WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling quantitative experiments

  1. Quantitative modelling of HDPE spurt experiments using wall slip and generalised Newtonian flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelder, den C.F.J.; Koopmans, R.J.; Molenaar, J.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative model to describe capillary rheometer experiments is presented. The model can generate ‘two-branched' discontinuous flow curves and the associated pressure oscillations. Polymer compressibility in the barrel, incompressible axisymmetric generalised Newtonian flow in the die, and a

  2. Experiment selection for the discrimination of semi-quantitative models of dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatcheva, [No Value; de Jong, H; Bernard, O; Mars, NJI

    Modeling an experimental system often results in a number of alternative models that are all justified by the available experimental data. To discriminate among these models, additional experiments are needed. Existing methods for the selection of discriminatory experiments in statistics and in

  3. Discrimination of Semi-Quantitative Models by Experiment Selection: Method Application in Population Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatcheva, Ivayla; Bernard, Olivier; de Jong, Hidde; Gouze, Jean-Luc; Mars, Nicolaas; Nebel, B.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling an experimental system often results in a number of alternative models that are justified equally well by the experimental data. In order to discriminate between these models, additional experiments are needed. We present a method for the discrimination of models in the form of

  4. Quantitative nature of overexpression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression experiments are sometimes considered as qualitative experiments designed to identify novel proteins and study their function. However, in order to draw conclusions regarding protein overexpression through association analyses using large-scale biological data sets, we need to recognize the quantitative nature of overexpression experiments. Here I discuss the quantitative features of two different types of overexpression experiment: absolute and relative. I also introduce the four primary mechanisms involved in growth defects caused by protein overexpression: resource overload, stoichiometric imbalance, promiscuous interactions, and pathway modulation associated with the degree of overexpression. PMID:26543202

  5. First experiences with model based iterative reconstructions influence on quantitative plaque volume and intensity measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Broersen, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and the model- based IR (Veo) reconstruction algorithm in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) im- ages on quantitative measurements in coronary arteries for plaque volumes and intensities. Methods...

  6. Quantitative reactive modeling and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness , which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.

  7. Quantitative Analogue Experimental Sequence Stratigraphy : Modelling landscape evolution and sequence stratigraphy of river-shelf sedimentary systems by quantitative analogue experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, Maximiliaan Wilhelmus Ignatius Maria van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis reports a series of flume tank experiments that were conducted to model the stratigraphic evolution of river-delta systems. Chapter 1 introduces the river-delta sedimentary system that is subject of modelling. The chapter also includes an overview of previous research and the summary and

  8. Quantitative predictions from competition theory with incomplete information on model parameters tested against experiments across diverse taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    We derive an analytical approximation for making quantitative predictions for ecological communities as a function of the mean intensity of the inter-specific competition and the species richness. This method, with only a fraction of the model parameters (carrying capacities and competition coefficients), is able to predict accurately empirical measurements covering a wide variety of taxa (algae, plants, protozoa).

  9. 基于AHP的作战实验综合量化评估模型%General Quantitative Evaluating Model of Operational Experiment Based on AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾亚; 吴从晖; 陆志斌; 李路遥; 盖森

    2017-01-01

    Operational experiment is an important method on researching warfare , and the evaluation of operational experi-ment is an important step which ensures the scientificalness and effectiveness of its conclusion .On the base of researching correlative theories such as AHP and the evaluation to operational experiment , this thesis puts forward a general quantitative evaluating model of operational experiment .The model accomplishes weight-distribution to operational experiment evaluation index system based on AHP , achieves nondimensionalization and normalization to isomeric result of indexes by designing nor -malized functions, and educes general evaluating result with the help of quantitative formula .In the end, a case validates the effectiveness and practicability of model sufficiently .%作战实验是研究战争的重要手段,作战实验评估是确保作战实验结论科学性、有效性的重要环节.在研究作战实验评估、数据分析等相关理论的基础上,针对作战实验评估指标结果异构、评估结论分散等问题,提出了一种作战实验综合量化评估模型,该模型基于层次分析法实现了对评估指标体系的权重分配,构建指标归一化算法实现了对异构的指标结果数据的无量纲和归一化处理,并通过定量计算公式得出作战实验的综合评估结果,最后的案例分析充分证明了模型的有效性和实用性.

  10. First experiences with model based iterative reconstructions influence on quantitative plaque volume and intensity measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, H.; Kitslaar, P.H.; Broersen, A.; Gerke, O.; Dijkstra, J.; Thygesen, J.; Egstrup, K.; Lambrechtsen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and the model-based IR (Veo) reconstruction algorithm in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images on quantitative measurements in coronary arteries for plaque volumes and intensities. Methods: Three patients had three independent dose reduced CCTA performed and reconstructed with 30% ASIR (CTDI vol at 6.7 mGy), 60% ASIR (CTDI vol 4.3 mGy) and Veo (CTDI vol at 1.9 mGy). Coronary plaque analysis was performed for each measured CCTA volumes, plaque burden and intensities. Results: Plaque volume and plaque burden show a decreasing tendency from ASIR to Veo as median volume for ASIR is 314 mm 3 and 337 mm 3 –252 mm 3 for Veo and plaque burden is 42% and 44% for ASIR to 39% for Veo. The lumen and vessel volume decrease slightly from 30% ASIR to 60% ASIR with 498 mm 3 –391 mm 3 for lumen volume and vessel volume from 939 mm 3 to 830 mm 3 . The intensities did not change overall between the different reconstructions for either lumen or plaque. Conclusion: We found a tendency of decreasing plaque volumes and plaque burden but no change in intensities with the use of low dose Veo CCTA (1.9 mGy) compared to dose reduced ASIR CCTA (6.7 mGy & 4.3 mGy), although more studies are warranted. - Highlights: • Veo decrease plaque volumes and plaque burden using low-dose CCTA. • Moving from ASIR 30%, ASIR 60% to Veo did not appear to influence the plaque intensities. • Studies including larger sample size are needed to investigate the effect on plaque.

  11. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  12. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes. More details...

  13. Operations management research methodologies using quantitative modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, J.W.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of quantitative model-based research in operations management, focusing on research methodology. Distinguishes between empirical and axiomatic research, and furthermore between descriptive and normative research. Presents guidelines for doing quantitative model-based research in

  14. A quantitative experiment on the fountain effect in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, M. L.; Herrera, T.; Neñer, L.; Peralta Gavensky, L.; Turco, F.; Luzuriaga, J.

    2017-09-01

    Superfluid helium, a state of matter existing at low temperatures, shows many remarkable properties. One example is the so called fountain effect, where a heater can produce a jet of helium. This converts heat into mechanical motion; a machine with no moving parts, but working only below 2 K. Allen and Jones first demonstrated the effect in 1938, but their work was basically qualitative. We now present data of a quantitative version of the experiment. We have measured the heat supplied, the temperature and the height of the jet produced. We also develop equations, based on the two-fluid model of superfluid helium, that give a satisfactory fit to the data. The experiment has been performed by advanced undergraduate students in our home institution, and illustrates in a vivid way some of the striking properties of the superfluid state.

  15. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma potency model ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and comprehensive rat intra-pleural (IP) dose characterization data set with a wide variety of EP size, shape, crystallographic, chemical, and bio-durability properties facilitated extensive statistical analyses of 50 rat IP exposure test results for evaluation of alternative dose pleural mesothelioma response models. Utilizing logistic regression, maximum likelihood evaluations of thousands of alternative dose metrics based on hundreds of individual EP dimensional variations within each test sample, four major findings emerged: (1) data for simulations of short-term EP dose changes in vivo (mild acid leaching) provide superior predictions of tumor incidence compared to non-acid leached data; (2) sum of the EP surface areas (ÓSA) from these mildly acid-leached samples provides the optimum holistic dose response model; (3) progressive removal of dose associated with very short and/or thin EPs significantly degrades resultant ÓEP or ÓSA dose-based predictive model fits, as judged by Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC); and (4) alternative, biologically plausible model adjustments provide evidence for reduced potency of EPs with length/width (aspect) ratios 80 µm. Regar

  16. Design and optimization of reverse-transcription quantitative PCR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichopad, Ales; Kitchen, Rob; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Becker, Christiane; Ståhlberg, Anders; Kubista, Mikael

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a valuable technique for accurately and reliably profiling and quantifying gene expression. Typically, samples obtained from the organism of study have to be processed via several preparative steps before qPCR. We estimated the errors of sample withdrawal and extraction, reverse transcription (RT), and qPCR that are introduced into measurements of mRNA concentrations. We performed hierarchically arranged experiments with 3 animals, 3 samples, 3 RT reactions, and 3 qPCRs and quantified the expression of several genes in solid tissue, blood, cell culture, and single cells. A nested ANOVA design was used to model the experiments, and relative and absolute errors were calculated with this model for each processing level in the hierarchical design. We found that intersubject differences became easily confounded by sample heterogeneity for single cells and solid tissue. In cell cultures and blood, the noise from the RT and qPCR steps contributed substantially to the overall error because the sampling noise was less pronounced. We recommend the use of sample replicates preferentially to any other replicates when working with solid tissue, cell cultures, and single cells, and we recommend the use of RT replicates when working with blood. We show how an optimal sampling plan can be calculated for a limited budget. .

  17. Quantitative interface models for simulating microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Z.; Wang, T.; Zhou, S.H.; Liu, Z.K.; Chen, L.Q.

    2004-01-01

    To quantitatively simulate microstructural evolution in real systems, we investigated three different interface models: a sharp-interface model implemented by the software DICTRA and two diffuse-interface models which use either physical order parameters or artificial order parameters. A particular example is considered, the diffusion-controlled growth of a γ ' precipitate in a supersaturated γ matrix in Ni-Al binary alloys. All three models use the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters from the same databases. The temporal evolution profiles of composition from different models are shown to agree with each other. The focus is on examining the advantages and disadvantages of each model as applied to microstructure evolution in alloys

  18. Quantitative system validation in model driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Hilger; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Raskin, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The European STREP project Quasimodo1 develops theory, techniques and tool components for handling quantitative constraints in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems, covering in particular real-time, hybrid and stochastic aspects. This tutorial highlights the advances made, focus...

  19. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    phones and websites. Acknowledging that now more than ever, systems come in contact with the physical world, we need to revise the way we construct models and verification algorithms, to take into account the behavior of systems in the presence of approximate, or quantitative information, provided...

  20. Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models

    CERN Document Server

    Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...

  1. [Teaching quantitative methods in public health: the EHESP experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; Astagneau, Pascal; Desvarieux, Moïse; Chambaud, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Many scientific disciplines, including epidemiology and biostatistics, are used in the field of public health. These quantitative sciences are fundamental tools necessary for the practice of future professionals. What then should be the minimum quantitative sciences training, common to all future public health professionals? By comparing the teaching models developed in Columbia University and those in the National School of Public Health in France, the authors recognize the need to adapt teaching to the specific competencies required for each profession. They insist that all public health professionals, whatever their future career, should be familiar with quantitative methods in order to ensure that decision-making is based on a reflective and critical use of quantitative analysis.

  2. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    and directions of this research area, this paper provides a content analysis of 134 carefully identified papers on quantitative, formal models that address sustainability aspects in the forward SC. It was found that a preponderance of the publications and models appeared in a limited set of six journals......Sustainability, the consideration of environmental factors and social aspects, in supply chain management (SCM) has become a highly relevant topic for researchers and practitioners. The application of operations research methods and related models, i.e. formal modeling, for closed-loop SCM...... and reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  3. Scientific aspects of urolithiasis: quantitative stone analysis and crystallization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandt, M.A.E.

    1986-03-01

    The theory, development and results of three quantitative analytical procedures are described and the crystallization experiments in a rotary evaporator are presented. Of the different methods of quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses, the 'internal standard method' and a microanalytical technique were identified as the two most useful procedures for the quantitative analysis of urinary calculi. 'Reference intensity ratios' for 6 major stone phases were determined and were used in the analysis of 20 calculi by the 'internal standard method'. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) methods were also investigated, developed and used in this study. Various procedures for the digestion of calculi were tested and a mixture of HNO 3 and HC1O 4 was eventually found to be the most successful. The major elements Ca, Mg, and P in 41 calculi were determined. For the determination of trace elements, a new microwave-assisted digestion procedure was developed and used for the digestion of 100 calculi. Fluoride concentrations in two stone collections were determined using a fluoride-ion sensitive electrode and the HNO 3 /HC1O 4 digestion prodecure used for the ICP study. A series of crystallization experiments involving a standard reference artificial urine was carried out in a rotary evaporator. The effect of pH and urine composition was studied by varying the former and by including uric acid, urea, creatinine, MgO, methylene blue, chondroitin sulphate A, and fluoride in the reference solution. Crystals formed in these experiments were subjected to qualitative and semi-quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Scanning electron microscopy of several deposits was also carried out. Similar deposits to those observed in calculi were obtained with the fast evaporator. The results presented suggest that this system provides a simple, yet very useful means for studying the crystallization characteristics of urine solutions

  4. Expert judgement models in quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosqvist, T. [VTT Automation, Helsinki (Finland); Tuominen, R. [VTT Automation, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed.

  5. Expert judgement models in quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosqvist, T.; Tuominen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed

  6. Guidelines for reporting quantitative mass spectrometry based experiments in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Deutsch, Eric W; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Jones, Andrew R; Eisenacher, Martin; Mayer, Gerhard; Campos, Alex; Canals, Francesc; Bech-Serra, Joan-Josep; Carrascal, Montserrat; Gay, Marina; Paradela, Alberto; Navajas, Rosana; Marcilla, Miguel; Hernáez, María Luisa; Gutiérrez-Blázquez, María Dolores; Velarde, Luis Felipe Clemente; Aloria, Kerman; Beaskoetxea, Jabier; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan P

    2013-12-16

    Mass spectrometry is already a well-established protein identification tool and recent methodological and technological developments have also made possible the extraction of quantitative data of protein abundance in large-scale studies. Several strategies for absolute and relative quantitative proteomics and the statistical assessment of quantifications are possible, each having specific measurements and therefore, different data analysis workflows. The guidelines for Mass Spectrometry Quantification allow the description of a wide range of quantitative approaches, including labeled and label-free techniques and also targeted approaches such as Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM). The HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has invested considerable efforts to improve the standardization of proteomics data handling, representation and sharing through the development of data standards, reporting guidelines, controlled vocabularies and tooling. In this manuscript, we describe a key output from the HUPO-PSI-namely the MIAPE Quant guidelines, which have developed in parallel with the corresponding data exchange format mzQuantML [1]. The MIAPE Quant guidelines describe the HUPO-PSI proposal concerning the minimum information to be reported when a quantitative data set, derived from mass spectrometry (MS), is submitted to a database or as supplementary information to a journal. The guidelines have been developed with input from a broad spectrum of stakeholders in the proteomics field to represent a true consensus view of the most important data types and metadata, required for a quantitative experiment to be analyzed critically or a data analysis pipeline to be reproduced. It is anticipated that they will influence or be directly adopted as part of journal guidelines for publication and by public proteomics databases and thus may have an impact on proteomics laboratories across the world. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and

  7. Quantitative Modeling of Landscape Evolution, Treatise on Geomorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Schoorl, J.M.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Veldkamp, A.; Shroder, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews quantitative modeling of landscape evolution – which means that not just model studies but also modeling concepts are discussed. Quantitative modeling is contrasted with conceptual or physical modeling, and four categories of model studies are presented. Procedural studies focus

  8. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the affective (emotional) connotations of settings' appearances. The kinesthetic aspect evaluates the available space in terms of its suitability to accommodate human movement patterns, as well as the postural and anthrometric changes due to microgravity. Finally, social logic concerns how the volume and geometry of available space either affirms or contravenes established social and organizational expectations for spatial arrangements. Here, the criteria include privacy, status, social power, and proxemics (the uses of space as a medium of social communication).

  9. Quantitative metal magnetic memory reliability modeling for welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haiyan; Dang, Yongbin; Wang, Ben; Leng, Jiancheng

    2016-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory(MMM) testing has been widely used to detect welded joints. However, load levels, environmental magnetic field, and measurement noises make the MMM data dispersive and bring difficulty to quantitative evaluation. In order to promote the development of quantitative MMM reliability assessment, a new MMM model is presented for welded joints. Steel Q235 welded specimens are tested along the longitudinal and horizontal lines by TSC-2M-8 instrument in the tensile fatigue experiments. The X-ray testing is carried out synchronously to verify the MMM results. It is found that MMM testing can detect the hidden crack earlier than X-ray testing. Moreover, the MMM gradient vector sum K vs is sensitive to the damage degree, especially at early and hidden damage stages. Considering the dispersion of MMM data, the K vs statistical law is investigated, which shows that K vs obeys Gaussian distribution. So K vs is the suitable MMM parameter to establish reliability model of welded joints. At last, the original quantitative MMM reliability model is first presented based on the improved stress strength interference theory. It is shown that the reliability degree R gradually decreases with the decreasing of the residual life ratio T, and the maximal error between prediction reliability degree R 1 and verification reliability degree R 2 is 9.15%. This presented method provides a novel tool of reliability testing and evaluating in practical engineering for welded joints.

  10. Human eyeball model reconstruction and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qi; Wei, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Determining shape of the eyeball is important to diagnose eyeball disease like myopia. In this paper, we present an automatic approach to precisely reconstruct three dimensional geometric shape of eyeball from MR Images. The model development pipeline involved image segmentation, registration, B-Spline surface fitting and subdivision surface fitting, neither of which required manual interaction. From the high resolution resultant models, geometric characteristics of the eyeball can be accurately quantified and analyzed. In addition to the eight metrics commonly used by existing studies, we proposed two novel metrics, Gaussian Curvature Analysis and Sphere Distance Deviation, to quantify the cornea shape and the whole eyeball surface respectively. The experiment results showed that the reconstructed eyeball models accurately represent the complex morphology of the eye. The ten metrics parameterize the eyeball among different subjects, which can potentially be used for eye disease diagnosis.

  11. Statistical aspects of quantitative real-time PCR experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Robert R; Kubista, Mikael; Tichopad, Ales

    2010-04-01

    Experiments using quantitative real-time PCR to test hypotheses are limited by technical and biological variability; we seek to minimise sources of confounding variability through optimum use of biological and technical replicates. The quality of an experiment design is commonly assessed by calculating its prospective power. Such calculations rely on knowledge of the expected variances of the measurements of each group of samples and the magnitude of the treatment effect; the estimation of which is often uninformed and unreliable. Here we introduce a method that exploits a small pilot study to estimate the biological and technical variances in order to improve the design of a subsequent large experiment. We measure the variance contributions at several 'levels' of the experiment design and provide a means of using this information to predict both the total variance and the prospective power of the assay. A validation of the method is provided through a variance analysis of representative genes in several bovine tissue-types. We also discuss the effect of normalisation to a reference gene in terms of the measured variance components of the gene of interest. Finally, we describe a software implementation of these methods, powerNest, that gives the user the opportunity to input data from a pilot study and interactively modify the design of the assay. The software automatically calculates expected variances, statistical power, and optimal design of the larger experiment. powerNest enables the researcher to minimise the total confounding variance and maximise prospective power for a specified maximum cost for the large study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  13. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  14. Simulation - modeling - experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    After two workshops held in 2001 on the same topics, and in order to make a status of the advances in the domain of simulation and measurements, the main goals proposed for this workshop are: the presentation of the state-of-the-art of tools, methods and experiments in the domains of interest of the Gedepeon research group, the exchange of information about the possibilities of use of computer codes and facilities, about the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena, and about development and experiment needs. This document gathers 18 presentations (slides) among the 19 given at this workshop and dealing with: the deterministic and stochastic codes in reactor physics (Rimpault G.); MURE: an evolution code coupled with MCNP (Meplan O.); neutronic calculation of future reactors at EdF (Lecarpentier D.); advance status of the MCNP/TRIO-U neutronic/thermal-hydraulics coupling (Nuttin A.); the FLICA4/TRIPOLI4 thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling (Aniel S.); methods of disturbances and sensitivity analysis of nuclear data in reactor physics, application to VENUS-2 experimental reactor (Bidaud A.); modeling for the reliability improvement of an ADS accelerator (Biarotte J.L.); residual gas compensation of the space charge of intense beams (Ben Ismail A.); experimental determination and numerical modeling of phase equilibrium diagrams of interest in nuclear applications (Gachon J.C.); modeling of irradiation effects (Barbu A.); elastic limit and irradiation damage in Fe-Cr alloys: simulation and experiment (Pontikis V.); experimental measurements of spallation residues, comparison with Monte-Carlo simulation codes (Fallot M.); the spallation target-reactor coupling (Rimpault G.); tools and data (Grouiller J.P.); models in high energy transport codes: status and perspective (Leray S.); other ways of investigation for spallation (Audoin L.); neutrons and light particles production at intermediate energies (20-200 MeV) with iron, lead and uranium targets (Le Colley F

  15. Testing Process Predictions of Models of Risky Choice: A Quantitative Model Comparison Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten ePachur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a quantitative model comparison contrasting the process predictions of two prominent views on risky choice. One view assumes a trade-off between probabilities and outcomes (or nonlinear functions thereof and the separate evaluation of risky options (expectation models. Another view assumes that risky choice is based on comparative evaluation, limited search, aspiration levels, and the forgoing of trade-offs (heuristic models. We derived quantitative process predictions for a generic expectation model and for a specific heuristic model, namely the priority heuristic (Brandstätter, Gigerenzer, & Hertwig, 2006, and tested them in two experiments. The focus was on two key features of the cognitive process: acquisition frequencies (i.e., how frequently individual reasons are looked up and direction of search (i.e., gamble-wise vs. reason-wise. In Experiment 1, the priority heuristic predicted direction of search better than the expectation model (although neither model predicted the acquisition process perfectly; acquisition frequencies, however, were inconsistent with both models. Additional analyses revealed that these frequencies were primarily a function of what Rubinstein (1988 called similarity. In Experiment 2, the quantitative model comparison approach showed that people seemed to rely more on the priority heuristic in difficult problems, but to make more trade-offs in easy problems. This finding suggests that risky choice may be based on a mental toolbox of strategies.

  16. Testing process predictions of models of risky choice: a quantitative model comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Brandstätter, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative model comparison contrasting the process predictions of two prominent views on risky choice. One view assumes a trade-off between probabilities and outcomes (or non-linear functions thereof) and the separate evaluation of risky options (expectation models). Another view assumes that risky choice is based on comparative evaluation, limited search, aspiration levels, and the forgoing of trade-offs (heuristic models). We derived quantitative process predictions for a generic expectation model and for a specific heuristic model, namely the priority heuristic (Brandstätter et al., 2006), and tested them in two experiments. The focus was on two key features of the cognitive process: acquisition frequencies (i.e., how frequently individual reasons are looked up) and direction of search (i.e., gamble-wise vs. reason-wise). In Experiment 1, the priority heuristic predicted direction of search better than the expectation model (although neither model predicted the acquisition process perfectly); acquisition frequencies, however, were inconsistent with both models. Additional analyses revealed that these frequencies were primarily a function of what Rubinstein (1988) called “similarity.” In Experiment 2, the quantitative model comparison approach showed that people seemed to rely more on the priority heuristic in difficult problems, but to make more trade-offs in easy problems. This finding suggests that risky choice may be based on a mental toolbox of strategies. PMID:24151472

  17. Modeling conflict : research methods, quantitative modeling, and lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Hendrickson, Gerald A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the factors that lead countries into conflict. Specifically, political, social and economic factors may offer insight as to how prone a country (or set of countries) may be for inter-country or intra-country conflict. Largely methodological in scope, this study examines the literature for quantitative models that address or attempt to model conflict both in the past, and for future insight. The analysis concentrates specifically on the system dynamics paradigm, not the political science mainstream approaches of econometrics and game theory. The application of this paradigm builds upon the most sophisticated attempt at modeling conflict as a result of system level interactions. This study presents the modeling efforts built on limited data and working literature paradigms, and recommendations for future attempts at modeling conflict.

  18. The life review experience: Qualitative and quantitative characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Judith; Saadon-Grosman, Noam; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-02-01

    The life-review experience (LRE) is a most intriguing mental phenomenon that fascinated humans from time immemorial. In LRE one sees vividly a succession of one's own life-events. While reports of LRE are abundant in the medical, psychological and popular literature, not much is known about LRE's cognitive and psychological basis. Moreover, while LRE is known as part of the phenomenology of near-death experience, its manifestation in the general population and in other circumstances is still to be investigated. In a first step we studied the phenomenology of LRE by means of in-depth qualitative interview of 7 people who underwent full LRE. In a second step we extracted the main characters of LRE, to develop a questionnaire and an LRE-score that best reflects LRE phenomenology. This questionnaire was then run on 264 participants of diverse ages and backgrounds, and the resulted score was further subjected to statistical analyses. Qualitative analysis showed the LRE to manifest several subtypes of characteristics in terms of order, continuity, the covered period, extension to the future, valence, emotions, and perspective taking. Quantitative results in the normal population showed normal distribution of the LRE-score over participants. Re-experiencing one's own life-events, so-called LRE, is a phenomenon with well-defined characteristics, and its subcomponents may be also evident in healthy people. This suggests that a representation of life-events as a continuum exists in the cognitive system, and maybe further expressed in extreme conditions of psychological and physiological stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative modelling of the biomechanics of the avian syrinx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elemans, Coen P. H.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Hoffmann, Marc R.

    2003-01-01

    We review current quantitative models of the biomechanics of bird sound production. A quantitative model of the vocal apparatus was proposed by Fletcher (1988). He represented the syrinx (i.e. the portions of the trachea and bronchi with labia and membranes) as a single membrane. This membrane acts...

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Integrated Modeling for Stochastic Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation and optimization of an actual physics system are usually constructed based on the stochastic models, which have both qualitative and quantitative characteristics inherently. Most modeling specifications and frameworks find it difficult to describe the qualitative model directly. In order to deal with the expert knowledge, uncertain reasoning, and other qualitative information, a qualitative and quantitative combined modeling specification was proposed based on a hierarchical model structure framework. The new modeling approach is based on a hierarchical model structure which includes the meta-meta model, the meta-model and the high-level model. A description logic system is defined for formal definition and verification of the new modeling specification. A stochastic defense simulation was developed to illustrate how to model the system and optimize the result. The result shows that the proposed method can describe the complex system more comprehensively, and the survival probability of the target is higher by introducing qualitative models into quantitative simulation.

