commonly used models to account for confounders in medical literature. The article introduces how to perform purposeful selection model building strategy with R. I stress on the use of likelihood ratio test to see whether deleting a variable will have significant impact on model fit. A deleted variable should also be checked for whether it is an important adjustment of remaining covariates. Interaction should be checked to disentangle complex relationship between covariates and their synergistic effect on response variable. Model should be checked for the goodness-of-fit (GOF). In other words, how the fitted model reflects the real data. Hosmer-Lemeshow GOF test is the most widely used for logistic regression model.
Yoshimura, Seiichi; Takano, Kenichi; Sasou, Kunihide
It is necessary to analyze an operator's thinking process and a operator team's intension forming process for preventing human errors in a highly advanced huge system like a nuclear power plant. Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry is promoting a research project to establish human error prevention countermeasures by modeling the thinking and intension forming process. The important is the future prediction and the cause identification when abnormal situations occur in a nuclear power plant. The concept of Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) seems to be effective as an operator's mental model which performs the future prediction and the cause identification. MFM is a concept which qualitatively describes the plant functions by energy and mass flows and also describes the plant status by breaking down the targets in a hierarchical manner which a plant should achieve. In this paper, an operator's mental model using the concept of MFM was proposed and a nuclear power plant diagnosis support system using MFM was developed. The system evaluation test by personnel who have operational experience in nuclear power plants revealed that MFM was superior in the future prediction and the cause identification to a traditional nuclear power plant status display system which used mimics and trends. MFM proved to be useful as an operator's mental model by the test. (author)
Tilahun, Getachew Teshome; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel; Malonza, David
We propose and analyze a compartmental nonlinear deterministic mathematical model for the typhoid fever outbreak and optimal control strategies in a community with varying population. The model is studied qualitatively using stability theory of differential equations and the basic reproductive number that represents the epidemic indicator is obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the next-generation matrix. Both local and global asymptotic stability conditions for disease-free and endemic equilibria are determined. The model exhibits a forward transcritical bifurcation and the sensitivity analysis is performed. The optimal control problem is designed by applying Pontryagin maximum principle with three control strategies, namely, the prevention strategy through sanitation, proper hygiene, and vaccination; the treatment strategy through application of appropriate medicine; and the screening of the carriers. The cost functional accounts for the cost involved in prevention, screening, and treatment together with the total number of the infected persons averted. Numerical results for the typhoid outbreak dynamics and its optimal control revealed that a combination of prevention and treatment is the best cost-effective strategy to eradicate the disease.
Huang Gongsheng; Wang Shengwei; Xu Xinhua
This paper presents a robust model predictive control strategy for improving the supply air temperature control of air-handling units by dealing with the associated uncertainties and constraints directly. This strategy uses a first-order plus time-delay model with uncertain time-delay and system gain to describe air-conditioning process of an air-handling unit usually operating at various weather conditions. The uncertainties of the time-delay and system gain, which imply the nonlinearities and the variable dynamic characteristics, are formulated using an uncertainty polytope. Based on this uncertainty formulation, an offline LMI-based robust model predictive control algorithm is employed to design a robust controller for air-handling units which can guarantee a good robustness subject to uncertainties and constraints. The proposed robust strategy is evaluated in a dynamic simulation environment of a variable air volume air-conditioning system in various operation conditions by comparing with a conventional PI control strategy. The robustness analysis of both strategies under different weather conditions is also presented.
Garg, Naveen, E-mail: email@example.com [Apex Level Standards and Industrial Metrology Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Mechanical, Production and Industrial Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Maji, Sagar [Department of Mechanical, Production and Industrial Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India)
The paper presents an exhaustive comparison of principal traffic noise models adopted in recent years in developed nations. The comparison is drawn on the basis of technical attributes including source modelling and sound propagation algorithms. Although the characterization of source in terms of rolling and propulsion noise in conjunction with advanced numerical methods for sound propagation has significantly reduced the uncertainty in traffic noise predictions, the approach followed is quite complex and requires specialized mathematical skills for predictions which is sometimes quite cumbersome for town planners. Also, it is sometimes difficult to follow the best approach when a variety of solutions have been proposed. This paper critically reviews all these aspects pertaining to the recent models developed and adapted in some countries and also discusses the strategies followed and implications of these models. - Highlights: • Principal traffic noise models developed are reviewed. • Sound propagation algorithms used in traffic noise models are compared. • Implications of models are discussed.
Klanchui, Amornpan; Raethong, Nachon; Prommeenate, Peerada; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Meechai, Asawin
Cyanobacteria, the phototrophic microorganisms, have attracted much attention recently as a promising source for environmentally sustainable biofuels production. However, barriers for commercial markets of cyanobacteria-based biofuels concern the economic feasibility. Miscellaneous strategies for improving the production performance of cyanobacteria have thus been developed. Among these, the simple ad hoc strategies resulting in failure to optimize fully cell growth coupled with desired product yield are explored. With the advancement of genomics and systems biology, a new paradigm toward systems metabolic engineering has been recognized. In particular, a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction and modeling is a crucial systems-based tool for whole-cell-wide investigation and prediction. In this review, the cyanobacterial genome-scale metabolic models, which offer a system-level understanding of cyanobacterial metabolism, are described. The main process of metabolic network reconstruction and modeling of cyanobacteria are summarized. Strategies and developments on genome-scale network and modeling through the systems metabolic engineering approach are advanced and employed for efficient cyanobacterial-based biofuels production.
Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel
The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The
Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)
The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be
Lin, Cheng; Cheng, Xingqun
Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention.
Both active safety and fuel economy are important issues for vehicles. This paper focuses on a traction control strategy with an efficiency model in a distributed driving electric vehicle. In emergency situation, a sliding mode control algorithm was employed to achieve antislip control through keeping the wheels' slip ratios below 20%. For general longitudinal driving cases, an efficiency model aiming at improving the fuel economy was built through an offline optimization stream within the two-dimensional design space composed of the acceleration pedal signal and the vehicle speed. The sliding mode control strategy for the joint roads and the efficiency model for the typical drive cycles were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed driving control approach has the potential to apply to different road surfaces. It keeps the wheels' slip ratios within the stable zone and improves the fuel economy on the premise of tracking the driver's intention. PMID:25197697
M. A. Taghikhani
Full Text Available In this paper, a new control strategy is proposed for a three-phase squirrel-cage self-excited induction generator (SEIG connected to a variable speed wind turbine in autonomous mode. In order to improve the dynamic performance of the mentioned vector control system, a model reference adaptive controller is used for online rotor time constant estimation. Thus, the main drawbacks of this method, which include the effects of the changes in machine parameters on rotor flux estimation, slip speed, the creation of instability problems and the system leaving vector control mode, are resolved. In this control strategy, a PI controller is used to control the dc voltage and three similar hysteresis current controllers (HCC are used to control the switching of IGBTs. The results of the dynamic simulation indicate the desirable performance of the proposed system.
Aguir, H.; Chamekh, A.; BelHadjSalah, H.; Hambli, R.
This paper deals with the identification of material parameters using an inverse strategy. In the classical methods, the inverse technique is generally coupled with a finite element code which leads to a long computing time. In this work an inverse strategy coupled with an ANN procedure is proposed. This method has the advantage of being faster than the classical one. To validate this approach an experimental plane tensile and bulge tests are used in order to identify material behavior. The ANN model is trained from finite element simulations of the two tests. In order to reduce the gap between the experimental responses and the numerical ones, the proposed method is coupled with an optimization procedure to identify material parameters for the AISI304. The identified material parameters are the hardening curve and the anisotropic coefficients
Shope, Richard Edwin, III
, participatory demonstration, active inquiry, and metacognitive dialogue. Each strategy evokes expression of what students know prior to instruction, yielding different levels of useful information. These findings guided the construction of a proposed taxonomy of diagnostic teaching strategies to gauge students' personal science conceptions. This may be useful to guide future research and professional development of science teaching practice.
HASSAN H. EKAL
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs applications are increasing rapidly, thanks to their broad potential in ecological monitoring, biomedical health monitoring, data gathering and many others. Imbalance energy of sensors causes significant reduction in the lifetime of the network. In many-to-one communication (corona WSNs, sensor nodes located nearby the data collector (sink forward data sensed data received from other nodes, hence, having heavier workloads. These nodes consume more energy than the others, leading to quicker energy depletion.Consequently, this results in energy hole problem, where the network becomes separate islands, which affect the lifetime of the network negatively. When this situation occurs, the sensed data will not be forwarded to the intended sink; accordingly, the network will not be able to completely fulfil its required tasks. In this paper, an effective sensors placement strategy is proposed to avoid or alleviate energy hole problem in such type of WSNs. The proposed strategy aims to improve, scale, and balance the energy consumption among sensor nodes and to maximize the network lifetime, by sustaining the network coverage and connectivity. To achieve this aim, the number of sensors should be optimized to create sub-balanced coronas in the sense of energy consumption, while satisfying the network coverage and connectivity requirements. The theoretical design and modelling of the proposed sensors placement strategy promise a considerable improvement in the lifetime of corona-based networks. The Experimental evaluation results have shown that the proposed sensors placement strategy is capable to increase the network lifetime considerably compared to conventional uniform strategy.
Dong, Yinghui; Wang, Guojing; Yuen, Kam C.
In this paper, we consider the renewal risk process under a threshold dividend payment strategy. For this model, the expected discounted dividend payments and the Gerber-Shiu expected discounted penalty function are investigated. Integral equations, integro-differential equations and some closed form expressions for them are derived. When the claims are exponentially distributed, it is verified that the expected penalty of the deficit at ruin is proportional to the ruin probability.
Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John
As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate
Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)
As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.
C. Asri Budiningsih
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keefektifan model Pembelajaran Dilema Moral, Kontemplasi, dan Strategi Kooperatif. Penelitian tindakan kelas dilakukan di Prodi Teknologi Pendidikan FIP-UNY. Subjek penelitian 37 orang mahasiswa. Tindakan dilakukan dalam dua siklus masing-masing terdiri atas empat kali tatap muka. Data tentang proses pembelajaran, kerjasama mahasiswa, situasi yang berpengaruh terhadap upaya peningkatan kualitas pembelajaran, penalaran moral, dan keimanan mahasiswa, digali melalui pengamatan, tes penalaran moral yang diadaptasi dari Kohlberg, tes perkembangan iman yang diadaptasi dari Fowler, panduan kontemplasi, angket terbuka, dan cerita-cerita dilema moral. Analisis data dilakukan secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 model pembelajaran terintegrasi mampu meningkatkan penalaran moral, dan keimanan mahasiswa, sehingga tidak ada lagi penalaran moral responden yang berada pada tahap II, 24,3% meningkat dari tahap II ke tahap III, 32,43% meningkat dari tahap III ke tahap IV dan 2,7% meningkat dari tahap IV ke tahap V, 48,65% meningkat dari tahap III ke tahap IV, dan 5,4% meningkat dari tahap IV ke tahap V. Penggunaan strategi kooperatif membuat mahasiswa mampu melakukan kerjasama di dalam kelompok; 35,13% mahasiswa dalam kategori sangat baik, 56,76% dalam kategori baik, dan 8,1% dalam kategori sedang. Kata kunci : model pembelajaran dilema moral, kontemplasi, strategi kooperatif, penalaran moral, keimanan
Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Xiong, Binyu
Highlights: • A dynamic electro-thermal model is proposed for VRB with forced cooling. • The Foster network is adopted to model the battery cooling process. • Both the electrolyte temperature and terminal voltage can be accurately predicted. • The flow rate of electrolyte and coolant significantly impact battery performance. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the dynamic electro-thermal modeling for the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with forced cooling strategies. The Foster network is adopted to dynamically model the heat dissipation of VRB with heat exchangers. The parameters of Foster network are extracted by fitting the step response of it to the results of linearized CFD model. Then a complete electro-thermal model is proposed by coupling the heat generation model, Foster network and electrical model. Results show that the established model has nearly the same accuracy with the nonlinear CFD model in electrolyte temperature prediction but drastically improves the computational efficiency. The modeled terminal voltage is also benchmarked with the experimental data under different current densities. The electrolyte temperature is found to be significantly influenced by the flow rate of coolant. As compared, although the electrolyte flow rate has unremarkable impact on electrolyte temperature, its effect on system pressure drop and battery efficiency is significant. Increasing the electrolyte flow rate improves the coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency simultaneously but at the expense of higher pump power demanded. An optimal flow rate exists for each operating condition to maximize the system efficiency
Hu, Qiuping.; Rangaiah, G.P. [The National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Control of neutralization processes is very difficult due to nonlinear dynamics, different types of disturbances and modeling errors. The objective of the paper is to evaluate two strategies (augmented internal model control, AuIMC and adaptive internal model control, AdIMC) for enhancing pH control by nonlinear internal model control (NIMC). A NIMC controller is derived directly form input output linearization. The AuIMC is composed of NIMC and an additional loop through which the difference between the process and model outputs is fed back and added to the input of the controller. For the AdIMC, and adaptive law with two tuning parameters is proposed for estimating the unknown parameter. Both AuIMC and AdIMC are extensively tested via simulation for pH neutralization. The theoretical and simulation results show that both the proposed strategies can reduce the effect of modeling errors and disturbances, and thereby enhance the performance of NIMC for pH processes. (author)
Vaxevanou, Anthi Z.; Ferfeli, Maria V.; Damianos, Sakas P.
The present inquiring study aims at investigating the circumstances that prevail in the European Shipping Enterprises with special reference to the Greek ones. This investigation is held in order to explore the potential implementation of strategies so as to create a unique competitive advantage . The Shipping sector is composed of enterprises that are mainly activated in the following three areas: the passenger, the commercial and the naval. The main target is to create a dynamic simulation model which, with reference to the STAIR strategic model, will evaluate the strategic differential choice that some of the shipping enterprises have.
Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao
This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based...... evaluation criteria describing the cumulative and acute effects are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed set of models is capable of generating daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as describing the effect of rain events on wastewater characteristics. Two sets of case studies...
Rose, Kenneth A; Sable, Shaye; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon; Trexler, Joel C.; Graf, William L.; Reed, Denise J.
Large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration is increasing and is often controversial because of the economic costs involved, with the focus of the controversies gravitating to the modeling of fish responses. We present a scheme for best practices in selecting, implementing, interpreting, and reporting of fish modeling designed to assess the effects of restoration actions on fish populations and aquatic food webs. Previous best practice schemes that tended to be more general are summarized, and they form the foundation for our scheme that is specifically tailored for fish and restoration. We then present a 31-step scheme, with supporting text and narrative for each step, which goes from understanding how the results will be used through post-auditing to ensure the approach is used effectively in subsequent applications. We also describe 13 concepts that need to be considered in parallel to these best practice steps. Examples of these concepts include: life cycles and strategies; variability and uncertainty; nonequilibrium theory; biological, temporal, and spatial scaling; explicit versus implicit representation of processes; and model validation. These concepts are often not considered or not explicitly stated and casual treatment of them leads to mis-communication and mis-understandings, which in turn, often underlie the resulting controversies. We illustrate a subset of these steps, and their associated concepts, using the three case studies of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, the wetlands of coastal Louisiana, and the Everglades. Use of our proposed scheme will require investment of additional time and effort (and dollars) to be done effectively. We argue that such an investment is well worth it and will more than pay back in the long run in effective and efficient restoration actions and likely avoided controversies and legal proceedings.
Walsh, B.; Obersteiner, M.; Herrero, M.; Riahi, K.; Fritz, S.; van Vuuren, D.; Havlik, P.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity and inclusivity. Societies have largely responded to this call with siloed strategies capable of making progress on selected subsets of these goals. However, agendas crafted specifically to alleviate poverty, hunger, deforestation, biodiversity loss, or other ills may doom the SDG agenda, as policies and strategies designed to accomplish one or several goals can impede and in some cases reverse progress toward others at national, regional, and global levels. We adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand the basis for tradeoffs among environmental conservation initiatives (goals 13-15) and food prices (goal 2). We show that such tradeoffs are manifestations of policy-driven pressure in land (i.e. agricultural and environmental) systems. By reducing total land system pressure, Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP, goal 12) policies minimize tradeoffs and should therefore be regarded as necessary conditions for achieving multiple SDGs. SDG strategies constructed around SCP policies escape problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policymakers to negotiate tradeoffs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.
This work deals with sequential and batch-sequential evaluation strategies of real-valued functions under limited evaluation budget, using Gaussian process models. Optimal Stepwise Uncertainty Reduction (SUR) strategies are investigated for two different problems, motivated by real test cases in nuclear safety. First we consider the problem of identifying the excursion set above a given threshold T of a real-valued function f. Then we study the question of finding the set of 'safe controlled configurations', i.e. the set of controlled inputs where the function remains below T, whatever the value of some others non-controlled inputs. New SUR strategies are presented, together with efficient procedures and formulas to compute and use them in real world applications. The use of fast formulas to recalculate quickly the posterior mean or covariance function of a Gaussian process (referred to as the 'kriging update formulas') does not only provide substantial computational savings. It is also one of the key tools to derive closed form formulas enabling a practical use of computationally-intensive sampling strategies. A contribution in batch-sequential optimization (with the multi-points Expected Improvement) is also presented. (author)
Santiago Ferro Moreno
Full Text Available The strategic analysis of organizations is based on the internal and external environments, in order to identify positive and negative variables and factors. The interrelation and timing of these strategic forces are essential to create alternative solutions that tend to achieve the organizational objectives.The normative prospective has theorical and methodological foundations to create a desired future and from it, be able to identify impelling and restraining forces that have influence on the particular problematic situation (go from the current situation to a better one in a certain time.The aim of this article is to analyze on a strategic way a real case with a normative-prospective model that considers the temporal dynamics of the factors impact and variables in time allowing to suggest alternative solutions.Semi-structured interviews were performed with all the employees of this case and structured observations and workshops with the commercial and general management.In consequence, with the results, the desired, current and improved situations were built. Additionally, forces were identified classified and appreciated and lastly solutions were suggested. With the proposed prospective method, alternative solutions could be constructed in order to settle temporary organizational objectives. No constraints were found to use the current method in other cases.Keywords: Strategic forces, Normative prospective, Problematic situations, Strategies
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS aim to identify genetic variants related to diseases by examining the associations between phenotypes and hundreds of thousands of genotyped markers. Because many genes are potentially involved in common diseases and a large number of markers are analyzed, it is crucial to devise an effective strategy to identify truly associated variants that have individual and/or interactive effects, while controlling false positives at the desired level. Although a number of model selection methods have been proposed in the literature, including marginal search, exhaustive search, and forward search, their relative performance has only been evaluated through limited simulations due to the lack of an analytical approach to calculating the power of these methods. This article develops a novel statistical approach for power calculation, derives accurate formulas for the power of different model selection strategies, and then uses the formulas to evaluate and compare these strategies in genetic model spaces. In contrast to previous studies, our theoretical framework allows for random genotypes, correlations among test statistics, and a false-positive control based on GWAS practice. After the accuracy of our analytical results is validated through simulations, they are utilized to systematically evaluate and compare the performance of these strategies in a wide class of genetic models. For a specific genetic model, our results clearly reveal how different factors, such as effect size, allele frequency, and interaction, jointly affect the statistical power of each strategy. An example is provided for the application of our approach to empirical research. The statistical approach used in our derivations is general and can be employed to address the model selection problems in other random predictor settings. We have developed an R package markerSearchPower to implement our formulas, which can be downloaded from the
Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.
Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid
Mohanty, Rakesh; Bhoi, Seetaya; Tripathy, Sasmita
There are many existing well known cost models for the list accessing problem. The standard cost model developed by Sleator and Tarjan is most widely used. In this paper, we have made a comprehensive study of the existing cost models and proposed a new cost model for the list accessing problem. In our proposed cost model, for calculating the processing cost of request sequence using a singly linked list, we consider the access cost, matching cost and replacement cost. The cost of processing a...
Analysis of the selected business cases suggest a weak fit between the Yip model of a truly Global strategy ... like Coca-Cola in the beverage industry for effective implementation of a global strategy. ... Keywords: Global Strategy, Leadership.
Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos
In the past two decades, organizational culture literature has gained tremendous interest for both academic and practitioners. This is based not only on the suggestion that culture is related to performance, but also on the view that it is subject of direct managerial control and manipulation to the desired direction. In the present paper, we adopt Competing Values Framework (CVF) to operationalise organizational culture and Porter's typology to conceptualize business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Although simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, since there are so many considerations (not all well understood) involved, in the present study we developed a dynamic model to simulate the organizational culture and strategy effects on financial performance. Data obtained from a six-year survey in the banking sector of a European developing economy was used for the proposed dynamic model development.
Full Text Available This paper presents the proposed methodologies for the Six Sigma method and the TQM strategy as well as their application in practice in Macedonia. Although the philosophy of the total quality management (TQM is deeply involved in many industries and business areas of European and other countries it is insufficiently known and present in our country and other developing countries. The same applies to the Six Sigma approach of reducing the dispersion of a process and it is present in a small fraction in Macedonian companies. The results of the implementation have shown that the application of the Six Sigma approach does not refer to the number of defects per million opportunities but to the systematic and systemic lowering of the dispersion process. The operation and effect of the implementation of the six sigma method engages experts that receive a salary depending on the success of the Six Sigma program. On other hand the results of the application of the TQM methodology within the Macedonian companies will depend on the commitment of all employees and their motivation.
Helwig, Michael; Deason, Jonathan P.
Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), 75 percent of Light Duty Vehicle acquisitions by federal agencies must be Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs). EPAct's intent was to reduce United States reliance on oil imports, with federal agencies assuming a leadership role in acquiring AFVs and using alternative fuel in those AFVs. Executive Order (E.O.) 13149, issued in 2000, required federal agencies to reduce petroleum consumption 20 percent relative to a 1999 baseline and use alternative fuels the majority of the time in their AFVs by 2005. Most federal agencies met the EPAct 75 percent acquisition requirement in 2004, however, most will not achieve the petroleum reduction and alternative fuel use requirements. Frequently, federal agencies acquire the relatively expensive AFVs and then fuel those vehicles with gasoline. Besides wasting taxpayer dollars, this approach does not meet the intent of EPAct. It was surmised that federal agencies lack an objective, quantitative methodology for AFV acquisitions and Executive Order 13149 compliance. Several types of optimization models were constructed, using the United States Navy as a test case, for models focusing on EPAct and/or E.O. 13149 compliance. Results of a tiered set of models indicate there are efficiencies that federal agencies could take advantage of when developing EPAct and E.O. 13149 compliance strategies that are not currently being exploited
Maria Eugenia Guapacha Chamorro
Full Text Available This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language learning approach and task-based language teaching. Data were gathered through surveys, a focus group, students’ and teachers’ journals, language tests, and documentary analysis. Results evidenced that the students improved in speaking, writing, grammar, vocabulary and in their language learning strategies repertoire. As a conclusion, explicit strategy instruction in the proposed model resulted in a proper combination to improve learners’ language learning strategies and performance.
Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Soheil Street, Shirazi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: email@example.com
In this paper, minimum entropy algorithm for controlling chaos, is applied to a Cournot duopoly with different constant marginal costs, as a discrete-time dynamical system which shows chaotic behavior. The ME control is implemented through delayed feedback. It is assumed that the equations of the dynamical system are not known, so the feedback gain cannot be obtained analytically from the system equations. In the ME method the feedback gain is obtained adaptively in such a way that the entropy of the system converges to zero, hence a fixed point of the system will be stabilized. Application of the proposed method with different economic control strategies is numerically investigated. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the ME method for controlling chaos in economic systems with unknown equations.
The energy field has been dominated by 'hard' modelling approaches by researchers from engineering and economics discipline. The recent trend towards a more liberalised environment moves away from central planning to market-based resource allocation, leading to the creation and use of strategic tools, with much 'softer' specifications, in the 'system-thinking' tradition. This paper presents the use of system dynamics in a generalised way, to provide a platform for integrated energy analysis. Issues of modularity and policy evolution are important in the design of the modelling platform to facilitate its use, and reuse. Hence the concepts of a platform, rather than a model, has to be implemented in a coherent way if it is to provide sustained value for ongoing support to both government policy and corporate strategy. (author)
Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar
Energy harvesting is becoming a viable option for powering small wireless devices. Energy for data transmission is supplied by the nature, such that when a transmission is about to take place in an arbitrary instant, the amount of available energy is a random quantity. The arrived energy is stored...... in a battery and transmissions are interrupted if the battery runs out of energy. We address communication in slot-based energy harvesting systems, where the transmitter communicates with ON-OFF signaling: in each slot it can either choose to transmit (ON) or stay silent (OFF). Two different models...... strategies and compare the slot- with the frame-based model in the case of an errorless transmission channel. Additionally, for the slot-based model and channel with errors, we provide a new proof of the capacity achieved by the save-and-transmit scheme....
T A Ivanova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of six main models of customer behavior in contemporary society and the specific tasks of marketing departments of companies at today's stage of development. The given models take into consideration: motives for choosing a product, the degree of product awareness and independence of choice, the degree of customer satisfaction with the product, lines and possibilities of making an impact on customer choice through marketing and promotion stimulation. The author believes that these models may serve as a basis in the formation of effective marketing strategies, as they describe the customers in all the stages of their actions in the process of buying products, accumulating and analyzing the experience of using them.
Recent risk assessment guidance emphasizes consideration of mechanistic factors for influencing disposition of a toxicant. To incorporate mechanistic information into risk assessment, a suite of models is proposed for use in characterizing and quantifying dosimetry of toxic age...
Khan, S. A.
The paper presents the theoretical study of hydraulic jump in triangular channel section. Presuming the jump as one dimensional free shear layer with hydrostatic pressure distribution across it and using momentum equation, specific force equation is obtained. Using the specific force equation and eddy viscosity equation, analytical models for sequent depth, dimensionless profile, turbulent shear stress distribution and energy loss for various initial Froude numbers have been obtained. The proposed models for sequent depth and energy loss are also compared with the other developed models. The proposed energy loss model also provides the energy loss at any point along the jump, while this provision is not available in the models of other investigators. Newton-Raphson and Runge-Kutta methods are used for the solution of the proposed model. The outcome of this study can be used in the design of stilling basin floor and side walls on permeable foundations.
Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)
This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be
Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan
This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be
Lindberg, Kasper; Jensen, Christian D.
Wiki systems form a subclass of the more general Open Collaborative Authoring Systems, where content is created by a user community. The ability of anyone to edit the content is, at the same time, their strength and their weakness. Anyone can write documents that improve the value of the wiki-system......, but this also means that anyone can introduce errors into documents, either by accident or on purpose. A security model for wiki-style authoring systems, called the Secure Wiki Model, has previously been proposed to address this problem. This model is designed to prevent corruption of good quality documents......, by limiting updates, to such documents, to users who have demonstrated their ability to produce documents of similar or better quality. While this security model prevents all user from editing all documents, it does respect the wiki philosophy by allowing any author who has produced documents of a certain...
Anna, I. D.; Cahyadi, I.; Yakin, A.
Selection of marketing strategy is a prominent competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises business development. The selection process is is a multiple criteria decision-making problem, which includes evaluation of various attributes or criteria in a process of strategy formulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a model for the selection of a marketing strategy in Batik Madura industry. The current study proposes an integrated approach based on analytic network process (ANP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to determine the best strategy for Batik Madura marketing problems. Based on the results of group decision-making technique, this study selected fourteen criteria, including consistency, cost, trend following, customer loyalty, business volume, uniqueness manpower, customer numbers, promotion, branding, bussiness network, outlet location, credibility and the inovation as Batik Madura marketing strategy evaluation criteria. A survey questionnaire developed from literature review was distributed to a sample frame of Batik Madura SMEs in Pamekasan. In the decision procedure step, expert evaluators were asked to establish the decision matrix by comparing the marketing strategy alternatives under each of the individual criteria. Then, considerations obtained from ANP and TOPSIS methods were applied to build the specific criteria constraints and range of the launch strategy in the model. The model in this study demonstrates that, under current business situation, Straight-focus marketing strategy is the best marketing strategy for Batik Madura SMEs in Pamekasan.
Gonzalez, S.M. de; Uzcategui, R.; Brea, E.; Diaz, R.
MEGAS is a simulation model representing fundamental parameters of Corpoven's natural gas and NGL production, handling, processing, transportation and distribution systems in the Venezuelan mid-east, as well as its financial implications. Various strategies regarding development, prices, costs, new business opportunities, production scenarios, demand and energy policies can be evaluated through this model in order to determine, after analyzing the economics results, a set of strategies to follow in the mid and long term. MEGAS could be also used to make risk analysis studies, considering that probabilistic parameters and variables like gas quality, production, demand, plant shutdowns and others are to be represented by their distinctive function. It is possible to set up a probabilistic function for each economic indicator or operating variables with an appropriate experiment design. MEGAS is based on a dynamic simulation language, which facilitates both the real system components representation and the main variables statistical data accumulation. It also allows graphical representation of results and the simulation animation. Demand and price forecasts, new projects, costs and capabilities of the systems are some of the model input data. MEGAS should be considered as a tool that eases the strategic planning of the business, making it possible for the Corporation to foresee changes, both in the domestic and international market, to predict how these changes could affect its business affairs and to visualize different return scenarios
Sand, Kjell; Montard, Julien; Tremoen, Tord H.
This Technical Report is a product from the project Risk-Based Distribution System Asset Management (short: RISK DSAM) - Work Package 3 Risk exposure on company/strategic level. In the report a concept for portfolio distribution system asset management is presented. The approach comprises four main steps: 1. Decide the asset base. 2. Divide the asset base into relevant archetypes. 3. Develop or select relevant maintenance and reinvestment strategies for the different archetypes. 4. Estimate risks and costs for each archetype for the relevant strategies. For the different steps guidelines are given and a proposal for implementation of the concept is given in terms of a proposed IT system architecture.To evaluate the feasibility of such a concept, a prototype was developed in by using Visual Basic macros in Excel using real technical data from a small DSO. The experience from using the prototype shows that the concept is realistic. All assets are included and depending of the ambition of the risk analysis both simple simulation models and more advanced might be embedded. Presentations of the concept for a utility engineers have receive positive feedback indicating that the concept is regarded as a practical way to develop risk based asset management strategies for the asset fleet. It should be noted that the concept should be applied on a company strategic level and is thus not designed to be applied for a specific project or asset decisions. For this, more detailed models with area specific information, topology etc. are needed. (Author)
Bose, Jayakumar; Rengel, Zed
Adult learners are already involved in the process of self-regulation; hence, higher education institutions should focus on strengthening students' self-regulatory skills. Self-regulation can be facilitated through formative assessment. This paper proposes a model formative assessment strategy that would complement existing university teaching,…
Aldamiz-Echevarria, Covadonga; Aguirre-Garcia, Maria Soledad
analyze and propose a theoretical model that describes blood donor decisions to help staff working in blood banks (nurses and others) in their efforts to capture and retain donors. analysis of several studies on the motivations to give blood in Spain over the last six years, as well as past literature on the topic, the authors' experiences in the last 25 years in over 15 Non Governmental Organizations with different levels of responsibilities, their experiences as blood donors and the informal interviews developed during those 25 years. a model is proposed with different internal and external factors that influence blood donation, as well as the different stages of the decision-making process. the knowledge of the donation process permits the development of marketing strategies that help to increase donors and donations.
Herbert, Luke Thomas; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee
When designing safety critical systems there is a need for verification of safety properties while ensuring system operations have a specific performance profile. We present a novel application of model checking to derive execution strategies, sequences of decisions at workflow branch points...... which optimise a set of reward variables, while simultaneously observing constraints which encode any required safety properties and accounting for the underlying stochastic nature of the system. By evaluating quantitative properties of the generated adversaries we are able to construct an execution...
VICTOR EDWIN COLLAZOS
Full Text Available Enterprise Architecture (EA has gained importance in recent years, mainly for its concept of “alignment” between the strategic and operational levels of organizations. Such alignment occurs when Information Technology (IT is applied correctly and timely, working in synergy and harmony with strategy and the operation to achieve mutually their own goals and satisfy the organizational needs.Both the strategic and operational levels have standards that help model elements necessary to obtain desired results. In this sense, BMM and BPMN were selected because both have the support of OMG and they are fairly well known for modelling the strategic level and operational level, respectively. In addition, i* modeling goal can be used for reducing the gap between these two standards. This proposal may help both the high-level design of the information system and to the appropriate identification of the business processes that will support it.This paper presents a methodology for aligning strategy and the operation based on standards and heuristics. We have made a classification for elements of the models and, for some specific cases, an extension of the heuristics associated between them. This allows us to propose methodology, which uses above-mentioned standards and combines mappings, transformations and actions to be considered in the alignment process.
Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Marina Martinez, C.
Highlights: • A 7-degree-of-freedom model of hybrid electric vehicle with regenerative braking system is built. • A modified nonlinear model predictive control strategy is developed. • The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. • The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and hardware-in-loop tests. • Test results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. - Abstract: As one of the main working modes, the energy recovered with regenerative braking system provides an effective approach so as to greatly improve fuel economy of hybrid electric bus. However, it is still a challenging issue to ensure braking stability while maximizing braking energy recovery. To solve this problem, an efficient energy recovery control strategy is proposed based on the modified nonlinear model predictive control method. Firstly, combined with the characteristics of the compound braking process of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus, a 7 degrees of freedom model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics is built. Secondly, considering nonlinear characteristic of the vehicle model and the efficiency of regenerative braking system, the particle swarm optimization algorithm within the modified nonlinear model predictive control is adopted to optimize the torque distribution between regenerative braking system and pneumatic braking system at the wheels. So as to reduce the computational time of modified nonlinear model predictive control, a nearest point method is employed during the braking process. Finally, the simulation and hardware-in-loop test are carried out on road conditions with different tire–road adhesion coefficients, and the proposed control strategy is verified by comparing it with the conventional control method employed in the baseline vehicle controller. The simulation and hardware-in-loop test results show that the proposed strategy can ensure vehicle safety during emergency braking
Full Text Available Yearly, EU-28 conventional thermal generating plants reject a greater amount of energy than what ultimately is utilised by residential and commercial loads for heating and hot water. If this waste heat were to be used through district heating networks, given a previous energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in imported fossil fuels for heating. As a consequence, benefits in the form of an energy efficiency increase, an energy security improvement, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases would occur. Given that it is not expected for heat demand to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. However, to make this happen, some barriers that are far from being technological but are mostly institutional and financial need to be removed. The purpose of this review is to provide information on the potential of using waste heat from conventional thermal power plants (subsequently converted into cogeneration plants in district heating networks located in the EU-28. For this, a preliminary assessment is conducted in order to show an estimate of the cost of adopting an energy strategy in which district heating networks are a major player of the energy mix. From this assessment, it is possible to see that even though the energy strategy proposed in this paper, which is based on a dramatic increase in the joint use of district heating networks and cogeneration, is capital-intensive and would require an annual investment of roughly 300 billion euros, its adoption would result in a reduction of yearly fuel expenses in the order of 100 billion euros and a shortening of about 15% of the total final energy consumption, which makes it of paramount interest as an enabler of the legal basis of the “Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy” future enacted by the EU-28 Horizon 2020.
Full Text Available Aimed at resolving the issues of the imbalance of resources and workloads at data centers and the overhead together with the high cost of virtual machine (VM migrations, this paper proposes a new VM migration strategy which is based on the cloud model time series workload prediction algorithm. By setting the upper and lower workload bounds for host machines, forecasting the tendency of their subsequent workloads by creating a workload time series using the cloud model, and stipulating a general VM migration criterion workload-aware migration (WAM, the proposed strategy selects a source host machine, a destination host machine, and a VM on the source host machine carrying out the task of the VM migration. Experimental results and analyses show, through comparison with other peer research works, that the proposed method can effectively avoid VM migrations caused by momentary peak workload values, significantly lower the number of VM migrations, and dynamically reach and maintain a resource and workload balance for virtual machines promoting an improved utilization of resources in the entire data center.
Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues
Full Text Available Acquire and produce what is strictly necessary are the goals of the organizations, since they aim companies more competitive and thereby reducing production costs. The research method is applied in nature, with a qualitative and quantitative approach, in which the objective of the research will be: exploratory and descriptive, with technical procedures, divided into: bibliographic, documentary, survey and concluding with a case study. On this assumption the main objective of this research is to develop and analyze a mathematical model that minimizes costs and maximizes the postponement of stocks in a company in the pulp, paper and paper products. Having been found only four papers, two articles and two theses that deal with the issue of demand management, supply chain and inventory postponement. These studies address the issue by modeling the productive time of the supply chain. For production segments this research may enable development of management practices demand and production strategy, allowing cost reductions and productivity gains possible. With the development of the mathematical model could ever analyze the behavior of demand and its influence on the productive strategy, strategy formulation regarding the purchase of raw materials and finished product storage in the last four years the company's results for the proposed model.
In recent years, state based functional diagnostic systems have gained a growing attention among the model based diagnostic systems. They have been used to diagnose the new faults of the complex systems. On the other hand, a main point considered against it is its subjective, and the inability of reusing the knowledge gathered from one engineer by others. Different methods have been' suggested to solve these problems. In the same way, the suggested functional diagnostic system introduces the uses of Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) modeling strategy for the functional diagnostic systems. DMLD has proven its power as a good modeling strategy. It can model the functions of the system's components in terms of a set of defined primitives for the domain of applications. However, the suggested system can use the DMLD technique to model the small functions of the system according to the defined primitives of its domain. So, the modeling process of the system is relatively invariant from one modeler to another. Also, the functions defined can be reused by other users in the domain for solving different problems. Besides, it can deal with the complex system in a flexible manner. Thus, the proposed system can improve the performance of the state based functional diagnostic systems. It can be applied for a wide area of the complex systems. It has been applied for a fluid system as a case of the real-time systems. The suggested system has proved its success as a powerful practical state based functional diagnostic system
Hilbig, Benjamin E; Moshagen, Morten
Model comparisons are a vital tool for disentangling which of several strategies a decision maker may have used--that is, which cognitive processes may have governed observable choice behavior. However, previous methodological approaches have been limited to models (i.e., decision strategies) with deterministic choice rules. As such, psychologically plausible choice models--such as evidence-accumulation and connectionist models--that entail probabilistic choice predictions could not be considered appropriately. To overcome this limitation, we propose a generalization of Bröder and Schiffer's (Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 361-380, 2003) choice-based classification method, relying on (1) parametric order constraints in the multinomial processing tree framework to implement probabilistic models and (2) minimum description length for model comparison. The advantages of the generalized approach are demonstrated through recovery simulations and an experiment. In explaining previous methods and our generalization, we maintain a nontechnical focus--so as to provide a practical guide for comparing both deterministic and probabilistic choice models.