  1. Statistical methods for quantitative mass spectrometry proteomic experiments with labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberg Ann L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass Spectrometry utilizing labeling allows multiple specimens to be subjected to mass spectrometry simultaneously. As a result, between-experiment variability is reduced. Here we describe use of fundamental concepts of statistical experimental design in the labeling framework in order to minimize variability and avoid biases. We demonstrate how to export data in the format that is most efficient for statistical analysis. We demonstrate how to assess the need for normalization, perform normalization, and check whether it worked. We describe how to build a model explaining the observed values and test for differential protein abundance along with descriptive statistics and measures of reliability of the findings. Concepts are illustrated through the use of three case studies utilizing the iTRAQ 4-plex labeling protocol.

  2. Statistical methods for quantitative mass spectrometry proteomic experiments with labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Ann L; Mahoney, Douglas W

    2012-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry utilizing labeling allows multiple specimens to be subjected to mass spectrometry simultaneously. As a result, between-experiment variability is reduced. Here we describe use of fundamental concepts of statistical experimental design in the labeling framework in order to minimize variability and avoid biases. We demonstrate how to export data in the format that is most efficient for statistical analysis. We demonstrate how to assess the need for normalization, perform normalization, and check whether it worked. We describe how to build a model explaining the observed values and test for differential protein abundance along with descriptive statistics and measures of reliability of the findings. Concepts are illustrated through the use of three case studies utilizing the iTRAQ 4-plex labeling protocol.

  3. Quantitative and Functional Requirements for Bioluminescent Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vermeulen, Stefan; Vandesompele, J O; Vanderheyden, Katrien; Messens, Kathy; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescent cancer models are widely used but detailed quantification of the luciferase signal and functional comparison with a non-transfected control cell line are generally lacking. In the present study, we provide quantitative and functional tests for luciferase-transfected cells. We quantified the luciferase expression in BLM and HCT8/E11 transfected cancer cells, and examined the effect of long-term luciferin exposure. The present study also investigated functional differences between parental and transfected cancer cells. Our results showed that quantification of different single-cell-derived populations are superior with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. Quantification of luciferase protein level and luciferase bioluminescent activity is only useful when there is a significant difference in copy number. Continuous exposure of cell cultures to luciferin leads to inhibitory effects on mitochondrial activity, cell growth and bioluminescence. These inhibitory effects correlate with luciferase copy number. Cell culture and mouse xenograft assays showed no significant functional differences between luciferase-transfected and parental cells. Luciferase-transfected cells should be validated by quantitative and functional assays before starting large-scale experiments. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Aluminum in Deodorant Brands: A Guided Inquiry Learning Experience in Quantitative Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedwick, Victoria; Leal, Anne; Turner, Dea; Kanu, A. Bakarr

    2018-01-01

    The monitoring of metals in commercial products is essential for protecting public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. This article presents a guided inquiry (GI) experimental lab approach in a quantitative analysis lab class that enabled students' to determine the levels of aluminum in deodorant brands. The utility of a GI experimental…

  5. Quantitative Experiments to Explain the Change of Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Italo; Busarello, Gianni; Puddu, Emanuella; Leccia, Silvio; Merluzzi, Paola; Colantonio, Arturo; Moretti, Maria Ida; Galano, Silvia; Zappia, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The science education literature shows that students have difficulty understanding what causes the seasons. Incorrect explanations are often due to a lack of knowledge about the physical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. To address this, we present a module in which the students engage in quantitative measurements with a photovoltaic panel to…

  6. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  7. Modelling Urban Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    How can urban designers develop an emotionally satisfying environment not only for today's users but also for coming generations? Which devices can they use to elicit interesting and relevant urban experiences? This paper attempts to answer these questions by analyzing the design of Zuidas, a new...

  8. Modeling with Young Students--Quantitative and Qualitative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Joan; Ogborn, Jon; Boohan, Richard; Brosnan, Tim; Mellar, Harvey; Sakonidis, Babis

    1999-01-01

    A project created tasks and tools to investigate quality and nature of 11- to 14-year-old pupils' reasoning with quantitative and qualitative computer-based modeling tools. Tasks and tools were used in two innovative modes of learning: expressive, where pupils created their own models, and exploratory, where pupils investigated an expert's model.…

  9. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  10. Quantitative occupational risk model: Single hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Aneziris, O.N.; Bellamy, L.J.; Ale, B.J.M.; Oh, J.

    2017-01-01

    A model for the quantification of occupational risk of a worker exposed to a single hazard is presented. The model connects the working conditions and worker behaviour to the probability of an accident resulting into one of three types of consequence: recoverable injury, permanent injury and death. Working conditions and safety barriers in place to reduce the likelihood of an accident are included. Logical connections are modelled through an influence diagram. Quantification of the model is based on two sources of information: a) number of accidents observed over a period of time and b) assessment of exposure data of activities and working conditions over the same period of time and the same working population. Effectiveness of risk reducing measures affecting the working conditions, worker behaviour and/or safety barriers can be quantified through the effect of these measures on occupational risk. - Highlights: • Quantification of occupational risk from a single hazard. • Influence diagram connects working conditions, worker behaviour and safety barriers. • Necessary data include the number of accidents and the total exposure of worker • Effectiveness of risk reducing measures is quantified through the impact on the risk • An example illustrates the methodology.

  11. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

  12. Simulation - modeling - experiment; Simulation - modelisation - experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    After two workshops held in 2001 on the same topics, and in order to make a status of the advances in the domain of simulation and measurements, the main goals proposed for this workshop are: the presentation of the state-of-the-art of tools, methods and experiments in the domains of interest of the Gedepeon research group, the exchange of information about the possibilities of use of computer codes and facilities, about the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena, and about development and experiment needs. This document gathers 18 presentations (slides) among the 19 given at this workshop and dealing with: the deterministic and stochastic codes in reactor physics (Rimpault G.); MURE: an evolution code coupled with MCNP (Meplan O.); neutronic calculation of future reactors at EdF (Lecarpentier D.); advance status of the MCNP/TRIO-U neutronic/thermal-hydraulics coupling (Nuttin A.); the FLICA4/TRIPOLI4 thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling (Aniel S.); methods of disturbances and sensitivity analysis of nuclear data in reactor physics, application to VENUS-2 experimental reactor (Bidaud A.); modeling for the reliability improvement of an ADS accelerator (Biarotte J.L.); residual gas compensation of the space charge of intense beams (Ben Ismail A.); experimental determination and numerical modeling of phase equilibrium diagrams of interest in nuclear applications (Gachon J.C.); modeling of irradiation effects (Barbu A.); elastic limit and irradiation damage in Fe-Cr alloys: simulation and experiment (Pontikis V.); experimental measurements of spallation residues, comparison with Monte-Carlo simulation codes (Fallot M.); the spallation target-reactor coupling (Rimpault G.); tools and data (Grouiller J.P.); models in high energy transport codes: status and perspective (Leray S.); other ways of investigation for spallation (Audoin L.); neutrons and light particles production at intermediate energies (20-200 MeV) with iron, lead and uranium targets (Le Colley F

  13. Quantitative Sociodynamics Stochastic Methods and Models of Social Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This new edition of Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioral changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics and mathematics, but they have very often proven their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences as well. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (e.g. synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches, a fundamental dynamic model is obtained, which opens new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models a...

  14. Quantitative sociodynamics stochastic methods and models of social interaction processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioural changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics but they have very often proved their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces the most important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches a very fundamental dynamic model is obtained which seems to open new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models as special cases, e.g. the log...

  15. Undergraduate surgical nursing preparation and guided operating room experience: A quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if guided operating theatre experience in the undergraduate nursing curricula enhanced surgical knowledge and understanding of nursing care provided outside this specialist area in the pre- and post-operative surgical wards. Using quantitative analyses, undergraduate nurses were knowledge tested on areas of pre- and post-operative surgical nursing in their final semester of study. As much learning occurs in nurses' first year of practice, participants were re-tested again after their Graduate Nurse Program/Preceptorship year. Participants' results were compared to the model of operating room education they had participated in to determine if there was a relationship between the type of theatre education they experienced (if any) and their knowledge of surgical ward nursing. Findings revealed undergraduates nurses receiving guided operating theatre experience had a 76% pass rate compared to 56% with non-guided or no experience (p nurses achieved a 100% pass rate compared to 53% with non-guided or no experience (p research informs us that undergraduate nurses achieve greater learning about surgical ward nursing via guided operating room experience as opposed to surgical ward nursing experience alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been developed for prediction of quantitative snowfall in Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian Himalaya. The model predicts snowfall for two days in advance using daily recorded nine meteorological variables of past 20 winters from 1992–2012. There are six ...

  17. Methodologies for quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models : Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, Hp; Agoram, B.; Davies, M.R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, Ph.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  18. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, H. P.; Agoram, B.; Davies, M. R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  19. Generalized PSF modeling for optimized quantitation in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafinia, Saeed; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Jha, Abhinav K; Casey, Michael E; Kadrmas, Dan J; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-21

    Point-spread function (PSF) modeling offers the ability to account for resolution degrading phenomena within the PET image generation framework. PSF modeling improves resolution and enhances contrast, but at the same time significantly alters image noise properties and induces edge overshoot effect. Thus, studying the effect of PSF modeling on quantitation task performance can be very important. Frameworks explored in the past involved a dichotomy of PSF versus no-PSF modeling. By contrast, the present work focuses on quantitative performance evaluation of standard uptake value (SUV) PET images, while incorporating a wide spectrum of PSF models, including those that under- and over-estimate the true PSF, for the potential of enhanced quantitation of SUVs. The developed framework first analytically models the true PSF, considering a range of resolution degradation phenomena (including photon non-collinearity, inter-crystal penetration and scattering) as present in data acquisitions with modern commercial PET systems. In the context of oncologic liver FDG PET imaging, we generated 200 noisy datasets per image-set (with clinically realistic noise levels) using an XCAT anthropomorphic phantom with liver tumours of varying sizes. These were subsequently reconstructed using the OS-EM algorithm with varying PSF modelled kernels. We focused on quantitation of both SUV mean and SUV max , including assessment of contrast recovery coefficients, as well as noise-bias characteristics (including both image roughness and coefficient of-variability), for different tumours/iterations/PSF kernels. It was observed that overestimated PSF yielded more accurate contrast recovery for a range of tumours, and typically improved quantitative performance. For a clinically reasonable number of iterations, edge enhancement due to PSF modeling (especially due to over-estimated PSF) was in fact seen to lower SUV mean bias in small tumours. Overall, the results indicate that exactly matched PSF

  20. Statistical aspects of quantitative real-time PCR experiment design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitchen, R.R.; Kubista, Mikael; Tichopád, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2010), s. 231-236 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Real-time PCR * Experiment design * Nested analysis of variance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  1. An Inside View: The Utility of Quantitative Observation in Understanding College Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes quantitative observation as a method for understanding college educational experiences. Quantitative observation has been used widely in several fields and in K-12 education, but has had limited application to research in higher education and student affairs to date. The article describes the central tenets of quantitative…

  2. Evaluation of recent quantitative magnetospheric magnetic field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent quantitative magnetospheric field models contain many features not found in earlier models. Magnetopause models which include the effects of the dipole tilt were presented. More realistic models of the tail field include tail currents which close on the magnetopause, cross-tail currents of finite thickness, and cross-tail current models which model the position of the neutral sheet as a function of tilt. Finally, models have attempted to calculate the field of currents distributed in the inner magnetosphere. As the purpose of a magnetospheric model is to provide a mathematical description of the field that reasonably reproduces the observed magnetospheric field, several recent models were compared with the observed ΔB(B/sub observed/--B/sub main field/) contours. Models containing only contributions from magnetopause and tail current systems are able to reproduce the observed quiet time field only in an extremely qualitative way. The best quantitative agreement between models and observations occurs when currents distributed in the inner magnetosphere are added to the magnetopause and tail current systems. However, the distributed current models are valid only for zero tilt. Even the models which reproduce the average observed field reasonably well may not give physically reasonable field gradients. Three of the models evaluated contain regions in the near tail in which the field gradient reverses direction. One region in which all the models fall short is that around the polar cusp, though most can be used to calculate the position of the last closed field line reasonably well

  3. QUESP and QUEST revisited - fast and accurate quantitative CEST experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, Moritz; Angelovski, Goran; Demetriou, Eleni; McMahon, Michael T; Golay, Xavier; Scheffler, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) NMR or MRI experiments allow detection of low concentrated molecules with enhanced sensitivity via their proton exchange with the abundant water pool. Be it endogenous metabolites or exogenous contrast agents, an exact quantification of the actual exchange rate is required to design optimal pulse sequences and/or specific sensitive agents. Refined analytical expressions allow deeper insight and improvement of accuracy for common quantification techniques. The accuracy of standard quantification methodologies, such as quantification of exchange rate using varying saturation power or varying saturation time, is improved especially for the case of nonequilibrium initial conditions and weak labeling conditions, meaning the saturation amplitude is smaller than the exchange rate (γB 1  exchange rate using varying saturation power/time' (QUESP/QUEST) equations allow for more accurate exchange rate determination, and provide clear insights on the general principles to execute the experiments and to perform numerical evaluation. The proposed methodology was evaluated on the large-shift regime of paramagnetic chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer agents using simulated data and data of the paramagnetic Eu(III) complex of DOTA-tetraglycineamide. The refined formulas yield improved exchange rate estimation. General convergence intervals of the methods that would apply for smaller shift agents are also discussed. Magn Reson Med 79:1708-1721, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Performance Theories for Sentence Coding: Some Quantitative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Doris; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study deals with the patterns of word-by-word reading times over a sentence when the subject must code the linguistic information sufficiently for immediate verbatim recall. A class of quantitative models is considered that would account for reading times at phrase breaks. (Author/RM)

  5. Modeling Logistic Performance in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Tromp, S.O.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    In quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), food safety in the food chain is modeled and simulated. In general, prevalences, concentrations, and numbers of microorganisms in media are investigated in the different steps from farm to fork. The underlying rates and conditions (such as storage

  6. The Quantitative Evaluation of Functional Neuroimaging Experiments: The NPAIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strother, Stephen C.; Anderson, Jon; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a data-analysis framework and performance metrics for evaluating and optimizing the interaction between activation tasks, experimental designs, and the methodological choices and tools for data acquisition, preprocessing, data analysis, and extraction of statistical parametric maps...... of performance metrics obtained from \\$\\backslash\\$[/sup 15/ O]water PET studies of 12 age- and sex-matched data sets performing different motor tasks (8 subjects/set). For the 12 data sets we apply NPAIRS with both univariate and multivariate data-analysis approaches to: (1) demonstrate that this framework may...... be used to obtain reproducible SPMs from any data-analysis approach on a common Z -score scale (rSPM{ Z }); (2) demonstrate that the histogram of a rSPM{ Z } image may be modeled as the sum of a data-analysis-dependent noise distribution and a task-dependent, Gaussian signal distribution that scales...

  7. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  8. Modeling Users' Experiences with Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karapanos, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the field of Human-Computer Interaction has evolved from the study of the usability of interactive products towards a more holistic understanding of how they may mediate desired human experiences.  This book identifies the notion of diversity in usersʼ experiences with interactive products and proposes methods and tools for modeling this along two levels: (a) interpersonal diversity in usersʽ responses to early conceptual designs, and (b) the dynamics of usersʼ experiences over time. The Repertory Grid Technique is proposed as an alternative to standardized psychometric scales for modeling interpersonal diversity in usersʼ responses to early concepts in the design process, and new Multi-Dimensional Scaling procedures are introduced for modeling such complex quantitative data. iScale, a tool for the retrospective assessment of usersʼ experiences over time is proposed as an alternative to longitudinal field studies, and a semi-automated technique for the analysis of the elicited exper...

  9. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribba, B; Grimm, H P; Agoram, B; Davies, M R; Gadkar, K; Niederer, S; van Riel, N; Timmis, J; van der Graaf, P H

    2017-08-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early Development to focus discussions on two critical methodological aspects of QSP model development: optimal structural granularity and parameter estimation. We here report in a perspective article a summary of presentations and discussions. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  10. The 'model omnitron' proposed experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestero, A.

    1997-05-01

    The Model Omitron is a compact tokamak experiment which is designed by the Fusion Engineering Unit of ENEA and CITIF CONSORTIUM. The building of Model Omitron would allow for full testing of Omitron engineering, and partial testing of Omitron physics -at about 1/20 of the cost that has been estimated for the larger parent machine. In particular, due to the unusually large ohmic power densities (up to 100 times the nominal value in the Frascati FTU experiment), in Model Omitron the radial energy flux is reaching values comparable or higher than envisaged of the larger ignition experiments Omitron, Ignitor and Iter. Consequently, conditions are expected to occur at the plasma border in the scrape-off layer of Model Omitron, which are representative of the quoted larger experiments. Moreover, since all this will occur under ohmic heating alone, one will hopefully be able to derive an energy transport model fo the ohmic heating regime that is valid over a range of plasma parameters (in particular, of the temperature parameter) wider than it was possible before. In the Model Omitron experiment, finally - by reducing the plasma current and/or the toroidal field down to, say, 1/3 or 1/4 of the nominal values -additional topics can be tackled, such as: large safety-factor configurations (of interest for improving confinement), large aspect-ratio configurations (of interest for the investigation of advanced concepts in tokamaks), high beta (with RF heating -also of interest for the investigation of advanced concepts in tokamaks), long pulse discharges (of interest for demonstrating stationary conditions in the current profile)

  11. A Review on Quantitative Models for Sustainable Food Logistics Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soysal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades food logistics systems have seen the transition from a focus on traditional supply chain management to food supply chain management, and successively, to sustainable food supply chain management. The main aim of this study is to identify key logistical aims in these three phases and analyse currently available quantitative models to point out modelling challenges in sustainable food logistics management (SFLM. A literature review on quantitative studies is conducted and also qualitative studies are consulted to understand the key logistical aims more clearly and to identify relevant system scope issues. Results show that research on SFLM has been progressively developing according to the needs of the food industry. However, the intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes have not yet been handled properly in the identified studies. The majority of the works reviewed have not contemplated on sustainability problems, apart from a few recent studies. Therefore, the study concludes that new and advanced quantitative models are needed that take specific SFLM requirements from practice into consideration to support business decisions and capture food supply chain dynamics.

  12. Genomic value prediction for quantitative traits under the epistatic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shizhong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most quantitative traits are controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL. The contribution of each locus may be negligible but the collective contribution of all loci is usually significant. Genome selection that uses markers of the entire genome to predict the genomic values of individual plants or animals can be more efficient than selection on phenotypic values and pedigree information alone for genetic improvement. When a quantitative trait is contributed by epistatic effects, using all markers (main effects and marker pairs (epistatic effects to predict the genomic values of plants can achieve the maximum efficiency for genetic improvement. Results In this study, we created 126 recombinant inbred lines of soybean and genotyped 80 makers across the genome. We applied the genome selection technique to predict the genomic value of somatic embryo number (a quantitative trait for each line. Cross validation analysis showed that the squared correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted embryo numbers was 0.33 when only main (additive effects were used for prediction. When the interaction (epistatic effects were also included in the model, the squared correlation coefficient reached 0.78. Conclusions This study provided an excellent example for the application of genome selection to plant breeding.

  13. Wires in the soup: quantitative models of cell signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Living cells are capable of extracting information from their environments and mounting appropriate responses to a variety of associated challenges. The underlying signal transduction networks enabling this can be quite complex, necessitating for their unraveling by sophisticated computational modeling coupled with precise experimentation. Although we are still at the beginning of this process, some recent examples of integrative analysis of cell signaling are very encouraging. This review highlights the case of the NF-κB pathway in order to illustrate how a quantitative model of a signaling pathway can be gradually constructed through continuous experimental validation, and what lessons one might learn from such exercises. PMID:18291655

  14. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-01-01

    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s −1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is c p = 0.15. The v 3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively. (paper)

  15. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology: A Case for Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, C J; Ramanujan, S; Schmidt, B J; Ghobrial, O G; Lu, J; Heatherington, A C

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) has emerged as an innovative approach in model-informed drug discovery and development, supporting program decisions from exploratory research through late-stage clinical trials. In this commentary, we discuss the unique value of disease-scale "platform" QSP models that are amenable to reuse and repurposing to support diverse clinical decisions in ways distinct from other pharmacometrics strategies. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. Quantitative model of New Zealand's energy supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. R. [Victoria Univ., Wellington, (New Zealand); Lucas, P. D. [Ministry of Energy Resources (New Zealand)

    1977-10-15

    A mathematical model is presented to assist in an analysis of energy policy options available. The model is based on an engineering orientated description of New Zealand's energy supply and distribution system. The system is cast as a linear program, in which energy demand is satisfied at least cost. The capacities and operating modes of process plant (such as power stations, oil refinery units, and LP-gas extraction plants) are determined by the model, as well as the optimal mix of fuels supplied to the final consumers. Policy analysis with the model enables a wide ranging assessment of the alternatives and uncertainties within a consistent quantitative framework. It is intended that the model be used as a tool to investigate the relative effects of various policy options, rather than to present a definitive plan for satisfying the nation's energy requirements.

  17. Comparison of conventional, model-based quantitative planar, and quantitative SPECT image processing methods for organ activity estimation using In-111 agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantification of organ radionuclide uptake is important for patient-specific dosimetry. The quantitative accuracy from conventional conjugate view methods is limited by overlap of projections from different organs and background activity, and attenuation and scatter. In this work, we propose and validate a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of organ activities using 3D organ VOIs and a projector that models the image degrading effects. Both a physical phantom experiment and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) studies were used to evaluate the new method. In these studies, the accuracies and precisions of organ activity estimates for the QPlanar method were compared with those from conventional planar (CPlanar) processing methods with various corrections for scatter, attenuation and organ overlap, and a quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) processing method. Experimental planar and SPECT projections and registered CT data from an RSD Torso phantom were obtained using a GE Millenium VH/Hawkeye system. The MCS data were obtained from the 3D NCAT phantom with organ activity distributions that modelled the uptake of 111 In ibritumomab tiuxetan. The simulations were performed using parameters appropriate for the same system used in the RSD torso phantom experiment. The organ activity estimates obtained from the CPlanar, QPlanar and QSPECT methods from both experiments were compared. From the results of the MCS experiment, even with ideal organ overlap correction and background subtraction, CPlanar methods provided limited quantitative accuracy. The QPlanar method with accurate modelling of the physical factors increased the quantitative accuracy at the cost of requiring estimates of the organ VOIs in 3D. The accuracy of QPlanar approached that of QSPECT, but required much less acquisition and computation time. Similar results were obtained from the physical phantom experiment. We conclude that the QPlanar method, based

  18. A website evaluation model by integration of previous evaluation models using a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the ecommerce growth, websites play an essential role in business success. Therefore, many authors have offered website evaluation models since 1995. Although, the multiplicity and diversity of evaluation models make it difficult to integrate them into a single comprehensive model. In this paper a quantitative method has been used to integrate previous models into a comprehensive model that is compatible with them. In this approach the researcher judgment has no role in integration of models and the new model takes its validity from 93 previous models and systematic quantitative approach.

  19. Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-11-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. © 2013 WILEY

  20. A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2007-01-01

    A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

  1. Quantitative aspects and dynamic modelling of glucosinolate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Daniel

    . This enables comparison of transcript and protein levels across mutants and upon induction. I find that unchallenged plants show good correspondence between protein and transcript, but that treatment with methyljasmonate results in significant differences (chapter 1). Functional genomics are used to study......). The construction a dynamic quantitative model of GLS hydrolysis is described. Simulations reveal potential effects on auxin signalling that could reflect defensive strategies (chapter 4). The results presented grant insights into, not only the dynamics of GLS biosynthesis and hydrolysis, but also the relationship...

  2. Model for Quantitative Evaluation of Enzyme Replacement Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeva B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease is the most frequent lysosomal disorder. Its enzyme replacement treatment was the new progress of modern biotechnology, successfully used in the last years. The evaluation of optimal dose of each patient is important due to health and economical reasons. The enzyme replacement is the most expensive treatment. It must be held continuously and without interruption. Since 2001, the enzyme replacement therapy with Cerezyme*Genzyme was formally introduced in Bulgaria, but after some time it was interrupted for 1-2 months. The dose of the patients was not optimal. The aim of our work is to find a mathematical model for quantitative evaluation of ERT of Gaucher disease. The model applies a kind of software called "Statistika 6" via the input of the individual data of 5-year-old children having the Gaucher disease treated with Cerezyme. The output results of the model gave possibilities for quantitative evaluation of the individual trends in the development of the disease of each child and its correlation. On the basis of this results, we might recommend suitable changes in ERT.

  3. Quantitative Methods in Supply Chain Management Models and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Ioannis T

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Methods in Supply Chain Management presents some of the most important methods and tools available for modeling and solving problems arising in the context of supply chain management. In the context of this book, “solving problems” usually means designing efficient algorithms for obtaining high-quality solutions. The first chapter is an extensive optimization review covering continuous unconstrained and constrained linear and nonlinear optimization algorithms, as well as dynamic programming and discrete optimization exact methods and heuristics. The second chapter presents time-series forecasting methods together with prediction market techniques for demand forecasting of new products and services. The third chapter details models and algorithms for planning and scheduling with an emphasis on production planning and personnel scheduling. The fourth chapter presents deterministic and stochastic models for inventory control with a detailed analysis on periodic review systems and algorithmic dev...

  4. Quantifying Zika: Advancing the Epidemiology of Zika With Quantitative Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Lindsay T; Lessler, Justin; Johansson, Michael A

    2017-12-16

    When Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas, little was known about its biology, pathogenesis, and transmission potential, and the scope of the epidemic was largely hidden, owing to generally mild infections and no established surveillance systems. Surges in congenital defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome alerted the world to the danger of ZIKV. In the context of limited data, quantitative models were critical in reducing uncertainties and guiding the global ZIKV response. Here, we review some of the models used to assess the risk of ZIKV-associated severe outcomes, the potential speed and size of ZIKV epidemics, and the geographic distribution of ZIKV risk. These models provide important insights and highlight significant unresolved questions related to ZIKV and other emerging pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H E; Schober, H; Gonzalez, M A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Bermejo, F J; Fayos, R; Dawidowski, J [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M A; Vieira, S [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The nearly universal transport and dynamical properties of amorphous materials or glasses are investigated. Reasonably successful phenomenological models have been developed to account for these properties as well as the behaviour near the glass-transition, but quantitative microscopic models have had limited success. One hindrance to these investigations has been the lack of a material which exhibits glass-like properties in more than one phase at a given temperature. This report presents results of neutron-scattering experiments for one such material ordinary ethyl alcohol, which promises to be a model system for future investigations of glassy behaviour. (author). 8 refs.

  6. Tip-Enhanced Raman Voltammetry: Coverage Dependence and Quantitative Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Michael; Kang, Gyeongwon; Goubert, Guillaume; Chulhai, Dhabih V; Schatz, George C; Jensen, Lasse; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2017-01-11

    Electrochemical atomic force microscopy tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (EC-AFM-TERS) was employed for the first time to observe nanoscale spatial variations in the formal potential, E 0' , of a surface-bound redox couple. TERS cyclic voltammograms (TERS CVs) of single Nile Blue (NB) molecules were acquired at different locations spaced 5-10 nm apart on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Analysis of TERS CVs at different coverages was used to verify the observation of single-molecule electrochemistry. The resulting TERS CVs were fit to the Laviron model for surface-bound electroactive species to quantitatively extract the formal potential E 0' at each spatial location. Histograms of single-molecule E 0' at each coverage indicate that the electrochemical behavior of the cationic oxidized species is less sensitive to local environment than the neutral reduced species. This information is not accessible using purely electrochemical methods or ensemble spectroelectrochemical measurements. We anticipate that quantitative modeling and measurement of site-specific electrochemistry with EC-AFM-TERS will have a profound impact on our understanding of the role of nanoscale electrode heterogeneity in applications such as electrocatalysis, biological electron transfer, and energy production and storage.

  7. Bridging experiments, models and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria; Burrage, Kevin; Rodríguez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Computational models in physiology often integrate functional and structural information from a large range of spatiotemporal scales from the ionic to the whole organ level. Their sophistication raises both expectations and skepticism concerning how computational methods can improve our...... understanding of living organisms and also how they can reduce, replace, and refine animal experiments. A fundamental requirement to fulfill these expectations and achieve the full potential of computational physiology is a clear understanding of what models represent and how they can be validated. The present...... that contributes to defining the specific aspects of cardiac electrophysiology the MSE system targets, rather than being only an external test, and that this is driven by advances in experimental and computational methods and the combination of both....

  8. Stepwise kinetic equilibrium models of quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobbs Gary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous models for use in interpreting quantitative PCR (qPCR data are present in recent literature. The most commonly used models assume the amplification in qPCR is exponential and fit an exponential model with a constant rate of increase to a select part of the curve. Kinetic theory may be used to model the annealing phase and does not assume constant efficiency of amplification. Mechanistic models describing the annealing phase with kinetic theory offer the most potential for accurate interpretation of qPCR data. Even so, they have not been thoroughly investigated and are rarely used for interpretation of qPCR data. New results for kinetic modeling of qPCR are presented. Results Two models are presented in which the efficiency of amplification is based on equilibrium solutions for the annealing phase of the qPCR process. Model 1 assumes annealing of complementary targets strands and annealing of target and primers are both reversible reactions and reach a dynamic equilibrium. Model 2 assumes all annealing reactions are nonreversible and equilibrium is static. Both models include the effect of primer concentration during the annealing phase. Analytic formulae are given for the equilibrium values of all single and double stranded molecules at the end of the annealing step. The equilibrium values are then used in a stepwise method to describe the whole qPCR process. Rate constants of kinetic models are the same for solutions that are identical except for possibly having different initial target concentrations. Analysis of qPCR curves from such solutions are thus analyzed by simultaneous non-linear curve fitting with the same rate constant values applying to all curves and each curve having a unique value for initial target concentration. The models were fit to two data sets for which the true initial target concentrations are known. Both models give better fit to observed qPCR data than other kinetic models present in the

  9. Stepwise kinetic equilibrium models of quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Gary

    2012-08-16

    Numerous models for use in interpreting quantitative PCR (qPCR) data are present in recent literature. The most commonly used models assume the amplification in qPCR is exponential and fit an exponential model with a constant rate of increase to a select part of the curve. Kinetic theory may be used to model the annealing phase and does not assume constant efficiency of amplification. Mechanistic models describing the annealing phase with kinetic theory offer the most potential for accurate interpretation of qPCR data. Even so, they have not been thoroughly investigated and are rarely used for interpretation of qPCR data. New results for kinetic modeling of qPCR are presented. Two models are presented in which the efficiency of amplification is based on equilibrium solutions for the annealing phase of the qPCR process. Model 1 assumes annealing of complementary targets strands and annealing of target and primers are both reversible reactions and reach a dynamic equilibrium. Model 2 assumes all annealing reactions are nonreversible and equilibrium is static. Both models include the effect of primer concentration during the annealing phase. Analytic formulae are given for the equilibrium values of all single and double stranded molecules at the end of the annealing step. The equilibrium values are then used in a stepwise method to describe the whole qPCR process. Rate constants of kinetic models are the same for solutions that are identical except for possibly having different initial target concentrations. Analysis of qPCR curves from such solutions are thus analyzed by simultaneous non-linear curve fitting with the same rate constant values applying to all curves and each curve having a unique value for initial target concentration. The models were fit to two data sets for which the true initial target concentrations are known. Both models give better fit to observed qPCR data than other kinetic models present in the literature. They also give better estimates of

  10. Modeling logistic performance in quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijgersberg, Hajo; Tromp, Seth; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    In quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), food safety in the food chain is modeled and simulated. In general, prevalences, concentrations, and numbers of microorganisms in media are investigated in the different steps from farm to fork. The underlying rates and conditions (such as storage times, temperatures, gas conditions, and their distributions) are determined. However, the logistic chain with its queues (storages, shelves) and mechanisms for ordering products is usually not taken into account. As a consequence, storage times-mutually dependent in successive steps in the chain-cannot be described adequately. This may have a great impact on the tails of risk distributions. Because food safety risks are generally very small, it is crucial to model the tails of (underlying) distributions as accurately as possible. Logistic performance can be modeled by describing the underlying planning and scheduling mechanisms in discrete-event modeling. This is common practice in operations research, specifically in supply chain management. In this article, we present the application of discrete-event modeling in the context of a QMRA for Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. We show the potential value of discrete-event modeling in QMRA by calculating logistic interventions (modifications in the logistic chain) and determining their significance with respect to food safety.

  11. Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2006-01-01

    A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

  12. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    Full Text Available A physical model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere has been used to determine the accuracy of model predictions of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity, and assess our understanding of the physical processes. The physical model is driven by empirical descriptions of the high-latitude electric field and auroral precipitation, as measures of the strength of the magnetospheric sources of energy and momentum to the upper atmosphere. Both sources are keyed to the time-dependent TIROS/NOAA auroral power index. The output of the model is the departure of the ionospheric F region from the normal climatological mean. A 50-day interval towards the end of 1997 has been simulated with the model for two cases. The first simulation uses only the electric fields and auroral forcing from the empirical models, and the second has an additional source of random electric field variability. In both cases, output from the physical model is compared with F-region data from ionosonde stations. Quantitative model/data comparisons have been performed to move beyond the conventional "visual" scientific assessment, in order to determine the value of the predictions for operational use. For this study, the ionosphere at two ionosonde stations has been studied in depth, one each from the northern and southern mid-latitudes. The model clearly captures the seasonal dependence in the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at mid-latitude, reproducing the tendency for decreased ion density in the summer hemisphere and increased densities in winter. In contrast to the "visual" success of the model, the detailed quantitative comparisons, which are necessary for space weather applications, are less impressive. The accuracy, or value, of the model has been quantified by evaluating the daily standard deviation, the root-mean-square error, and the correlation coefficient between the data and model predictions. The modeled quiet-time variability, or standard

  13. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere has been used to determine the accuracy of model predictions of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity, and assess our understanding of the physical processes. The physical model is driven by empirical descriptions of the high-latitude electric field and auroral precipitation, as measures of the strength of the magnetospheric sources of energy and momentum to the upper atmosphere. Both sources are keyed to the time-dependent TIROS/NOAA auroral power index. The output of the model is the departure of the ionospheric F region from the normal climatological mean. A 50-day interval towards the end of 1997 has been simulated with the model for two cases. The first simulation uses only the electric fields and auroral forcing from the empirical models, and the second has an additional source of random electric field variability. In both cases, output from the physical model is compared with F-region data from ionosonde stations. Quantitative model/data comparisons have been performed to move beyond the conventional "visual" scientific assessment, in order to determine the value of the predictions for operational use. For this study, the ionosphere at two ionosonde stations has been studied in depth, one each from the northern and southern mid-latitudes. The model clearly captures the seasonal dependence in the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at mid-latitude, reproducing the tendency for decreased ion density in the summer hemisphere and increased densities in winter. In contrast to the "visual" success of the model, the detailed quantitative comparisons, which are necessary for space weather applications, are less impressive. The accuracy, or value, of the model has been quantified by evaluating the daily standard deviation, the root-mean-square error, and the correlation coefficient between the data and model predictions. The modeled quiet-time variability, or standard

  14. Towards Quantitative Spatial Models of Seabed Sediment Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stephens

    Full Text Available There is a need for fit-for-purpose maps for accurately depicting the types of seabed substrate and habitat and the properties of the seabed for the benefits of research, resource management, conservation and spatial planning. The aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to predict substrate composition across a large area of seabed using legacy grain-size data and environmental predictors. The study area includes the North Sea up to approximately 58.44°N and the United Kingdom's parts of the English Channel and the Celtic Seas. The analysis combines outputs from hydrodynamic models as well as optical remote sensing data from satellite platforms and bathymetric variables, which are mainly derived from acoustic remote sensing. We build a statistical regression model to make quantitative predictions of sediment composition (fractions of mud, sand and gravel using the random forest algorithm. The compositional data is analysed on the additive log-ratio scale. An independent test set indicates that approximately 66% and 71% of the variability of the two log-ratio variables are explained by the predictive models. A EUNIS substrate model, derived from the predicted sediment composition, achieved an overall accuracy of 83% and a kappa coefficient of 0.60. We demonstrate that it is feasible to spatially predict the seabed sediment composition across a large area of continental shelf in a repeatable and validated way. We also highlight the potential for further improvements to the method.

  15. A quantitative phase field model for hydride precipitation in zirconium alloys: Part I. Development of quantitative free energy functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, San-Qiang; Xiao, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A temperature dependent, quantitative free energy functional was developed for the modeling of hydride precipitation in zirconium alloys within a phase field scheme. The model takes into account crystallographic variants of hydrides, interfacial energy between hydride and matrix, interfacial energy between hydrides, elastoplastic hydride precipitation and interaction with externally applied stress. The model is fully quantitative in real time and real length scale, and simulation results were compared with limited experimental data available in the literature with a reasonable agreement. The work calls for experimental and/or theoretical investigations of some of the key material properties that are not yet available in the literature

  16. Modeling Cancer Metastasis using Global, Quantitative and Integrative Network Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoof, Erwin; Erler, Janine

    understanding of molecular processes which are fundamental to tumorigenesis. In Article 1, we propose a novel framework for how cancer mutations can be studied by taking into account their effect at the protein network level. In Article 2, we demonstrate how global, quantitative data on phosphorylation dynamics...... can be generated using MS, and how this can be modeled using a computational framework for deciphering kinase-substrate dynamics. This framework is described in depth in Article 3, and covers the design of KinomeXplorer, which allows the prediction of kinases responsible for modulating observed...... phosphorylation dynamics in a given biological sample. In Chapter III, we move into Integrative Network Biology, where, by combining two fundamental technologies (MS & NGS), we can obtain more in-depth insights into the links between cellular phenotype and genotype. Article 4 describes the proof...

  17. Quantitative genetic models of sexual selection by male choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2008-09-01

    There are many examples of male mate choice for female traits that tend to be associated with high fertility. I develop quantitative genetic models of a female trait and a male preference to show when such a male preference can evolve. I find that a disagreement between the fertility maximum and the viability maximum of the female trait is necessary for directional male preference (preference for extreme female trait values) to evolve. Moreover, when there is a shortage of available male partners or variance in male nongenetic quality, strong male preference can evolve. Furthermore, I also show that males evolve to exhibit a stronger preference for females that are more feminine (less resemblance to males) than the average female when there is a sexual dimorphism caused by fertility selection which acts only on females.

  18. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  19. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  20. Melanoma screening: Informing public health policy with quantitative modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gilmore

    Full Text Available Australia and New Zealand share the highest incidence rates of melanoma worldwide. Despite the substantial increase in public and physician awareness of melanoma in Australia over the last 30 years-as a result of the introduction of publicly funded mass media campaigns that began in the early 1980s -mortality has steadily increased during this period. This increased mortality has led investigators to question the relative merits of primary versus secondary prevention; that is, sensible sun exposure practices versus early detection. Increased melanoma vigilance on the part of the public and among physicians has resulted in large increases in public health expenditure, primarily from screening costs and increased rates of office surgery. Has this attempt at secondary prevention been effective? Unfortunately epidemiologic studies addressing the causal relationship between the level of secondary prevention and mortality are prohibitively difficult to implement-it is currently unknown whether increased melanoma surveillance reduces mortality, and if so, whether such an approach is cost-effective. Here I address the issue of secondary prevention of melanoma with respect to incidence and mortality (and cost per life saved by developing a Markov model of melanoma epidemiology based on Australian incidence and mortality data. The advantages of developing a methodology that can determine constraint-based surveillance outcomes are twofold: first, it can address the issue of effectiveness; and second, it can quantify the trade-off between cost and utilisation of medical resources on one hand, and reduced morbidity and lives saved on the other. With respect to melanoma, implementing the model facilitates the quantitative determination of the relative effectiveness and trade-offs associated with different levels of secondary and tertiary prevention, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, I show that the surveillance enhancement that began in

  1. First principles pharmacokinetic modeling: A quantitative study on Cyclosporin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mošat', Andrej; Lueshen, Eric; Heitzig, Martina

    2013-01-01

    renal and hepatic clearances, elimination half-life, and mass transfer coefficients, to establish drug biodistribution dynamics in all organs and tissues. This multi-scale model satisfies first principles and conservation of mass, species and momentum.Prediction of organ drug bioaccumulation...... as a function of cardiac output, physiology, pathology or administration route may be possible with the proposed PBPK framework. Successful application of our model-based drug development method may lead to more efficient preclinical trials, accelerated knowledge gain from animal experiments, and shortened time-to-market...

  2. PVeStA: A Parallel Statistical Model Checking and Quantitative Analysis Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlTurki, Musab

    2011-01-01

    Statistical model checking is an attractive formal analysis method for probabilistic systems such as, for example, cyber-physical systems which are often probabilistic in nature. This paper is about drastically increasing the scalability of statistical model checking, and making such scalability of analysis available to tools like Maude, where probabilistic systems can be specified at a high level as probabilistic rewrite theories. It presents PVeStA, an extension and parallelization of the VeStA statistical model checking tool [10]. PVeStA supports statistical model checking of probabilistic real-time systems specified as either: (i) discrete or continuous Markov Chains; or (ii) probabilistic rewrite theories in Maude. Furthermore, the properties that it can model check can be expressed in either: (i) PCTL/CSL, or (ii) the QuaTEx quantitative temporal logic. As our experiments show, the performance gains obtained from parallelization can be very high. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Models of Software Product Lines with Statistical Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking techniques for analysing quantitative properties of software product line models with probabilistic aspects. For this purpose, we enrich the feature-oriented language FLAN with action rates, which specify the likelihood of exhibiting pa...

  4. Experiments beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-09-01

    This paper is based upon lectures in which I have described and explored the ways in which experimenters can try to find answers, or at least clues toward answers, to some of the fundamental questions of elementary particle physics. All of these experimental techniques and directions have been discussed fully in other papers, for example: searches for heavy charged leptons, tests of quantum chromodynamics, searches for Higgs particles, searches for particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, searches for particles predicted by technicolor theories, searches for proton decay, searches for neutrino oscillations, monopole searches, studies of low transfer momentum hadron physics at very high energies, and elementary particle studies using cosmic rays. Each of these subjects requires several lectures by itself to do justice to the large amount of experimental work and theoretical thought which has been devoted to these subjects. My approach in these tutorial lectures is to describe general ways to experiment beyond the standard model. I will use some of the topics listed to illustrate these general ways. Also, in these lectures I present some dreams and challenges about new techniques in experimental particle physics and accelerator technology, I call these Experimental Needs. 92 references

  5. Quantitative Model for Supply Chain Visibility: Process Capability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the intensity of enterprise competition has increased as a result of a greater diversity of customer needs as well as the persistence of a long-term recession. The results of competition are becoming severe enough to determine the survival of company. To survive global competition, each firm must focus on achieving innovation excellence and operational excellence as core competency for sustainable competitive advantage. Supply chain management is now regarded as one of the most effective innovation initiatives to achieve operational excellence, and its importance has become ever more apparent. However, few companies effectively manage their supply chains, and the greatest difficulty is in achieving supply chain visibility. Many companies still suffer from a lack of visibility, and in spite of extensive research and the availability of modern technologies, the concepts and quantification methods to increase supply chain visibility are still ambiguous. Based on the extant researches in supply chain visibility, this study proposes an extended visibility concept focusing on a process capability perspective and suggests a more quantitative model using Z score in Six Sigma methodology to evaluate and improve the level of supply chain visibility.

  6. A robust quantitative near infrared modeling approach for blend monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shikhar; Momose, Wataru; Katz, Jeffrey M; Hossain, Md Nayeem; Velez, Natasha; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2018-01-30

    This study demonstrates a material sparing Near-Infrared modeling approach for powder blend monitoring. In this new approach, gram scale powder mixtures are subjected to compression loads to simulate the effect of scale using an Instron universal testing system. Models prepared by the new method development approach (small-scale method) and by a traditional method development (blender-scale method) were compared by simultaneously monitoring a 1kg batch size blend run. Both models demonstrated similar model performance. The small-scale method strategy significantly reduces the total resources expended to develop Near-Infrared calibration models for on-line blend monitoring. Further, this development approach does not require the actual equipment (i.e., blender) to which the method will be applied, only a similar optical interface. Thus, a robust on-line blend monitoring method can be fully developed before any large-scale blending experiment is viable, allowing the blend method to be used during scale-up and blend development trials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A quantitative speciation model for the adsorption of organic pollutants on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivé, M; García, D; Domènech, C; Richard, L; Rojo, I; Martínez, X; Rovira, M

    2013-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is commonly used as adsorbent in water treatment plants given its high capacity for retaining organic pollutants in aqueous phase. The current knowledge on GAC behaviour is essentially empirical, and no quantitative description of the chemical relationships between GAC surface groups and pollutants has been proposed. In this paper, we describe a quantitative model for the adsorption of atrazine onto GAC surface. The model is based on results of potentiometric titrations and three types of adsorption experiments which have been carried out in order to determine the nature and distribution of the functional groups on the GAC surface, and evaluate the adsorption characteristics of GAC towards atrazine. Potentiometric titrations have indicated the existence of at least two different families of chemical groups on the GAC surface, including phenolic- and benzoic-type surface groups. Adsorption experiments with atrazine have been satisfactorily modelled with the geochemical code PhreeqC, assuming that atrazine is sorbed onto the GAC surface in equilibrium (log Ks = 5.1 ± 0.5). Independent thermodynamic calculations suggest a possible adsorption of atrazine on a benzoic derivative. The present work opens a new approach for improving the adsorption capabilities of GAC towards organic pollutants by modifying its chemical properties.

  8. Modeling the Experience of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Broekens, Joost

    2009-01-01

    Affective computing has proven to be a viable field of research comprised of a large number of multidisciplinary researchers resulting in work that is widely published. The majority of this work consists of computational models of emotion recognition, computational modeling of causal factors of emotion and emotion expression through rendered and robotic faces. A smaller part is concerned with modeling the effects of emotion, formal modeling of cognitive appraisal theory and models of emergent...

  9. Quantitative Modeling of Acid Wormholing in Carbonates- What Are the Gaps to Bridge

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Weishu; Chang, Frank; Dyer, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wormhole propagation models largely ignore the impact of reaction products. When implemented in a job design, the significant errors can result in treatment fluid schedule, rate, and volume. A more accurate method to simulate carbonate matrix acid treatments would accomodate the effect of reaction products on reaction kinetics. It is the purpose of this work to properly account for these effects. This is an important step in achieving quantitative predictability of wormhole penetration during an acidzing treatment. This paper describes the laboratory procedures taken to obtain the reaction-product impacted kinetics at downhole conditions using a rotating disk apparatus, and how this new set of kinetics data was implemented in a 3D wormholing model to predict wormhole morphology and penetration velocity. The model explains some of the differences in wormhole morphology observed in limestone core flow experiments where injection pressure impacts the mass transfer of hydrogen ions to the rock surface. The model uses a CT scan rendered porosity field to capture the finer details of the rock fabric and then simulates the fluid flow through the rock coupled with reactions. Such a validated model can serve as a base to scale up to near wellbore reservoir and 3D radial flow geometry allowing a more quantitative acid treatment design.

  10. The impact of negative childbirth experience on future reproductive decisions: A quantitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Yang, Yen Yen; Ang, Emily

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically retrieve, critique and synthesize available evidence regarding the association between negative childbirth experiences and future reproductive decisions. A child's birth is often a joyous event; however, there is a proportion of women who undergo negative childbirth experiences that have long-term implications on their reproductive decisions. A systematic review of quantitative studies was undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute's methods. A search was carried out in CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science from January 1996 - July 2016. Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Tools. Data were extracted under subheadings adapted from the institute's data extraction forms. Twelve studies, which examined either one or more influences of negative childbirth experiences, were identified. The included studies were either cohort or cross-sectional designs. Five studies observed positive associations between prior negative childbirth experiences and decisions to not have another child, three studies found positive associations between negative childbirth experiences and decisions to delay a subsequent birth and six studies concluded positive associations between negative childbirth experiences and maternal requests for caesarean section in subsequent pregnancies. To receive a holistic understanding on negative childbirth experiences, a suitable definition and validated measuring tools should be used to understand this phenomenon. Future studies or reviews should include a qualitative component and/or the exploration of specific factors such as cultural and regional differences that influence childbirth experiences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Quantitative tradeoffs between spatial, temporal, and thermometric resolution of nonresonant Raman thermometry for dynamic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S; Goodwin, Peter M; Dattelbaum, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of Stokes to anti-Stokes nonresonant spontaneous Raman can provide an in situ thermometer that is noncontact, independent of any material specific parameters or calibrations, can be multiplexed spatially with line imaging, and can be time resolved for dynamic measurements. However, spontaneous Raman cross sections are very small, and thermometric measurements are often limited by the amount of laser energy that can be applied without damaging the sample or changing its temperature appreciably. In this paper, we quantitatively detail the tradeoff space between spatial, temporal, and thermometric accuracy measurable with spontaneous Raman. Theoretical estimates are pinned to experimental measurements to form realistic expectations of the resolution tradeoffs appropriate to various experiments. We consider the effects of signal to noise, collection efficiency, laser heating, pulsed laser ablation, and blackbody emission as limiting factors, provide formulae to help choose optimal conditions and provide estimates relevant to planning experiments along with concrete examples for single-shot measurements.

  12. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrett Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in

  13. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  14. Quantitative experimental modelling of fragmentation during explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Ø.; Galland, O.; Gisler, G.

    2012-04-01

    Phreatomagmatic eruptions results from the violent interaction between magma and an external source of water, such as ground water or a lake. This interaction causes fragmentation of the magma and/or the host rock, resulting in coarse-grained (lapilli) to very fine-grained (ash) material. The products of phreatomagmatic explosions are classically described by their fragment size distribution, which commonly follows power laws of exponent D. Such descriptive approach, however, considers the final products only and do not provide information on the dynamics of fragmentation. The aim of this contribution is thus to address the following fundamental questions. What are the physics that govern fragmentation processes? How fragmentation occurs through time? What are the mechanisms that produce power law fragment size distributions? And what are the scaling laws that control the exponent D? To address these questions, we performed a quantitative experimental study. The setup consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a layer of cohesive silica flour, at the base of which a pulse of pressurized air is injected, leading to fragmentation of the layer of flour. The fragmentation process is monitored through time using a high-speed camera. By varying systematically the air pressure (P) and the thickness of the flour layer (h) we observed two morphologies of fragmentation: "lift off" where the silica flour above the injection inlet is ejected upwards, and "channeling" where the air pierces through the layer along sub-vertical conduit. By building a phase diagram, we show that the morphology is controlled by P/dgh, where d is the density of the flour and g is the gravitational acceleration. To quantify the fragmentation process, we developed a Matlab image analysis program, which calculates the number and sizes of the fragments, and so the fragment size distribution, during the experiments. The fragment size distributions are in general described by power law distributions of

  15. Quantitative stress measurement of elastic deformation using mechanoluminescent sensor: An intensity ratio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tao; Guo, Songtao; Li, Yongzeng; Peng, Di; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yingzheng

    2018-04-01

    The mechanoluminescent (ML) sensor is a newly developed non-invasive technique for stress/strain measurement. However, its application has been mostly restricted to qualitative measurement due to the lack of a well-defined relationship between ML intensity and stress. To achieve accurate stress measurement, an intensity ratio model was proposed in this study to establish a quantitative relationship between the stress condition and its ML intensity in elastic deformation. To verify the proposed model, experiments were carried out on a ML measurement system using resin samples mixed with the sensor material SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+. The ML intensity ratio was found to be dependent on the applied stress and strain rate, and the relationship acquired from the experimental results agreed well with the proposed model. The current study provided a physical explanation for the relationship between ML intensity and its stress condition. The proposed model was applicable in various SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+-based ML measurement in elastic deformation, and could provide a useful reference for quantitative stress measurement using the ML sensor in general.

  16. Director gliding in a nematic liquid crystal layer: Quantitative comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mema, E.; Kondic, L.; Cummings, L. J.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between nematic liquid crystals and polymer-coated substrates may lead to slow reorientation of the easy axis (so-called "director gliding") when a prolonged external field is applied. We consider the experimental evidence of zenithal gliding observed by Joly et al. [Phys. Rev. E 70, 050701 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.050701] and Buluy et al. [J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 603 (2006), 10.1889/1.2235686] as well as azimuthal gliding observed by S. Faetti and P. Marianelli [Liq. Cryst. 33, 327 (2006), 10.1080/02678290500512227], and we present a simple, physically motivated model that captures the slow dynamics of gliding, both in the presence of an electric field and after the electric field is turned off. We make a quantitative comparison of our model results and the experimental data and conclude that our model explains the gliding evolution very well.