Full Text Available The paper studies multiresolution traffic flow simulation model of urban expressway. Firstly, compared with two-level hybrid model, three-level multiresolution hybrid model has been chosen. Then, multiresolution simulation framework and integration strategies are introduced. Thirdly, the paper proposes an urban expressway multiresolution traffic simulation model by asynchronous integration strategy based on Set Theory, which includes three submodels: macromodel, mesomodel, and micromodel. After that, the applicable conditions and derivation process of the three submodels are discussed in detail. In addition, in order to simulate and evaluate the multiresolution model, “simple simulation scenario” of North-South Elevated Expressway in Shanghai has been established. The simulation results showed the following. (1 Volume-density relationships of three submodels are unanimous with detector data. (2 When traffic density is high, macromodel has a high precision and smaller error and the dispersion of results is smaller. Compared with macromodel, simulation accuracies of micromodel and mesomodel are lower but errors are bigger. (3 Multiresolution model can simulate characteristics of traffic flow, capture traffic wave, and keep the consistency of traffic state transition. Finally, the results showed that the novel multiresolution model can have higher simulation accuracy and it is feasible and effective in the real traffic simulation scenario.
Hernandez, F.; Liang, X.
Probabilistic forecasts in the geosciences offer invaluable information by allowing to estimate the uncertainty of predicted conditions (including threats like floods and droughts). However, while forecast systems based on modern data assimilation algorithms are capable of producing multi-variate probability distributions of future conditions, the computational resources required to fully characterize the dependencies between the model's state variables render their applicability impractical for high-resolution cases. This occurs because of the quadratic space complexity of storing the covariance matrices that encode these dependencies and the cubic time complexity of performing inference operations with them. In this work we introduce two complementary strategies to reduce the size of the covariance matrices that are at the heart of Bayesian assimilation methods—like some variants of (ensemble) Kalman filters and of particle filters—and variational methods. The first strategy involves the optimized grouping of state variables by clustering individual cells of the model into "super-cells." A dynamic fuzzy clustering approach is used to take into account the states (e.g., soil moisture) and forcings (e.g., precipitation) of each cell at each time step. The second strategy consists in finding a compressed representation of the covariance matrix that still encodes the most relevant information but that can be more efficiently stored and processed. A learning and a belief-propagation inference algorithm are developed to take advantage of this modified low-rank representation. The two proposed strategies are incorporated into OPTIMISTS, a state-of-the-art hybrid Bayesian/variational data assimilation algorithm, and comparative streamflow forecasting tests are performed using two watersheds modeled with the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Contrasts are made between the efficiency gains and forecast accuracy losses of each strategy used in
Sreeramana Aithal; Suresh Kumar P. M.; Shailashree V. T.
Strategic planning and decision making has an important role in organizational development and sustainability. Various types of strategies are used in strategic management such as Red ocean strategy, Blue ocean strategy, Green ocean strategy and Purple ocean strategy. These strategies are used in organizations by top level executive managers for long term sustainability of organization and to face or avoid the competition. Based on organizational analysis, it is observed that some...
Zhou, Wenji; Zhu, Bing; Fuss, Sabine; Szolgayova, Jana; Obersteiner, Michael; Fei, Weiyang
The increasing pressure resulting from the need for CO 2 mitigation is in conflict with the predominance of coal in China's energy structure. A possible solution to this tension between climate change and fossil fuel consumption fact could be the introduction of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. However, high cost and other problems give rise to great uncertainty in R and D and popularization of carbon capture technology. This paper presents a real options model incorporating policy uncertainty described by carbon price scenarios (including stochasticity), allowing for possible technological change. This model is further used to determine the best strategy for investing in CCS technology in an uncertain environment in China and the effect of climate policy on the decision-making process of investment into carbon-saving technologies.
Cabello, Angels; Velasco, Marc; Escaler, Isabel
Floods, including flash floods and debris flow events, are one of the most important hazards in Europe regarding both economic and life loss. Moreover, changes in precipitation patterns and intensity are very likely to increase due to the observed and predicted global warming, rising the risk in areas that are already vulnerable to floods. Therefore, it is very important to carry out new strategies to improve flood protection, but it is also crucial to take into account historical data to identify high risk areas. The main objective of this paper is to show a comparative analysis of the flood risk management information compiled in four test-bed basins (Llobregat, Guadalhorce, Gardon d'Anduze and Linth basins) from three different European countries (Spain, France and Switzerland) and to identify which are the lessons learnt from their past experiences in order to propose future strategies on risk management. This work is part of the EU 7th FP project IMPRINTS which aims at reducing loss of life and economic damage through the improvement of the preparedness and the operational risk management of flash flood and debris flow (FF & DF) events. The methodology followed includes the following steps: o Specific survey on the effectivity of the implemented emergency plans and risk management procedures sent to the test-bed basin authorities that participate in the project o Analysis of the answers from the questionnaire and further research on their methodologies for risk evaluation o Compilation of available follow-up studies carried out after major flood events in the four test-bed basins analyzed o Collection of the lessons learnt through a comparative analysis of the previous information o Recommendations for future strategies on risk management based on lessons learnt and management gaps detected through the process As the Floods Directive (FD) already states, the flood risks associated to FF & DF events should be assessed through the elaboration of Flood Risk
Full Text Available The article concerns with the basic consumer segments. The consumer needs are analyzed in the article and the model of change in consumer behavior is created. The article proposes the recommendations on effective strategic actions in order to competitive capacity increase. It is determined that in low purchasing power conditions, focus on meeting the needs of loyal customer segments will allow companies to increase the competitiveness of the market supply. Adaptation of marketing strategy in low purchasing power conditions is a creative process in which success is based on the orientation of the changed consumption motives.
..., 2012 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics submitted an application for type certification for the model LMZ1M..., views, or arguments as they may desire. Commenters should identify the proposed design criteria on the... Lockheed Martin Aeronautics submitted an application for type certification for the model LMZ1M airship...
Lopatovska, Irene; Smiley, Bobby
Introduction: The paper proposes a model of information behaviour in crisis. No previous model has attempted to integrate information resources, information behaviour and needs of the storm-affected communities within the temporal stages of a natural disaster. Method: The study was designed as autoethnography. The data were collected through a…
Full Text Available -1 2nd International Workshop on Ontologies and Conceptual Modeling (Onto.Com 2013), Valencia, Spain, 17-21 June 2013 Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal Giovanni Casini1 and Alessandro Mosca2 1...
Othman, Mahfudzah; Othman, Muhaini
This paper discusses the proposed model of the collaborative virtual learning system for the introductory computer programming course which uses one of the collaborative learning techniques known as the "Think-Pair-Share". The main objective of this study is to design a model for an online learning system that facilitates the…
Maximiliano Gonetecki Oliveira
Full Text Available Proper marketing management is fundamental to any business endeavor, including dot-coms. However, to date, as identified in a review of the International Journal of Electronic Commerce (IJEC production and the last 10 years of EnANPAD (EnANPAD is the annual Brazilian Academy of Management conference. There are no works on the applicability of the 4P's to e-commerce, a gap in the literature that this study proposes to fill. It uses a qualitative approach methodology, investigating several empirical studies about digital commerce, and comparing it with the mainstream strategic marketing literature. Inferences were developed, pushing further the theory boundaries of this field. Both the classical works as those from Borden (1964 and Mccarthy (1960 and many other contemporaries are evaluated. The present research utilizes these works as a source of information and data. Using a process of comparison with the marketing mix model, it searches for a possible lack of fit between the related empirical environments and such a model. The results identify several key variables in each of the P's related to security in electronic commerce. This dimension seems to be the key in shaping the perception of customer value, thus supporting its inclusion as a fifth dimension along with the 4P's.
Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle progression in eukaryotes, a variety of mathematical modeling approaches have been employed, ranging from Boolean networks and differential equations to stochastic simulations. Each approach has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a "standard component" modeling strategy that combines advantageous features of Boolean networks, differential equations and stochastic simulations in a framework that acknowledges the typical sorts of reactions found in protein regulatory networks. Applying this strategy to a comprehensive mechanism of the budding yeast cell cycle, we illustrate the potential value of standard component modeling. The deterministic version of our model reproduces the phenotypic properties of wild-type cells and of 125 mutant strains. The stochastic version of our model reproduces the cell-to-cell variability of wild-type cells and the partial viability of the CLB2-dbΔ clb5Δ mutant strain. Our simulations show that mathematical modeling with "standard components" can capture in quantitative detail many essential properties of cell cycle control in budding yeast.
.... The CAP offered a viable alternative to the strategy taken in Vietnam, challenging the sustaining infrastructure of the guerrilla, while providing security for the largely agrarian populace. Discussion...
Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Ke
In this paper, a new immunization strategy was established to prevent the epidemic spreading based on the principle of "Multi-granularity" and "Pre-warning Mechanism", which send different pre-warning signal with the risk rank of the susceptible node to be infected. The pre-warning means there is a higher risk that the susceptible node is more likely to be infected. The multi-granularity means the susceptible node is linked with multi-infected nodes. In our model, the effect of the different situation of the multi-granularity immunizations is compared and different spreading rates are adopted to describe the epidemic behavior of nodes. In addition the threshold value of epidemic outbreak is investigated, which makes the result more convincing. The theoretical analysis and the simulations indicate that the proposed immunization strategy is effective and it is also economic and feasible.
The first part of the lecture gives a brief review of the current status of nuclear thermal hydraulics as it forms the basis of established system codes like TRAC, RELAP5, CATHARE or ATHLET. Specific emphasis is given to the capabilities and limitations of the underlying physical modelling and numerical solution strategies with regard to the description of complex transient two-phase flow and heat transfer conditions as expected to occur in PWR reactors during off-normal and accident conditions. The second part of the lecture focuses on new challenges and future needs in nuclear thermal-hydraulics which might arise with regard to re-licensing of old plants using bestestimate methodologies or the design and safety analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors relying largely on passive safety systems. In order to meet these new requirements various advanced modelling and numerical techniques will be discussed including extended wellposed (hyperbolic) two-fluid models, explicit modelling of interfacial area transport or higher order numerical schemes allowing a high resolution of local multi-dimensional flow processes.(author)
Abbas Sheykhan; Shervin Zakeri; Hooman Abbasi; Mohmmad Hossein Mousavi
Today, in turbulent market environments and successive appearance of new competitors, one of the most important goals of industrial and business firms is first to keep their market share and then to increase it. They must find untapped markets or make them themselves therefore they have to know their competitive advantages. In 1980, M. Porter introduced three generic strategies. They have been concentrated to cost leadership, product differentiation and focus strategy. Nowadays many companies...
Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.
Light is vital to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. It drives photosynthesis and photochemical reactions, affects thermal structure, and influences behavior of aquatic biota. Despite the fundamental role of light to riverine ecosystems, light studies in rivers have been mostly neglected because i) boundary conditions (e.g., banks, riparian vegetation) make ambient light measurements difficult, and ii) the optical water quality of rivers is highly variable and difficult to characterize. We propose a benthic light availability model (BLAM) that predicts the percent of incoming photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available at the river bed. BLAM was developed by quantifying light attenuation of the five hydrogeomorphic controls that dictate riverine light availability: topography, riparian vegetation, channel geometry, optical water quality, and water depth. BLAM was calibrated using hydrogeomorphic data and light measurements from two rivers: Deep River - a 5th-order, turbid river in central North Carolina, and Big Spring Creek - a 2nd-order, optically clear stream in central Wisconsin. We used a series of four PAR sensors to measure i) above-canopy PAR, ii) PAR above water surface, iii) PAR below water surface, and iv) PAR on stream bed. These measurements were used to develop empirical light attenuation coefficients, which were then used in combination with optical water quality measurements, shading analyses, channel surveys, and flow records to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in riverine light availability. Finally, we apply BLAM to the Baraboo River - a 6th-order, 120-mile, unimpounded river in central Wisconsin - in order to characterize light availability along the river continuum (from headwaters to mouth).
Perino, M; Heiselberg, P
The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. This kind of system frequently integrates traditional mechanical ventilation components with natural ventilation devices, such as motorized windows and louvers. Among the various ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and IAQ control. However, in order to promote a wider applications of these systems, an improvement in the knowledge of their working principles and the availability of new design and simulation tools is necessary. In this context, the paper analyses and presents the results of a research that was aimed at developing and validating numerical models for the analysis of buoyancy driven single-sided natural ventilation systems. Once validated, these models can be used to optimize control strategies in order to achieve satisfactory indoor comfort conditions and IAQ. Practical Implications Numerical and experimental analyses have proved that short-term airing by intermittent ventilation is an effective measure to satisfactorily control IAQ. Different control strategies have been investigated to optimize the capabilities of the systems. The proposed zonal model has provided good performances and could be adopted as a design tool, while CFD simulations can be profitably used for detailed studies of the pollutant concentration distribution in a room and to address local discomfort problems.
Da Costa , Arnaud; Laroussinie , François; Markey , Nicolas
We study the alternating-time temporal logics ATL and ATL* extended with strategy contexts: these make agents commit to their strategies during the evaluation of formulas, contrary to plain ATL and ATL* where strategy quantifiers reset previously selected strategies. We illustrate the important expressive power of strategy contexts by proving that they make the extended logics, namely ATLsc and ATLsc*, equally expressive: any formula in ATLsc* can be translated into an equivalent, linear-...
Bolker, B.M.; Gardner, B.; Maunder, M.
Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. R is convenient and (relatively) easy...... to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield...
Baggett, J. S.; Skahill, B. E.
Evolutionary strategies allow automatic calibration of more complex models than traditional gradient based approaches, but they are more computationally intensive. We present several efficiency enhancements for evolution strategies, many of which are not new, but when combined have been shown to dramatically decrease the number of model runs required for calibration of synthetic problems. To reduce the number of expensive model runs we employ a surrogate objective function for an adaptively determined fraction of the population at each generation (Kern et al., 2006). We demonstrate improvements to the adaptive ranking strategy that increase its efficiency while sacrificing little reliability and further reduce the number of model runs required in densely sampled parts of parameter space. Furthermore, we include a gradient individual in each generation that is usually not selected when the search is in a global phase or when the derivatives are poorly approximated, but when selected near a smooth local minimum can dramatically increase convergence speed (Tahk et al., 2007). Finally, the selection of the gradient individual is used to adapt the size of the population near local minima. We show, by incorporating these enhancements into the Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy (CMAES; Hansen, 2006), that their synergetic effect is greater than their individual parts. This hybrid evolutionary strategy exploits smooth structure when it is present but degrades to an ordinary evolutionary strategy, at worst, if smoothness is not present. Calibration of 2D-3D synthetic models with the modified CMAES requires approximately 10%-25% of the model runs of ordinary CMAES. Preliminary demonstration of this hybrid strategy will be shown for watershed model calibration problems. Hansen, N. (2006). The CMA Evolution Strategy: A Comparing Review. In J.A. Lozano, P. Larrañga, I. Inza and E. Bengoetxea (Eds.). Towards a new evolutionary computation. Advances in estimation of
Li, Tsz Wan
Henkel's New Business team is a corporate venturing unit that explores corporate entrepreneurial activities on behalf of Henkel Adhesives Technologies. The new business ideas are implemented through one of these models: incubator, venturing or innovation ecosystem. In current practice, there is no systematic framework in place to choose the implementation model. The goal of the thesis is to propose a framework for choosing the most appropriate model for implementation of a new business idea i...
Kim, Hong Youn; Heo, Hoon [Dept. of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Young Min [TPC Mechatronics Co., Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
A new approach to the control of electro-magneto-mechanical system is proposed in this paper. Conventionally, these systems are controlled based on the Maxwell system model via an on-off or PID control technique, which displays acceptable performance in the low frequency region, but not in the high frequency region where position control performance is greatly degraded. In order to improve the performance, a newly developed virtual 2nd order system modeling technique, SSID, is adopted for a complex electro-magnetomechanical system in the study. This technique states that any unknown system exposed to a random disturbance with unknown intensity can be identified in terms of a virtual 2nd order system model via the inverse process of a certain stochastic analysis. As a typical hybrid system, a solenoid valve is used as the target electro-magneto-mechanical system to study the modeling of the virtual 2nd order system. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed control strategy, autotuning PID controller in PWM mode is utilized. Simulations based on the conventional Maxwell system model with control via the bang-bang, autotuning PID, and the proposed virtual 2nd order system model approaches are conducted using MATLAB Simulink. Performance of these three systems in the low and high frequency bands is also compared. The simulation results reveal that the control performance of the virtual 2nd order system model is much improved compared with that of the Maxwell system model under autotuning PID and bang-bang controls in both low and high frequency regions, where the error is drastically reduced to approximately 1/5 of the original value.
Clavareau, Julien [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50 (CP165/84), Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50 (CP165/84), Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)
The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterised by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. Though this issue is commonly encountered in practice, it has received little consideration in the literature. Previous exploratory works have treated the problem of replacing old-technology items by new ones, for identical components facing a unique new generation of items. This paper aims to define, in a realistic way, possible replacement policies when several types of challenger units are available and when the performances of these newly available units improve with time. Since no fully generic model can exist in maintenance optimisation, a modular modelling of the problem, allowing easy adaptations to features corresponding to specific applications is highly desirable. This work therefore proposes a modular Petri net model for this problem, underlying a Monte Carlo (MC) estimation of the costs incurred by the different possible replacement strategies under consideration.
Full Text Available The advertisement can increase the consumers demand; therefore it is one of the most important marketing strategies in the operations management of enterprises. This paper aims to analyze the impact of advertising investment on a discrete dynamic supply chain network which consists of suppliers, manufactures, retailers, and demand markets associated at different tiers under random demand. The impact of advertising investment will last several planning periods besides the current period due to delay effect. Based on noncooperative game theory, variational inequality, and Lagrange dual theory, the optimal economic behaviors of the suppliers, the manufactures, the retailers, and the consumers in the demand markets are modeled. In turn, the supply chain network equilibrium model is proposed and computed by modified project contraction algorithm with fixed step. The effectiveness of the model is illustrated by numerical examples, and managerial insights are obtained through the analysis of advertising investment in multiple periods and advertising delay effect among different periods.
Eldrup, Mads Røge; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
The present report presents results from a two-dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in December 2016 with the proposed trunk section for the new western breakwater in Port of Hanstholm. The objectives of the model tests were to study the stability of the armour layer, toe...... erosion, overtopping and transmission. The scale used for the model tests was 1:61.5. Unless otherwise specified all values given in this report are prototype values converted from the model to prototype according to the Froude model law....
Mohamed Ibrahim Alscati
This study aimed to develop a proposed strategy at th Universities of Saudi Arabia to meet the educational changes and challenges in the light of the perspectives of the teaching staff at the colleges of education. The study sample consisted of all teaching staff members in the colleges of education in Saudi universities, which were (731. The study used survey analytical developmental method, represented by the construction of the questionnaire so as to design the proposed strategy of all stages. Statistical means, standard deviations, as well as the equation Cronbach alpha coefficient to find out the internal consistency were used. The results showed that the teaching staff’s estimations of the manifestations of change in the Saudi community were moderate (3.66, whereas their estimations of the challenges facing Saudi universities were high (3.72. In light of these findings, the study proposed a strategy for the Saudi universities to address the educational changes and challenges. The mission of the strategy is centered around supporting members of the knowledge community and developing their leadership skills so as to be able to face educational changes. The vision of the strategy is to make universities the milestones for promising future.
Full Text Available This work presents details concerning the strategies and algorithms adopted in the fully implicit FE solver DD3IMP to model the orthotropic behavior of metallic sheets and the procedure for anisotropy parameters identification. The work is focused on the yield criterion developed by Cazacu, Plunkett and Barlat, 2006 , which accounts for both tension–compression asymmetry and orthotropic plastic behavior. The anisotropy parameters for a 2090-T3 aluminum alloy are identified accounting, or not, for the tension-compression asymmetry. The numerical simulation of a cup drawing is performed for this material, highlighting the importance of considering tension-compression asymmetry in the prediction of the earing profile, for materials with cubic structure, even if this phenomenon is relatively small.
Zaragocin Espinosa, Leonardo Vicente
Unbundling and privatization have become key elements of restructuring in the Electric Power Industry of Emerging Economies. These processes have concentrated on the Generation and Transmission areas, leaving Distribution as lower priority. Based on a comparison between the old role of Distribution Companies (DISCOS) and its new potential role this study identifies the main issues and challenges that DISCOS will face in the new environment once structural and ownership changes are completed. For the specific case of DISCOS in Emerging Economies, regulatory policies are reviewed and strategies identified in order to facilitate the transition and to assist in the integration of DISCOS with other agents in the evolving electric power market. Of particular importance in this research is the analysis of the role of Energy Efficiency (EE) in the new structural and governance environment. A theoretical study of the effects of energy efficiency measures, specifically loss reduction, on price regulation is developed within a proposed regulatory regime of privatization together with Price-Cap Regulation. This theoretical benchmark is then used as a starting point for a case study, the Electric System of Ecuador, where an analysis of the current Ecuadorian price regulation scheme (the Distribution Value Added Charge, VAD, scheme) is presented and analyzed in detail. General recommendations for improving the application of the VAD pricing approach are advanced, with special reference to the current situation in Ecuador.
Full Text Available This research examined factors which are mentioned in various literatures that have influence on AIDA models to buy fry counter which are attention, interest, and desire. The model also influenced by perceived attributes, personal characteristics, and external factors. Furthermore, the analysis result become a basic for formulating the marketing strategy of fry counter as an innovative product. Analysis was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling. The data for this study were collected from 152 respondents who were fish farmers located in Sukabumi Regency, West Java Province. This research found that external and internal factors influenced positively perceived attributes faktors. The external and perceived attributes factors also influenced positively attention factor. The external factor had negative influence but internal and attention factors had positive influence on consumer’s interest. Perceived attributes and interest factors influenced positively desire factor. Managerial implications is elaborated in the discussion.
Chen, Qifang; Wang, Fei; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Zhigang; Shafie-Khah, Miadreza; Catalao, Joao P. S.
A real-time price (RTP)-based automatic demand response (ADR) strategy for PV-assisted electric vehicle (EV) Charging Station (PVCS) without vehicle to grid is proposed. The charging process is modeled as a dynamic linear program instead of the normal day-ahead and real-time regulation strategy, to capture the advantages of both global and real-time optimization. Different from conventional price forecasting algorithms, a dynamic price vector formation model is proposed based on a clustering algorithm to form an RTP vector for a particular day. A dynamic feasible energy demand region (DFEDR) model considering grid voltage profiles is designed to calculate the lower and upper bounds. A deduction method is proposed to deal with the unknown information of future intervals, such as the actual stochastic arrival and departure times of EVs, which make the DFEDR model suitable for global optimization. Finally, both the comparative cases articulate the advantages of the developed methods and the validity in reducing electricity costs, mitigating peak charging demand, and improving PV self-consumption of the proposed strategy are verified through simulation scenarios.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of two earlier studies concluded, respectively, that optimal targets depend on objectives and cautioned against changing policy. Which should we believe? METHODS AND FINDINGS: In matrices whose elements are contacts between persons by age, the main diagonal always predominates, reflecting contacts between contemporaries. Indirect effects (e.g., impacts of vaccinating one group on morbidity or mortality in others result from off-diagonal elements. Mixing matrices based on periods in proximity with others have greater sub- and super-diagonals, reflecting contacts between parents and children, and other off-diagonal elements (reflecting, e.g., age-independent contacts among co-workers, than those based on face-to-face conversations. To assess the impact of targeted vaccination, we used a time-usage study's mixing matrix and allowed vaccine efficacy to vary with age. And we derived mortality rates either by dividing observed deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza by average annual cases from a demographically-realistic SEIRS model or by multiplying those rates by ratios of (versus adding to them differences between pandemic and pre-pandemic mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: In our simulations, vaccinating older children, adolescents, and young adults averts the most cases, but vaccinating either younger children and older adults or young adults averts the most deaths, depending on the age distribution of mortality. These results are consistent with those of the earlier studies.
Full Text Available In professional environments, attention paid to aspects such as supervisory styles, interpersonal relationships and workers eagerness can have a positive impact on employee motivation and, consequently, on their performance and well-being. To achieve this, knowledge management models such as those presented here can be applied. This model generates diagnoses of motivation and recommendations for improvement, both systematically and scientifically. Consequently, it is especially useful for managers and human resource departments. The proposed model can be adapted to different kinds of professional groups, including those in library and documentation services. The suitability, reliability and usefulness of the proposed model have been empirically checked through case studies with 92 students and 166 professionals. The positive results allow us to conclude that the model is effective and useful for assessing and improving motivation.
The ERICAM model (Environmental Risk Internalization through Capital Markets) includes the capital markets as a source contributing to the coverage of risks due to nuclear activites, thus enhancing the effectiveness and functions of the nuclear liability law. The model proposed will allow higher amounts for compensation and will increase financial security, flow of information, and efficient use of resources. The implementation of the model can be achieved on the financing side by issuing Nuke bonds, linking accident-specific options to government bonds. This will essentially increase the risk coverage compared to present means, and will be a pin-pointed addition to the existing layer system. There are three institutions proposed to act as mediators in the implementation of the model: A government authority to supervise the trade in Nuke bonds. Risk-bearing associations in oder to enhance the model's efficiency, and to reduce transaction costs. Rating agencies that will reduce the expenditure for information. (orig./HP) [de
Full Text Available The representation of business models has been recently widespread, especially in the pursuit of innovation. However, defining a company’s business model is sometimes limited to discussion and debates. This study observes the need for performance measurement so that business models can be data-driven. To meet this goal, the work proposed as a hypothesis the creation of a method that combines the practices of the Balanced Scorecard with a method of business models representation – the Business Model Canvas. Such a combination was based on study of conceptual adaptation, resulting in an application roadmap. A case study application was performed to check the functionality of the proposition, focusing on startup organizations. It was concluded that based on the performance assessment of the business model it is possible to propose the search for change through experimentation, a path that can lead to business model innovation.
Bert Verhoeven; Lester W. Johnson
Purpose: The research links three concepts: product market growth strategy, the magnitude of innovation and Business Model Innovation, merging them together into a dynamic Business Model Innovation strategy framework. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is conceptual and exploratory in nature and builds on existing literature and the author’s experience with developing business models. Findings: The BMI strategy framework can help managers establish a BMI portfolio strategy followi...
Truong, Nguyen Hoang Long; Huan Giang, Ngoc; Binh Duong, Trong
This paper aims at finding practical strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to varied municipal issues. Two steps are made. Step-1 identifies the critical issues of Ho Chi Minh City which are associated with high-rise apartment building projects. Step-2 finds potential and applicable strategies which are solutions for the critical issues in Step-1 with reference of seven selected assessment methods. The study finds the set of 58 strategies applicable to designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City.
Full Text Available The bulk commodity, different with the retail goods, has a uniqueness in the location selection, the chosen of transportation program and the decision objectives. How to make optimal decisions in the facility location, requirement distribution, shipping methods and the route selection and establish an effective distribution system to reduce the cost has become a burning issue for the e-commerce logistics, which is worthy to be deeply and systematically solved. In this paper, Logistics warehousing center model and precision marketing strategy optimization based on fuzzy method and neural network model is proposed to solve this problem. In addition, we have designed principles of the fuzzy method and neural network model to solve the proposed model because of its complexity. Finally, we have solved numerous examples to compare the results of lingo and Matlab, we use Matlab and lingo just to check the result and to illustrate the numerical example, we can find from the result, the multi-objective model increases logistics costs and improves the efficiency of distribution time.
.... This paper discusses a strategy for conducting the war on terrorism in terms of a system and how that strategy must be adjusted over the long-term to compensate for fluctuating components of the war on terrorism...
Full Text Available The cartographic 3D visualization of urban areas has experienced tremendous progress over the last years. An increasing number of applications operate interactively in real-time and thus require advanced techniques to improve the quality and time response of dynamic scenes. The main focus of this article concentrates on the discussion of strategies for smooth transformation between two discrete levels of detail (LOD of 3D building models that are represented as restricted triangle meshes. Because the operation order determines the geometrical and topological properties of the transformation process as well as its visual perception by a human viewer, three different strategies are proposed and subsequently analyzed. The simplest one orders transformation operations by the length of the edges to be collapsed, while the other two strategies introduce a general transformation direction in the form of a moving plane. This plane either pushes the nodes that need to be removed, e.g. during the transformation of a detailed LOD model to a coarser one, towards the main building body, or triggers the edge collapse operations used as transformation paths for the cartographic generalization.
Kada, Martin; Wichmann, Andreas; Filippovska, Yevgeniya; Hermes, Tobias
The cartographic 3D visualization of urban areas has experienced tremendous progress over the last years. An increasing number of applications operate interactively in real-time and thus require advanced techniques to improve the quality and time response of dynamic scenes. The main focus of this article concentrates on the discussion of strategies for smooth transformation between two discrete levels of detail (LOD) of 3D building models that are represented as restricted triangle meshes. Because the operation order determines the geometrical and topological properties of the transformation process as well as its visual perception by a human viewer, three different strategies are proposed and subsequently analyzed. The simplest one orders transformation operations by the length of the edges to be collapsed, while the other two strategies introduce a general transformation direction in the form of a moving plane. This plane either pushes the nodes that need to be removed, e.g. during the transformation of a detailed LOD model to a coarser one, towards the main building body, or triggers the edge collapse operations used as transformation paths for the cartographic generalization.
Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel
As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.
Full Text Available According to the characteristics of grinding process and accuracy requirements of technical indicators, a hybrid multiple soft-sensor modeling method of grinding granularity is proposed based on cuckoo searching (CS algorithm and hysteresis switching (HS strategy. Firstly, a mechanism soft-sensor model of grinding granularity is deduced based on the technique characteristics and a lot of experimental data of grinding process. Meanwhile, the BP neural network soft-sensor model and wavelet neural network (WNN soft-sensor model are set up. Then, the hybrid multiple soft-sensor model based on the hysteresis switching strategy is realized. That is to say, the optimum model is selected as the current predictive model according to the switching performance index at each sampling instant. Finally the cuckoo searching algorithm is adopted to optimize the performance parameters of hysteresis switching strategy. Simulation results show that the proposed model has better generalization results and prediction precision, which can satisfy the real-time control requirements of grinding classification process.
Li, Xiaoyu; Fan, Guodong; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Canova, Marcello; Zhu, Chunbo; Wei, Guo
The design of a simplified yet accurate physics-based battery model enables researchers to accelerate the processes of the battery design, aging analysis and remaining useful life prediction. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the Pseudo Two-Dimensional mathematical model without sacrificing the accuracy, this paper proposes a simplified multi-particle model via a predictor-corrector strategy and quasi-linearization. In this model, a predictor-corrector strategy is used for updating two internal states, especially used for solving the electrolyte concentration approximation to reduce the computational complexity and reserve a high accuracy of the approximation. Quasi-linearization is applied to the approximations of the Butler-Volmer kinetics equation and the pore wall flux distribution to predict the non-uniform electrochemical reaction effects without using any nonlinear iterative solver. Simulation and experimental results show that the isothermal model and the model coupled with thermal behavior are greatly improve the computational efficiency with almost no loss of accuracy. - Highlights: • A simplified multi-particle model with high accuracy and computation efficiency is proposed. • The electrolyte concentration is solved based on a predictor-corrector strategy. • The non-uniform electrochemical reaction is solved based on quasi-linearization. • The model is verified by simulations and experiments at various operating conditions.
Eldrup, Mads Røge; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
The present report presents results from a two-dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in December 2016 with the proposed trunk section for the new western breakwater in Port of Hanstholm. The objectives of the model tests were to study the stability of the armour layer, toe erosion, overtopping and transmission. The scale used for the model tests was 1:61.5. Unless otherwise specified all values given in this report are prototype values converted from the model to prot...
Alexandre Ferreira de Pinho
Full Text Available Optimization methods combined with computer-based simulation have been utilized in a wide range of manufacturing applications. However, in terms of current technology, these methods exhibit low performance levels which are only able to manipulate a single decision variable at a time. Thus, the objective of this article is to evaluate a proposed optimization method for discrete-event simulation models based on genetic algorithms which exhibits more efficiency in relation to computational time when compared to software packages on the market. It should be emphasized that the variable's response quality will not be altered; that is, the proposed method will maintain the solutions' effectiveness. Thus, the study draws a comparison between the proposed method and that of a simulation instrument already available on the market and has been examined in academic literature. Conclusions are presented, confirming the proposed optimization method's efficiency.
Efe Biresselioglu, Mehmet; Hakan Demir, Muhittin; Kandemir, Cansu
Turkey was among those countries which decided to increase its natural gas consumption in the 1990s, due to its relative low cost and lack of impact on the environment. However, a heavy dependence on imports, from Algeria, Qatar and Nigeria, respectively, creates a threat to energy security, both in terms of source and supply diversity. Accordingly, we follow an analytical approach to identify the accuracy of our assumption, considering the current economic, political and security risk. To this end, we formulate and solve a mixed integer programming model that determines the optimal sourcing strategy for Turkey’s increasing LNG demand. This model demonstrates a number of alternative policy options for LNG supply. Furthermore, we consider that increasing the proportion of LNG in the overall gas supply will contribute to the aim of improving Turkey’s level of energy security. - Highlights: ► Turkey’s best policy option is to increase the share of LNG. ► Turkey’s main suppliers of LNG will be Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago. ► Norway, Libya, and Oman contribute to the supply with rather smaller shares. ► With high risk scenario Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria and Libya will not be suppliers. ► Oman and Qatar will cover; even though they are high-cost suppliers.
Burke, James F.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Hayward, Rodney A.; Albin, Roger L.
Objectives In this study, we developed a model of presymptomatic treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) after a screening diagnostic evaluation and explored the circumstances required for an AD prevention treatment to produce aggregate net population benefit. Methods Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate outcomes in a simulated population derived from data on AD incidence and mortality. A wide variety of treatment parameters were explored. Net population benefit was estimated in aggregated QALYs. Sensitivity analyses were performed by individually varying the primary parameters. Findings In the base-case scenario, treatment effects were uniformly positive, and net benefits increased with increasing age at screening. A highly efficacious treatment (i.e. relative risk 0.6) modeled in the base-case is estimated to save 20 QALYs per 1000 patients screened and 221 QALYs per 1000 patients treated. Conclusions Highly efficacious presymptomatic screen and treat strategies for AD are likely to produce substantial aggregate population benefits that are likely greater than the benefits of aspirin in primary prevention of moderate risk cardiovascular disease (28 QALYS per 1000 patients treated), even in the context of an imperfect treatment delivery environment. PMID:25474698
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present a pilot proposal of a model of “Virtual Development Management System” (ViDeMaS which will facilitate more effective management and development of virtual teams. Management and development of virtual teams is not a simple concept. It comprises a body of knowledge from a number of fields and scientific disciplines. The complexity of the concept may not be simplified as it is absolutely essential for full understanding of its nature. In order to gain better orientation in the concept, different perspectives will be used in the description of the model, which will enable us to achieve the goal of the work and to present the main results of the work (creation of a model for Virtual Development Management System. The present paper thus describes from different perspectives the proposal of a sufficiently detailed and complex model that may be utilized both on theoretical and application level.
Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.
Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate resilience investment strategy to optimize the operational efficiency of a seaport is a challenging task given that many criteria need to be considered and modelled under an uncertain environment. The design of such a complex decision system consists of many subjective and imprecise parameters contained in different quantitative and qualitative forms. This paper proposes a fuzzy multi-attribute decision making methodology for the selection of an appropriate resilience investment strategy in a succinct and straightforward manner. The decision support model allows for a collaborative modelling of the system by multiple analysts in a group decision making process. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP was utilized to analyse the complex structure of the system to obtain the weights of all the criteria while fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS was employed to facilitate the ranking process of the resilience strategies. Given that it is often financially difficult to invest in all the resilience strategies, it is envisaged that the proposed approach could provide decision makers with a flexible and transparent tool for selecting appropriate resilience strategies aimed at increasing the resilience of seaport operations.
Full Text Available Information search is an essential part of the consumer`s decision making process. The online medium offers new opportunities and challenges for information search activities (in and outside the marketing context. We are interested in the way human information experiences and behaviors are affected by this. Very often online games and social web activities are perceived as challenging, engaging and enjoyable, while online information search is far below this evaluation. Our research proposal implies that using the online medium for information search may provoke enjoyable experiences through the flow state, which may in turn positively influence an individual`s exploratory information behavior and encourage his/her pro-active market behavior. The present study sets out to improve the understanding of the online medium`s impact on human`s exploratory behavior. We hypothesize that the inclusion of the online flow experience in our research model will better explain exploratory information search behaviors. A 11-component conceptual framework is proposed to explain the manifestations of flow, its personal and technological determinants and its behavioral consequence in the context of online information search. Our research has the primary purpose to present an integrated online flow model. Its secondary objective is to stimulate extended research in the area of informational behaviors in the digital age. The paper is organized in three sections. In the first section we briefly report the analysis results of the most relevant online flow theory literature and, drawing on it, we are trying to identify variables and relationships among these. In the second part we propose a research model and use prior flow models to specify a range of testable hypothesis. Drawing on the conceptual model developed, the last section of our study presents the final conclusions and proposes further steps in evaluating the model`s validity. Future research directions
Full Text Available This study models the dynamic nature of today’s media markets using the framework of value-adding activities in the provision and consumption of media products. The proposed user-centric approach introduces the notion that the actions of external users, social media, and interfaces affect the internal value activities of media firms via a feedback loop, and therefore should themselves be considered value activities. The model also suggests a more comprehensive list of indicators for value assessment.
Full Text Available The paper introduces a cosmological model of the quantum universe. The aim of the model is (i to identify the possible mechanism that governs the matter/antimatter ratio existing in the universe and concurrently to propose (ii a reasonable growth mechanism of the universe and (iii a possible explanation of the dark energy. The concept of timespace uncertainty, on which is based the present quantum approach, has been proven able to bridge quantum mechanics and relativity.