  17. Quantitative laser diagnostic and modeling study of C2 and CH chemistry in combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Markus; Brockhinke, Andreas; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2010-04-15

    Quantitative concentration measurements of CH and C(2) have been performed in laminar, premixed, flat flames of propene and cyclopentene with varying stoichiometry. A combination of cavity ring-down (CRD) spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to enable sensitive detection of these species with high spatial resolution. Previously, CH and C(2) chemistry had been studied, predominantly in methane flames, to understand potential correlations of their formation and consumption. For flames of larger hydrocarbon fuels, however, quantitative information on these small intermediates is scarce, especially under fuel-rich conditions. Also, the combustion chemistry of C(2) in particular has not been studied in detail, and although it has often been observed, its role in potential build-up reactions of higher hydrocarbon species is not well understood. The quantitative measurements performed here are the first to detect both species with good spatial resolution and high sensitivity in the same experiment in flames of C(3) and C(5) fuels. The experimental profiles were compared with results of combustion modeling to reveal details of the formation and consumption of these important combustion molecules, and the investigation was devoted to assist the further understanding of the role of C(2) and of its potential chemical interdependences with CH and other small radicals.

  18. Interpretation of protein quantitation using the Bradford assay: comparison with two calculation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hyung-Keun; Lim, Hyuk-Min; Oh, Kyong-Hwa; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Kim, Sook-Kyung

    2013-03-01

    The Bradford assay is a simple method for protein quantitation, but variation in the results between proteins is a matter of concern. In this study, we compared and normalized quantitative values from two models for protein quantitation, where the residues in the protein that bind to anionic Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 comprise either Arg and Lys (Method 1, M1) or Arg, Lys, and His (Method 2, M2). Use of the M2 model yielded much more consistent quantitation values compared with use of the M1 model, which exhibited marked overestimations against protein standards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectral Quantitative Analysis Model with Combining Wavelength Selection and Topology Structure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy is an efficient and widely used quantitative analysis method. In this paper, a spectral quantitative analysis model with combining wavelength selection and topology structure optimization is proposed. For the proposed method, backpropagation neural network is adopted for building the component prediction model, and the simultaneousness optimization of the wavelength selection and the topology structure of neural network is realized by nonlinear adaptive evolutionary programming (NAEP. The hybrid chromosome in binary scheme of NAEP has three parts. The first part represents the topology structure of neural network, the second part represents the selection of wavelengths in the spectral data, and the third part represents the parameters of mutation of NAEP. Two real flue gas datasets are used in the experiments. In order to present the effectiveness of the methods, the partial least squares with full spectrum, the partial least squares combined with genetic algorithm, the uninformative variable elimination method, the backpropagation neural network with full spectrum, the backpropagation neural network combined with genetic algorithm, and the proposed method are performed for building the component prediction model. Experimental results verify that the proposed method has the ability to predict more accurately and robustly as a practical spectral analysis tool.

  20. Quantitative analysis of prediction models for hot cracking in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A RodrМguez-Prieto

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... enhancing safety margins and adding greater precision to quantitative accident prediction [45]. One deterministic methodology is the stringency level (SL) approach, which is recognized as a valuable decision tool in the selection of standardized materials specifications to prevent potential failures [3].

  1. Interrater reliability of quantitative ultrasound using force feedback among examiners with varied levels of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Harris-Love

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quantitative ultrasound measures are influenced by multiple external factors including examiner scanning force. Force feedback may foster the acquisition of reliable morphometry measures under a variety of scanning conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of force-feedback image acquisition and morphometry over a range of examiner-generated forces using a muscle tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom. Methods. Sixty material thickness measures were acquired from a muscle tissue mimicking phantom using B-mode ultrasound scanning by six examiners with varied experience levels (i.e., experienced, intermediate, and novice. Estimates of interrater reliability and measurement error with force feedback scanning were determined for the examiners. In addition, criterion-based reliability was determined using material deformation values across a range of examiner scanning forces (1–10 Newtons via automated and manually acquired image capture methods using force feedback. Results. All examiners demonstrated acceptable interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .98, p .90, p < .001, independent of their level of experience. The measurement error among all examiners was 1.5%–2.9% across all applied stress conditions. Conclusion. Manual image capture with force feedback may aid the reliability of morphometry measures across a range of examiner scanning forces, and allow for consistent performance among examiners with differing levels of experience.

  2. Quantitative modelling and analysis of a Chinese smart grid: a stochastic model checking case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology with the physical elements of a system, mainly for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues...... that require novel methods and applications. One of the important issues in this context is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this paper, we consider a specific Chinese smart grid implementation as a case study and address the verification problem for performance and energy...... consumption.We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker....

  3. Interpretation of experiments and modeling of internal strains in Beryllium using a polycrystal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, C.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Daymond, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The elastic and plastic anisotropy of Be have been examined during a uniaxial compression test, by in-situ monitoring in a pulsed neutron beam. Comparisons between the measured hkil strains and the predictions from an elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model are made. Agreement is qualitatively correct for most planes in the elasto-plastic regime. Possible mechanisms responsible for the quantitative discrepancies between model and experiment are discussed

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick S. Barrett

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Psilocybin is a classic (serotonergic hallucinogen (“psychedelic” drug that may occasion mystical experiences (characterized by a profound feeling of oneness or unity during acute effects. Such experiences may have therapeutic value. Research and clinical applications of psychedelics usually include music listening during acute drug effects, based on the expectation that music will provide psychological support during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs, and may even facilitate the occurrence of mystical experiences. However, the features of music chosen to support the different phases of drug effects are not well-specified. As a result, there is currently neither real guidance for the selection of music nor standardization of the music used to support clinical trials with psychedelic drugs across various research groups or therapists. A description of the features of music found to be supportive of mystical experience will allow for the standardization and optimization of the delivery of psychedelic drugs in both research trials and therapeutic contexts. To this end, we conducted an anonymous survey of individuals with extensive experience administering psilocybin or psilocybin-containing mushrooms under research or therapeutic conditions, in order to identify the features of commonly used musical selections that have been found by therapists and research staff to be supportive of mystical experiences within a psilocybin session. Ten respondents yielded 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of peak effects with psilocybin, and 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of the period leading up to a peak experience. Qualitative analysis (expert rating of musical and music-theoretic features of the recommended stimuli and quantitative analysis (using signal processing and music-information retrieval methods of 22 of these stimuli yielded a description of peak period music that was characterized by regular

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Robbins, Hollis; Smooke, David; Brown, Jenine L; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    Psilocybin is a classic (serotonergic) hallucinogen ("psychedelic" drug) that may occasion mystical experiences (characterized by a profound feeling of oneness or unity) during acute effects. Such experiences may have therapeutic value. Research and clinical applications of psychedelics usually include music listening during acute drug effects, based on the expectation that music will provide psychological support during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs, and may even facilitate the occurrence of mystical experiences. However, the features of music chosen to support the different phases of drug effects are not well-specified. As a result, there is currently neither real guidance for the selection of music nor standardization of the music used to support clinical trials with psychedelic drugs across various research groups or therapists. A description of the features of music found to be supportive of mystical experience will allow for the standardization and optimization of the delivery of psychedelic drugs in both research trials and therapeutic contexts. To this end, we conducted an anonymous survey of individuals with extensive experience administering psilocybin or psilocybin-containing mushrooms under research or therapeutic conditions, in order to identify the features of commonly used musical selections that have been found by therapists and research staff to be supportive of mystical experiences within a psilocybin session. Ten respondents yielded 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of peak effects with psilocybin, and 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of the period leading up to a peak experience. Qualitative analysis (expert rating of musical and music-theoretic features of the recommended stimuli) and quantitative analysis (using signal processing and music-information retrieval methods) of 22 of these stimuli yielded a description of peak period music that was characterized by regular, predictable

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S.; Robbins, Hollis; Smooke, David; Brown, Jenine L.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Psilocybin is a classic (serotonergic) hallucinogen (“psychedelic” drug) that may occasion mystical experiences (characterized by a profound feeling of oneness or unity) during acute effects. Such experiences may have therapeutic value. Research and clinical applications of psychedelics usually include music listening during acute drug effects, based on the expectation that music will provide psychological support during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs, and may even facilitate the occurrence of mystical experiences. However, the features of music chosen to support the different phases of drug effects are not well-specified. As a result, there is currently neither real guidance for the selection of music nor standardization of the music used to support clinical trials with psychedelic drugs across various research groups or therapists. A description of the features of music found to be supportive of mystical experience will allow for the standardization and optimization of the delivery of psychedelic drugs in both research trials and therapeutic contexts. To this end, we conducted an anonymous survey of individuals with extensive experience administering psilocybin or psilocybin-containing mushrooms under research or therapeutic conditions, in order to identify the features of commonly used musical selections that have been found by therapists and research staff to be supportive of mystical experiences within a psilocybin session. Ten respondents yielded 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of peak effects with psilocybin, and 24 unique recommendations of musical stimuli supportive of the period leading up to a peak experience. Qualitative analysis (expert rating of musical and music-theoretic features of the recommended stimuli) and quantitative analysis (using signal processing and music-information retrieval methods) of 22 of these stimuli yielded a description of peak period music that was characterized by regular, predictable

  7. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, John

    1995-01-01

    This program started in February 1991, and is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena by the modeling of various configurations undergoing experimental study by others. Results through 1992 were reported in the second workshop. Work since that time has examined the following topics: Flame-balls; Intrinsic and acoustic instabilities in multiphase mixtures; Radiation effects in premixed combustion; Smouldering, both forward and reverse, as well as two dimensional smoulder.

  8. The database for reaching experiments and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Walker

    Full Text Available Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc. from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM. DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis.

  9. Experience economy meets business model design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Sune Klok; Smed, Søren Graakjær; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2012-01-01

    Through the last decade the experience economy has found solid ground and manifested itself as a parameter where business and organizations can differentiate from competitors. The fundamental premise is the one found in Pine & Gilmores model from 1999 over 'the progression of economic value' where...... produced, designed or staged experience that gains the most profit or creates return of investment. It becomes more obvious that other parameters in the future can be a vital part of the experience economy and one of these is business model innovation. Business model innovation is about continuous...

  10. Deep Learning Automates the Quantitative Analysis of Individual Cells in Live-Cell Imaging Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valen, David A; Kudo, Takamasa; Lane, Keara M; Macklin, Derek N; Quach, Nicolas T; DeFelice, Mialy M; Maayan, Inbal; Tanouchi, Yu; Ashley, Euan A; Covert, Markus W

    2016-11-01

    Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems.

  11. Plutonium chemistry: a synthesis of experimental data and a quantitative model for plutonium oxide solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Oversby, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chemistry of plutonium is important for assessing potential behavior of radioactive waste under conditions of geologic disposal. This paper reviews experimental data on dissolution of plutonium oxide solids, describes a hybrid kinetic-equilibrium model for predicting steady-state Pu concentrations, and compares laboratory results with predicted Pu concentrations and oxidation-state distributions. The model is based on oxidation of PuO 2 by water to produce PuO 2+x , an oxide that can release Pu(V) to solution. Kinetic relationships between formation of PuO 2+x , dissolution of Pu(V), disproportionation of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and Pu(VI), and reduction of Pu(VI) are given and used in model calculations. Data from tests of pyrochemical salt wastes in brines are discussed and interpreted using the conceptual model. Essential data for quantitative modeling at conditions relevant to nuclear waste repositories are identified and laboratory experiments to determine rate constants for use in the model are discussed

  12. Quantitative Modeling of Acid Wormholing in Carbonates- What Are the Gaps to Bridge

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate matrix acidization extends a well\\'s effective drainage radius by dissolving rock and forming conductive channels (wormholes) from the wellbore. Wormholing is a dynamic process that involves balance between the acid injection rate and reaction rate. Generally, injection rate is well defined where injection profiles can be controlled, whereas the reaction rate can be difficult to obtain due to its complex dependency on interstitial velocity, fluid composition, rock surface properties etc. Conventional wormhole propagation models largely ignore the impact of reaction products. When implemented in a job design, the significant errors can result in treatment fluid schedule, rate, and volume. A more accurate method to simulate carbonate matrix acid treatments would accomodate the effect of reaction products on reaction kinetics. It is the purpose of this work to properly account for these effects. This is an important step in achieving quantitative predictability of wormhole penetration during an acidzing treatment. This paper describes the laboratory procedures taken to obtain the reaction-product impacted kinetics at downhole conditions using a rotating disk apparatus, and how this new set of kinetics data was implemented in a 3D wormholing model to predict wormhole morphology and penetration velocity. The model explains some of the differences in wormhole morphology observed in limestone core flow experiments where injection pressure impacts the mass transfer of hydrogen ions to the rock surface. The model uses a CT scan rendered porosity field to capture the finer details of the rock fabric and then simulates the fluid flow through the rock coupled with reactions. Such a validated model can serve as a base to scale up to near wellbore reservoir and 3D radial flow geometry allowing a more quantitative acid treatment design.

  13. Modeling a High Explosive Cylinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Marvin A.

    2017-06-01

    Cylindrical assemblies constructed from high explosives encased in an inert confining material are often used in experiments aimed at calibrating and validating continuum level models for the so-called equation of state (constitutive model for the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor). Such is the case in the work to be discussed here. In particular, work will be described involving the modeling of a series of experiments involving PBX-9501 encased in a copper cylinder. The objective of the work is to test and perhaps refine a set of phenomenological parameters for the Wescott-Stewart-Davis reactive burn model. The focus of this talk will be on modeling the experiments, which turned out to be non-trivial. The modeling is conducted using ALE methodology.

  14. A Review of Quantitative Situation Assessment Models for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Situation assessment is the process of developing situation awareness and situation awareness is defined as 'the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future.' Situation awareness is an important element influencing human actions because human decision making is based on the result of situation assessment or situation awareness. There are many models for situation awareness and those models can be categorized into qualitative or quantitative. As the effects of some input factors on situation awareness can be investigated through the quantitative models, the quantitative models are more useful for the design of operator interfaces, automation strategies, training program, and so on, than the qualitative models. This study presents the review of two quantitative models of situation assessment (SA) for nuclear power plant operators

  15. Quantitative Modeling of Membrane Transport and Anisogamy by Small Groups Within a Large-Enrollment Organismal Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Haag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative modeling is not a standard part of undergraduate biology education, yet is routine in the physical sciences. Because of the obvious biophysical aspects, classes in anatomy and physiology offer an opportunity to introduce modeling approaches to the introductory curriculum. Here, we describe two in-class exercises for small groups working within a large-enrollment introductory course in organismal biology. Both build and derive biological insights from quantitative models, implemented using spreadsheets. One exercise models the evolution of anisogamy (i.e., small sperm and large eggs from an initial state of isogamy. Groups of four students work on Excel spreadsheets (from one to four laptops per group. The other exercise uses an online simulator to generate data related to membrane transport of a solute, and a cloud-based spreadsheet to analyze them. We provide tips for implementing these exercises gleaned from two years of experience.

  16. Ecology-centered experiences among children and adolescents: A qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy

    living things) and environmental responsibility support (i.e., support through the availability of environmentally responsible models) predict EAB? As predicted, results showed that ecology-centered experiences predicted EAB; yet, when environmental responsibility support was taken into consideration, ecology-centered experiences no longer predicted EAB. These findings suggested environmental responsibility support was a stronger predictor than ecology-centered experiences. Finally, do age and gender predict EAB? Consistent with previous research (e.g., Alp, Ertepiner, Tekkaya, & Yilmaz, 2006), age and gender significantly predicted EAB.

  17. Improvement of the ID model for quantitative network data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Damgaard, Christian Frølund; Dupont, Yoko Luise

    2015-01-01

    Many interactions are often poorly registered or even unobserved in empirical quantitative networks. Hence, the output of the statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks. Such artefa......Many interactions are often poorly registered or even unobserved in empirical quantitative networks. Hence, the output of the statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks......)1. This presentation will illustrate the application of the ID method based on a data set which consists of counts of visits by 152 pollinator species to 16 plant species. The method is based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1), pi...... reproduce the high number of zero valued cells in the data set and mimic the sampling distribution. 1 Sørensen et al, Journal of Pollination Ecology, 6(18), 2011, pp129-139...

  18. A general mixture model for mapping quantitative trait loci by using molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a segregating population a quantitative trait may be considered to follow a mixture of (normal) distributions, the mixing proportions being based on Mendelian segregation rules. A general and flexible mixture model is proposed for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by using molecular markers.

  19. Seismic-refraction field experiments on Galapagos Islands: A quantitative tool for hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelinet, M.; Domínguez, C.; Fortin, J.; Violette, S.

    2018-01-01

    Due to their complex structure and the difficulty of collecting data, the hydrogeology of basaltic islands remains misunderstood, and the Galapagos islands are not an exception. Geophysics allows the possibility to describe the subsurface of these islands and to quantify the hydrodynamical properties of its ground layers, which can be useful to build robust hydrogeological models. In this paper, we present seismic refraction data acquired on Santa Cruz and San Cristobal, the two main inhabited islands of Galapagos. We investigated sites with several hydrogeological contexts, located at different altitudes and at different distances to the coast. At each site, a 2D P-wave velocity profile is built, highlighting unsaturated and saturated volcanic layers. At the coastal sites, seawater intrusion is identified and basal aquifer is characterized in terms of variations in compressional sound wave velocities, according to saturation state. At highlands sites, the limits between soils and lava flows are identified. On San Cristobal Island, the 2D velocity profile obtained on a mid-slope site (altitude 150 m), indicates the presence of a near surface freshwater aquifer, which is in agreement with previous geophysical studies and the hydrogeological conceptual model developed for this island. The originality of our paper is the use of velocity data to compute field porosity based on poroelasticity theory and the Biot-Gassmann equations. Given that porosity is a key parameter in quantitative hydrogeological models, it is a step forward to a better understanding of shallow fluid flows within a complex structure, such as Galapagos volcanoes.

  20. Combining quantitative trait loci analysis with physiological models to predict genotype-specific transpiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuning, Gretchen A; Bauerle, William L; Mullen, Jack L; McKay, John K

    2015-04-01

    Transpiration is controlled by evaporative demand and stomatal conductance (gs ), and there can be substantial genetic variation in gs . A key parameter in empirical models of transpiration is minimum stomatal conductance (g0 ), a trait that can be measured and has a large effect on gs and transpiration. In Arabidopsis thaliana, g0 exhibits both environmental and genetic variation, and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped. We used this information to create a genetically parameterized empirical model to predict transpiration of genotypes. For the parental lines, this worked well. However, in a recombinant inbred population, the predictions proved less accurate. When based only upon their genotype at a single g0 QTL, genotypes were less distinct than our model predicted. Follow-up experiments indicated that both genotype by environment interaction and a polygenic inheritance complicate the application of genetic effects into physiological models. The use of ecophysiological or 'crop' models for predicting transpiration of novel genetic lines will benefit from incorporating further knowledge of the genetic control and degree of independence of core traits/parameters underlying gs variation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quantitative assessment of biological impact using transcriptomic data and mechanistic network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Ty M.; Sewer, Alain; Martin, Florian; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Frushour, Brian P.; Gebel, Stephan; Park, Jennifer; Schlage, Walter K.; Talikka, Marja; Vasilyev, Dmitry M.; Westra, Jurjen W.; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to biologically active substances such as therapeutic drugs or environmental toxicants can impact biological systems at various levels, affecting individual molecules, signaling pathways, and overall cellular processes. The ability to derive mechanistic insights from the resulting system responses requires the integration of experimental measures with a priori knowledge about the system and the interacting molecules therein. We developed a novel systems biology-based methodology that leverages mechanistic network models and transcriptomic data to quantitatively assess the biological impact of exposures to active substances. Hierarchically organized network models were first constructed to provide a coherent framework for investigating the impact of exposures at the molecular, pathway and process levels. We then validated our methodology using novel and previously published experiments. For both in vitro systems with simple exposure and in vivo systems with complex exposures, our methodology was able to recapitulate known biological responses matching expected or measured phenotypes. In addition, the quantitative results were in agreement with experimental endpoint data for many of the mechanistic effects that were assessed, providing further objective confirmation of the approach. We conclude that our methodology evaluates the biological impact of exposures in an objective, systematic, and quantifiable manner, enabling the computation of a systems-wide and pan-mechanistic biological impact measure for a given active substance or mixture. Our results suggest that various fields of human disease research, from drug development to consumer product testing and environmental impact analysis, could benefit from using this methodology. - Highlights: • The impact of biologically active substances is quantified at multiple levels. • The systems-level impact integrates the perturbations of individual networks. • The networks capture the relationships between

  2. Modeling of laser-driven hydrodynamics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, Carlos; Doss, Forrest; Rasmus, Alex; Flippo, Kirk; Desjardins, Tiffany; Merritt, Elizabeth; Kline, John; Hager, Jon; Bradley, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Correct interpretation of hydrodynamics experiments driven by a laser-produced shock depends strongly on an understanding of the time-dependent effect of the irradiation conditions on the flow. In this talk, we discuss the modeling of such experiments using the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code. The focus is an instability experiment consisting of a period of relatively-steady shock conditions in which the Richtmyer-Meshkov process dominates, followed by a period of decaying flow conditions, in which the dominant growth process changes to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The use of a laser model is essential for capturing the transition. also University of Michigan.

  3. Modeling experiments using quantum and Kolmogorov probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Criteria are presented that permit a straightforward partition of experiments into sets that can be modeled using both quantum probability and the classical probability framework of Kolmogorov. These new criteria concentrate on the operational aspects of the experiments and lead beyond the commonly appreciated partition by relating experiments to commuting and non-commuting quantum operators as well as non-entangled and entangled wavefunctions. In other words the space of experiments that can be understood using classical probability is larger than usually assumed. This knowledge provides advantages for areas such as nanoscience and engineering or quantum computation.

  4. Firn Model Intercomparison Experiment (FirnMICE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Jessica M.D.; Stevens, C. Max; Arthern, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cold dry snow and firn plays important roles in glaciology; however, the physical formulation of a densification law is still an active research topic. We forced eight firn-densification models and one seasonal-snow model in six different experiments by imposing step changes in tempe...

  5. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-03

    This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiation. It is based on the model used to calculate temperatures and volume fractions in an annular vessel containing an aqueous solution of uranium . The experiment was repeated at several electron beam power levels, but the CFD analysis was performed only for the 12 kW irradiation, because this experiment came the closest to reaching a steady-state condition. The aim of the study is to compare results of the calculation with experimental measurements to determine the validity of the CFD model.

  6. Extracting Models in Single Molecule Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presse, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Single molecule experiments can now monitor the journey of a protein from its assembly near a ribosome to its proteolytic demise. Ideally all single molecule data should be self-explanatory. However data originating from single molecule experiments is particularly challenging to interpret on account of fluctuations and noise at such small scales. Realistically, basic understanding comes from models carefully extracted from the noisy data. Statistical mechanics, and maximum entropy in particular, provide a powerful framework for accomplishing this task in a principled fashion. Here I will discuss our work in extracting conformational memory from single molecule force spectroscopy experiments on large biomolecules. One clear advantage of this method is that we let the data tend towards the correct model, we do not fit the data. I will show that the dynamical model of the single molecule dynamics which emerges from this analysis is often more textured and complex than could otherwise come from fitting the data to a pre-conceived model.

  7. Improving quantitative precipitation nowcasting with a local ensemble transform Kalman filter radar data assimilation system: observing system simulation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Tsai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a Doppler radar data assimilation system, which couples the local ensemble transform Kalman filter with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The benefits of this system to quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN are evaluated with observing system simulation experiments on Typhoon Morakot (2009, which brought record-breaking rainfall and extensive damage to central and southern Taiwan. The results indicate that the assimilation of radial velocity and reflectivity observations improves the three-dimensional winds and rain-mixing ratio most significantly because of the direct relations in the observation operator. The patterns of spiral rainbands become more consistent between different ensemble members after radar data assimilation. The rainfall intensity and distribution during the 6-hour deterministic nowcast are also improved, especially for the first 3 hours. The nowcasts with and without radar data assimilation have similar evolution trends driven by synoptic-scale conditions. Furthermore, we carry out a series of sensitivity experiments to develop proper assimilation strategies, in which a mixed localisation method is proposed for the first time and found to give further QPN improvement in this typhoon case.

  8. A quantitative risk-based model for reasoning over critical system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This position paper suggests the use of a quantitative risk-based model to help support reeasoning and decision making that spans many of the critical properties such as security, safety, survivability, fault tolerance, and real-time.

  9. Using integrated environmental modeling to automate a process-based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, an...

  10. Using Integrated Environmental Modeling to Automate a Process-Based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, and...

  11. Mode I Failure of Armor Ceramics: Experiments and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Christopher; Leavy, Brian

    2017-06-01

    The pre-notched edge on impact (EOI) experiment is a technique for benchmarking the damage and fracture of ceramics subjected to projectile impact. A cylindrical projectile impacts the edge of a thin rectangular plate with a pre-notch on the opposite edge. Tension is generated at the notch tip resulting in the initiation and propagation of a mode I crack back toward the impact edge. The crack can be quantitatively measured using an optical method called Digital Gradient Sensing, which measures the crack-tip deformation by simultaneously quantifying two orthogonal surface slopes via measuring small deflections of light rays from a specularly reflective surface around the crack. The deflections in ceramics are small so the high speed camera needs to have a very high pixel count. This work reports on the results from pre-crack EOI experiments of SiC and B4 C plates. The experimental data are quantitatively compared to impact simulations using an advanced continuum damage model. The Kayenta ceramic model in Alegra will be used to compare fracture propagation speeds, bifurcations and inhomogeneous initiation of failure will be compared. This will provide insight into the driving mechanisms required for the macroscale failure modeling of ceramics.

  12. Linear regression models for quantitative assessment of left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in left ventricular structures and function have been reported in cardiomyopathies. No prediction models have been established in this environment. This study established regression models for prediction of left ventricular structures in normal subjects. A sample of normal subjects was drawn from a large urban ...

  13. Towards the quantitative evaluation of visual attention models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinskii, Z; DeGennaro, E M; Rajalingham, R; Ruda, H; Zhang, J; Tsotsos, J K

    2015-11-01

    Scores of visual attention models have been developed over the past several decades of research. Differences in implementation, assumptions, and evaluations have made comparison of these models very difficult. Taxonomies have been constructed in an attempt at the organization and classification of models, but are not sufficient at quantifying which classes of models are most capable of explaining available data. At the same time, a multitude of physiological and behavioral findings have been published, measuring various aspects of human and non-human primate visual attention. All of these elements highlight the need to integrate the computational models with the data by (1) operationalizing the definitions of visual attention tasks and (2) designing benchmark datasets to measure success on specific tasks, under these definitions. In this paper, we provide some examples of operationalizing and benchmarking different visual attention tasks, along with the relevant design considerations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitatively accurate activity measurements with a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera: Physical phantom experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmoghaddas, Amir, E-mail: apour@ottawaheart.ca; Wells, R. Glenn [Physics Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Cardiology, The University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased interest in dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners with pinhole collimation and improved detector technology due to their improved count sensitivity and resolution over traditional parallel-hole cameras. With traditional cameras, energy-based approaches are often used in the clinic for scatter compensation because they are fast and easily implemented. Some of the cardiac cameras use cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors which can complicate the use of energy-based scatter correction (SC) due to the low-energy tail—an increased number of unscattered photons detected with reduced energy. Modified energy-based scatter correction methods can be implemented, but their level of accuracy is unclear. In this study, the authors validated by physical phantom experiments the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of easily implemented correction techniques applied to {sup 99m}Tc myocardial imaging with a CZT-detector-based gamma camera with multiple heads, each with a single-pinhole collimator. Methods: Activity in the cardiac compartment of an Anthropomorphic Torso phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation) was measured through 15 {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT acquisitions. The ratio of activity concentrations in organ compartments resembled a clinical {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scan and was kept consistent across all experiments (1.2:1 heart to liver and 1.5:1 heart to lung). Two background activity levels were considered: no activity (cold) and an activity concentration 1/10th of the heart (hot). A plastic “lesion” was placed inside of the septal wall of the myocardial insert to simulate the presence of a region without tracer uptake and contrast in this lesion was calculated for all images. The true net activity in each compartment was measured with a dose calibrator (CRC-25R, Capintec, Inc.). A 10 min SPECT image was acquired using a dedicated cardiac camera with CZT detectors (Discovery NM530c, GE

  15. Quantitative shear wave ultrasound elastography: initial experience in solid breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Denis; Brauer, Katrin; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Baker, Lee; Thompson, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Shear wave elastography is a new method of obtaining quantitative tissue elasticity data during breast ultrasound examinations. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (2) to correlate the elasticity values of a series of solid breast masses with histological findings and (3) to compare shear wave elastography with greyscale ultrasound for benign/malignant classification. Using the Aixplorer® ultrasound system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France), 53 solid breast lesions were identified in 52 consecutive patients. Two orthogonal elastography images were obtained of each lesion. Observers noted the mean elasticity values in regions of interest (ROI) placed over the stiffest areas on the two elastography images and a mean value was calculated for each lesion. A sub-set of 15 patients had two elastography images obtained by an additional operator. Reproducibility of observations was assessed between (1) two observers analysing the same pair of images and (2) findings from two pairs of images of the same lesion taken by two different operators. All lesions were subjected to percutaneous biopsy. Elastography measurements were correlated with histology results. After preliminary experience with 10 patients a mean elasticity cut off value of 50 kilopascals (kPa) was selected for benign/malignant differentiation. Greyscale images were classified according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). BI-RADS categories 1-3 were taken as benign while BI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were classified as malignant. Twenty-three benign lesions and 30 cancers were diagnosed on histology. Measurement of mean elasticity yielded an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 for two observers assessing the same pairs of elastography images. Analysis of images taken by two independent operators gave an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.80. Shear wave elastography versus

  16. CFD and FEM modeling of PPOOLEX experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.; Timperi, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    Large-break LOCA experiment performed with the PPOOLEX experimental facility is analysed with CFD calculations. Simulation of the first 100 seconds of the experiment is performed by using the Euler-Euler two-phase model of FLUENT 6.3. In wall condensation, the condensing water forms a film layer on the wall surface, which is modelled by mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid water phase in the near-wall grid cell. The direct-contact condensation in the wetwell is modelled with simple correlations. The wall condensation and direct-contact condensation models are implemented with user-defined functions in FLUENT. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) calculations of the PPOOLEX experiments and of a realistic BWR containment are also presented. Two-way coupled FSI calculations of the experiments have been numerically unstable with explicit coupling. A linear perturbation method is therefore used for preventing the numerical instability. The method is first validated against numerical data and against the PPOOLEX experiments. Preliminary FSI calculations are then performed for a realistic BWR containment by modeling a sector of the containment and one blowdown pipe. For the BWR containment, one- and two-way coupled calculations as well as calculations with LPM are carried out. (Author)

  17. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Earth Syst. Sci. (2017) 126: 33 ... ogy, climate change, glaciology and crop models in agriculture. Different ... In areas where local topography strongly influences precipitation .... (vii) cloud amount, (viii) cloud type and (ix) sun shine hours.

  18. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  19. 77 FR 41985 - Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... models to generate quantitative estimates of the benefits and risks of influenza vaccination. The public...] Use of Influenza Disease Models To Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A... Influenza Disease Models to Quantitatively Evaluate the Benefits and Risks of Vaccines: A Technical Workshop...

  20. Exploiting linkage disequilibrium in statistical modelling in quantitative genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei

    Alleles at two loci are said to be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) when they are correlated or statistically dependent. Genomic prediction and gene mapping rely on the existence of LD between gentic markers and causul variants of complex traits. In the first part of the thesis, a novel method...... to quantify and visualize local variation in LD along chromosomes in describet, and applied to characterize LD patters at the local and genome-wide scale in three Danish pig breeds. In the second part, different ways of taking LD into account in genomic prediction models are studied. One approach is to use...... the recently proposed antedependence models, which treat neighbouring marker effects as correlated; another approach involves use of haplotype block information derived using the program Beagle. The overall conclusion is that taking LD information into account in genomic prediction models potentially improves...

  1. The place of quantitative energy models in a prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N.

    2009-01-01

    Futurology above all depends on having the right mind set. Gaston Berger summarizes the prospective approach in 5 five main thrusts: prepare for the distant future, be open-minded (have a systems and multidisciplinary approach), carry out in-depth analyzes (draw out actors which are really determinant or the future, as well as established shed trends), take risks (imagine risky but flexible projects) and finally think about humanity, futurology being a technique at the service of man to help him build a desirable future. On the other hand, forecasting is based on quantified models so as to deduce 'conclusions' about the future. In the field of energy, models are used to draw up scenarios which allow, for instance, measuring medium or long term effects of energy policies on greenhouse gas emissions or global welfare. Scenarios are shaped by the model's inputs (parameters, sets of assumptions) and outputs. Resorting to a model or projecting by scenario is useful in a prospective approach as it ensures coherence for most of the variables that have been identified through systems analysis and that the mind on its own has difficulty to grasp. Interpretation of each scenario must be carried out in the light o the underlying framework of assumptions (the backdrop), developed during the prospective stage. When the horizon is far away (very long-term), the worlds imagined by the futurologist contain breaks (technological, behavioural and organizational) which are hard to integrate into the models. It is here that the main limit for the use of models in futurology is located. (author)

  2. Improved Mental Acuity Forecasting with an Individualized Quantitative Sleep Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Winslow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep impairment significantly alters human brain structure and cognitive function, but available evidence suggests that adults in developed nations are sleeping less. A growing body of research has sought to use sleep to forecast cognitive performance by modeling the relationship between the two, but has generally focused on vigilance rather than other cognitive constructs affected by sleep, such as reaction time, executive function, and working memory. Previous modeling efforts have also utilized subjective, self-reported sleep durations and were restricted to laboratory environments. In the current effort, we addressed these limitations by employing wearable systems and mobile applications to gather objective sleep information, assess multi-construct cognitive performance, and model/predict changes to mental acuity. Thirty participants were recruited for participation in the study, which lasted 1 week. Using the Fitbit Charge HR and a mobile version of the automated neuropsychological assessment metric called CogGauge, we gathered a series of features and utilized the unified model of performance to predict mental acuity based on sleep records. Our results suggest that individuals poorly rate their sleep duration, supporting the need for objective sleep metrics to model circadian changes to mental acuity. Participant compliance in using the wearable throughout the week and responding to the CogGauge assessments was 80%. Specific biases were identified in temporal metrics across mobile devices and operating systems and were excluded from the mental acuity metric development. Individualized prediction of mental acuity consistently outperformed group modeling. This effort indicates the feasibility of creating an individualized, mobile assessment and prediction of mental acuity, compatible with the majority of current mobile devices.

  3. On the usability of quantitative modelling in operations strategy decission making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative modelling seems admirably suited to help managers in their strategic decision making on operations management issues, but in practice models are rarely used for this purpose. Investigates the reasons why, based on a detailed cross-case analysis of six cases of modelling-supported

  4. Quantitative model analysis with diverse biological data: applications in developmental pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargett, Michael; Umulis, David M

    2013-07-15

    Mathematical modeling of transcription factor and signaling networks is widely used to understand if and how a mechanism works, and to infer regulatory interactions that produce a model consistent with the observed data. Both of these approaches to modeling are informed by experimental data, however, much of the data available or even acquirable are not quantitative. Data that is not strictly quantitative cannot be used by classical, quantitative, model-based analyses that measure a difference between the measured observation and the model prediction for that observation. To bridge the model-to-data gap, a variety of techniques have been developed to measure model "fitness" and provide numerical values that can subsequently be used in model optimization or model inference studies. Here, we discuss a selection of traditional and novel techniques to transform data of varied quality and enable quantitative comparison with mathematical models. This review is intended to both inform the use of these model analysis methods, focused on parameter estimation, and to help guide the choice of method to use for a given study based on the type of data available. Applying techniques such as normalization or optimal scaling may significantly improve the utility of current biological data in model-based study and allow greater integration between disparate types of data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinet, C.; Kehlenbeck, H.; Werf, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the EU project PRATIQUE (KBBE-2007-212459 Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques) a suite of models was developed to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. This dataset contains the model codes (R language) for the four models in the suite. Three

  6. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: An application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  7. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the

  8. Complementary social science? Quali-quantitative experiments in a Big Data world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Blok

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address such epochal (“large-scale” questions by way of a (situated experiment: at the Danish Technical University in Copenhagen, an interdisciplinary group of computer scientists, physicists, economists, sociologists, and anthropologists (including the authors is setting up a large-scale data infrastructure, meant to continually record the digital traces of social relations among an entire freshman class of students ( N  > 1000. At the same time, fieldwork is carried out on friendship (and other relations amongst the same group of students. On this basis, the question we pose is the following: what kind of knowledge is obtained on this social micro-cosmos via the Big (computational, quantitative and Small (embodied, qualitative Data, respectively? How do the two relate? Invoking Bohr’s principle of complementarity as analogy, we hypothesize that social relations, as objects of knowledge, depend crucially on the type of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods but also for the type of societal (self-knowledge that may be expected from new large-scale social databases.

  9. Quantitative Comparison Between Crowd Models for Evacuation Planning and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, V.; Lee, C.E.; Lees, M.H.; Cheong, S.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Crowd simulation is rapidly becoming a standard tool for evacuation planning and evaluation. However, the many crowd models in the literature are structurally different, and few have been rigorously calibrated against real-world egress data, especially in emergency situations. In this paper we

  10. Quantitative Research: A Dispute Resolution Model for FTC Advertising Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jef I.; Preston, Ivan L.

    Noting the lack of a dispute mechanism for determining whether an advertising practice is truly deceptive without generating the costs and negative publicity produced by traditional Federal Trade Commission (FTC) procedures, this paper proposes a model based upon early termination of the issues through jointly commissioned behavioral research. The…

  11. The Quantitative Evaluation of Functional Neuroimaging Experiments: Mutual Information Learning Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai; Anderson, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Learning curves are presented as an unbiased means for evaluating the performance of models for neuroimaging data analysis. The learning curve measures the predictive performance in terms of the generalization or prediction error as a function of the number of independent examples (e.g., subjects......) used to determine the parameters in the model. Cross-validation resampling is used to obtain unbiased estimates of a generic multivariate Gaussian classifier, for training set sizes from 2 to 16 subjects. We apply the framework to four different activation experiments, in this case \\$\\backslash......\\$[/sup 15/ O]water data sets, although the framework is equally valid for multisubject fMRI studies. We demonstrate how the prediction error can be expressed as the mutual information between the scan and the scan label, measured in units of bits. The mutual information learning curve can be used...

  12. Quantitative properties of clustering within modern microscopic nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volya, A.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    A method for studying cluster spectroscopic properties of nuclear fragmentation, such as spectroscopic amplitudes, cluster form factors, and spectroscopic factors, is developed on the basis of modern precision nuclear models that take into account the mixing of large-scale shell-model configurations. Alpha-cluster channels are considered as an example. A mathematical proof of the need for taking into account the channel-wave-function renormalization generated by exchange terms of the antisymmetrization operator (Fliessbach effect) is given. Examples where this effect is confirmed by a high quality of the description of experimental data are presented. By and large, the method in question extends substantially the possibilities for studying clustering phenomena in nuclei and for improving the quality of their description.

  13. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  14. Clinical experience of rehabilitation therapists with chronic diseases: a quantitative approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the numbers of patients with selected chronic diseases treated by rehabilitation therapists (physical therapists, occupational therapists, exercise therapists and podiatrists). The study was performed to get quantitative information on the degree to which

  15. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  16. Quantitative modeling of selective lysosomal targeting for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rosania, G.; Horobin, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    log K ow. These findings were validated with experimental results and by a comparison to the properties of antimalarial drugs in clinical use. For ten active compounds, nine were predicted to accumulate to a greater extent in lysosomes than in other organelles, six of these were in the optimum range...... predicted by the model and three were close. Five of the antimalarial drugs were lipophilic weak dibasic compounds. The predicted optimum properties for a selective accumulation of weak bivalent bases in lysosomes are consistent with experimental values and are more accurate than any prior calculation...

  17. Interdiffusion of the aluminum magnesium system. Quantitative analysis and numerical model; Interdiffusion des Aluminium-Magnesium-Systems. Quantitative Analyse und numerische Modellierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seperant, Florian

    2012-03-21

    Aluminum coatings are a promising approach to protect magnesium alloys against corrosion and thereby making them accessible to a variety of technical applications. Thermal treatment enhances the adhesion of the aluminium coating on magnesium by interdiffusion. For a deeper understanding of the diffusion process at the interface, a quantitative description of the Al-Mg system is necessary. On the basis of diffusion experiments with infinite reservoirs of aluminum and magnesium, the interdiffusion coefficients of the intermetallic phases of the Al-Mg-system are calculated with the Sauer-Freise method for the first time. To solve contradictions in the literature concerning the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the possibility of a bifurcation of the Kirkendall plane is considered. Furthermore, a physico-chemical description of interdiffusion is provided to interpret the observed phase transitions. The developed numerical model is based on a temporally varied discretization of the space coordinate. It exhibits excellent quantitative agreement with the experimentally measured concentration profile. This confirms the validity of the obtained diffusion coefficients. Moreover, the Kirkendall shift in the Al-Mg system is simulated for the first time. Systems with thin aluminum coatings on magnesium also exhibit a good correlation between simulated and experimental concentration profiles. Thus, the diffusion coefficients are also valid for Al-coated systems. Hence, it is possible to derive parameters for a thermal treatment by simulation, resulting in an optimized modification of the magnesium surface for technical applications.

  18. ADMIT: a toolbox for guaranteed model invalidation, estimation and qualitative-quantitative modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streif, Stefan; Savchenko, Anton; Rumschinski, Philipp; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf

    2012-05-01

    Often competing hypotheses for biochemical networks exist in the form of different mathematical models with unknown parameters. Considering available experimental data, it is then desired to reject model hypotheses that are inconsistent with the data, or to estimate the unknown parameters. However, these tasks are complicated because experimental data are typically sparse, uncertain, and are frequently only available in form of qualitative if-then observations. ADMIT (Analysis, Design and Model Invalidation Toolbox) is a MatLab(TM)-based tool for guaranteed model invalidation, state and parameter estimation. The toolbox allows the integration of quantitative measurement data, a priori knowledge of parameters and states, and qualitative information on the dynamic or steady-state behavior. A constraint satisfaction problem is automatically generated and algorithms are implemented for solving the desired estimation, invalidation or analysis tasks. The implemented methods built on convex relaxation and optimization and therefore provide guaranteed estimation results and certificates for invalidity. ADMIT, tutorials and illustrative examples are available free of charge for non-commercial use at http://ifatwww.et.uni-magdeburg.de/syst/ADMIT/

  19. ADMIT: a toolbox for guaranteed model invalidation, estimation and qualitative–quantitative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streif, Stefan; Savchenko, Anton; Rumschinski, Philipp; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Often competing hypotheses for biochemical networks exist in the form of different mathematical models with unknown parameters. Considering available experimental data, it is then desired to reject model hypotheses that are inconsistent with the data, or to estimate the unknown parameters. However, these tasks are complicated because experimental data are typically sparse, uncertain, and are frequently only available in form of qualitative if–then observations. ADMIT (Analysis, Design and Model Invalidation Toolbox) is a MatLabTM-based tool for guaranteed model invalidation, state and parameter estimation. The toolbox allows the integration of quantitative measurement data, a priori knowledge of parameters and states, and qualitative information on the dynamic or steady-state behavior. A constraint satisfaction problem is automatically generated and algorithms are implemented for solving the desired estimation, invalidation or analysis tasks. The implemented methods built on convex relaxation and optimization and therefore provide guaranteed estimation results and certificates for invalidity. Availability: ADMIT, tutorials and illustrative examples are available free of charge for non-commercial use at http://ifatwww.et.uni-magdeburg.de/syst/ADMIT/ Contact: stefan.streif@ovgu.de PMID:22451270

  20. A quantitative and dynamic model for plant stem cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geier

    Full Text Available Plants maintain pools of totipotent stem cells throughout their entire life. These stem cells are embedded within specialized tissues called meristems, which form the growing points of the organism. The shoot apical meristem of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana is subdivided into several distinct domains, which execute diverse biological functions, such as tissue organization, cell-proliferation and differentiation. The number of cells required for growth and organ formation changes over the course of a plants life, while the structure of the meristem remains remarkably constant. Thus, regulatory systems must be in place, which allow for an adaptation of cell proliferation within the shoot apical meristem, while maintaining the organization at the tissue level. To advance our understanding of this dynamic tissue behavior, we measured domain sizes as well as cell division rates of the shoot apical meristem under various environmental conditions, which cause adaptations in meristem size. Based on our results we developed a mathematical model to explain the observed changes by a cell pool size dependent regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, which is able to correctly predict CLV3 and WUS over-expression phenotypes. While the model shows stem cell homeostasis under constant growth conditions, it predicts a variation in stem cell number under changing conditions. Consistent with our experimental data this behavior is correlated with variations in cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigate different signaling mechanisms, which could stabilize stem cell number despite variations in cell proliferation. Our results shed light onto the dynamic constraints of stem cell pool maintenance in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis in different environmental conditions and developmental states.

  1. Cooling tower plume - model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Jan; Gemperle, Jiri; Strob, Miroslav; Nozicka, Jiri

    The paper discusses the description of the simple model of the, so-called, steam plume, which in many cases forms during the operation of the evaporative cooling systems of the power plants, or large technological units. The model is based on semi-empirical equations that describe the behaviour of a mixture of two gases in case of the free jet stream. In the conclusion of the paper, a simple experiment is presented through which the results of the designed model shall be validated in the subsequent period.

  2. Cooling tower plume - model and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizek Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the description of the simple model of the, so-called, steam plume, which in many cases forms during the operation of the evaporative cooling systems of the power plants, or large technological units. The model is based on semi-empirical equations that describe the behaviour of a mixture of two gases in case of the free jet stream. In the conclusion of the paper, a simple experiment is presented through which the results of the designed model shall be validated in the subsequent period.

  3. Thermal experiments in the ADS target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, A.D.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Sorokin, A.P.; Ivanov, E.F.; Bogoslovskaya, G.P.; Li, N.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on the development of the target heat model project and method of investigation into heat exchange in target were conducted with the aim of analysis of thermomechanical and strength characteristics of device; experimental data on the temperature distribution in coolant and membrane were obtained. Obtained data demonstrate that the temperature heterogeneity of membrane and coolant are connected with the temperature distribution variability near the membrane. Peculiarities of the experiment are noted: maximal temperature of oscillations at high point of the membrane, and power bearing temperature oscillations in the range 0 - 1 Hz [ru

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci in a selectively genotyped outbred population using a mixture model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, David L.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Arendonk, Johan A.M. van

    1999-01-01

    A mixture model approach is employed for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the situation where individuals, in an outbred population, are selectively genotyped. Maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is obtained from an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm facilitated by

  5. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine. - Highlights: • Both training and testing samples are considered for analytical lines selection. • The analytical lines are auto-selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines. • The new method can achieve better prediction accuracy and modeling robustness. • Model predictions are given with confidence interval of probabilistic distribution

  6. Modeling the Nab Experiment Electronics in SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blose, Alexander; Crawford, Christopher; Sprow, Aaron; Nab Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the Nab experiment is to measure the neutron decay coefficients a, the electron-neutrino correlation, as well as b, the Fierz interference term to precisely test the Standard Model, as well as probe for Beyond the Standard Model physics. In this experiment, protons from the beta decay of the neutron are guided through a magnetic field into a Silicon detector. Event reconstruction will be achieved via time-of-flight measurement for the proton and direct measurement of the coincident electron energy in highly segmented silicon detectors, so the amplification circuitry needs to preserve fast timing, provide good amplitude resolution, and be packaged in a high-density format. We have designed a SPICE simulation to model the full electronics chain for the Nab experiment in order to understand the contributions of each stage and optimize them for performance. Additionally, analytic solutions to each of the components have been determined where available. We will present a comparison of the output from the SPICE model, analytic solution, and empirically determined data.

  7. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A; Druce, R L; Phillips, D; Lee, R; Mudge, S; Roeske, F

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data, including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.

  8. Impact of implementation choices on quantitative predictions of cell-based computational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Jochen; Baker, Ruth E.; Fletcher, Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    'Cell-based' models provide a powerful computational tool for studying the mechanisms underlying the growth and dynamics of biological tissues in health and disease. An increasing amount of quantitative data with cellular resolution has paved the way for the quantitative parameterisation and validation of such models. However, the numerical implementation of cell-based models remains challenging, and little work has been done to understand to what extent implementation choices may influence model predictions. Here, we consider the numerical implementation of a popular class of cell-based models called vertex models, which are often used to study epithelial tissues. In two-dimensional vertex models, a tissue is approximated as a tessellation of polygons and the vertices of these polygons move due to mechanical forces originating from the cells. Such models have been used extensively to study the mechanical regulation of tissue topology in the literature. Here, we analyse how the model predictions may be affected by numerical parameters, such as the size of the time step, and non-physical model parameters, such as length thresholds for cell rearrangement. We find that vertex positions and summary statistics are sensitive to several of these implementation parameters. For example, the predicted tissue size decreases with decreasing cell cycle durations, and cell rearrangement may be suppressed by large time steps. These findings are counter-intuitive and illustrate that model predictions need to be thoroughly analysed and implementation details carefully considered when applying cell-based computational models in a quantitative setting.

  9. Modeling variability in porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bowen; Bao, Jie; Oostrom, Mart; Battiato, Ilenia; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-07-01

    Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e., fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rates. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  10. Quantitative Model for Economic Analyses of Information Security Investment in an Enterprise Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanc Rok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for the optimal security-technology investment evaluation and decision-making processes based on the quantitative analysis of security risks and digital asset assessments in an enterprise. The model makes use of the quantitative analysis of different security measures that counteract individual risks by identifying the information system processes in an enterprise and the potential threats. The model comprises the target security levels for all identified business processes and the probability of a security accident together with the possible loss the enterprise may suffer. The selection of security technology is based on the efficiency of selected security measures. Economic metrics are applied for the efficiency assessment and comparative analysis of different protection technologies. Unlike the existing models for evaluation of the security investment, the proposed model allows direct comparison and quantitative assessment of different security measures. The model allows deep analyses and computations providing quantitative assessments of different options for investments, which translate into recommendations facilitating the selection of the best solution and the decision-making thereof. The model was tested using empirical examples with data from real business environment.

  11. Can't Count or Won't Count? Embedding Quantitative Methods in Substantive Sociology Curricula: A Quasi-Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Malcolm; Sloan, Luke; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sutton, Carole; Stevens, Sebastian; Runham, Libby

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experiment in which quantitative methods (QM) are embedded within a substantive sociology module. Through measuring student attitudes before and after the intervention alongside control group comparisons, we illustrate the impact that embedding has on the student experience. Our findings are complex and even contradictory. Whilst the experimental group were less likely to be distrustful of statistics and appreciate how QM inform social research, they were also less confident about their statistical abilities, suggesting that through 'doing' quantitative sociology the experimental group are exposed to the intricacies of method and their optimism about their own abilities is challenged. We conclude that embedding QM in a single substantive module is not a 'magic bullet' and that a wider programme of content and assessment diversification across the curriculum is preferential.

  12. Can’t Count or Won’t Count? Embedding Quantitative Methods in Substantive Sociology Curricula: A Quasi-Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Malcolm; Sloan, Luke; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sutton, Carole; Stevens, Sebastian; Runham, Libby

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experiment in which quantitative methods (QM) are embedded within a substantive sociology module. Through measuring student attitudes before and after the intervention alongside control group comparisons, we illustrate the impact that embedding has on the student experience. Our findings are complex and even contradictory. Whilst the experimental group were less likely to be distrustful of statistics and appreciate how QM inform social research, they were also less confident about their statistical abilities, suggesting that through ‘doing’ quantitative sociology the experimental group are exposed to the intricacies of method and their optimism about their own abilities is challenged. We conclude that embedding QM in a single substantive module is not a ‘magic bullet’ and that a wider programme of content and assessment diversification across the curriculum is preferential. PMID:27330225

  13. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  14. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  15. Modelization of ratcheting in biaxial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guionnet, C.

    1989-08-01

    A new unified viscoplastic constitutive equation has been developed in order to interpret ratcheting experiments on mechanical structures of fast reactors. The model is based essentially on a generalized Armstrong Frederick equation for the kinematic variable; the coefficients of the dynamic recovery term in this equation is a function of both instantaneous and accumulated inelastic strain which is allowed to vary in an appropriate manner in order to reproduce the experimental ratcheting rate. The validity of the model is verified by comparing predictions with experimental results for austenitic stainless steel (17-12 SPH) tubular specimens subjected to cyclic torsional loading under constant tensile stress at 600 0 C [fr

  16. Data assimilation and model evaluation experiment datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung-Cheng A.; Qian, Wen; Glenn, Scott M.