Full Text Available Automated vehicles are designed to free drivers from driving tasks and are expected to improve traffic safety and efficiency when connected via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, that is, connected automated vehicles (CAVs. The time delays and model uncertainties in vehicle control systems pose challenges for automated driving in real world. Ignoring them may render the performance of cooperative driving systems unsatisfactory or even unstable. This paper aims to design a robust and flexible platooning control strategy for CAVs. A centralized control method is presented, where the leader of a CAV platoon collects information from followers, computes the desired accelerations of all controlled vehicles, and broadcasts the desired accelerations to followers. The robust platooning is formulated as a Min-Max Model Predictive Control (MM-MPC problem, where optimal accelerations are generated to minimize the cost function under the worst case, where the worst case is taken over the possible models. The proposed method is flexible in such a way that it can be applied to both homogeneous platoon and heterogeneous platoon with mixed human-driven and automated controlled vehicles. A third-order linear vehicle model with fixed feedback delay and stochastic actuator lag is used to predict the platoon behavior. Actuator lag is assumed to vary randomly with unknown distributions but a known upper bound. The controller regulates platoon accelerations over a time horizon to minimize a cost function representing driving safety, efficiency, and ride comfort, subject to speed limits, plausible acceleration range, and minimal net spacing. The designed strategy is tested by simulating homogeneous and heterogeneous platoons in a number of typical and extreme scenarios to assess the system stability and performance. The test results demonstrate that the designed control strategy for CAV can ensure the robustness of stability and performance against model uncertainties
Pajouheshnia, Romin; Pestman, Wiebe R; Teerenstra, Steven; Groenwold, Rolf H H
It is often unclear which approach to fit, assess and adjust a model will yield the most accurate prediction model. We present an extension of an approach for comparing modelling strategies in linear regression to the setting of logistic regression and demonstrate its application in clinical prediction research. A framework for comparing logistic regression modelling strategies by their likelihoods was formulated using a wrapper approach. Five different strategies for modelling, including simple shrinkage methods, were compared in four empirical data sets to illustrate the concept of a priori strategy comparison. Simulations were performed in both randomly generated data and empirical data to investigate the influence of data characteristics on strategy performance. We applied the comparison framework in a case study setting. Optimal strategies were selected based on the results of a priori comparisons in a clinical data set and the performance of models built according to each strategy was assessed using the Brier score and calibration plots. The performance of modelling strategies was highly dependent on the characteristics of the development data in both linear and logistic regression settings. A priori comparisons in four empirical data sets found that no strategy consistently outperformed the others. The percentage of times that a model adjustment strategy outperformed a logistic model ranged from 3.9 to 94.9 %, depending on the strategy and data set. However, in our case study setting the a priori selection of optimal methods did not result in detectable improvement in model performance when assessed in an external data set. The performance of prediction modelling strategies is a data-dependent process and can be highly variable between data sets within the same clinical domain. A priori strategy comparison can be used to determine an optimal logistic regression modelling strategy for a given data set before selecting a final modelling approach.
Klingenberg, W; Singh, UP
With the development of accurate Finite Element models of the punching/blanking process by the present authors and other researchers, important possibilities emerged to model and analyse the process in a research environment. However, Finite Element models are less well suited for use in a
Bolker, Benjamin M.; Gardner, Beth; Maunder, Mark; Berg, Casper W.; Brooks, Mollie; Comita, Liza; Crone, Elizabeth; Cubaynes, Sarah; Davies, Trevor; de Valpine, Perry; Ford, Jessica; Gimenez, Olivier; Kéry, Marc; Kim, Eun Jung; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Magunsson, Arni; Martell, Steve; Nash, John; Nielson, Anders; Regentz, Jim; Skaug, Hans; Zipkin, Elise
1. Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. 2. R is convenient and (relatively) easy to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. 3. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield) to specific suggestions about how to change the mathematical description of models to make them more amenable to parameter estimation. 4. A companion web site (https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/nonlinear-modeling/projects) presents detailed examples of application of the three tools to a variety of typical ecological estimation problems; each example links both to a detailed project report and to full source code and data.
The Danish Energy Authority, Elkraft System and Eltra have initiated collaboration on the development of national R and D strategies for a number of energy technologies including solar cells. The aim is to ensure a coordinated national effort as regards research, development and demonstration within societal and energy political frames, and, furthermore, to ensure coordination with similar international initiatives, especially within the European Union. The overall aim is for the Danish solar cell strategy to contribute to support Danish national energy policy and to ensure and improve Danish competence, which can manifest itself internationally. The efforts within solar cell technology must aim at increasing solar cell systems' efficiency and service life, and furthermore, aim at reducing production costs. Hereby the efforts can contribute to an improvement of solar cell systems' competitive power in relation to other power production technologies with a view to make installation of solar cell systems attractive, both in Denmark and internationally. (BA)
Li, Shu-Bin; Cao, Dan-Ni; Dang, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Lin
As a new cross-discipline, the complexity science has penetrated into every field of economy and society. With the arrival of big data, the research of the complexity science has reached its summit again. In recent years, it offers a new perspective for traffic control by using complex networks theory. The interaction course of various kinds of information in traffic system forms a huge complex system. A new mesoscopic traffic flow model is improved with variable speed limit (VSL), and the simulation process is designed, which is based on the complex networks theory combined with the proposed model. This paper studies effect of VSL on the dynamic traffic flow, and then analyzes the optimal control strategy of VSL in different network topologies. The conclusion of this research is meaningful to put forward some reasonable transportation plan and develop effective traffic management and control measures to help the department of traffic management.
Mehdi Shamizanjani; Seyed Mohammad Ghasemtabar Shahri
The main purpose of this research is the development of a success model of Knowledge Sharing 2.0 (social knowledge sharing) through organizations. A three-step strategy is used in this research as stated below: In the first step, identification of social software and extraction of factors effective on success of each for knowledge sharing were obtained from literature review. Execution of Delphi method and identification of critical factors were done in the second step. At l...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to elaborate a strategy of prevention-mitigation-preparation in the floods caused by the overflow of the River Buey due to the occurrence of intensive rains in the municipality Yara (Granma province. The methodologies used were based on the historical-trend analysis of the main elements of the study area, systematic and participatory scientific observation, statistical analysis, and the evaluation of risk, vulnerability and hazard studies. These elements served as a basis for designing a strategy based on forestry, land use and environmental education guidelines, mainly aimed at the conservation of non-structural means affected by floods.
Full Text Available There’s a story behind every business success and every business failure, sometimes the story of a great idea; sometimes one that failed. Sometimes it’s a story of insightful management, or management that failed. But almost always it’s a story about change. Change in the market; change in the economy; change in a particular product or service that transformed a failure into a success, or vice versa. Hidden behind many of these changes, or sometimes as a result of them, there is change in what customers experience, and as a result, a change in their perceptions and attitudes, and then in their buying habits. Companies soar, or collapse, as a consequence. While we study the stories to learn about the specific changes, events, insights, and breakdowns in each case, we also look for broader and deeper explanations that show how change applies across industries and the whole of the economy. The broader patterns are often Business Model Innovations, the subject of this white paper. Here we propose a specific model explaining how large companies create and sustain market leadership in today’s market, or the traps that they fall into that prevent them from doing so.
Adams, R; Younger, P L
Discharges of polluted water from abandoned mines are a major cause of degradation of water resources worldwide. Pollution arises after abandoned workings flood up to surface level, by the process termed ground water rebound. As flow in large, open mine voids is often turbulent, standard techniques for modeling ground water flow (which assume laminar flow) are inappropriate for predicting ground water rebound. More physically realistic models are therefore desirable, yet these are often expensive to apply to all but the smallest of systems. An overall strategy for ground water rebound modeling is proposed, with models of decreasing complexity applied as the temporal and spatial scales of the systems under analysis increase. For relatively modest systems (area modeling approach has been developed, in which 3-D pipe networks (representing major mine roadways, etc.) are routed through a variably saturated, 3-D porous medium (representing the country rock). For systems extending more than 100 to 3000 km2, a semidistributed model (GRAM) has been developed, which conceptualizes extensively interconnected volumes of workings as ponds, which are connected to other ponds only at discrete overflow points, such as major inter-mine roadways, through which flow can be efficiently modeled using the Prandtl-Nikuradse pipe-flow formulation. At the very largest scales, simple water-balance calculations are probably as useful as any other approach, and a variety of proprietary codes may be used for the purpose.
Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.
To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...
Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.J.; Gaburo, J.C.; Sanches, M.P.; Oliveira, E.M.
The intake model for the two groups of workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP is presented. They handle iodine compounds during the processing of irradiated targets and at labeling of radiopharmaceutical compounds. The intake model for the workers are proposed from the knowledge of the activities carried out in the plant and the internal monitoring program of the workers. In this study, the intake is considered to be taken uniformly during the days of major activities carried out by the workers. In practice, the application of this model has be shown suitable, for the studied groups
Armour, Cherie; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Elklit, Ask
The underlying latent structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is widely researched. However, despite a plethora of factor analytic studies, no single model has consistently been shown as superior to alternative models. The two most often supported models are the Emotional Numbing and the Dysphoria models. However, a recently proposed five-factor Dysphoric Arousal model has been gathering support over and above existing models. Data for the current study were gathered from Malaysian Tsunami survivors (N=250). Three competing models (Emotional Numbing/Dysphoria/Dysphoric Arousal) were specified and estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The Dysphoria model provided superior fit to the data compared to the Emotional Numbing model. However, using chi-square difference tests, the Dysphoric Arousal model showed a superior fit compared to both the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the Dysphoric Arousal model better represents PTSD's latent structure and that items measuring sleeping difficulties, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties form a separate, unique PTSD factor. These results are discussed in relation to the role of Hyperarousal in PTSD's on-going symptom maintenance and in relation to the DSM-5. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report
Full Text Available This paper presents a highly formalized approach to strategy formulation and optimization of strategic performance through proper resource allocation. A stochastic quantitative model of strategic performance (SQMSP is used to evaluate the efficiency of the strategy developed. The SQMSP follows the theoretical notions of the balanced scorecard (BSC and strategy map methodologies, initially developed by Kaplan and Norton. Parameters of the SQMSP are suggested to be random variables and be evaluated by experts who give two-point (optimistic and pessimistic values and three-point (optimistic, most probable and pessimistic values evaluations. The Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate strategic performance. Having been implemented within a computer application and applied to solve the real problem (planning of an IT-strategy at the Faculty of Economics, University of Split the proposed approach demonstrated its high potential as a basis for development of decision support tools related to strategic planning.
Scavia, Donald; Kalcic, Margaret; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Read, Jennifer; Aloysius, Noel; Bertani, Isabella; Boles, Chelsie; Confesor, Remegio; DePinto, Joseph; Gildow, Marie; Martin, Jay; Redder, Todd; Robertson, Dale M.; Sowa, Scott P.; Wang, Yu-Chen; Yen, Haw
In response to degraded water quality, federal policy makers in the US and Canada called for a 40% reduction in phosphorus (P) loads to Lake Erie, and state and provincial policy makers in the Great Lakes region set a load-reduction target for the year 2025. Here, we configured five separate SWAT (US Department of Agriculture's Soil and Water Assessment Tool) models to assess load reduction strategies for the agriculturally dominated Maumee River watershed, the largest P source contributing to toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Although several potential pathways may achieve the target loads, our results show that any successful pathway will require large-scale implementation of multiple practices. For example, one successful pathway involved targeting 50% of row cropland that has the highest P loss in the watershed with a combination of three practices: subsurface application of P fertilizers, planting cereal rye as a winter cover crop, and installing buffer strips. Achieving these levels of implementation will require local, state/provincial, and federal agencies to collaborate with the private sector to set shared implementation goals and to demand innovation and honest assessments of water quality-related programs, policies, and partnerships.
Some problems of recent 'All Japan' strategy for nuclear power exports. Identification of its problems and a proposal for improvement based on international development strategies of the major three categories of businesses constituting nuclear power industry
In Japan, 'All Japan' strategy for nuclear power exports, which arranges engineering companies and electric utilities to sell nuclear power plants providing engineering, procurement, construction and operation abroad, with governmental support of expanded trade insurance, is strongly promoted today as a part of Japan's national growth strategy. However, 'All Japan' strategy generates some problems because the strategy does not consider difference of business strategies concerning international development of each enterprise. This report identifies problems of 'All Japan' strategy based on environmental scanning of major three categories of businesses, which are big nuclear technology companies, vendors and electric utilities constituting nuclear power industry. And this report proposes the way to improve the strategy as follows to resolve those problems. 1) It is necessary to assess the risk of the project that is to be undertaken by 'All Japan' approach carefully. 2) Governmental support for vendors is also needed because the vendors are source of strength of international development of the nuclear industry in Japan. 3) Where the cooperation among the electric utilities is necessary, imposing the risk burden on the utilities should be avoided. 4) It is necessary for government to take measures about 'Weakness' and 'Threat' that each category of business commonly faces. (author)
Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun
Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are
Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)
The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging
Saito, Masahiro; Ishida, M.R.
To evaluate the accumulated dose in human bodies due to the environmental tritium, it is of required to establish an adequate model for the tritium transfer from the environment to man and to obtain enough information on the metabolic behaviour of tritium in animal bodies using model animal system. In this report, first we describe about a proposed model for the transfer of environmental tritium to man and secondly mention briefly about the recent works on the tritium metabolism in newborn animals which have been treated as a model system of tritium intake through food chain. (author)
Awadalla, N.G.; Eaton, S.C.F.
This document is the verification and validation final report for the Decision Analysis Model for Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Treatment Strategies. This model is also known as the INSIGHT Model
Lazim, Halim Mad; Taib, Che Azlan; Lamsali, Hendrik; Saleh, Mohamed Najib; Subramaniam, Chandrakantan
Preventive maintenance (PM) plays important role to avoid or mitigate potential stoppages and disruptions of equipment or machinery from occurring in daily operations. PM emphasized total employee involvement and it is important for companies as well as Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). SME sectors contribution to the Malaysian economy makes up 95% of the total manufacturers, however PM remain relatively lacking. The ability, reliability and effective maintenance management is highly important in order to achieve desired manufacturing performance. Therefore, organizational capability in planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring PM activities is important. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the potential impact of PM practices towards manufacturing performance with organizational capability as a moderating effect is still limited and indecisive. Henceforth, this paper aims to explore and investigate potential relationships between PM practices and manufacturing performance moderated by organizational capability in the contact of Malaysian SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Correspondently, the study intends to propose a new research framework and hypotheses to examine the abovementioned relationships. The proposed framework includes PM team, PM strategy and planned maintenance as the determinants, while organizational capability serves as the moderating variable. Manufacturing performance will be viewed in terms of innovation and financial factors. Proposed research direction and conclusion are discussed at the end of the study.
Yoshimura, Seiichi; Takano, Kenichi; Sasou, Kunihide
Operating environment in huge systems like nuclear power plants or airplanes is changing rapidly with the advance of computer technology. It is necessary to elucidate thinking process of operators and decision-making process of an operator team in abnormal situations, in order to prevent human errors under such environment. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry is promoting a research project to establish human error prevention countermeasures by modeling and simulating the thinking process of operators and decision-making process of an operator team. In the previous paper, application of multilevel flow modeling was proposed to a mental model which conducts future prediction and cause identification, and the characteristics were verified by experienced plant operators. In this paper, an operator team behavior model and a fundamental operator's thinking mechanism especially 'situation understanding' are proposed, and the proposals are evaluated by experiments using a full-scale simulator. The results reveal that some assumptions such as 'communication is done between a leader and a follower' are almost appropriate and that the situation understanding can be represented by 'probable candidates for cause, determination of a parameter which changes when an event occurs, determination of parameters which are influenced by the change of the previous parameter, determination of a principal parameter and future prediction of the principal parameter'. (author)
Zakary, Omar; Rachik, Mostafa; Elmouki, Ilias
First, we devise in this paper, a multi-regions discrete-time model which describes the spatial-temporal spread of an epidemic which starts from one region and enters to regions which are connected with their neighbors by any kind of anthropological movement. We suppose homogeneous Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) populations, and we consider in our simulations, a grid of colored cells, which represents the whole domain affected by the epidemic while each cell can represent a sub-domain or region. Second, in order to minimize the number of infected individuals in one region, we propose an optimal control approach based on a travel-blocking vicinity strategy which aims to control only one cell by restricting movements of infected people coming from all neighboring cells. Thus, we show the influence of the optimal control approach on the controlled cell. We should also note that the cellular modeling approach we propose here, can also describes infection dynamics of regions which are not necessarily attached one to an other, even if no empty space can be viewed between cells. The theoretical method we follow for the characterization of the travel-locking optimal controls, is based on a discrete version of Pontryagin's maximum principle while the numerical approach applied to the multi-points boundary value problems we obtain here, is based on discrete progressive-regressive iterative schemes. We illustrate our modeling and control approaches by giving an example of 100 regions.
Yue, M.; Cheng, L.-Y.; Bari, R.A.
Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the model and physical input parameters. ► Interphase drag has minor effect on the dryout heat flux (DHF) in 1D configuration. ► Model calibration on pressure drop experiments fails to improve prediction of DHF. ► Calibrated classical model provides the best agreement with DHF data from 1D tests. ► Further validation of drag models requires data from 2D and 3D experiments on DHF. - Abstract: This paper reports a Markov model based approach to systematically evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear energy systems (NESs). The focus of the study is on the development of the Markov models for a class of complex PR scenarios, i.e., mixed covert/overt strategy switching proliferation, for NESs with two modes of material flow, batch and continuous. In particular, a set of diversion and/or breakout scenarios and covert/overt misuse scenarios are studied in detail for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. Both probabilistic and deterministic PR measures are calculated using a software tool that implements the proposed approach and can be used to quantitatively compare proliferation resistant characteristics of different scenarios for a given NES, according to the computed PR measures
Elkhamri, Oksana O.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Essner, Jonathan; Vergino, Eileen; Bissani, Mo; Apt, Kenneth E.; McClelland-Kerr, John; Mininni, Margot; VanSickle, Matthew; Kovacic, Donald
This paper describes a recent National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workshop on Human Resource Development, which was focused on the potential methodology for developing a National Human Resource strategy for nuclear power in emerging nuclear states. The need for indigenous human resource development (HRD) has been singled out as a key milestone by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its 2007 Milestones document. A number of countries considering nuclear energy have reiterated this need for experts and specialists to support a national nuclear program that is sustainable and secure. Many have expressed concern over how best to assure the long-term availability of crucial human resource, how to approach the workforce planning process, and how to determine the key elements of developing a national strategy.
Yuan Hongping; Chini, Abdol R.; Lu Yujie; Shen Liyin
Highlights: ► We proposes a model for projecting C and D waste reduction of construction projects. ► The model can simulate effects of various management strategies on waste reduction. ► The model integrates all essential variables that affect C and D waste reduction. ► By using the model, best strategies could be identified before being implemented. - Abstract: During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C and D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C and D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C and D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C and D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C and D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity – interrelationships and dynamics – of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C and D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C and D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate the validation and application of the proposed model. Results of the case study not only
Full Text Available This paper discusses the proposed model of the collaborative virtual learning system for the introductory computer programming course which uses one of the collaborative learning techniques known as the “Think-Pair-Share”. The main objective of this study is to design a model for an online learning system that facilitates the collaborative learning activities in a virtual environment such as online communications and pair or small group discussions. In order to model the virtual learning environment, the RUP methodology has been used where it involves the data collection phase and the analysis and design phase. Fifty respondents have been randomly selected to participate in the data collection phase to investigate the students’ interest and learning styles as well as their learning preferences. The results have shown the needs for the development of online small group discussions that can be used as an alternative learning style for programming courses. The proposed design of the virtual learning system named as the Online Collaborative Learning System or OCLS is being depicted using the object-oriented models which are the use-case model and class diagram in order to show the concise processes of virtual “Think-Pair-Share” collaborative activities. The “Think-Pair-Share” collaborative learning technique that is being used in this model has been chosen because of its simplicity and relatively low-risk. This paper also presents the proposed model of the system’s architecture that will become the guidelines for the physical development of OCLS using the web-based applications.
Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.