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Naval Oceanography, in cooperation with Naval Research Laboratories and universities, executed the Data Assimilation and Model Evaluation Experiment (DAMEE) for the Gulf Stream region during fiscal years 1991-1993. Enormous effort has gone into the preparation of several high-quality and consistent datasets for model initialization and verification. This paper describes the preparation process, the temporal and spatial scopes, the contents, the structure, etc., of these datasets. The goal of DAMEE and the need of data for the four phases of experiment are briefly stated. The preparation of DAMEE datasets consisted of a series of processes: (1) collection of observational data; (2) analysis and interpretation; (3) interpolation using the Optimum Thermal Interpolation System package; (4) quality control and re-analysis; and (5) data archiving and software documentation. The data products from these processes included a time series of 3D fields of temperature and salinity, 2D fields of surface dynamic height and mixed-layer depth, analysis of the Gulf Stream and rings system, and bathythermograph profiles. To date, these are the most detailed and high-quality data for mesoscale ocean modeling, data assimilation, and forecasting research. Feedback from ocean modeling groups who tested this data was incorporated into its refinement. Suggestions for DAMEE data usages include (1) ocean modeling and data assimilation studies, (2) diagnosis and theoretical studies, and (3) comparisons with locally detailed observations.

  17. Utilization of high-accuracy FTICR-MS data in protein quantitation experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strohalm, Martin; Novák, Petr; Pompach, Petr; Man, Petr; Kavan, Daniel; Witt, M.; Džubák, P.; Hajdúch, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 11 (2009), s. 1565-1570 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mass spectrometry * protein quantitation * workflow Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2009

  18. Quantitative modeling of gene networks of biological systems using fuzzy Petri nets and fuzzy sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed I. Hamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative demonstrating of organic frameworks has turned into an essential computational methodology in the configuration of novel and investigation of existing natural frameworks. Be that as it may, active information that portrays the framework's elements should be known keeping in mind the end goal to get pertinent results with the routine displaying strategies. This information is frequently robust or even difficult to get. Here, we exhibit a model of quantitative fuzzy rational demonstrating approach that can adapt to obscure motor information and hence deliver applicable results despite the fact that dynamic information is fragmented or just dubiously characterized. Besides, the methodology can be utilized as a part of the blend with the current cutting edge quantitative demonstrating strategies just in specific parts of the framework, i.e., where the data are absent. The contextual analysis of the methodology suggested in this paper is performed on the model of nine-quality genes. We propose a kind of FPN model in light of fuzzy sets to manage the quantitative modeling of biological systems. The tests of our model appear that the model is practical and entirely powerful for information impersonation and thinking of fuzzy expert frameworks.

  19. The impact of brand experience on attitudes and brand image : A quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Isotalo, Anni; Watanen, Samu

    2015-01-01

    Research questions: How to create an engaging brand experience in marketing context? How does an engaging brand experience affect consumer attitudes and brand image? Purpose of the study: The authors propose that the relationship between brand experience and formation of brand loyalty can be mediated by brand affect: positive attitude and brand image. The study discovers the components of an engaging brand experience and indicates their effect on consumer attitudes and brand image. Conclusion...

  20. A Quantitative bgl Operon Model for E. coli Requires BglF Conformational Change for Sugar Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Bender, Andreas

    The bgl operon is responsible for the metabolism of β-glucoside sugars such as salicin or arbutin in E. coli. Its regulatory system involves both positive and negative feedback mechanisms and it can be assumed to be more complex than that of the more closely studied lac and trp operons. We have developed a quantitative model for the regulation of the bgl operon which is subject to in silico experiments investigating its behavior under different hypothetical conditions. Upon administration of 5mM salicin as an inducer our model shows 80-fold induction, which compares well with the 60-fold induction measured experimentally. Under practical conditions 5-10mM inducer are employed, which is in line with the minimum inducer concentration of 1mM required by our model. The necessity of BglF conformational change for sugar transport has been hypothesized previously, and in line with those hypotheses our model shows only minor induction if conformational change is not allowed. Overall, this first quantitative model for the bgl operon gives reasonable predictions that are close to experimental results (where measured). It will be further refined as values of the parameters are determined experimentally. The model was developed in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and it is available from the authors and from the Biomodels repository [www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels].

  1. Quantitative surface topography determination by Nomarski reflection microscopy. 2: Microscope modification, calibration, and planar sample experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J.S.; Gordon, R.L.; Lessor, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    The application of reflective Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy for the determination of quantitative sample topography data is presented. The discussion includes a review of key theoretical results presented previously plus the experimental implementation of the concepts using a commercial Momarski microscope. The experimental work included the modification and characterization of a commercial microscope to allow its use for obtaining quantitative sample topography data. System usage for the measurement of slopes on flat planar samples is also discussed. The discussion has been designed to provide the theoretical basis, a physical insight, and a cookbook procedure for implementation to allow these results to be of value to both those interested in the microscope theory and its practical usage in the metallography laboratory

  2. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-11

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vessel geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  3. Quantitative shear wave ultrasound elastography: initial experience in solid breast masses

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Andrew; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Denis; Brauer, Katrin; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Baker, Lee; Thompson, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Shear wave elastography is a new method of obtaining quantitative tissue elasticity data during breast ultrasound examinations. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (2) to correlate the elasticity values of a series of solid breast masses with histological findings and (3) to compare shear wave elastography with greyscale ultrasound for benign/malignant classification. Methods Using the Aixplorer® ultrasound system (SuperSoni...

  4. Attenuation of surface waves in porous media: Shock wave experiments and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.E; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this project we conduct experimental and numerical investigations on the attenuation mechanisms of surface waves in poroelastic materials. Viscous dissipation effects are modelled in the framework of Biot's theory. The experiments are performed using a shock tube technique. Quantitative agreement

  5. The Geodynamo: Models and supporting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Stieglitz, R.

    2003-03-01

    The magnetic field is a characteristic feature of our planet Earth. It shelters the biosphere against particle radiation from the space and offers by its direction orientation to creatures. The question about its origin has challenged scientists to find sound explanations. Major progress has been achieved during the last two decades in developing dynamo models and performing corroborating laboratory experiments to explain convincingly the principle of the Earth magnetic field. The article reports some significant steps towards our present understanding of this subject and outlines in particular relevant experiments, which either substantiate crucial elements of self-excitation of magnetic fields or demonstrate dynamo action completely. The authors are aware that they have not addressed all aspects of geomagnetic studies; rather, they have selected the material from the huge amount of literature such as to motivate the recently growing interest in experimental dynamo research. (orig.)

  6. The 'OMITRON' and 'MODEL OMITRON' proposed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestero, A.

    1997-12-01

    In the present paper the main features of the OMITRON and MODEL OMITRON proposed high field tokamaks are illustrated. Of the two, OMITRON is an ambitious experiment, aimed at attaining plasma burning conditions. its key physics issues are discussed, and a comparison is carried out with corresponding physics features in ignition experiments such as IGNITOR and ITER. Chief asset and chief challenge - in both OMITRON and MODEL OMITRON is the conspicuous 20 Tesla toroidal field value on the plasma axis. The advanced features of engineering which consent such a reward in terms of toroidal magnet performance are discussed in convenient depth and detail. As for the small, propaedeutic device MODEL OMITRON among its goals one must rank the purpose of testing key engineering issues in vivo, which are vital for the larger and more expensive parent device. Besides that, however - as indicated by ad hoc performed scoping studies - the smaller machine is found capable also of a number of quite interesting physics investigations in its own right

  7. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  8. A quantitative model of the cardiac ventricular cell incorporating the transverse-axial tubular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Christé, G.; Šimurda, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2003), s. 355-368 ISSN 0231-5882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/D129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : cardiac cell * tubular system * quantitative modelling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.794, year: 2003

  9. Systematic Analysis of Quantitative Logic Model Ensembles Predicts Drug Combination Effects on Cell Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-27

    bovine serum albumin (BSA) diluted to the amount corresponding to that in the media of the stimulated cells. Phospho-JNK comprises two isoforms whose...information accompanies this paper on the CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology website (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/psp4) Systematic Analysis of Quantitative Logic Model Morris et al. 553 www.wileyonlinelibrary/psp4

  10. Comparison of blood flow models and acquisitions for quantitative myocardial perfusion estimation from dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindschadler, Michael; Alessio, Adam M; Modgil, Dimple; La Riviere, Patrick J; Branch, Kelley R

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) can be estimated from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) cardiac CT acquisitions, leading to quantitative assessment of regional perfusion. The need for low radiation dose and the lack of consensus on MBF estimation methods motivates this study to refine the selection of acquisition protocols and models for CT-derived MBF. DCE cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (MBF = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml (min g) −1 , cardiac output = 3, 5, 8 L min −1 ). Patient kinetics were generated by a mathematical model of iodine exchange incorporating numerous physiological features including heterogenenous microvascular flow, permeability and capillary contrast gradients. CT acquisitions were simulated for multiple realizations of realistic x-ray flux levels. CT acquisitions that reduce radiation exposure were implemented by varying both temporal sampling (1, 2, and 3 s sampling intervals) and tube currents (140, 70, and 25 mAs). For all acquisitions, we compared three quantitative MBF estimation methods (two-compartment model, an axially-distributed model, and the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneous model) and a qualitative slope-based method. In total, over 11 000 time attenuation curves were used to evaluate MBF estimation in multiple patient and imaging scenarios. After iodine-based beam hardening correction, the slope method consistently underestimated flow by on average 47.5% and the quantitative models provided estimates with less than 6.5% average bias and increasing variance with increasing dose reductions. The three quantitative models performed equally well, offering estimates with essentially identical root mean squared error (RMSE) for matched acquisitions. MBF estimates using the qualitative slope method were inferior in terms of bias and RMSE compared to the quantitative methods. MBF estimate error was equal at matched dose reductions for all quantitative methods and range of techniques evaluated. This

  11. A proposed experiment on ball lightning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, Vladimir K.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We propose to put a glass sphere inside an excited gas. → Then to put a light ray inside the glass in a whispering gallery mode. → If the light is resonant to gas excitation, it will be amplified at every reflection. → In ms time the light in the glass will be amplified, and will melt the glass. → A liquid shell kept integer by electrostriction forces is the ball lightning model. -- Abstract: We propose an experiment for strong light amplification at multiple total reflections from active gaseous media.

  12. Multiaxial behavior of foams - Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheo, Laurent; Guérard, Sandra; Rio, Gérard; Donnard, Adrien; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Cellular materials are strongly related to pressure level inside the material. It is therefore important to use experiments which can highlight (i) the pressure-volume behavior, (ii) the shear-shape behavior for different pressure level. Authors propose to use hydrostatic compressive, shear and combined pressure-shear tests to determine cellular materials behavior. Finite Element Modeling must take into account these behavior specificities. Authors chose to use a behavior law with a Hyperelastic, a Viscous and a Hysteretic contributions. Specific developments has been performed on the Hyperelastic one by separating the spherical and the deviatoric part to take into account volume change and shape change characteristics of cellular materials.

  13. Ecology-Centered Experiences among Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The present research involved two studies that considered "ecology-centered experiences" (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the…

  14. Implementation of the model project: Ghanaian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, E.O.; Yeboah, J.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Upgrading of the legal infrastructure has been the most time consuming and frustrating part of the implementation of the Model project due to the unstable system of governance and rule of law coupled with the low priority given to legislation on technical areas such as safe applications of Nuclear Science and Technology in medicine, industry, research and teaching. Dwindling Governmental financial support militated against physical and human resource infrastructure development and operational effectiveness. The trend over the last five years has been to strengthen the revenue generation base of the Radiation Protection Institute through good management practices to ensure a cost effective use of the limited available resources for a self-reliant and sustainable radiation and waste safety programme. The Ghanaian experience regarding the positive and negative aspects of the implementation of the Model Project is highlighted. (author)

  15. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Manuel I

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r −4 at large distances, as expected. (paper)

  16. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  17. Modeling reproducibility of porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Bao, J.; Oostrom, M.; Battiato, I.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-phase flow in porous media is widely encountered in geological systems. Understanding immiscible fluid displacement is crucial for processes including, but not limited to, CO2 sequestration, non-aqueous phase liquid contamination and oil recovery. Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e.,fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rate. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  18. Statistical analysis of probabilistic models of software product lines with quantitative constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beek, M.H. ter; Legay, A.; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the suitability of statistical model checking for the analysis of probabilistic models of software product lines with complex quantitative constraints and advanced feature installation options. Such models are specified in the feature-oriented language QFLan, a rich process algebra...... of certain behaviour to the expected average cost of products. This is supported by a Maude implementation of QFLan, integrated with the SMT solver Z3 and the distributed statistical model checker MultiVeStA. Our approach is illustrated with a bikes product line case study....

  19. Quantitative analysis of CT brain images: a statistical model incorporating partial volume and beam hardening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, R.F.; Ryan, M.V.; Heuston, P.M.; McCoy, C.T.; Masterson, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a statistical model for the quantitative analysis of computed tomographic brain images. Data were derived from standard sections in 34 normal studies. A model representing the intercranial pure tissue and partial volume areas, with allowance for beam hardening, was developed. The average percentage error in estimation of areas, derived from phantom tests using the model, was 28.47%. We conclude that our model is not sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, even though allowance was made for partial volume and beam hardening effects. (author)

  20. Mathematical Model of Nicholson’s Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey D. Glyzin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered  is a mathematical model of insects  population dynamics,  and  an attempt is made  to explain  classical experimental results  of Nicholson with  its help.  In the  first section  of the paper  Nicholson’s experiment is described  and dynamic  equations  for its modeling are chosen.  A priori estimates  for model parameters can be made more precise by means of local analysis  of the  dynamical system,  that is carried  out in the second section.  For parameter values found there  the stability loss of the  problem  equilibrium  of the  leads to the  bifurcation of a stable  two-dimensional torus.   Numerical simulations  based  on the  estimates  from the  second section  allows to explain  the  classical Nicholson’s experiment, whose detailed  theoretical substantiation is given in the last section.  There for an atrractor of the  system  the  largest  Lyapunov  exponent is computed. The  nature of this  exponent change allows to additionally narrow  the area of model parameters search.  Justification of this experiment was made possible  only  due  to  the  combination of analytical and  numerical  methods  in studying  equations  of insects  population dynamics.   At the  same time,  the  analytical approach made  it possible to perform numerical  analysis  in a rather narrow  region of the  parameter space.  It is not  possible to get into this area,  based only on general considerations.

  1. Benefits of reactor physics experiments for the HTGR industrial development - an attempt to a quantitative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuniberti, R; Graziani, G; Massino, L; Rinaldini, C; Zanantoni, C

    1972-10-15

    The available results of reactor physics experiments on HTGRs and their accuracies are briefiy reviewed. The physical quantities of interest are grouped into three categories: basic nuclear data, lattice parameters and integral design data. The last two are considered and their possible improvements in accuracy by means of experimental measurements are assessed. The cost penalty on fuel cycle and capital cost due to each physical quantity is then considered, and consequently the benefits of reactor physics experiments are evaluated for a number of hypotheses concerning the foreseeable HTGR development and the delay in taking practical advantage of experimental results. It is concluded that, at the present state of knowledge of basic nuclear data and with the available calculation methods, the economic incentive to new reactor physics experiments is small, and a previous careful analysis is recommended to those intending to perform such experiments.

  2. Discussions on the non-equilibrium effects in the quantitative phase field model of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Jun, Wang; Jin-Cheng, Wang; Gen-Cang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    All the quantitative phase field models try to get rid of the artificial factors of solutal drag, interface diffusion and interface stretch in the diffuse interface. These artificial non-equilibrium effects due to the introducing of diffuse interface are analysed based on the thermodynamic status across the diffuse interface in the quantitative phase field model of binary alloys. Results indicate that the non-equilibrium effects are related to the negative driving force in the local region of solid side across the diffuse interface. The negative driving force results from the fact that the phase field model is derived from equilibrium condition but used to simulate the non-equilibrium solidification process. The interface thickness dependence of the non-equilibrium effects and its restriction on the large scale simulation are also discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study Using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from currentless plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of W 24+ to W 33+ ions are very sensitive to electron temperature (Te) and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. Based on the first quantitative analysis of measured spatial profile of W 44+ ion, the tungsten concentration is determined to be n(W 44+ )/n e = 1.4x10 -4 and the total radiation loss is estimated as ∼4 MW, of which the value is roughly half the total NBI power. (author)

  4. Improved accuracy in quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using sub-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan; Clegg, Samuel M.; Frydenvang, Jens; Wiens, Roger C.; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2017-01-01

    Accurate quantitative analysis of diverse geologic materials is one of the primary challenges faced by the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)-based ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. The SuperCam instrument on the Mars 2020 rover, as well as other LIBS instruments developed for geochemical analysis on Earth or other planets, will face the same challenge. Consequently, part of the ChemCam science team has focused on the development of improved multivariate analysis calibrations methods. Developing a single regression model capable of accurately determining the composition of very different target materials is difficult because the response of an element’s emission lines in LIBS spectra can vary with the concentration of other elements. We demonstrate a conceptually simple “sub-model” method for improving the accuracy of quantitative LIBS analysis of diverse target materials. The method is based on training several regression models on sets of targets with limited composition ranges and then “blending” these “sub-models” into a single final result. Tests of the sub-model method show improvement in test set root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) for almost all cases. The sub-model method, using partial least squares regression (PLS), is being used as part of the current ChemCam quantitative calibration, but the sub-model method is applicable to any multivariate regression method and may yield similar improvements.

  5. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments

  6. Quantitative chemogenomics: machine-learning models of protein-ligand interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes R; Gustafsson, Mats G; Strömbergsson, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Chemogenomics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that lies in the interface of biology, chemistry, and informatics. Most of the currently used drugs are small molecules that interact with proteins. Understanding protein-ligand interaction is therefore central to drug discovery and design. In the subfield of chemogenomics known as proteochemometrics, protein-ligand-interaction models are induced from data matrices that consist of both protein and ligand information along with some experimentally measured variable. The two general aims of this quantitative multi-structure-property-relationship modeling (QMSPR) approach are to exploit sparse/incomplete information sources and to obtain more general models covering larger parts of the protein-ligand space, than traditional approaches that focuses mainly on specific targets or ligands. The data matrices, usually obtained from multiple sparse/incomplete sources, typically contain series of proteins and ligands together with quantitative information about their interactions. A useful model should ideally be easy to interpret and generalize well to new unseen protein-ligand combinations. Resolving this requires sophisticated machine-learning methods for model induction, combined with adequate validation. This review is intended to provide a guide to methods and data sources suitable for this kind of protein-ligand-interaction modeling. An overview of the modeling process is presented including data collection, protein and ligand descriptor computation, data preprocessing, machine-learning-model induction and validation. Concerns and issues specific for each step in this kind of data-driven modeling will be discussed. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers

  7. Photogrammetry experiments with a model eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A R; Falconer, D G; Pieper, I

    1980-01-01

    Digital photogrammetry was performed on stereophotographs of the optic nerve head of a modified Zeiss model eye in which optic cups of varying depths could be simulated. Experiments were undertaken to determine the impact of both photographic and ocular variables on the photogrammetric measurements of cup depth. The photogrammetric procedure tolerates refocusing, repositioning, and realignment as well as small variations in the geometric position of the camera. Progressive underestimation of cup depth was observed with increasing myopia, while progressive overestimation was noted with increasing hyperopia. High cylindrical errors at axis 90 degrees led to significant errors in cup depth estimates, while high cylindrical errors at axis 180 degrees did not materially affect the accuracy of the analysis. Finally, cup depths were seriously underestimated when the pupil diameter was less than 5.0 mm. Images PMID:7448139

  8. Pipe missile impact experiments on concrete models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, S.; Gupta, Y.; Seaman, L.

    1981-06-01

    The experiments described in this study are a part of SRI studies for EPRI on the local response of reinforced concrete panels to missile impacts. The objectives of this task were to determine the feasibility of using scale model tests to reproduce the impact response of reinforced concrete panels observed in full-scale tests with pipe missiles and to evaluate the effect of concrete strength on the impact response. The experimental approach consisted of replica scaling: the missile and target materials were similar to those used in the full-scale tests, with all dimensions scaled by 5/32. Four criteria were selected for comparing the scaled and full-scale test results: frontface penetration, backface scabbing threshold, internal cracking in the panel, and missile deformation

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Intra Urban Growth Modeling using socio economic agents by combining cellular automata model with agent based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V. K.; Jha, A. K.; Gupta, K.; Srivastav, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a significant improvement in the urban land use dynamics through modeling at finer spatial resolutions. Geo-computational models such as cellular automata and agent based model have given evident proof regarding the quantification of the urban growth pattern with urban boundary. In recent studies, socio- economic factors such as demography, education rate, household density, parcel price of the current year, distance to road, school, hospital, commercial centers and police station are considered to the major factors influencing the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern of the city. These factors have unidirectional approach to land use pattern which makes it difficult to analyze the spatial aspects of model results both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, cellular automata model is combined with generic model known as Agent Based Model to evaluate the impact of socio economic factors on land use pattern. For this purpose, Dehradun an Indian city is selected as a case study. Socio economic factors were collected from field survey, Census of India, Directorate of economic census, Uttarakhand, India. A 3X3 simulating window is used to consider the impact on LULC. Cellular automata model results are examined for the identification of hot spot areas within the urban area and agent based model will be using logistic based regression approach where it will identify the correlation between each factor on LULC and classify the available area into low density, medium density, high density residential or commercial area. In the modeling phase, transition rule, neighborhood effect, cell change factors are used to improve the representation of built-up classes. Significant improvement is observed in the built-up classes from 84 % to 89 %. However after incorporating agent based model with cellular automata model the accuracy improved from 89 % to 94 % in 3 classes of urban i.e. low density, medium density and commercial classes

  10. Josephson cross-sectional model experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchen, M.B.; Herrell, D.J.; Anderson, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design and evaluation of the Josephson cross-sectional model (CSM) experiment. The experiment served as a test vehicle to verify the operation at liquid-helium temperatures of Josephson circuits integrated in a package environment suitable for high-performance digital applications. The CSM consisted of four circuit chips assembled on two cards in a three-dimensional card-on-board package. The chips (package) were fabricated in a 2.5-μm (5-μm) minimum linewidth Pb-alloy technology. A hierarchy of solder and pluggable connectors was used to attach the parts together and to provide electrical interconnections between parts. A data path which simulated a jump control sequence and a cache access in each machine cycle was successfully operated with cycle times down to 3.7 ns. The CSM incorporated the key components of the logic, power, and package of a prototype Josephson signal processor and demonstrated the feasibility of making such a processor with a sub-4-ns cycle time

  11. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  12. A Quantitative Analysis of the Work Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, people with visual impairments often struggle to gain employment. This study attempts to closely evaluate the work experiences of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed personal and…

  13. The MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bustin, S.A.; Benes, V.; Garson, J.A.; Hellemans, J.; Huggett, J.; Kubista, Mikael; Mueller, R.; Nolan, T.; Pfaffl, M.V.; Shipley, G.L.; Vandesompele, J.; Wittver, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 611-622 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : qPCR * MIQE * publication of experiments data Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.263, year: 2009

  14. A quantitative analysis of instabilities in the linear chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.; Nielsen, M.; Oliveira, M.M. de; Providencia, J. da

    1990-08-01

    We present a method to construct a complete set of stationary states corresponding to small amplitude motion which naturally includes the continuum solution. The energy wheighted sum rule (EWSR) is shown to provide for a quantitative criterium on the importance of instabilities which is known to occur in nonasymptotically free theories. Out results for the linear σ model showed be valid for a large class of models. A unified description of baryon and meson properties in terms of the linear σ model is also given. (author)

  15. A quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators under input information overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task under input information overload. We primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flow. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory. We also investigate the applicability of this approach to quantifying the information reduction of operators under the input information overload

  16. Parts of the Whole: Strategies for the Spread of Quantitative Literacy: What Models Can Tell Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual frameworks, one from graph theory and one from dynamical systems, have been offered as explanations for complex phenomena in biology and also as possible models for the spread of ideas. The two models are based on different assumptions and thus predict quite different outcomes for the fate of either biological species or ideas. We argue that, depending on the culture in which they exist, one can identify which model is more likely to reflect the survival of two competing ideas. Based on this argument we suggest how two strategies for embedding and normalizing quantitative literacy in a given institution are likely to succeed or fail.

  17. Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage Imaging with Quantitative Vessel Wall T1 Mapping: Technical Development and Initial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Sun, Jie; Qiao, Huiyu; Chen, Shuo; Zhou, Zechen; Pan, Xinlei; Wang, Yishi; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Yuan, Chun; Chen, Huijun

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To develop a three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution time-efficient sequence for use in quantitative vessel wall T1 mapping. Materials and Methods A previously described sequence, simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging, was extended by introducing 3D golden angle radial k-space sampling (GOAL-SNAP). Sliding window reconstruction was adopted to reconstruct images at different inversion delay times (different T1 contrasts) for voxelwise T1 fitting. Phantom studies were performed to test the accuracy of T1 mapping with GOAL-SNAP against a two-dimensional inversion recovery (IR) spin-echo (SE) sequence. In vivo studies were performed in six healthy volunteers (mean age, 27.8 years ± 3.0 [standard deviation]; age range, 24-32 years; five male) and five patients with atherosclerosis (mean age, 66.4 years ± 5.5; range, 60-73 years; five male) to compare T1 measurements between vessel wall sections (five per artery) with and without intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). Statistical analyses included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with data permutation by subject. Results Phantom T1 measurements with GOAL-SNAP and IR SE sequences showed excellent correlation (R 2 = 0.99), with a mean bias of -25.8 msec ± 43.6 and a mean percentage error of 4.3% ± 2.5. Minimum T1 was significantly different between sections with IPH and those without it (mean, 371 msec ± 93 vs 944 msec ± 120; P = .01). Estimated T1 of normal vessel wall and muscle were 1195 msec ± 136 and 1117 msec ± 153, respectively. Conclusion High-spatial-resolution (0.8 mm isotropic) time-efficient (5 minutes) vessel wall T1 mapping is achieved by using the GOAL-SNAP sequence. This sequence may yield more quantitative reproducible biomarkers with which to characterize IPH and monitor its progression. © RSNA, 2017.

  18. A quantitative and dynamic model of the Arabidopsis flowering time gene regulatory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Leal Valentim

    Full Text Available Various environmental signals integrate into a network of floral regulatory genes leading to the final decision on when to flower. Although a wealth of qualitative knowledge is available on how flowering time genes regulate each other, only a few studies incorporated this knowledge into predictive models. Such models are invaluable as they enable to investigate how various types of inputs are combined to give a quantitative readout. To investigate the effect of gene expression disturbances on flowering time, we developed a dynamic model for the regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Model parameters were estimated based on expression time-courses for relevant genes, and a consistent set of flowering times for plants of various genetic backgrounds. Validation was performed by predicting changes in expression level in mutant backgrounds and comparing these predictions with independent expression data, and by comparison of predicted and experimental flowering times for several double mutants. Remarkably, the model predicts that a disturbance in a particular gene has not necessarily the largest impact on directly connected genes. For example, the model predicts that SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS (SOC1 mutation has a larger impact on APETALA1 (AP1, which is not directly regulated by SOC1, compared to its effect on LEAFY (LFY which is under direct control of SOC1. This was confirmed by expression data. Another model prediction involves the importance of cooperativity in the regulation of APETALA1 (AP1 by LFY, a prediction supported by experimental evidence. Concluding, our model for flowering time gene regulation enables to address how different quantitative inputs are combined into one quantitative output, flowering time.

  19. Tannin structural elucidation and quantitative ³¹P NMR analysis. 1. Model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melone, Federica; Saladino, Raffaele; Lange, Heiko; Crestini, Claudia

    2013-10-02

    Tannins and flavonoids are secondary metabolites of plants that display a wide array of biological activities. This peculiarity is related to the inhibition of extracellular enzymes that occurs through the complexation of peptides by tannins. Not only the nature of these interactions, but more fundamentally also the structure of these heterogeneous polyphenolic molecules are not completely clear. This first paper describes the development of a new analytical method for the structural characterization of tannins on the basis of tannin model compounds employing an in situ labeling of all labile H groups (aliphatic OH, phenolic OH, and carboxylic acids) with a phosphorus reagent. The ³¹P NMR analysis of ³¹P-labeled samples allowed the unprecedented quantitative and qualitative structural characterization of hydrolyzable tannins, proanthocyanidins, and catechin tannin model compounds, forming the foundations for the quantitative structural elucidation of a variety of actual tannin samples described in part 2 of this series.

  20. A new quantitative model of ecological compensation based on ecosystem capital in Zhejiang Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Jing-feng; Peng, Dai-liang

    2009-01-01

    Ecological compensation is becoming one of key and multidiscipline issues in the field of resources and environmental management. Considering the change relation between gross domestic product (GDP) and ecological capital (EC) based on remote sensing estimation, we construct a new quantitative estimate model for ecological compensation, using county as study unit, and determine standard value so as to evaluate ecological compensation from 2001 to 2004 in Zhejiang Province, China. Spatial differences of the ecological compensation were significant among all the counties or districts. This model fills up the gap in the field of quantitative evaluation of regional ecological compensation and provides a feasible way to reconcile the conflicts among benefits in the economic, social, and ecological sectors. PMID:19353749

  1. Refining the statistical model for quantitative immunostaining of surface-functionalized nanoparticles by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCuspie, Robert I; Gorka, Danielle E

    2013-10-01

    Recently, an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based approach for quantifying the number of biological molecules conjugated to a nanoparticle surface at low number densities was reported. The number of target molecules conjugated to the analyte nanoparticle can be determined with single nanoparticle fidelity using antibody-mediated self-assembly to decorate the analyte nanoparticles with probe nanoparticles (i.e., quantitative immunostaining). This work refines the statistical models used to quantitatively interpret the observations when AFM is used to image the resulting structures. The refinements add terms to the previous statistical models to account for the physical sizes of the analyte nanoparticles, conjugated molecules, antibodies, and probe nanoparticles. Thus, a more physically realistic statistical computation can be implemented for a given sample of known qualitative composition, using the software scripts provided. Example AFM data sets, using horseradish peroxidase conjugated to gold nanoparticles, are presented to illustrate how to implement this method successfully.

  2. Quantitative determination of Auramine O by terahertz spectroscopy with 2DCOS-PLSR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huo; Li, Zhi; Chen, Tao; Qin, Binyi

    2017-09-01

    Residues of harmful dyes such as Auramine O (AO) in herb and food products threaten the health of people. So, fast and sensitive detection techniques of the residues are needed. As a powerful tool for substance detection, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was used for the quantitative determination of AO by combining with an improved partial least-squares regression (PLSR) model in this paper. Absorbance of herbal samples with different concentrations was obtained by THz-TDS in the band between 0.2THz and 1.6THz. We applied two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) to improve the PLSR model. This method highlighted the spectral differences of different concentrations, provided a clear criterion of the input interval selection, and improved the accuracy of detection result. The experimental result indicated that the combination of the THz spectroscopy and 2DCOS-PLSR is an excellent quantitative analysis method.

  3. Infrequent near death experiences in severe brain injury survivors - A quantitative and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongmei; Huang, Qin; Prakash, Ravi; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2013-01-01

    Near death experiences (NDE) are receiving increasing attention by the scientific community because not only do they provide a glimpse of the complexity of the mind-brain interactions in 'near-death' circumstances but also because they have significant and long lasting effects on various psychological aspects of the survivors. The over-all incidence-reports of NDEs in literature have varied widely from a modest Figure of 10% to around 35%, even up to an incredible Figure of 72% in persons who have faced close brush with death. Somewhat similar to this range of difference in incidences are the differences prevalent in the opinions that theorists and researchers harbor around the world for explaining this phenomena. None the less, objective evidences have supported physiological theories the most. A wide range of physiological processes have been targeted for explaining NDEs. These include cerebral anoxia, chemical alterations like hypercapnia, presence of endorphins, ketamine, and serotonin, or abnormal activity of the temporal lobe or the limbic system. In spite of the fact that the physiological theories of NDEs have revolved around the derangements in brain, no study till date has taken up the task of evaluating the experiences of near-death in patients where specific injury has been to brain. Most of them have evaluated NDEs in cardiac-arrest patients. Post-traumatic coma is one such state regarding which the literature seriously lacks any information related to NDEs. Patients recollecting any memory of their post-traumatic coma are valuable assets for NDE researchers and needs special attention. Our present study was aimed at collecting this valuable information from survivors of severe head injury after a prolonged coma. The study was conducted in the head injury department of Guangdong 999 Brain hospital, Guangzhou, China. Patients included in the study were the ones Recovered from the posttraumatic coma following a severe head injury. A total of 86 patients

  4. Infrequent near death experiences in severe brain injury survivors - A quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Near death experiences (NDE are receiving increasing attention by the scientific community because not only do they provide a glimpse of the complexity of the mind-brain interactions in ′near-death′ circumstances but also because they have significant and long lasting effects on various psychological aspects of the survivors. The over-all incidence-reports of NDEs in literature have varied widely from a modest Figure of 10% to around 35%, even up to an incredible Figure of 72% in persons who have faced close brush with death. Somewhat similar to this range of difference in incidences are the differences prevalent in the opinions that theorists and researchers harbor around the world for explaining this phenomena. None the less, objective evidences have supported physiological theories the most. A wide range of physiological processes have been targeted for explaining NDEs. These include cerebral anoxia, chemical alterations like hypercapnia, presence of endorphins, ketamine, and serotonin, or abnormal activity of the temporal lobe or the limbic system. In spite of the fact that the physiological theories of NDEs have revolved around the derangements in brain, no study till date has taken up the task of evaluating the experiences of near-death in patients where specific injury has been to brain. Most of them have evaluated NDEs in cardiac-arrest patients. Post-traumatic coma is one such state regarding which the literature seriously lacks any information related to NDEs. Patients recollecting any memory of their post-traumatic coma are valuable assets for NDE researchers and needs special attention. Materials and Methods: Our present study was aimed at collecting this valuable information from survivors of severe head injury after a prolonged coma. The study was conducted in the head injury department of Guangdong 999 Brain hospital, Guangzhou, China. Patients included in the study were the ones Recovered from the posttraumatic

  5. ITER transient consequences for material damage: modelling versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B; Janeschitz, G; Landman, I; Pestchanyi, S; Loarte, A; Federici, G; Merola, M; Linke, J; Zhitlukhin, A; Podkovyrov, V; Klimov, N; Safronov, V

    2007-01-01

    Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten macrobrush armours are foreseen as PFC for the ITER divertor. In ITER the main mechanisms of metallic armour damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion. In the case of CFC armour, due to rather different heat conductivities of CFC fibres a noticeable erosion of the PAN bundles may occur at rather small heat loads. Experiments carried out in the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T for the ITER like edge localized mode (ELM) heat load also demonstrated significant erosion of the frontal and lateral brush edges. Numerical simulations of the CFC and tungsten (W) macrobrush target damage accounting for the heat loads at the face and lateral brush edges were carried out for QSPA-T conditions using the three-dimensional (3D) code PHEMOBRID. The modelling results of CFC damage are in a good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experiments. Estimation of the droplet splashing caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability was performed

  6. Two quantitative character selection following neutron and EMS treatment in malt barley. An applied micromutation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, H; Simon, W; Ehrendorfer, K [Hochschule fuer Bodenkultur, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-01-01

    Mutation experiments in spring barley are described aimed at increasing the grain yield and ''classification'' (i.e. weight percent of caryopsis greater than 2.5 mm). The course of selection up to the M/sub 8/-generation obtained by self-pollination is given. A comparison is presented with materials obtained after neutron and ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The possibilities are also discussed of using the methods of micromutation breeding for barley crop yield and its malt quality improvement.

  7. Integration of CFD codes and advanced combustion models for quantitative burnout determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javier Pallares; Inmaculada Arauzo; Alan Williams [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption (CIRCE)

    2007-10-15

    CFD codes and advanced kinetics combustion models are extensively used to predict coal burnout in large utility boilers. Modelling approaches based on CFD codes can accurately solve the fluid dynamics equations involved in the problem but this is usually achieved by including simple combustion models. On the other hand, advanced kinetics combustion models can give a detailed description of the coal combustion behaviour by using a simplified description of the flow field, this usually being obtained from a zone-method approach. Both approximations describe correctly general trends on coal burnout, but fail to predict quantitative values. In this paper a new methodology which takes advantage of both approximations is described. In the first instance CFD solutions were obtained of the combustion conditions in the furnace in the Lamarmora power plant (ASM Brescia, Italy) for a number of different conditions and for three coals. Then, these furnace conditions were used as inputs for a more detailed chemical combustion model to predict coal burnout. In this, devolatilization was modelled using a commercial macromolecular network pyrolysis model (FG-DVC). For char oxidation an intrinsic reactivity approach including thermal annealing, ash inhibition and maceral effects, was used. Results from the simulations were compared against plant experimental values, showing a reasonable agreement in trends and quantitative values. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Predictive value of EEG in postanoxic encephalopathy: A quantitative model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Evdokia; Renzel, Roland; Baumann, Christian R; Poryazova, Rositsa; Imbach, Lukas L

    2017-10-01

    The majority of comatose patients after cardiac arrest do not regain consciousness due to severe postanoxic encephalopathy. Early and accurate outcome prediction is therefore essential in determining further therapeutic interventions. The electroencephalogram is a standardized and commonly available tool used to estimate prognosis in postanoxic patients. The identification of pathological EEG patterns with poor prognosis relies however primarily on visual EEG scoring by experts. We introduced a model-based approach of EEG analysis (state space model) that allows for an objective and quantitative description of spectral EEG variability. We retrospectively analyzed standard EEG recordings in 83 comatose patients after cardiac arrest between 2005 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of the University Hospital Zürich. Neurological outcome was assessed one month after cardiac arrest using the Cerebral Performance Category. For a dynamic and quantitative EEG analysis, we implemented a model-based approach (state space analysis) to quantify EEG background variability independent from visual scoring of EEG epochs. Spectral variability was compared between groups and correlated with clinical outcome parameters and visual EEG patterns. Quantitative assessment of spectral EEG variability (state space velocity) revealed significant differences between patients with poor and good outcome after cardiac arrest: Lower mean velocity in temporal electrodes (T4 and T5) was significantly associated with poor prognostic outcome (pEEG patterns such as generalized periodic discharges (pEEG analysis (state space analysis) provides a novel, complementary marker for prognosis in postanoxic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Variable selection in near infrared spectroscopy for quantitative models of homologous analogs of cephalosporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chun Feng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two universal spectral ranges (4550–4100 cm-1 and 6190–5510 cm-1 for construction of quantitative models of homologous analogs of cephalosporins were proposed by evaluating the performance of five spectral ranges and their combinations, using three data sets of cephalosporins for injection, i.e., cefuroxime sodium, ceftriaxone sodium and cefoperazone sodium. Subsequently, the proposed ranges were validated by using eight calibration sets of other homologous analogs of cephalosporins for injection, namely cefmenoxime hydrochloride, ceftezole sodium, cefmetazole, cefoxitin sodium, cefotaxime sodium, cefradine, cephazolin sodium and ceftizoxime sodium. All the constructed quantitative models for the eight kinds of cephalosporins using these universal ranges could fulfill the requirements for quick quantification. After that, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS algorithm and infrared (IR–near infrared (NIR two-dimensional (2D correlation spectral analysis were used to determine the scientific basis of these two spectral ranges as the universal regions for the construction of quantitative models of cephalosporins. The CARS algorithm demonstrated that the ranges of 4550–4100 cm-1 and 6190–5510 cm-1 included some key wavenumbers which could be attributed to content changes of cephalosporins. The IR–NIR 2D spectral analysis showed that certain wavenumbers in these two regions have strong correlations to the structures of those cephalosporins that were easy to degrade.

  10. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina

    2018-01-01

    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  11. Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...

  12. Qualitative and quantitative guidelines for the comparison of environmental model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.

    1995-03-01

    The question of how to assess or compare predictions from a number of models is one of concern in the validation of models, in understanding the effects of different models and model parameterizations on model output, and ultimately in assessing model reliability. Comparison of model predictions with observed data is the basic tool of model validation while comparison of predictions amongst different models provides one measure of model credibility. The guidance provided here is intended to provide qualitative and quantitative approaches (including graphical and statistical techniques) to such comparisons for use within the BIOMOVS II project. It is hoped that others may find it useful. It contains little technical information on the actual methods but several references are provided for the interested reader. The guidelines are illustrated on data from the VAMP CB scenario. Unfortunately, these data do not permit all of the possible approaches to be demonstrated since predicted uncertainties were not provided. The questions considered are concerned with a) intercomparison of model predictions and b) comparison of model predictions with the observed data. A series of examples illustrating some of the different types of data structure and some possible analyses have been constructed. A bibliography of references on model validation is provided. It is important to note that the results of the various techniques discussed here, whether qualitative or quantitative, should not be considered in isolation. Overall model performance must also include an evaluation of model structure and formulation, i.e. conceptual model uncertainties, and results for performance measures must be interpreted in this context. Consider a number of models which are used to provide predictions of a number of quantities at a number of time points. In the case of the VAMP CB scenario, the results include predictions of total deposition of Cs-137 and time dependent concentrations in various

  13. Toward a quantitative understanding of the Wnt/ β -catenin pathway through simulation and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lloyd-Lewis, Bethan

    2013-03-29

    Wnt signaling regulates cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation throughout development and is aberrantly regulated in cancer. The pathway is activated when Wnt ligands bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, resulting in the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin. Mathematical and computational models have been used to study the spatial and temporal regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and to investigate the functional impact of mutations in key components. Such models range in complexity, from time-dependent, ordinary differential equations that describe the biochemical interactions between key pathway components within a single cell, to complex, multiscale models that incorporate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway target genes in tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. This review aims to summarize recent progress in mathematical modeling of the Wnt pathway and to highlight new biological results that could form the basis for future theoretical investigations designed to increase the utility of theoretical models of Wnt signaling in the biomedical arena. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Quantitative Study of Quality of Experience (QoE) for Decreasing and Increasing Network Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Ramesh; Shahi, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Currently, user satisfaction is becoming one of the major concerns for the service provider in accommodating user demand. This paper evaluates the user’s perception (Quality of Experience, QoE) of the increasing and decreasing response times (Quality of Service, QoS), in particular a login to web login page by the implementation of Mean Opinion Score (MOS). By comparing the results to user perception of web login performance, we show that the users perceive web login for increasing and decrea...

  15. A quantitative dynamic systems model of health-related quality of life among older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppolo, Mattia; Kunnen, E Saskia; van Geert, Paul L; Mulasso, Anna; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a person-centered concept. The analysis of HRQOL is highly relevant in the aged population, which is generally suffering from health decline. Starting from a conceptual dynamic systems model that describes the development of HRQOL in individuals over time, this study aims to develop and test a quantitative dynamic systems model, in order to reveal the possible dynamic trends of HRQOL among older adults. The model is tested in different ways: first, with a calibration procedure to test whether the model produces theoretically plausible results, and second, with a preliminary validation procedure using empirical data of 194 older adults. This first validation tested the prediction that given a particular starting point (first empirical data point), the model will generate dynamic trajectories that lead to the observed endpoint (second empirical data point). The analyses reveal that the quantitative model produces theoretically plausible trajectories, thus providing support for the calibration procedure. Furthermore, the analyses of validation show a good fit between empirical and simulated data. In fact, no differences were found in the comparison between empirical and simulated final data for the same subgroup of participants, whereas the comparison between different subgroups of people resulted in significant differences. These data provide an initial basis of evidence for the dynamic nature of HRQOL during the aging process. Therefore, these data may give new theoretical and applied insights into the study of HRQOL and its development with time in the aging population. PMID:26604722

  16. Fixing the cracks in the crystal ball: A maturity model for quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, Andrew; Alexander, Rob; McDermid, John

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is widely practiced in system safety, but there is insufficient evidence that QRA in general is fit for purpose. Defenders of QRA draw a distinction between poor or misused QRA and correct, appropriately used QRA, but this distinction is only useful if we have robust ways to identify the flaws in an individual QRA. In this paper we present a comprehensive maturity model for QRA which covers all the potential flaws discussed in the risk assessment literature and in a collection of risk assessment peer reviews. We provide initial validation of the completeness and realism of the model. Our risk assessment maturity model provides a way to prioritise both process development within an organisation and empirical research within the QRA community. - Highlights: • Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is widely practiced, but there is insufficient evidence that it is fit for purpose. • A given QRA may be good, or it may not – we need systematic ways to distinguish this. • We have created a maturity model for QRA which covers all the potential flaws discussed in the risk assessment literature. • We have provided initial validation of the completeness and realism of the model. • The maturity model can also be used to prioritise QRA research discipline-wide

  17. Comparison of semi-quantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluations of vertebral marrow perfusion in a rat osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingqi; Xiong, Zuogang; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiu, Yuyou; Hua, Ting; Tang, Guangyu

    2017-11-14

    This study aims to investigate the technical feasibility of semi-quantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the assessment of longitudinal changes of marrow perfusion in a rat osteoporosis model, using bone mineral density (BMD) measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathology as the gold standards. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to the control group (n=25) and ovariectomy (OVX) group whose bilateral ovaries were excised (n=25). Semi-quantitative and quantitative DCE-MRI, micro-CT, and histopathological examinations were performed on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after operation. The differences between the two groups in terms of semi-quantitative DCE-MRI parameter (maximum enhancement, E max ), quantitative DCE-MRI parameters (volume transfer constant, K trans ; interstitial volume, V e ; and efflux rate constant, K ep ), micro-CT parameter (BMD), and histopathological parameter (microvessel density, MVD) were compared at each of the time points using an independent-sample t test. The differences in these parameters between baseline and other time points in each group were assessed via Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. A Pearson correlation analysis was applied to assess the relationships between DCE-MRI, micro-CT, and histopathological parameters. In the OVX group, the E max values decreased significantly compared with those of the control group at weeks 6 and 9 (p=0.003 and 0.004, respectively). The K trans values decreased significantly compared with those of the control group from week 3 (pquantitative DCE-MRI, the quantitative DCE-MRI parameter K trans is a more sensitive and accurate index for detecting early reduced perfusion in osteoporotic bone.

  18. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE IMAGE DATA USING ISOMORPHIC FUNCTIONAL MIXED MODELS, WITH APPLICATION TO PROTEOMICS DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey S; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Herrick, Richard C; Sanna, Pietro; Gutstein, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Image data are increasingly encountered and are of growing importance in many areas of science. Much of these data are quantitative image data, which are characterized by intensities that represent some measurement of interest in the scanned images. The data typically consist of multiple images on the same domain and the goal of the research is to combine the quantitative information across images to make inference about populations or interventions. In this paper, we present a unified analysis framework for the analysis of quantitative image data using a Bayesian functional mixed model approach. This framework is flexible enough to handle complex, irregular images with many local features, and can model the simultaneous effects of multiple factors on the image intensities and account for the correlation between images induced by the design. We introduce a general isomorphic modeling approach to fitting the functional mixed model, of which the wavelet-based functional mixed model is one special case. With suitable modeling choices, this approach leads to efficient calculations and can result in flexible modeling and adaptive smoothing of the salient features in the data. The proposed method has the following advantages: it can be run automatically, it produces inferential plots indicating which regions of the image are associated with each factor, it simultaneously considers the practical and statistical significance of findings, and it controls the false discovery rate. Although the method we present is general and can be applied to quantitative image data from any application, in this paper we focus on image-based proteomic data. We apply our method to an animal study investigating the effects of opiate addiction on the brain proteome. Our image-based functional mixed model approach finds results that are missed with conventional spot-based analysis approaches. In particular, we find that the significant regions of the image identified by the proposed method

  19. Multicomponent quantitative spectroscopic analysis without reference substances based on ICA modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

    2017-05-01

    A fast and reliable spectroscopic method for multicomponent quantitative analysis of targeted compounds with overlapping signals in complex mixtures has been established. The innovative analytical approach is based on the preliminary chemometric extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from UV-vis and IR spectral profiles of a calibration system using independent component analysis (ICA). Using this quantitative model and ICA resolution results of spectral profiling of "unknown" model mixtures, the absolute analyte concentrations in multicomponent mixtures and authentic samples were then calculated without reference solutions. Good recoveries generally between 95% and 105% were obtained. The method can be applied to any spectroscopic data that obey the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. The proposed method was tested on analysis of vitamins and caffeine in energy drinks and aromatic hydrocarbons in motor fuel with 10% error. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a promising tool for rapid simultaneous multicomponent analysis in the case of spectral overlap and the absence/inaccessibility of reference materials.

  20. Downscaling SSPs in the GBM Delta - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrew; Barbour, Emily; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Munsur Rahman, Md.; Hutton, Craig; Lazar, Attila

    2016-04-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  1. Downscaling SSPs in Bangladesh - Integrating Science, Modelling and Stakeholders Through Qualitative and Quantitative Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, A.; Barbour, E.; Salehin, M.; Hutton, C.; Lázár, A. N.; Nicholls, R. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A downscaled scenario development process was adopted in the context of a project seeking to understand relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The aim was to link the concerns and priorities of relevant stakeholders with the integrated biophysical and poverty models used in the project. A 2-stage process was used to facilitate the connection between stakeholders concerns and available modelling capacity: the first to qualitatively describe what the future might look like in 2050; the second to translate these qualitative descriptions into the quantitative form required by the numerical models. An extended, modified SSP approach was adopted, with stakeholders downscaling issues identified through interviews as being priorities for the southwest of Bangladesh. Detailed qualitative futures were produced, before modellable elements were quantified in conjunction with an expert stakeholder cadre. Stakeholder input, using the methods adopted here, allows the top-down focus of the RCPs to be aligned with the bottom-up approach needed to make the SSPs appropriate at the more local scale, and also facilitates the translation of qualitative narrative scenarios into a quantitative form that lends itself to incorporation of biophysical and socio-economic indicators. The presentation will describe the downscaling process in detail, and conclude with findings regarding the importance of stakeholder involvement (and logistical considerations), balancing model capacity with expectations and recommendations on SSP refinement at local levels.

  2. A quantitative model to assess Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Lucena, R

    2014-01-01

    The awareness of the impact of human activities in society and environment is known as "Social Responsibility" (SR). It has been a topic of growing interest in many enterprises since the fifties of the past Century, and its implementation/assessment is nowadays supported by international standards. There is a tendency to amplify its scope of application to other areas of the human activities, such as Research, Development and Innovation (R + D + I). In this paper, a model of quantitative assessment of Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology (SR EST) is described in detail. This model is based on well established written standards as the EFQM Excellence model and the ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on SR. The definition of five hierarchies of indicators, the transformation of qualitative information into quantitative data and the dual procedure of self-evaluation and external evaluation are the milestones of the proposed model, which can be applied to Environmental Research Centres and institutions. In addition, a simplified model that facilitates its implementation is presented in the article. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for insecticides: development of predictive in vivo insecticide activity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, P K; Singh, T; Singh, H

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed independently on data sets belonging to two groups of insecticides, namely the organophosphates and carbamates. Several types of descriptors including topological, spatial, thermodynamic, information content, lead likeness and E-state indices were used to derive quantitative relationships between insecticide activities and structural properties of chemicals. A systematic search approach based on missing value, zero value, simple correlation and multi-collinearity tests as well as the use of a genetic algorithm allowed the optimal selection of the descriptors used to generate the models. The QSAR models developed for both organophosphate and carbamate groups revealed good predictability with r(2) values of 0.949 and 0.838 as well as [image omitted] values of 0.890 and 0.765, respectively. In addition, a linear correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental LD(50) values for the test set data with r(2) of 0.871 and 0.788 for both the organophosphate and carbamate groups, indicating that the prediction accuracy of the QSAR models was acceptable. The models were also tested successfully from external validation criteria. QSAR models developed in this study should help further design of novel potent insecticides.

  4. Creating Research-Rich Learning Experiences and Quantitative Skills in a 1st Year Earth Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P. L.; Eggins, S.; Jones, S.

    2014-12-01

    We are creating a 1st year Earth Systems course at the Australian National University that is built around research-rich learning experiences and quantitative skills. The course has top students including ≤20% indigenous/foreign students; nonetheless, students' backgrounds in math and science vary considerably posing challenges for learning. We are addressing this issue and aiming to improve knowledge retention and deep learning by changing our teaching approach. In 2013-2014, we modified the weekly course structure to a 1hr lecture; a 2hr workshop with hands-on activities; a 2hr lab; an assessment piece covering all face-to-face activities; and a 1hr tutorial. Our new approach was aimed at: 1) building student confidence with data analysis and quantitative skills through increasingly difficult tasks in science, math, physics, chemistry, climate science and biology; 2) creating effective learning groups using name tags and a classroom with 8-person tiered tables; 3) requiring students to apply new knowledge to new situations in group activities, two 1-day field trips and assessment items; 4) using pre-lab and pre-workshop exercises to promote prior engagement with key concepts; 5) adding open-ended experiments to foster structured 'scientific play' or enquiry and creativity; and 6) aligning the assessment with the learning outcomes and ensuring that it contains authentic and challenging southern hemisphere problems. Students were asked to design their own ocean current experiment in the lab and we were astounded by their ingenuity: they simulated the ocean currents off Antarctica; varied water density to verify an equation; and examined the effect of wind and seafloor topography on currents. To evaluate changes in student learning, we conducted surveys in 2013 and 2014. In 2014, we found higher levels of student engagement with the course: >~80% attendance rates and >~70% satisfaction (20% neutral). The 2014 cohort felt that they were more competent in writing

  5. A semi-quantitative model for risk appreciation and risk weighing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Peter M.J.; Boon, Polly E.; van der Voet, Hilko

    2009-01-01

    Risk managers need detailed information on (1) the type of effect, (2) the size (severity) of the expected effect(s) and (3) the fraction of the population at risk to decide on well-balanced risk reduction measures. A previously developed integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model...... provides quantitative information on these three parameters. A semi-quantitative tool is presented that combines information on these parameters into easy-readable charts that will facilitate risk evaluations of exposure situations and decisions on risk reduction measures. This tool is based on a concept...... detailed information on the estimated health impact in a given exposure situation. These graphs will facilitate the discussions on appropriate risk reduction measures to be taken....