There is growing awareness in the scientific community that the traditional centralized approach to water resources management, as described in much of the water resources literature, provides an ideal optimal solution, which is certainly useful to quantify the best physically achievable performance, but is generally inapplicable. Most real world water resources management problems are indeed characterized by the presence of multiple, distributed and institutionally-independent decision-makers. Multi-Agent Systems provide a potentially more realistic alternative framework to model multiple and self-interested decision-makers in a credible context. Each decision-maker can be represented by an agent who, being self-interested, acts according to local objective functions and produces negative externalities on system level objectives. Different levels of coordination can potentially be included in the framework by designing coordination mechanisms to drive the current decision-making structure toward the global system efficiency. Yet, the identification of effective coordination strategies can be particularly complex in modern institutional contexts and current practice is dependent on largely ad-hoc coordination strategies. In this work we propose a novel Evolutionary Agent-based Modeling (EAM) framework that enables a mapping of fully uncoordinated and centrally coordinated solutions into their relative "many-objective" tradeoffs using multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Then, by analysing the conflicts between local individual agent and global system level objectives it is possible to more fully understand the causes, consequences, and potential solution strategies for coordination failures. Game-theoretic criteria have value for identifying the most interesting alternatives from a policy making point of view as well as the coordination mechanisms that can be applied to obtain these interesting solutions. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a
Pereira, Eliana B S; Jorge, Miguel T; Oliveira, Elias J; Júnior, Alberto Lopes Ribeiro; Santos, Lauro R L; Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan
Hand hygiene has the biggest impact and is the least expensive way to prevent and control health care-associated infections. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the multimodal strategy of the World Health Organization to improve health care-associated infection rates, hand hygiene compliance, and the related knowledge of health care professionals in a Brazilian university hospital. We observed the necessity for an alternative approach in hospitals with high staff turnover and low attendance of educational sessions.
Aly, Mariyam; García-Cárdenas, Victoria; Williams, Kylie; Benrimoj, Shalom I
The need to consider sustainable healthcare solutions is essential. An innovative strategy used to promote minor ailment care is the utilisation of community pharmacists to deliver minor ailment services (MASs). Promoting higher levels of self-care can potentially reduce the strain on existing resources. To explore the features of international MASs, including their similarities and differences, and consider the essential elements to design a MAS model. A grey literature search strategy was completed in June 2017 to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. This included (1) Google/Yahoo! search engines, (2) targeted websites, and (3) contact with commissioning organisations. Executive summaries, table of contents and title pages of documents were reviewed. Key characteristics of MASs were extracted and a MAS model was developed. A total of 147 publications were included in the review. Key service elements identified included eligibility, accessibility, staff involvement, reimbursement systems. Several factors need to be considered when designing a MAS model; including contextualisation of MAS to the market. Stakeholder engagement, service planning, governance, implementation and review have emerged as key aspects involved with a design model. MASs differ in their structural parameters. Consideration of these parameters is necessary when devising MAS aims and assessing outcomes to promote sustainability and success of the service. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
djalaluddin, Akhsan; Jamil, Muh.Hatta; Tenriawaru, A Nixia; M. Rukka, Rusli
Implementasi Model Strategi Peningkatan Kinerja Balai Penyuluhan Pertanian bertujuan mengungkapkan dan menyusun desain modul yang diikuti dengan proses transfer pengetahuan dan keterampilan melalui pembentukan model pengembangan kelembagaan BPP. Di samping itu, melalui penelitian tahap II ini, dokumen yang dihasilkan dapat menjadi titik pijak prumusan kebijakan pengembangan BPP khususnya kebijakan peningkatan kinerja BPP. Sembari mensosialisasikan model strategi peningkatan kinerja BPP yang ...
Full Text Available In this work the proposed model for type-disk, ultrasonic motor rotating, elliptic movement to surface beam. A sinusoidal vibration of the vertical displacement in the z-direction, Assume that the vertical displacement of the neutral plane, equals the product of the slope of the neutral plane and half of the beam height, the tangential velocity vs at the upper surface is given.
Full Text Available Nowadays, to cope with the competition, and to ensure the durability of their activities, companies have to be able to innovate. Manufacturing companies operating in a B2B market often perceive innovation as a technological result. However, innovation is often more characterized as a process. The needs of the users, and not only the technology, can achieve innovation. In this context, our paper intends to determine how to involve better the users in the innovation process of an international manufacturing company, which is, according to us, representative of the current manufacturing companies. The aim of our research paper is to help manufacturing companies to manage innovation led by users, and to implement their innovation process so that they will be able to set up specific tools for each action of the process. The study proposes a diagram-based language Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT that is based on the normative guide FD X50-271 of the French national organization for standardization (AFNOR. The SADT model we propose usefully complements this guide, to make the innovation process more understandable, practical and operational, for manufacturing companies, which are often helpless when faced with the subject. A critical analysis of the model we propose completed in a manufacturing company through semi-structured interviews of the innovation team and questionnaire for all the employees shows the application of the model in the company.
Sultan, Torky; Khedr, Ayman E; Sayed, Mostafa
NONE DECLARED Defect tracking systems play an important role in the software development organizations as they can store historical information about defects. There are many research in defect tracking models and systems to enhance their capabilities to be more specifically tracking, and were adopted with new technology. Furthermore, there are different studies in classifying bugs in a step by step method to have clear perception and applicable method in detecting such bugs. This paper shows a new proposed defect tracking model for the purpose of classifying the inserted defects reports in a step by step method for more enhancement of the software quality.
Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik
Research under contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) identified a considerable energy saving potential fielding the area of office equipment. In this paper, a proposal for a policy mix is presented with the goal to increase energy efficiency by market-transformation in this sector. This was worked out by order of the UBA. Pending EU legislation like the Procurement Directive and the proposal for Eco-Design Directive have been considered. An in-depth analysis for labelling schemes for office equipment is provided with respect to the future of the Energy Star process, specifically the continuation of the Energy Star-cooperation between the U.S.EPA and the EU. Preliminary results gained after literature enquiry and interviews of experts were discussed during a workshop at the German Federal Environmental Ministry in September 2004. Our proposal for a policy mix includes: public procurement, efficiency labelling, training and education, energy management in public and private institutions, mandatory minimum standards, marketing. The demand for high efficient appliances should initially be boosted by green procurement to trigger market transformation. In the field of efficiency labelling, we first analyse the shortcomings of previous strategies. On this basis, we propose a two level-strategy for Germany: 1. The Energy Star process with improved structures shall act as a widely compliable labelling minimum standard. 2. An information programme about high efficient appliances ('quality-programme') should be established basing on existing structures (Energy Star, GEEA, TopTen) to minimise transaction costs
The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…
Chen, Xin; Liu, Li; Zhou, Sida; Yue, Zhenjiang
Reduced order models(ROMs) based on the snapshots on the CFD high-fidelity simulations have been paid great attention recently due to their capability of capturing the features of the complex geometries and flow configurations. To improve the efficiency and precision of the ROMs, it is indispensable to add extra sampling points to the initial snapshots, since the number of sampling points to achieve an adequately accurate ROM is generally unknown in prior, but a large number of initial sampling points reduces the parsimony of the ROMs. A fuzzy-clustering-based adding-point strategy is proposed and the fuzzy clustering acts an indicator of the region in which the precision of ROMs is relatively low. The proposed method is applied to construct the ROMs for the benchmark mathematical examples and a numerical example of hypersonic aerothermodynamics prediction for a typical control surface. The proposed method can achieve a 34.5% improvement on the efficiency than the estimated mean squared error prediction algorithm and shows same-level prediction accuracy.
Voigtländer, S; Mielck, A; Razum, O
Recent empirical studies stress the impact of features related to the small-area context on individual health. However, so far there exists no standard explanatory model that integrates the different kinds of such features and that conceptualises their relation to individual characteristics of social inequality. A review of theoretical publications on the relationship between social position and health as well as existing conceptual models for the impact of features related to the small-area context on health was undertaken. In the present article we propose a conceptual model for the health impact of the small-area context. This model conceptualises the location of residence as one dimension of social inequality that affects health through the resources as well as stressors which are inherent in the small-area context. The proposed conceptual model offers an orientation for future empirical studies and can serve as a basis for further discussions concerning the health relevance of the small-area context. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Engelheart, Stina; Brummer, Robert
There is no accepted or standardized definition of 'malnutrition'. Hence, there is also no definition of what constitutes an adequate nutritional status. In elderly people, assessment of nutritional status is complex and is complicated by multi-morbidity and disabilities combined with nutrition-related problems, such as dysphagia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and muscle weakness. We propose a nutritional status model that presents nutritional status from a comprehensive functional perspective. This model visualizes the complexity of the nutritional status in elderly people. The presented model could be interpreted as the nutritional status is conditional to a person's optimal function or situation. Another way of looking at it might be that a person's nutritional status affects his or her optimal situation. The proposed model includes four domains: (1) physical function and capacity; (2) health and somatic disorders; (3) food and nutrition; and (4) cognitive, affective, and sensory function. Each domain has a major impact on nutritional status, which in turn has a major impact on the outcome of each domain. Nutritional status is a multifaceted concept and there exist several knowledge gaps in the diagnosis, prevention, and optimization of treatment of inadequate nutritional status in elderly people. The nutritional status model may be useful in nutritional assessment research, as well as in the clinical setting.
Knight, Zelda Gillian
Just as Freud used stages of psychosexual development to ground his model of psychoanalysis, it is possible to do the same with Erik Erikson's stages of development with regards to a model of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper proposes an eight-stage model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Various suggestions are offered. One such suggestion is that as each of Erikson's developmental stages is triggered by a crisis, in therapy it is triggered by the client's search. The resolution of the search often leads to the development of another search, which implies that the therapy process comprises a series of searches. This idea of a series of searches and resolutions leads to the understanding that identity is developmental and therapy is a space in which a new sense of identity may emerge. The notion of hope is linked to Erikson's stage of Basic Trust and the proposed model of therapy views hope and trust as essential for the therapy process. Two clinical vignettes are offered to illustrate these ideas. Psychotherapy can be approached as an eight-stage process and linked to Erikson's eight stages model of development. Psychotherapy may be viewed as a series of searches and thus as a developmental stage resolution process, which leads to the understanding that identity is ongoing throughout the life span. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lin, Tyrone T.; Huang, S.-L.
This paper presents an improved decision model based on the real options approach presented by for the firms that have not yet established energy-saving equipment under the entry and exit strategies. Furthermore, the proposed model takes account of the inevitable equipment renewal and the occurrence of unexpected events under the Poisson jump process. The timing for terminating an investment when continuous operations of that business are unprofitable is also explored to realize the optimal timing of implementing the energy-saving strategy. The future discounted benefit B follows the geometric Brownian motion with the Poisson jump process and the replacement of investment equipment. A numerical analysis is followed by a sensitivity study of various parameters to better realize their impacts on the entry and exit thresholds. The results show that for the jump case, the higher probability of occurrence of unfavorable events will result in a higher entry threshold and lower exit threshold. Investors are forced to request higher benefit thresholds to cover the higher probability of losses brought by unfavorable events.
Full Text Available The purpose of this proposal is to explore a new concept of 'Metadistrict' to be applied in a region of Southern Italy – Apulia ‐ in order to analyze the impact that the activation of a special network between different sector chains and several integrated projects may have for revitalizing the local economy; an important role is assigned to the network of relationships and so to the social capital. The Metadistrict model stems from the Local Action Groups and the Integrated Projects of Food Chain frameworks. It may represent a crucial driver of the rural economy through the realization of sector circuits connected to the concept of multi‐functionality in agriculture, that is Network of the Territorial Multi‐functionality. It was formalized by making use of a set of theories and of a Matrix Organization Model. The adoption of the Metadistrict perspective as the territorial strategy may play a key role to revitalize the primary sector, through the increase of economic and productive opportunities due to the implementation of a common and shared strategy and organization.
Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Araujo, Mauro Almeida [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Estrategico]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Top-down, bottom-up and hybrid models for representing energy system are often used in energy planning. However, in developing countries some of their assumptions do not apply: markets are not developed and not competitive; informal economies are representative; there are huge social inequalities; regulatory changes are not completed; there exist constraints to capital flow; etc. All theses problems need to be well represented in order to have energy analysis more consistent. In this work, it is proposed a multi-sector dynamic recursive model that incorporates consumer behaviors, energy policies, technical progress and factors of production substitution. The static result feeds detailed energy models that provide updated values for the next step equilibrium. This approach takes advantages not only in terms of computation but also in terms of the consistence between economy and energy modeling. (author)
strategies (e.g., Craik & Lockhart , 1972); hemispheric process - -7 ing differences (e.g., Seamon & Gazzaniga, 1973); problem-solving strategies (e.g...Charness, N. (1931). Aging and skilled problem solving. 3ournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 21-38. Craik , F. I. \\., & Lockhart , R. S...1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, L1, 671-684. 3ansereau, D. F., McDonald
MBAYEN MBAYEN, GHISLAIN EDGARD
Nowadays there are several different types of ways to build a mobile application, through web technologies, or through mobile manufacturers’ languages. Thus, in this study we focus on the three major mobile application development strategies: Native, Hybrid, and Web to Native. This plurality of solutions renders the selection of a mobile application development strategy complex. Hence, this study aims at understanding how developers deal with the selection of a mobile development approach. Th...
Beil, C.; Kolbe, T. H.
Three-dimensional semantic city models are increasingly used for the analysis of large urban areas. Until now the focus has mostly been on buildings. Nonetheless many applications could also benefit from detailed models of public street space for further analysis. However, there are only few guidelines for representing roads within city models. Therefore, related standards dealing with street modelling are examined and discussed. Nearly all street representations are based on linear abstractions. However, there are many use cases that require or would benefit from the detailed geometrical and semantic representation of street space. A variety of potential applications for detailed street space models are presented. Subsequently, based on related standards as well as on user requirements, a concept for a CityGML-compliant representation of street space in multiple levels of detail is developed. In the course of this process, the CityGML Transportation model of the currently valid OGC standard CityGML2.0 is examined to discover possibilities for further developments. Moreover, a number of improvements are presented. Finally, based on open data sources, the proposed concept is implemented within a semantic 3D city model of New York City generating a detailed 3D street space model for the entire city. As a result, 11 thematic classes, such as roadbeds, sidewalks or traffic islands are generated and enriched with a large number of thematic attributes.
Wichary, Szymon; Smolen, Tomasz
In multi-attribute choice, decision makers use decision strategies to arrive at the final choice. What are the neural mechanisms underlying decision strategy selection? The first goal of this paper is to provide a literature review on the neural underpinnings and cognitive models of decision strategy selection and thus set the stage for a neurocognitive model of this process. The second goal is to outline such a unifying, mechanistic model that can explain the impact of noncognitive factors (e.g., affect, stress) on strategy selection. To this end, we review the evidence for the factors influencing strategy selection, the neural basis of strategy use and the cognitive models of this process. We also present the Bottom-Up Model of Strategy Selection (BUMSS). The model assumes that the use of the rational Weighted Additive strategy and the boundedly rational heuristic Take The Best can be explained by one unifying, neurophysiologically plausible mechanism, based on the interaction of the frontoparietal network, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus. According to BUMSS, there are three processes that form the bottom-up mechanism of decision strategy selection and lead to the final choice: (1) cue weight computation, (2) gain modulation, and (3) weighted additive evaluation of alternatives. We discuss how these processes might be implemented in the brain, and how this knowledge allows us to formulate novel predictions linking strategy use and neural signals.
Wichary, Szymon; Smolen, Tomasz
In multi-attribute choice, decision makers use decision strategies to arrive at the final choice. What are the neural mechanisms underlying decision strategy selection? The first goal of this paper is to provide a literature review on the neural underpinnings and cognitive models of decision strategy selection and thus set the stage for a neurocognitive model of this process. The second goal is to outline such a unifying, mechanistic model that can explain the impact of noncognitive factors (e.g., affect, stress) on strategy selection. To this end, we review the evidence for the factors influencing strategy selection, the neural basis of strategy use and the cognitive models of this process. We also present the Bottom-Up Model of Strategy Selection (BUMSS). The model assumes that the use of the rational Weighted Additive strategy and the boundedly rational heuristic Take The Best can be explained by one unifying, neurophysiologically plausible mechanism, based on the interaction of the frontoparietal network, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus. According to BUMSS, there are three processes that form the bottom-up mechanism of decision strategy selection and lead to the final choice: (1) cue weight computation, (2) gain modulation, and (3) weighted additive evaluation of alternatives. We discuss how these processes might be implemented in the brain, and how this knowledge allows us to formulate novel predictions linking strategy use and neural signals. PMID:27877103
Full Text Available In multi-attribute choice, decision makers use various decision strategies to arrive at the final choice. What are the neural mechanisms underlying decision strategy selection? The first goal of this paper is to provide a literature review on the neural underpinnings and cognitive models of decision strategy selection and thus set the stage for a unifying neurocognitive model of this process. The second goal is to outline such a unifying, mechanistic model that can explain the impact of noncognitive factors (e.g. affect, stress on strategy selection. To this end, we review the evidence for the factors influencing strategy selection, the neural basis of strategy use and the cognitive models explaining this process. We also present the neurocognitive Bottom-Up Model of Strategy Selection (BUMSS. The model assumes that the use of the rational, normative Weighted Additive strategy and the boundedly rational heuristic Take The Best can be explained by one unifying, neurophysiologically plausible mechanism, based on the interaction of the frontoparietal network, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus. According to BUMSS, there are three processes that form the bottom-up mechanism of decision strategy selection and lead to the final choice: 1 cue weight computation, 2 gain modulation, and 3 weighted additive evaluation of alternatives. We discuss how these processes might be implemented in the brain, and how this knowledge allows us to formulate novel predictions linking strategy use and neurophysiological indices.
Rodney J Scott; Robert Y Cavana; Donald Cameron
Strategy implementation has been identified as an area of system dynamics literature requiring greater attention. Most strategies fail to be implemented successfully, and processes for effectively implementing strategy are yet to be fully explained and explored. The reported interpersonal success factors for strategy implementation are reported outcomes for group model building, suggesting potential applicability. A case study using validated survey methods yielded promising results, and sugg...
Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Peres, Karen Glazer; Nedel, Fúlvio Borges
The epidemiological literature has been limited by the absence of a theoretical framework reflecting the complexity of causal mechanisms for the occurrence of health phenomena / disease conditions. In the field of oral epidemiology, such lack of theory also prevails, since dental caries the leading topic in oral research has been often studied through a biological and reductionist viewpoint. One of the most important consequences of dental caries is dental pain (odontalgia), which has received little attention in studies with sophisticated theoretical models and powerful designs to establish causal relationships. The purpose of this study is to review the scientific literature on the determinants of odontalgia and to discuss theories proposed for the explanation of the phenomenon. Conceptual models and emerging theories on the social determinants of oral health are revised, in an attempt to build up links with the bio-psychosocial pain model, proposing a more elaborate causal model for odontalgia. The framework suggests causal pathways between social structure and oral health through material, psychosocial and behavioral pathways. Aspects of the social structure are highlighted in order to relate them to odontalgia, stressing their importance in discussions of causal relationships in oral health research.
Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Hyunjoong; Seon Park, Hyo
The number of multi-family housing complexes (MFHCs) over 15 yr old in South Korea is expected to exceed 5 million by 2015. Accordingly, the demand for energy retrofit in the deteriorating MFHCs is rapidly increasing. This study aimed to develop a decision support model for establishing the optimal energy retrofit strategy for existing MFHCs. It can provide clear criteria for establishing the carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) and allow efficient budget allocation for conducting the energy retrofit. The CERT for “S” MFHC, one of MFHCs located in Seoul, as a case study, was set at 23.0% (electricity) and 27.9% (gas energy). In the economic and environmental assessment, it was determined that scenario #12 was the optimal scenario (ranked second with regard to NPV 40 (net present value at year 40) and third with regard to SIR 40 (saving to investment ratio at year 40). The proposed model could be useful for owners, construction managers, or policymakers in charge of establishing energy retrofit strategy for existing MFHCs. It could allow contractors in a competitive bidding process to rationally establish the CERT and select the optimal energy retrofit strategy. It can be also applied to any other country or sector in a global environment. - Highlights: • The proposed model was developed to establish the optimal energy retrofit strategy. • Advanced case-based reasoning was applied to establish the community-based CERT. • Energy simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of energy retrofit strategy. • The optimal strategy can be finally selected based on the LCC and LCCO 2 analysis. • It could be extended to any other country or sector in the global environment
Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Schmitz, Cristiane; Marega Pinhel, Marcelo; Palma Setti, Joao A; Nohama, Percy
Accessibility to three-dimensional (3D) technologies, such as 3D scanning systems and additive manufacturing (like 3D printers), allows a variety of 3D applications. For medical applications in particular, these modalities are gaining a lot of attention enabling several opportunities for healthcare applications. The literature brings several cases applying both technologies, but none of them focus on the spreading of how this technology could benefit the health segment. This paper proposes a new methodology, which employs both 3D modelling and 3D printing for building orthoses, which could better fit the demands of different patients. Additionally, there is an opportunity for sharing expertise, as it represents a trendy in terms of the maker-movement. Therefore, as a result of the proposed approach, we present a case study based on a volunteer who needs an immobilization orthosis, which was built for exemplification of the whole process. This proposal also employs freely available 3D models and software, having a strong social impact. As a result, it enables the implementation and effective usability for a variety of built to fit solutions, hitching useful and smarter technologies for the healthcare sector.
Harrell , Jr , Frank E
This highly anticipated second edition features new chapters and sections, 225 new references, and comprehensive R software. In keeping with the previous edition, this book is about the art and science of data analysis and predictive modeling, which entails choosing and using multiple tools. Instead of presenting isolated techniques, this text emphasizes problem solving strategies that address the many issues arising when developing multivariable models using real data and not standard textbook examples. It includes imputation methods for dealing with missing data effectively, methods for fitting nonlinear relationships and for making the estimation of transformations a formal part of the modeling process, methods for dealing with "too many variables to analyze and not enough observations," and powerful model validation techniques based on the bootstrap. The reader will gain a keen understanding of predictive accuracy, and the harm of categorizing continuous predictors or outcomes. This text realistically...
Lee Vernon J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual strategies in pandemic preparedness plans may not reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic. Methods We searched modeling publications through PubMed and associated references from 1990 to 30 September 2009. Inclusion criteria were modeling papers quantifying the effectiveness of combination strategies, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical. Results Nineteen modeling papers on combination strategies were selected. Four studies examined combination strategies on a global scale, 14 on single countries, and one on a small community. Stochastic individual-based modeling was used in nine studies, stochastic meta-population modeling in five, and deterministic compartmental modeling in another five. As part of combination strategies, vaccination was explored in eight studies, antiviral prophylaxis and/or treatment in 16, area or household quarantine in eight, case isolation in six, social distancing measures in 10 and air travel restriction in six studies. Two studies suggested a high probability of successful influenza epicenter containment with combination strategies under favorable conditions. During a pandemic, combination strategies delayed spread, reduced overall number of cases, and delayed and reduced peak attack rate more than individual strategies. Combination strategies remained effective at high reproductive numbers compared with single strategy. Global cooperative strategies, including redistribution of antiviral drugs, were effective in reducing the global impact and attack rates of pandemic influenza. Conclusion Combination strategies increase the effectiveness of individual strategies. They include pharmaceutical (antiviral agents, antibiotics and vaccines and non-pharmaceutical interventions (case isolation, quarantine, personal hygiene measures, social distancing and travel restriction. Local epidemiological and modeling studies are needed to validate efficacy and feasibility.
Full Text Available In this study we present an analytical approach for integration of order picking and sortation operations which are the most important, labour intensive and costly activity for warehouses. Main aim is to investigate order picking and sorting efficiencies under different design issues as a function of order wave size. Integrated analytical model is proposed to estimate the optimum order picking and order sortation efficiency. The model, which has been tested by simulations with different illustrative examples, calculates the optimum wave size that solves the trade-off between picking and sorting operations and makes the order picking and sortations efficiency maximum. Our model also allow system designer to predict the order picking and sorting capacity for different system configurations. This study presents an innovative approach for integrated warehouse operations.
Ana Rusmerg Giménez Ledesma
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an analytical-prospective model as a tool to support decision-making processes concerning metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world. In the context of nanotechnology development in Brazil, the motivation for carrying out this research was to identify potential benefits of metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials production, from the perspective of future adoption of the model by the main stakeholders of development of these areas in Brazil. The main results can be summarized as follows: (i an overview of international studies on metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials, and nanoparticles, in special; (ii the analytical-prospective model; and (iii the survey questionnaire and the roadmapping tool for metrology, standardization and regulation of nanomaterials in Brazil, based on international references and ongoing initiatives in the world.
If complete failure of normal and emergency coolant flow occurs in a light water reactor, fission product decay heat would eventually cause melting of the reactor fuel and cladding. The core melt may then slump into the lower plenum and later into the reactor cavity and contact residual liquid water. A model is proposed to describe the fuel-coolant mixing process upon contact. The model is compared to intermediate scale experiments being conducted at Sandia. The modelling of this mixing process will aid in understanding three important processes: (1) fuel debris sizes upon quenching in water, (2) the hydrogen source term during fuel quench, and (3) the rate of steam production. Additional observations of Sandia data indicate that the steam explosion is affected by this mixing process
Variables cognitivas y metacognitivas en la resolución de problemas de química: propuesta de estrategias didácticas Cognitive and metacognitive variables in chemistry problem solving: a proposal of didactic strategies
Joan Josep Solaz-Portolés
Full Text Available This paper presents and classifies the cognitive and metacognitive variables involved in the processes that students execute in problem solving. Moreover, it shows how these variables affect the students success in problem solving. These variables are classified in: piagetian and neo-piagetian, representational, metacognitive and transfer of learning. In the first group of variables it is discussed formal reasoning ability and other neo-piagetian factors. In the second group of variables it is analysed mental models and external representations. Implications for chemistry education are collected as a proposal of didactic strategies in the classroom.
Joaquín F Sánchez
Full Text Available Hasty software development can produce immediate implementations with source code unnecessarily complex and hardly readable. These small kinds of software decay generate a technical debt that could be big enough to seriously affect future maintenance activities. This work presents an analysis technique for identifying architectural technical debt related to non-uniformity of naming patterns; the technique is based on term frequency over package hierarchies. The proposal has been evaluated on projects of two popular organizations, Apache and Eclipse. The results have shown that most of the projects have frequent occurrences of the proposed naming patterns, and using a graph model and aggregated data could enable the elaboration of simple queries for debt identification. The technique has features that favor its applicability on emergent architectures and agile software development.
Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling Tristan E. Johnson, Ph.D. Learning ...REPORT DATE AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies to Enhance Online Learning ...TeamsTeam Strategies to Enhance Online Learning Teams: Team Assessment and Diagnostics Instrument and Agent-based Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Bende-Michl, Ulrike; Volk, Martin; Harmel, Daren
This short communication paper presents recommendations for developing scale-appropriate monitoring and modelling strategies to assist decision making in natural resource management (NRM). These ideas presented here were discussed in the session (S5) ‘Monitoring strategies and scale...... and communication between researcher and model developer on the one side, and natural resource managers and the model users on the other side to increase knowledge in: 1) the limitations and uncertainties of current monitoring and modelling strategies, 2) scale-dependent linkages between monitoring and modelling...
Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Faure, Florence
The immune system (IS) and the central nervous system (CNS) are complex cognitive networks involved in defining the identity (self) of the individual through recognition and memory processes that enable one to anticipate responses to stimuli. Brain memory has traditionally been classified as either implicit or explicit on psychological and anatomical grounds, with reminiscences of the evolutionarily-based innate-adaptive IS responses. Beyond the multineuronal networks of the CNS, we propose a theoretical model of brain memory integrating the CNS as a whole. This is achieved by analogical reasoning between the operational rules of recognition and memory processes in both systems, coupled to an evolutionary analysis. In this new model, the hippocampus is no longer specifically ascribed to explicit memory but rather it both becomes part of the innate (implicit) memory system and tightly controls the explicit memory system. Alike the antigen presenting cells for the IS, the hippocampus would integrate transient and pseudo-specific (i.e., danger-fear) memories and would drive the formation of long-term and highly specific or explicit memories (i.e., the taste of the Proust's madeleine cake) by the more complex and recent, evolutionarily speaking, neocortex. Experimental and clinical evidence is provided to support the model. We believe that the singularity of this model's approximation could help to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms operating in brain memory strategies from a large-scale network perspective.
Gilbert, Jason H; Von Ah, Diane; Broome, Marion E
Nurse managers must leverage both the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead in order to produce quality outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between human capital and social capital and how these concepts may work together to produce organizational outcomes through leadership of nurses. The purpose of this article was to explore the concepts of human capital and social capital as they relate to nursing leadership in health care organizations. Specific aims included (a) to synthesize the literature related to human capital and social capital in leadership, (b) to refine the conceptual definitions of human capital and social capital with associated conceptual antecedents and consequences, and (c) to propose a synthesized conceptual model guiding further empirical research of social capital and human capital in nursing leadership. A systematic integrative review of leadership literature using criteria informed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was completed. CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, Health Business FullTEXT, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases were searched for the years 1995 to 2016 using terms "human capital," "social capital," and "management." Analysis of conceptual definitions, theoretical and conceptual models, antecedents and consequences, propositions or hypotheses, and empirical support for 37 articles fitting review criteria resulted in the synthesis of the proposed Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital. The Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital advances the propositions of human capital theory and social capital theory and is the first model to conceptualize the direct and moderating effects that nurse leaders have on the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead. This model provides a framework for further empirical study and may have implications for practice, organizational policy, and education related to nursing
Fettig, Angel; Artman-Meeker, Kathleen
The purpose of this article was to describe a group coaching model and present preliminary evidence of its impact on teachers' implementation of Pyramid Model practices. In particular, we described coaching strategies used to support teachers in reflecting and problem solving on the implementation of the evidence-based strategies. Preliminary…
Fryer, Luke K.
Many of our current higher education (HE) learning strategy models intersect at important points. At the same time, these theories also often demonstrate important unique perspectives on student learning within HE. Currently, research with one learning strategy model rarely leads to developments in others, as each group of researchers works in…
Williams, Grant; Clement, John
This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that…
strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20
Luís Henrique Rodrigues
Full Text Available The competitive landscape for companies has been changing over time, featuring an increase in competitiveness in cost, quality, reliability, agility and more recently by a concern for environmental and social factors. This work aims to propose an exploratory analysis model to evaluate companies’ sustainability competitiveness. The model proposes the grouping of companies into clusters, ranking them according to the adoption of lean manufacturing practices, environmental management and human resources, and allocating them into quadrants according to the higher or lower production of waste in their manufacturing processes. The adherence to the model is made with a sample of automotive segment companies (auto parts and motor vehicle manufacturers. The work is classified as one of a practical nature, exploratory, qualitative, and using the survey method. The conclusion that 37.5% of auto parts companies are grouped into clusters that lead to the reduction of waste, with practices in lean manufacturing and environmental management which adjust to competitive factors in the sustainability of motor vehicle manufacturers, is noteworthy.
time. In gen- eral, animals’ anatomy is far more complex than what the SLIP model captures, due to the presence of joints, ankles , knees, hips, leg...strategies for locomotion. These strategies can then be applied to an anchor , a more complex and realistic model to mimic the animal’s morphology and...model. As clearly explained in , the ideal SLIP model is a template that can then be ” anchored ” to systems with more complex dynamics. The prototype
Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.
In this paper as part of the Electric Power Research Institute's High Level Waste program, the authors have developed a preliminary probabilistic model for assessing the hazard of fault rupture to the proposed high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The model is composed of two parts: the earthquake occurrence model that describes the three-dimensional geometry of earthquake sources and the earthquake recurrence characteristics for all sources in the site vicinity; and the rupture model that describes the probability of coseismic fault rupture of various lengths and amounts of displacement within the repository horizon 350 m below the surface. The latter uses empirical data from normal-faulting earthquakes to relate the rupture dimensions and fault displacement amounts to the magnitude of the earthquake. using a simulation procedure, we allow for earthquake occurrence on all of the earthquake sources in the site vicinity, model the location and displacement due to primary faults, and model the occurrence of secondary faulting in conjunction with primary faulting
Yuan, Hongping; Chini, Abdol R; Lu, Yujie; Shen, Liyin
During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C&D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C&D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C&D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C&D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C&D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C&D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C&D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate the validation and application of the proposed model. Results of the case study not only built confidence in the model so that it can be used for quantitative analysis, but also assessed and compared the effect of three designed policy scenarios on C&D waste reduction. One major contribution of this study is the development of a dynamic model for evaluating C&D waste reduction strategies under various scenarios, so that best management strategies could be identified before being implemented
Mayweg-Paus, Elisabeth; Macagno, Fabrizio; Kuhn, Deanna
The study presented here examines how interacting with a more capable interlocutor influences use of argumentation strategies in electronic discourse. To address this question, 54 young adolescents participating in an intervention centered on electronic peer dialogs were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control condition. In both…
Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Reniers, M.A.; Cassandras, C.G.; Giua, A.; Seatzu, C.; Zaytoon, J.
We analyze a control strategy for the pick-and-place module of a component mounting device.We use a combination of techniques from bondgraph-theory, systems theory, process algebra and differential algebra to achieve this, and we show how the hybrid process algebra HyPA aides us in combining these
Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.
To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go
Full Text Available This study's objective is to highlight some of the strategies to maximize or minimize the accounting result, situated un-der the impulse of bad accounting. Although we assist the manipulation of the accounting result, this procedure is done according to the law, been exploited by some entities in knowledge of the lack of justice and accounting regulations.
Gyer, Giles; Michael, Jimmy; Inklebarger, James
Hand injury is the second most common work-related musculoskeletal injury among physical therapists (PTs) and other manual therapy professionals such as osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. However, the nature and extent of this problem have not been fully explored yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature published on the prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of hand injuries among PTs and similar healthcare professionals. The lifetime prevalence of hand injuries was about 15%-46%, and the annual prevalence was reported as 5%-30%. Thumb injuries were found to be the most prevalent of all injuries, accounting more than 50% of all hand-related problems. The most significant risk factors for job-related hand injuries were performing manual therapy techniques, repetitive workloads, treating many patients per day, continued work while injured or hurt, weakness of the thumb muscles, thumb hypermobility, and instability at the thumb joints. PTs reported modifying treatment technique, taking time off on sick leave, seeking intervention, shifting the specialty area, and decreasing patient contact hours as the major consequences of these injuries. The authors recommend that PTs should develop specific preventive strategies and put more emphasis on the use of aids and equipment to reduce the risk of an unnecessary injury. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baczyńska, Anna K; Rowiński, Tomasz; Cybis, Natalia
Competency models provide insight into key skills which are common to many positions in an organization. Moreover, there is a range of competencies that is used by many companies. Researchers have developed core competency terminology to underline their cross-organizational value. The article presents a theoretical model of core competencies consisting of two main higher-order competencies called performance and entrepreneurship. Each of them consists of three elements: the performance competency includes cooperation, organization of work and goal orientation, while entrepreneurship includes innovativeness, calculated risk-taking and pro-activeness. However, there is lack of empirical validation of competency concepts in organizations and this would seem crucial for obtaining reliable results from organizational research. We propose a two-step empirical validation procedure: (1) confirmation factor analysis, and (2) classification of employees. The sample consisted of 636 respondents (M = 44.5; SD = 15.1). Participants were administered a questionnaire developed for the study purpose. The reliability, measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.60 to 0.83 for six scales. Next, we tested the model using a confirmatory factor analysis. The two separate, single models of performance and entrepreneurial orientations fit quite well to the data, while a complex model based on the two single concepts needs further research. In the classification of employees based on the two higher order competencies we obtained four main groups of employees. Their profiles relate to those found in the literature, including so-called niche finders and top performers. Some proposal for organizations is discussed.
LeBlanc, Linda A; Raetz, Paige B; Sellers, Tyra P; Carr, James E
Practicing behavior analysts frequently assess and treat problem behavior as part of their ongoing job responsibilities. Effective measurement of problem behavior is critical to success in these activities because some measures of problem behavior provide more accurate and complete information about the behavior than others. However, not every measurement procedure is appropriate for every problem behavior and therapeutic circumstance. We summarize the most commonly used measurement procedures, describe the contexts for which they are most appropriate, and propose a clinical decision-making model for selecting measurement produces given certain features of the behavior and constraints of the therapeutic environment.
Full Text Available To balance the contradiction between comprehensiveness of system-of-systems (SoS description and cost of modeling and simulation, a non-uniform hybrid strategy (NUHYS is proposed. NUHYS groups elements of an SoS operation into system community or relatively independent system based on contributors complexity and focus relationship according to the focus of SoS problem. Meanwhile, modeling methods are categorized based on details attention rate and dynamic attention rate, seeking for matching contributors. Taking helicopter rescue in earthquake relief as an example, the procedure of applying NUHYS and its effectiveness are verified.
Medina, Neiler; Sanchez, Arlex; Nokolic, Igor; Vojinovic, Zoran
This research explores the uses of Agent Based Models (ABM) and its potential to test large scale evacuation strategies in coastal cities at risk from flood events due to extreme hydro-meteorological events with the final purpose of disaster risk reduction by decreasing human's exposure to the hazard. The first part of the paper corresponds to the theory used to build the models such as: Complex adaptive systems (CAS) and the principles and uses of ABM in this field. The first section outlines the pros and cons of using AMB to test city evacuation strategies at medium and large scale. The second part of the paper focuses on the central theory used to build the ABM, specifically the psychological and behavioral model as well as the framework used in this research, specifically the PECS reference model is cover in this section. The last part of this section covers the main attributes or characteristics of human beings used to described the agents. The third part of the paper shows the methodology used to build and implement the ABM model using Repast-Symphony as an open source agent-based modelling and simulation platform. The preliminary results for the first implementation in a region of the island of Sint-Maarten a Dutch Caribbean island are presented and discussed in the fourth section of paper. The results obtained so far, are promising for a further development of the model and its implementation and testing in a full scale city
Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose: This paper mainly focus on the application of adversarial risk analysis (ARA in pricing strategy with remanufacturing. We hope to obtain more realistic results than classical model. Moreover, we also wish that our research improve the development of ARA in pricing strategy of manufacturing or remanufacturing. Approach: In order to gain more actual research, combining adversarial risk analysis, we explore the pricing strategy with remanufacturing based on Stackelberg model. Especially, we build OEM’s 1-order ARA model and further study on manufacturers and remanufacturers’ pricing strategy. Findings: We find the OEM’s 1-order ARA model for the OEM’s product cost C. Besides, we get according manufacturers and remanufacturers’ pricing strategies. Besides, the pricing strategies based on 1-order ARA model have advantage over than the classical model regardless of OEMs and remanufacturers. Research implications: The research on application of ARA imply that we can get more actual results with this kind of modern risk analysis method and ARA can be extensively in pricing strategies of supply chain. Value: Our research improves the application of ARA in remanufacturing industry. Meanwhile, inspired by this analysis, we can also create different ARA models for different parameters. Furthermore, some results and analysis methods can be applied to other pricing strategies of supply chain.
Full Text Available In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.
Tomiyama, Tomoe; Sato, Tatsuhiro; Morita, Toyohisa; Sasaki, Toshiro
Deregulation has been accelerating several activities toward reengineering business processes, such as railway through service and modal shift in logistics. Making those activities successful, business entities have to regulate new business rules or know-how (we call them ‘constraints’). According to the new constraints, they need to manage business resources such as instruments, materials, workers and so on. In this paper, we propose a constraint analysis method to define constraints for task planning of the new business processes. To visualize each constraint's influence on planning, we propose a network model which represents allocation relations between tasks and resources. The network can also represent task ordering relations and resource grouping relations. The proposed method formalizes the way of defining constraints manually as repeatedly checking the network structure and finding conflicts between constraints. Being applied to crew scheduling problems shows that the method can adequately represent and define constraints of some task planning problems with the following fundamental features, (1) specifying work pattern to some resources, (2) restricting the number of resources for some works, (3) requiring multiple resources for some works, (4) prior allocation of some resources to some works and (5) considering the workload balance between resources.
Joana G. Aguiar
Full Text Available Training users in the concept mapping technique is critical for ensuring a high-quality concept map in terms of graphical structure and content accuracy. However, assessing excellence in concept mapping through structural and content features is a complex task. This paper proposes a two-step sequential training in concept mapping. The first step requires the fulfilment of low-order cognitive objectives (remember, understand and apply to facilitate novices’ development into good Cmappers by honing their knowledge representation skills. The second step requires the fulfilment of high-order cognitive objectives (analyse, evaluate and create to grow good Cmappers into excellent ones through the development of knowledge modelling skills. Based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy and cognitive load theory, this paper presents theoretical accounts to (1 identify the criteria distinguishing good and excellent concept maps, (2 inform instructional tasks for concept map elaboration and (3 propose a prototype for training users on concept mapping combining online and face-to-face activities. The proposed training application and the institutional certification are the next steps for the mature use of concept maps for educational as well as business purposes.
Bulo, Yaka; Saring, Yang; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak
In an automatic repeat request (ARQ) scheme, a packet is retransmitted if it gets corrupted due to transmission errors caused by the channel. However, an erroneous packet may contain both erroneous bits and correct bits and hence it may still contain useful information. The receiver may be able to combine this information from multiple erroneous copies to recover the correct packet. Packet combining (PC) is a simple and elegant scheme of error correction in transmitted packet, in which two received copies are XORed to obtain the bit location of erroneous bits. Thereafter, the packet is corrected by bit inversion of bit located as erroneous. Aggressive packet combining (APC) is a logic extension of PC primarily designed for wireless communication with objective of correcting error with low latency. PC offers higher throughput than APC, but PC does not correct double bit errors if occur in same bit location of erroneous copies of the packet. A hybrid technique is proposed to utilize the advantages of both APC and PC while attempting to remove the limitation of both. In the proposed technique, applications of APC-PC on Gilbert two state model has been studied. The simulation results show that the proposed technique offers better throughput than the conventional APC and lesser packet error rate than PC scheme.
Traving, Sachia J; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Riemann, Lasse
a slight positive effect for the attached-enzyme strategy, while the effect is negative for the free-enzyme strategy. The results of this study suggest that specific dissolved organic compounds in the ocean likely persist below a threshold concentration impervious to biological utilization. This could help...... must be utilized efficiently. The model revealed that surface-attached and free enzymes generate unique enzyme and substrate fields, and each deployment strategy has distinctive advantages. For a solitary cell, surface-attached enzymes are suggested to be the most cost-efficient strategy. This strategy...
Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.
Full Text Available The paper aims to present a scientific approach to the creation, testing and validation of a model for performance measurement for university-industry collaboration (UIC. The main idea of the design process is to capitalize on existing success factors, facilitators and opportunities (motivation factors, knowledge transfer channels and identified benefits and to diminish or avoid potential threats and barriers that might interfere with such collaborations. The main purpose of the applied methodology is to identify solutions and measures to overcome the disadvantages, conflicts or risk issues and to facilitate the open innovation of industrial companies and universities. The methodology adopted was differentiated by two perspectives: (1 a business model reflecting the university perspective along with an inventory of key performance indicators (KPIs; (2 a performance measurement model (including performance criteria and indicators and an associated methodology (assimilated to an audit that could help companies increase collaboration with universities in the context of open innovation. In addition, in order to operationalize the proposed model (facilitating practical implementation, an Excel tool has been created to help identifying potential sources of innovation. The main contributions of the research concern the expansion of UICs knowledge to enhance open innovation and to define an effective performance measurement model and instrument (tested and validated by a case study for companies.
van Klaveren, David; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Serruys, Patrick W; Kent, David M
Clinical prediction models that support treatment decisions are usually evaluated for their ability to predict the risk of an outcome rather than treatment benefit-the difference between outcome risk with vs. without therapy. We aimed to define performance metrics for a model's ability to predict treatment benefit. We analyzed data of the Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial and of three recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials. We assessed alternative prediction models with a conventional risk concordance-statistic (c-statistic) and a novel c-statistic for benefit. We defined observed treatment benefit by the outcomes in pairs of patients matched on predicted benefit but discordant for treatment assignment. The 'c-for-benefit' represents the probability that from two randomly chosen matched patient pairs with unequal observed benefit, the pair with greater observed benefit also has a higher predicted benefit. Compared to a model without treatment interactions, the SYNTAX score II had improved ability to discriminate treatment benefit (c-for-benefit 0.590 vs. 0.552), despite having similar risk discrimination (c-statistic 0.725 vs. 0.719). However, for the simplified stroke-thrombolytic predictive instrument (TPI) vs. the original stroke-TPI, the c-for-benefit (0.584 vs. 0.578) was similar. The proposed methodology has the potential to measure a model's ability to predict treatment benefit not captured with conventional performance metrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dea’a Al-Deen Al-Sraheen
Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to propose a model for limiting earning management practices among manufacturing firms in Jordan. In order to do so, two independent variables are examined in this paper, namely, political influence and CEO Duality. Discretionary total accruals according to the modified Jones model (1991 was used in order to estimate the level of earnings management, which is the dependent variable. The sample comprised 64 companies for the financial year 2013. The results suggest that a positive and significant association existed among both political influence and CEO duality and earning management. This means that both independent variables exacerbated earnings management. Further research is required to determine what urgent legislation should be developed to restrict the presence of members who have political connections on the board of directors. Also, the need exists for the separation of roles of Chairman and CEO to ensure the independence and complying with the requirements of corporate governance.
Sandryas Alief Kurniasanti
Full Text Available Jember regency is a agricultural and plantation central area. The soybean plant is principal commodity that competes fiercely with production of corn. PT Mitratani Dua Tujuh (PT MT 27 try to find new technology by processing edamame to frozen edamame that focus in the export market. The primary market of frozen edamame besides domestic market is Japan. The aim of this research is to analyze competitiveness and formulated the priority of competitiveness alternative strategy on frozen edamame product in PT MT 27. The research method used is the analysis of competitiveness by using revealed comparative advantage to know the export performance of the product on the world market then analyze a factor of competition by using Diamond Porter's Theory. Alternative strategies are resulted from the SWOT analysis and priorities are determined by using analytical hierarchy process from the expert source. The research results about alternative strategy priority to increase the competitiveness of frozen edamame products in PT MT 27 are: (1 market diversification, (2 product diversification, (3 improve cooperation overseas, (4 develop a research and development division, (5 develop corporate social responsibility, (6 proper financial management, and (7 to develop an agricultural area greenhouse-based to avoid bad weather as tropical country. Managerial implications of this research are expanding existing markets, and develop type of product produced to satisfy the export market and also savings cost production. Keywords: competitiveness, frozen edamame, Mitratani Dua Tujuh, competitiveness strategiesABSTRAKKabupaten Jember merupakan sentra daerah pertanian dan perkebunan. Tanaman kedelai merupakan komoditas utama yang bersaing ketat dengan produksi jagung. PT Mitratani Dua Tujuh (PT MT 27 mencoba untuk mencari terobosan baru yaitu dengan mengolah edamame menjadi edamame beku siap makan. Pasar utama edamame beku ini selain pasar domestik adalah Jepang. Tujuan
Rita Saavedra Roche
of Technologies of the Health is buried in the execution of an investigation project - action that has as starting point the first floor level of participation of the educational ones in the investigation and as general objective to incorporate to the same in a systematic way and sustained to the investigation activity through a strategy that allows the trasformación and development of the scientific culture of the cloister
Full Text Available There is a growing trend in the Netherlands for outsourcing public construction activities to the private sector through the use of integrated contracts. There is also an increasing emphasis from public clients on the use of RAMS and life cycle costing (LCC in the design process of infrastructural projects to improve the performance of designed systems and optimize the project cost. RAMS is an acronym for `reliability, availability, maintainability and safety' and represents a collection of techniques to provide predictions of the performance targets of the required system. Increasingly, RAMS targets are being specified in invitation to tender or contract documents and the parties responsible for the design are required to provide evidence of its application in their design. Recent evidence from practice, complemented with a literature study, has shown that the knowledge and application of RAMS in infrastructural designs are in their infancy compared with other industrial sectors and many designers in construction do not have the necessary knowledge and experience to apply it. This paper describes a proposed model for the integration of RAMS and LCC into the design process in construction. A variation of the model for the application of RAMS in `design, build, finance and maintain' (DBFM contracts that include maintenance requirements is also proposed. The two models involve providing guidelines to simplify the application of RAMs by the designers. The model has been validated for its practicality and usefulness during a workshop by experienced designers. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0100 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Number 4, 2009 , pp. 179-192(14
Full Text Available The immune system (IS and the central nervous system (CNS are complex cognitive networks involved in defining the identity (self of the individual through recognition and memory processes that enable one to anticipate responses to stimuli. Brain memory has traditionally been classified as either implicit or explicit on psychological and anatomical grounds, with reminiscences of the evolutionarily-based innate-adaptive IS responses. Beyond the multineuronal networks of the CNS, we propose a theoretical model of brain memory integrating the CNS as a whole. This is achieved by analogical reasoning between the operational rules of recognition and memory processes in both systems, coupled to an evolutionary analysis. In this new model, the hippocampus is no longer specifically ascribed to explicit memory but rather it both becomes part of the innate (implicit memory system and tightly controls the explicit memory system. Alike the antigen presenting cells for the IS, the hippocampus would integrate transient and pseudo-specific (i.e. danger-fear memories and would drive the formation of long-term and highly specific or explicit memories (i.e. the taste of the Proust’s madeleine cake by the more complex and recent, evolutionarily speaking, neocortex. Experimental and clinical evidence is provided to support the model. We believe that the singularity of this model’s approximation could help to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms operating in brain memory strategies from a large-scale network perspective.
Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Faure, Florence
The immune system (IS) and the central nervous system (CNS) are complex cognitive networks involved in defining the identity (self) of the individual through recognition and memory processes that enable one to anticipate responses to stimuli. Brain memory has traditionally been classified as either implicit or explicit on psychological and anatomical grounds, with reminiscences of the evolutionarily-based innate-adaptive IS responses. Beyond the multineuronal networks of the CNS, we propose a theoretical model of brain memory integrating the CNS as a whole. This is achieved by analogical reasoning between the operational rules of recognition and memory processes in both systems, coupled to an evolutionary analysis. In this new model, the hippocampus is no longer specifically ascribed to explicit memory but rather it both becomes part of the innate (implicit) memory system and tightly controls the explicit memory system. Alike the antigen presenting cells for the IS, the hippocampus would integrate transient and pseudo-specific (i.e., danger-fear) memories and would drive the formation of long-term and highly specific or explicit memories (i.e., the taste of the Proust’s madeleine cake) by the more complex and recent, evolutionarily speaking, neocortex. Experimental and clinical evidence is provided to support the model. We believe that the singularity of this model’s approximation could help to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms operating in brain memory strategies from a large-scale network perspective. PMID:26869886
Wang, Tao; Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping
Highlights: •We model herding effect in emergency from perspective of evolutionary game theory. •Rational subpopulation survives only when the game parameter is significantly large. •Herding effect may arise if the relative rewarding for rational agents is small. •Increasing the relative rewarding for rational agents will prevent herding effect. •The evolution result is unstable if the game parameter approaches critical points. -- Abstract: So far, there has been no conclusion on the mechanism for herding, which is often discussed in the academia. Assuming escaping behavior of individuals in emergency is rational rather than out of panic according to recent findings in social psychology, we investigate the behavioral evolution of large crowds from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. Specifically, evolution of the whole population divided into two subpopulations, namely the co-evolution of strategy and game structure, is numerically simulated based on the game theoretical models built and the evolutionary rule designed, and a series of phenomena including extinction of one subpopulation and herding effect are predicted in the proposed framework. Furthermore, if the rewarding for rational agents becomes significantly larger than that for emotional ones, herding effect will disappear. It is exciting that some phase transition points with interesting properties for the system can be found. In addition, our model framework is able to explain the fact that it is difficult for mavericks to prevail in society. The current results of this work will be helpful in understanding and restraining herding effect in real life
An ensemble-based Gaussian mixture (GM) filtering framework is studied in this paper in term of its dependence on the choice of the clustering method to construct the GM. In this approach, a number of particles sampled from the posterior distribution are first integrated forward with the dynamical model for forecasting. A GM representation of the forecast distribution is then constructed from the forecast particles. Once an observation becomes available, the forecast GM is updated according to Bayes’ rule. This leads to (i) a Kalman filter-like update of the particles, and (ii) a Particle filter-like update of their weights, generalizing the ensemble Kalman filter update to non-Gaussian distributions. We focus on investigating the impact of the clustering strategy on the behavior of the filter. Three different clustering methods for constructing the prior GM are considered: (i) a standard kernel density estimation, (ii) clustering with a specified mixture component size, and (iii) adaptive clustering (with a variable GM size). Numerical experiments are performed using a two-dimensional reactive contaminant transport model in which the contaminant concentration and the heterogenous hydraulic conductivity fields are estimated within a confined aquifer using solute concentration data. The experimental results suggest that the performance of the GM filter is sensitive to the choice of the GM model. In particular, increasing the size of the GM does not necessarily result in improved performances. In this respect, the best results are obtained with the proposed adaptive clustering scheme.
Christian A. Hillbrand
Full Text Available All kind of strategic tasks within an enterprise require a deep understanding of its critical key success factors and their interrelations as well as an in-depth analysis of relevant environmental influences. Due to the openness of the underlying system, there seems to be an indefinite number of unknown variables influencing strategic goals. Cybernetic or systemic planning techniques try to overcome this intricacy by modeling the most important cause-and-effect relations within such a system. Although it seems to be obvious that there are specific influences between business variables, it is mostly impossible to identify the functional dependencies underlying such relations. Hence simulation or evaluation techniques based on such hypothetically assumed models deliver inaccurate results or fail completely. This paper addresses the need for accurate strategy planning models and proposes an approach to prove their cause-andeffect relations by empirical evidence. Based on this foundation an approach for the approximation of the underlying cause-andeffect function by the means of Artificial Neural Networks is developed.
Full Text Available According to the statistics of occupational accidents, it is observed that the number of accidents occurred in shipbuilding industry is high and the rate of deaths and serious injuries among these accidents is higher than in other industries. However, the number of the studies to prevent these accidents in both industrial and scientific practices is considerably low. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop an efficient risk preventive model in accordance with occupational health and safety regulations for industrial organizations. The approach proposed in this study differs from those described in the literature, because it is based on fuzzy set theory in order to cope with uncertainties on probability and severity definitions in terms of occupational health and safety. Furthermore, in this paper, risk severity is considered in terms of harm to worker, harm to environment, and harm to hardware, whereas in the literature, risk severity is generally considered solely in terms of only harm to worker. Then, risk magnitude is obtained by utilizing fuzzy inference system. The proposed approach is applied to a shipyard located in the Marmara Region in order to illustrate the applicability of the model.
Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.
A dosimetry model based on a four-year study in Beagle dogs was developed to predict patterns of absorbed radiation doses for people exposed by inhalation to 241 AmO 2 . Following a single inhalation exposure to one of three sizes of monodisperse or a polydisperse aerosol of 241 AmO 2 , pairs of dogs were sacrificed at 8, 32, 64 and 256 days, and 2 and 4 years. For about 80% of the initial lung burden, the retention halftimes were 11, 18, 26 and 27 days for the 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μm aerodynamic diameter and the 1.8 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter aerosols, respectively. For the remaining 20% of the initial lung burden, the retention halftimes were between 200 to 300 days with no apparent particle size influence. Additional 241 Am metabolic studies reported in the literature using inhalation exposure or injection of the citrate complex were synthesized in the model as were eleven reported cases of human inhalation exposure. This model is compared to the ICRP II and TGLD lung models, both developed by analogy to Pu metabolism. The proposed model differs from these latter models in two important areas: (a) lung retention of 241 AmO 2 could not be adapted to the classifications used in these models, and (b) the fractional translocation from lung to other organs is 2 to 8 times larger. These factors considerably alter the predicted radiation dose distribution among organs and lead to the conclusion that derived radiation protection standards for 241 AmO 2 inhalation exposure should be modified. (author)
Hughes, B P; Anund, A; Falkmer, T
Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a 'vision zero', or 'safe system' style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pasero, E.; Cannata, G.; Gallerano, F.
validity of the proposed model was tested through channel flow simulation with friction-velocity-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 180 to 2340. (author)
This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes
Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)
This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.
Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Garza, Jennifer; Liv, Per; Wahlström, Jens
Cost-efficient assessments of job exposures in large populations may be obtained from models in which 'true' exposures assessed by expensive measurement methods are estimated from easily accessible and cheap predictors. Typically, the models are built on the basis of a validation study comprising 'true' exposure data as well as an extensive collection of candidate predictors from questionnaires or company data, which cannot all be included in the models due to restrictions in the degrees of freedom available for modeling. In these situations, predictors need to be selected using procedures that can identify the best possible subset of predictors among the candidates. The present study compares two strategies for selecting a set of predictor variables. One strategy relies on stepwise hypothesis testing of associations between predictors and exposure, while the other uses cluster analysis to reduce the number of predictors without relying on empirical information about the measured exposure. Both strategies were applied to the same dataset on biomechanical exposure and candidate predictors among computer users, and they were compared in terms of identified predictors of exposure as well as the resulting model fit using bootstrapped resamples of the original data. The identified predictors were, to a large part, different between the two strategies, and the initial model fit was better for the stepwise testing strategy than for the clustering approach. Internal validation of the models using bootstrap resampling with fixed predictors revealed an equally reduced model fit in resampled datasets for both strategies. However, when predictor selection was incorporated in the validation procedure for the stepwise testing strategy, the model fit was reduced to the extent that both strategies showed similar model fit. Thus, the two strategies would both be expected to perform poorly with respect to predicting biomechanical exposure in other samples of computer users. © The
Jamil, Muh.Hatta; Tenriawaru, Nixia A; Akhsan Djalaluddin; . Rukka, Rusli M
Evaluasi Model Strategi Peningkatan Kinerja Balai Penyuluhan Pertanian dan Pengembangan BPP Model (Posluhdes) bertujuan mengungkapkan dan menyusun desain evaluasi implementasi model dari modul yang telah diimplementasikan pada penelitian tahap sebelumnya dan diikuti dengan proses transfer pengetahuan dan keterampilan. Melakukan pendampingan pembentukan secara partisipatif BPP Model (Posluhdes) serta mengukur partisipasi petani pada penyuluhan pertanian dan peran penyuluh dalam menjalankan kee...
Deyvison de Lima Oliveira
Full Text Available Investments in Information Systems (IS have been significantly increasing and hence the relevance of the studies on the IS success is persistent. Delone and Mclean (2003 developed an IS successful model which is a benchmark for researches in the area, however, in the perspective of the public sector, studies are still rare. In this research it was sought to propose an exploratory model of successful IS in public administration, from the identification of each construct items of the Delone and McLean (2003 original model, through multiple case studies in three Municipalities and a Town Hall of the Southern Cone of Rondônia state, in Brazil. Based on the empirical research, it was found that the IS success factors in municipal public administration are close to those factors indicated in the reviewed literature, however, showing some particularities of the public sector. A model of successful factors and items of IS, from the confrontation between literature and empirical data, is presented in the end of this work.