  6. Absolute quantitation of myocardial blood flow with 201Tl and dynamic SPECT in canine: optimisation and validation of kinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Kim, Kyeong-Min; Nakazawa, Mayumi; Sohlberg, Antti; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Takuya; Watabe, Hiroshi; Eberl, Stefan; Tamura, Yoshikazu; Ono, Yukihiko

    2008-01-01

    201 Tl has been extensively used for myocardial perfusion and viability assessment. Unlike 99m Tc-labelled agents, such as 99m Tc-sestamibi and 99m Tc-tetrofosmine, the regional concentration of 201 Tl varies with time. This study is intended to validate a kinetic modelling approach for in vivo quantitative estimation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and volume of distribution of 201 Tl using dynamic SPECT. Dynamic SPECT was carried out on 20 normal canines after the intravenous administration of 201 Tl using a commercial SPECT system. Seven animals were studied at rest, nine during adenosine infusion, and four after beta-blocker administration. Quantitative images were reconstructed with a previously validated technique, employing OS-EM with attenuation-correction, and transmission-dependent convolution subtraction scatter correction. Measured regional time-activity curves in myocardial segments were fitted to two- and three-compartment models. Regional MBF was defined as the influx rate constant (K 1 ) with corrections for the partial volume effect, haematocrit and limited first-pass extraction fraction, and was compared with that determined from radio-labelled microspheres experiments. Regional time-activity curves responded well to pharmacological stress. Quantitative MBF values were higher with adenosine and decreased after beta-blocker compared to a resting condition. MBFs obtained with SPECT (MBF SPECT ) correlated well with the MBF values obtained by the radio-labelled microspheres (MBF MS ) (MBF SPECT = -0.067 + 1.042 x MBF MS , p 201 Tl and dynamic SPECT. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative experiments on thermal hydraulic characteristics of an annular tube with twisted fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Masaki; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2003-11-01

    Thermal hydraulic experiments measuring critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop of an annular tube with twisted fins, ''annular swirl tube'', has been performed to examine its applicability to the ITER divertor cooling structure. The annular swirl tube consists of two concentric circular tubes, the outer and inner tubes. The outer tube with outer and inner diameters (OD and ID) of 21 mm and 15 mm is made of Cu-alloy that is CuCrZr and oe of candidate materials of the ITER divertor cooling tube. The inner tube with OD of 11 mm and ID of 9 mm is made of stainless steal. It has an external swirl fin with twist ratio (y) of three to enhance its heat transfer performance. In this tube, cooling water flows inside of the inner tube first, and then returns into an annulus between the outer and inner tubes with a swirl flow at an end-return of the cooling tube. The CHF experiments show that no degradation of CHF of the annular swirl tube in comparison with the conventional swirl tube whose dimensions are similar to those of the outer tube of the annular swirl tube. A minimum axial velocity of 7.1 m/s is required to remove the incident heat flux of 28MW/m 2 , the ITER design value. Applicability of the JAERI's correlation for the heat transfer to the annular swirl tube is also demonstrated by comparing the experimental results with those of the numerical analysis. The friction factor correlation for the annular flow with the twisted fins is also proposed for the hydrodynamic design of the ITER vertical target. The least pressure drop at the end-return is obtained by using the hemispherical end-plug. Its radius is the same as that of ID of the outer cooling tube. These results show that thermal-hydraulic performance of the annular swirl tube is promising in application to the cooling structure for the ITER vertical target. (author)

  8. Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Experiences from conducting a mixed methods evaluation in the RUCAS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Vassilios; Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches to planning and evaluation in education for sustainable development have often been treated by practitioners from a single research paradigm. This paper discusses the utility of mixed method evaluation designs which integrate qualitative and quantitative data through a sequential transformative process. Sequential mixed method data collection strategies involve collecting data in an iterative process whereby data collected in one phase contribute to data collected in the next. This is done through examples from a programme addressing the 'Reorientation of University Curricula to Address Sustainability (RUCAS): A European Commission Tempus-funded Programme'. It is argued that the two approaches are complementary and that there are significant gains from combining both. Using methods from both research paradigms does not, however, mean that the inherent differences among epistemologies and methodologies should be neglected. Based on this experience, it is recommended that using a sequential transformative mixed method evaluation can produce more robust results than could be accomplished using a single approach in programme planning and evaluation focussed on education for sustainable development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric statistical dynamic models. Climate experiments: albedo experiments with a zonal atmospheric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; MacCracken, M.C.; Luther, F.M.

    1978-06-01

    The zonal model experiments with modified surface boundary conditions suggest an initial chain of feedback processes that is largest at the site of the perturbation: deforestation and/or desertification → increased surface albedo → reduced surface absorption of solar radiation → surface cooling and reduced evaporation → reduced convective activity → reduced precipitation and latent heat release → cooling of upper troposphere and increased tropospheric lapse rates → general global cooling and reduced precipitation. As indicated above, although the two experiments give similar overall global results, the location of the perturbation plays an important role in determining the response of the global circulation. These two-dimensional model results are also consistent with three-dimensional model experiments. These results have tempted us to consider the possibility that self-induced growth of the subtropical deserts could serve as a possible mechanism to cause the initial global cooling that then initiates a glacial advance thus activating the positive feedback loop involving ice-albedo feedback (also self-perpetuating). Reversal of the cycle sets in when the advancing ice cover forces the wave-cyclone tracks far enough equatorward to quench (revegetate) the subtropical deserts

  10. Efficient Generation and Selection of Virtual Populations in Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R J; Rieger, T R; Musante, C J

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology models mechanistically describe a biological system and the effect of drug treatment on system behavior. Because these models rarely are identifiable from the available data, the uncertainty in physiological parameters may be sampled to create alternative parameterizations of the model, sometimes termed "virtual patients." In order to reproduce the statistics of a clinical population, virtual patients are often weighted to form a virtual population that reflects the baseline characteristics of the clinical cohort. Here we introduce a novel technique to efficiently generate virtual patients and, from this ensemble, demonstrate how to select a virtual population that matches the observed data without the need for weighting. This approach improves confidence in model predictions by mitigating the risk that spurious virtual patients become overrepresented in virtual populations.

  11. Quantitative assessment of manual and robotic microcannulation for eye surgery using new eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinichi; Harada, Kanako; Ida, Yoshiki; Tomita, Kyohei; Kato, Ippei; Arai, Fumihito; Ueta, Takashi; Noda, Yasuo; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2015-06-01

    Microcannulation, a surgical procedure for the eye that requires drug injection into a 60-90 µm retinal vein, is difficult to perform manually. Robotic assistance has been proposed; however, its effectiveness in comparison to manual operation has not been quantified. An eye model has been developed to quantify the performance of manual and robotic microcannulation. The eye model, which is implemented with a force sensor and microchannels, also simulates the mechanical constraints of the instrument's movement. Ten subjects performed microcannulation using the model, with and without robotic assistance. The results showed that the robotic assistance was useful for motion stability when the drug was injected, whereas its positioning accuracy offered no advantage. An eye model was used to quantitatively assess the robotic microcannulation performance in comparison to manual operation. This approach could be valid for a better evaluation of surgical robotic assistance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of the Frame and Hu mathematical model for the quantitative analysis of agents influencing growth of chick embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korohoda, K.; Czyz, J.

    1994-01-01

    The experiments on the effect of various sera and substratum surface area upon growth of chick embryo fibroblasts-like in secondary cultures are described and discussed on the grounds of a mathematical model for growth of anchorage-dependent cells proposed by Frame and Hu. The model and presented results demonstrate the mutual independence of the effects of agent influencing of rate of cell proliferation (i.e. accelerating or retarding growth) and the agents that modify the limitation of cell proliferation (i.e. maximum cell density at confluence). The model proposed by Frame and Hu due to its relative simplicity offers and easy mode of description and quantitative evaluation of experiments concerning cell growth regulation. It is shown that various sera added at constant concentration significantly modify the rate of cell proliferation with little effect upon the maximum cell density attainable. The cells grew much more slowly in the presence of calf serum than in the presence of chick serum and the addition of iron and zinc complexes to calf serum significantly accelerated cell growth. An increase in the substratum surface area by the addition of glass wool to culture vessels significantly increased cell density per constant volume of medium even when retardation of growth was observed. The results presented point to the need of direct cell counting for estimation of cell growth curves and discussion of effects of agents influencing parameters characterizing cell proliferation. (author). 34 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Subjective Experiences and Sensitivities in Women with Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Roa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain syndrome associated with chronic fatigue. Its pathogenesis is not clearly understood. This study presents subjective experiences and sensitivities reported by fibromyalgia patients, which should be considered in primary care to avoid medical nomadism, as well as stigmatization of the patients. The prevalence of significant characteristics was compared with others patients consulting at the same pain unit who suffer from rebel and disabling form of chronic migraine. Psychometric tests were anonymously completed by 78 patients of the Pain Unit (44 fibromyalgia patients and 34 migraine patients. Tests evaluated pain (Visual Analog scale, childhood traumas (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lack of parental affection, stressful life events (Holmes and Rahe Scale, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, perceived hypersensitivity to 10 stimuli, and hyperactivity before illness. However, pain scores were comparable in the two groups, and the prevalence was significantly higher in fibromyalgia patients than in migraine patients for anxiety (81.8% versus 51.5% and depression (57.1% versus 8.8%. Childhood physical abuses were more frequently reported in fibromyalgia than in migraine cases (25% versus 3%. Similarly, the feeling of lack of parental affection, subjective hypersensitivity to stress and stimuli (cold, moisture, heat, full moon, and flavors or hyperactivity (ergomania, appeared as prominent features of fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients considered themselves as being hypersensitive (mentally and physically compared to migraine patients. They also have higher depression levels. Beyond somatic symptoms, precociously taking account of psychosocial and behavioral strategies would highly improve treatment efficiency of the fibromyalgia syndrome.

  14. Quantitative Decision Making Model for Carbon Reduction in Road Construction Projects Using Green Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous countries have established policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and have suggested goals pertaining to these reductions. To reach the target reduction amounts, studies on the reduction of carbon emissions have been conducted with regard to all stages and processes in construction projects. According to a study on carbon emissions, the carbon emissions generated during the construction stage of road projects account for approximately 76 to 86% of the total carbon emissions, far exceeding the other stages, such as maintenance or demolition. Therefore, this study aims to develop a quantitative decision making model that supports the application of green technologies (GTs to reduce carbon emissions during the construction stage of road construction projects. First, the authors selected environmental soundness, economic feasibility and constructability as the key assessment indices for evaluating 20 GTs. Second, a fuzzy set/qualitative comparative analysis (FS/QCA was used to establish an objective decision-making model for the assessment of both the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the key indices. To support the developed model, an expert survey was performed to assess the applicability of each GT from a practical perspective, which was verified with a case study using two additional GTs. The proposed model is expected to support practitioners in the application of suitable GTs to road projects and reduce carbon emissions, resulting in better decision making during road construction projects.

  15. [A quantitative risk assessment model of salmonella on carcass in poultry slaughterhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yuzhen; Hu, Chunguang; Zhang, Huaning; Bi, Zhenwang; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-01

    To construct a quantitative risk assessment model of salmonella on carcass in poultry slaughterhouse and to find out effective interventions to reduce salmonella contamination. We constructed a modular process risk model (MPRM) from evisceration to chilling in Excel Sheet using the data of the process parameters in poultry and the Salmomella concentration surveillance of Jinan in 2012. The MPRM was simulated by @ risk software. The concentration of salmonella on carcass after chilling was 1.96MPN/g which was calculated by model. The sensitive analysis indicated that the correlation coefficient of the concentration of salmonella after defeathering and in chilling pool were 0.84 and 0.34,which were the primary factors to the concentration of salmonella on carcass after chilling. The study provided a quantitative assessment model structure for salmonella on carcass in poultry slaughterhouse. The risk manager could control the contamination of salmonella on carcass after chilling by reducing the concentration of salmonella after defeathering and in chilling pool.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of the Security of Software-Defined Network Controller Using Threat/Effort Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SDN-based controller, which is responsible for the configuration and management of the network, is the core of Software-Defined Networks. Current methods, which focus on the secure mechanism, use qualitative analysis to estimate the security of controllers, leading to inaccurate results frequently. In this paper, we employ a quantitative approach to overcome the above shortage. Under the analysis of the controller threat model we give the formal model results of the APIs, the protocol interfaces, and the data items of controller and further provide our Threat/Effort quantitative calculation model. With the help of Threat/Effort model, we are able to compare not only the security of different versions of the same kind controller but also different kinds of controllers and provide a basis for controller selection and secure development. We evaluated our approach in four widely used SDN-based controllers which are POX, OpenDaylight, Floodlight, and Ryu. The test, which shows the similarity outcomes with the traditional qualitative analysis, demonstrates that with our approach we are able to get the specific security values of different controllers and presents more accurate results.

  17. Facilitating arrhythmia simulation: the method of quantitative cellular automata modeling and parallel running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondry Adrian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many arrhythmias are triggered by abnormal electrical activity at the ionic channel and cell level, and then evolve spatio-temporally within the heart. To understand arrhythmias better and to diagnose them more precisely by their ECG waveforms, a whole-heart model is required to explore the association between the massively parallel activities at the channel/cell level and the integrative electrophysiological phenomena at organ level. Methods We have developed a method to build large-scale electrophysiological models by using extended cellular automata, and to run such models on a cluster of shared memory machines. We describe here the method, including the extension of a language-based cellular automaton to implement quantitative computing, the building of a whole-heart model with Visible Human Project data, the parallelization of the model on a cluster of shared memory computers with OpenMP and MPI hybrid programming, and a simulation algorithm that links cellular activity with the ECG. Results We demonstrate that electrical activities at channel, cell, and organ levels can be traced and captured conveniently in our extended cellular automaton system. Examples of some ECG waveforms simulated with a 2-D slice are given to support the ECG simulation algorithm. A performance evaluation of the 3-D model on a four-node cluster is also given. Conclusions Quantitative multicellular modeling with extended cellular automata is a highly efficient and widely applicable method to weave experimental data at different levels into computational models. This process can be used to investigate complex and collective biological activities that can be described neither by their governing differentiation equations nor by discrete parallel computation. Transparent cluster computing is a convenient and effective method to make time-consuming simulation feasible. Arrhythmias, as a typical case, can be effectively simulated with the methods

  18. A novel quantitative model of cell cycle progression based on cyclin-dependent kinases activity and population balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Massimo; Concas, Alessandro; Cao, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Cell cycle regulates proliferative cell capacity under normal or pathologic conditions, and in general it governs all in vivo/in vitro cell growth and proliferation processes. Mathematical simulation by means of reliable and predictive models represents an important tool to interpret experiment results, to facilitate the definition of the optimal operating conditions for in vitro cultivation, or to predict the effect of a specific drug in normal/pathologic mammalian cells. Along these lines, a novel model of cell cycle progression is proposed in this work. Specifically, it is based on a population balance (PB) approach that allows one to quantitatively describe cell cycle progression through the different phases experienced by each cell of the entire population during its own life. The transition between two consecutive cell cycle phases is simulated by taking advantage of the biochemical kinetic model developed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2009) which involves cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) whose regulation is achieved through a variety of mechanisms that include association with cyclins and protein inhibitors, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, and cyclin synthesis or degradation. This biochemical model properly describes the entire cell cycle of mammalian cells by maintaining a sufficient level of detail useful to identify check point for transition and to estimate phase duration required by PB. Specific examples are discussed to illustrate the ability of the proposed model to simulate the effect of drugs for in vitro trials of interest in oncology, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonparametric modeling of longitudinal covariance structure in functional mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, John Stephen; Fan, Jianqing; Wu, Rongling

    2009-12-01

    Estimation of the covariance structure of longitudinal processes is a fundamental prerequisite for the practical deployment of functional mapping designed to study the genetic regulation and network of quantitative variation in dynamic complex traits. We present a nonparametric approach for estimating the covariance structure of a quantitative trait measured repeatedly at a series of time points. Specifically, we adopt Huang et al.'s (2006, Biometrika 93, 85-98) approach of invoking the modified Cholesky decomposition and converting the problem into modeling a sequence of regressions of responses. A regularized covariance estimator is obtained using a normal penalized likelihood with an L(2) penalty. This approach, embedded within a mixture likelihood framework, leads to enhanced accuracy, precision, and flexibility of functional mapping while preserving its biological relevance. Simulation studies are performed to reveal the statistical properties and advantages of the proposed method. A real example from a mouse genome project is analyzed to illustrate the utilization of the methodology. The new method will provide a useful tool for genome-wide scanning for the existence and distribution of quantitative trait loci underlying a dynamic trait important to agriculture, biology, and health sciences.

  20. Quantitative model for the generic 3D shape of ICMEs at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démoulin, P.; Janvier, M.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Interplanetary imagers provide 2D projected views of the densest plasma parts of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), while in situ measurements provide magnetic field and plasma parameter measurements along the spacecraft trajectory, that is, along a 1D cut. The data therefore only give a partial view of the 3D structures of ICMEs. Aims: By studying a large number of ICMEs, crossed at different distances from their apex, we develop statistical methods to obtain a quantitative generic 3D shape of ICMEs. Methods: In a first approach we theoretically obtained the expected statistical distribution of the shock-normal orientation from assuming simple models of 3D shock shapes, including distorted profiles, and compared their compatibility with observed distributions. In a second approach we used the shock normal and the flux rope axis orientations together with the impact parameter to provide statistical information across the spacecraft trajectory. Results: The study of different 3D shock models shows that the observations are compatible with a shock that is symmetric around the Sun-apex line as well as with an asymmetry up to an aspect ratio of around 3. Moreover, flat or dipped shock surfaces near their apex can only be rare cases. Next, the sheath thickness and the ICME velocity have no global trend along the ICME front. Finally, regrouping all these new results and those of our previous articles, we provide a quantitative ICME generic 3D shape, including the global shape of the shock, the sheath, and the flux rope. Conclusions: The obtained quantitative generic ICME shape will have implications for several aims. For example, it constrains the output of typical ICME numerical simulations. It is also a base for studying the transport of high-energy solar and cosmic particles during an ICME propagation as well as for modeling and forecasting space weather conditions near Earth.

  1. Tumour-cell killing by X-rays and immunity quantitated in a mouse model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, D.D.; Porteous, K.M.; Hughes, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the interaction of X-rays and immune cytotoxicity in tumour control, an experimental mouse model system has been used in which quantitative anti-tumour immunity was raised in prospective recipients of tumour-cell suspensions exposed to varying doses of X-rays in vitro before injection. Findings reported here indicate that, whilst X-rays kill a proportion of cells, induced immunity deals with a fixed number dependent upon the immune status of the host, and that X-rays and anti-tumour immunity do not act synergistically in tumour-cell killing. The tumour used was the ascites sarcoma BP8. (author)

  2. Impact Assessment of Abiotic Resources in LCA: Quantitative Comparison of Selected Characterization Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbech, Jakob Thaysen; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment...... results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247...... groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA....

  3. Multi-factor models and signal processing techniques application to quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Darolles, Serges; Jay, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    With recent outbreaks of multiple large-scale financial crises, amplified by interconnected risk sources, a new paradigm of fund management has emerged. This new paradigm leverages "embedded" quantitative processes and methods to provide more transparent, adaptive, reliable and easily implemented "risk assessment-based" practices.This book surveys the most widely used factor models employed within the field of financial asset pricing. Through the concrete application of evaluating risks in the hedge fund industry, the authors demonstrate that signal processing techniques are an intere

  4. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity.

  5. Spatiotemporal microbiota dynamics from quantitative in vitro and in silico models of the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Terence

    The human gut harbors a dynamic microbial community whose composition bears great importance for the health of the host. Here, we investigate how colonic physiology impacts bacterial growth behaviors, which ultimately dictate the gut microbiota composition. Combining measurements of bacterial growth physiology with analysis of published data on human physiology into a quantitative modeling framework, we show how hydrodynamic forces in the colon, in concert with other physiological factors, determine the abundances of the major bacterial phyla in the gut. Our model quantitatively explains the observed variation of microbiota composition among healthy adults, and predicts colonic water absorption (manifested as stool consistency) and nutrient intake to be two key factors determining this composition. The model further reveals that both factors, which have been identified in recent correlative studies, exert their effects through the same mechanism: changes in colonic pH that differentially affect the growth of different bacteria. Our findings show that a predictive and mechanistic understanding of microbial ecology in the human gut is possible, and offer the hope for the rational design of intervention strategies to actively control the microbiota. This work is supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  6. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity

  7. Web Applications Vulnerability Management using a Quantitative Stochastic Risk Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu SECHEL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to propose a quantitative risk modeling method that reduces the guess work and uncertainty from the vulnerability and risk assessment activities of web based applications while providing users the flexibility to assess risk according to their risk appetite and tolerance with a high degree of assurance. The research method is based on the research done by the OWASP Foundation on this subject but their risk rating methodology needed de-bugging and updates in different in key areas that are presented in this paper. The modified risk modeling method uses Monte Carlo simulations to model risk characteristics that can’t be determined without guess work and it was tested in vulnerability assessment activities on real production systems and in theory by assigning discrete uniform assumptions to all risk charac-teristics (risk attributes and evaluate the results after 1.5 million rounds of Monte Carlo simu-lations.

  8. A quantitative trait locus mixture model that avoids spurious LOD score peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Skovgaard, Ib M

    2004-06-01

    In standard interval mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), the QTL effect is described by a normal mixture model. At any given location in the genome, the evidence of a putative QTL is measured by the likelihood ratio of the mixture model compared to a single normal distribution (the LOD score). This approach can occasionally produce spurious LOD score peaks in regions of low genotype information (e.g., widely spaced markers), especially if the phenotype distribution deviates markedly from a normal distribution. Such peaks are not indicative of a QTL effect; rather, they are caused by the fact that a mixture of normals always produces a better fit than a single normal distribution. In this study, a mixture model for QTL mapping that avoids the problems of such spurious LOD score peaks is presented.

  9. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model for Listeria monocytogenes in RTE sandwiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirloni, E.; Stella, S.; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    within each serving. Then, two dose-response models were alternatively applied: the first used a fixed r value for each of the three population groups, while the second considered a variable r value (lognormal distribution), taking into account the variability in strain virulence and different host...... subpopulations susceptibility. The stochastic model predicted zero cases for total population for both the substrates by using the fixed r approach, while 3 cases were expected when a higher variability (in virulence and susceptibility) was considered in the model; the number of cases increased to 45......A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) was performed to estimate the expected number of listeriosis cases due to the consumption, on the last day of shelf life, of 20 000 servings of multi-ingredient sandwiches produced by a medium scale food producer in Italy, by different population...

  10. Quantitative model for the blood pressure‐lowering interaction of valsartan and amlodipine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young‐A; Holford, Nick; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Mijeong

    2016-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model to quantitatively describe the antihypertensive effect of combined therapy with amlodipine and valsartan. Methods PK modelling was used with data collected from 48 healthy volunteers receiving a single dose of combined formulation of 10 mg amlodipine and 160 mg valsartan. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded during combined administration. SBP and DBP data for each drug alone were gathered from the literature. PKPD models of each drug and for combined administration were built with NONMEM 7.3. Results A two‐compartment model with zero order absorption best described the PK data of both drugs. Amlodipine and valsartan monotherapy effects on SBP and DBP were best described by an I max model with an effect compartment delay. Combined therapy was described using a proportional interaction term as follows: (D1 + D2) +ALPHA×(D1 × D2). D1 and D2 are the predicted drug effects of amlodipine and valsartan monotherapy respectively. ALPHA is the interaction term for combined therapy. Quantitative estimates of ALPHA were −0.171 (95% CI: −0.218, −0.143) for SBP and −0.0312 (95% CI: −0.07739, −0.00283) for DBP. These infra‐additive interaction terms for both SBP and DBP were consistent with literature results for combined administration of drugs in these classes. Conclusion PKPD models for SBP and DBP successfully described the time course of the antihypertensive effects of amlodipine and valsartan. An infra‐additive interaction between amlodipine and valsartan when used in combined administration was confirmed and quantified. PMID:27504853

  11. Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative

  12. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial Installation of Software for Watershed Modeling in Support of QMRA - Updated 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tutorial provides instructions for accessing, retrieving, and downloading the following software to install on a host computer in support of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) modeling: • QMRA Installation • SDMProjectBuilder (which includes the Microbial ...

  13. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H. A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from plasmas of the large helical device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission of W24+ to W33+ ions at 1.5-3.5 nm are sensitive to electron temperature and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. We can reproduce measured EUV spectra at 1.5-3.5 nm by calculated spectra with the tungsten atomic model and obtain charge state distributions of tungsten ions in LHD plasmas at different temperatures around 1 keV. Our model is applied to calculate the unresolved transition array (UTA) seen at 4.5-7 nm tungsten spectra. We analyze the effect of configuration interaction on population kinetics related to the UTA structure in detail and find the importance of two-electron-one-photon transitions between 4p54dn+1- 4p64dn-14f. Radiation power rate of tungsten due to line emissions is also estimated with the model and is consistent with other models within factor 2.

  14. Quantitative computational models of molecular self-assembly in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marcus; Schwartz, Russell

    2017-05-23

    Molecular self-assembly is the dominant form of chemical reaction in living systems, yet efforts at systems biology modeling are only beginning to appreciate the need for and challenges to accurate quantitative modeling of self-assembly. Self-assembly reactions are essential to nearly every important process in cell and molecular biology and handling them is thus a necessary step in building comprehensive models of complex cellular systems. They present exceptional challenges, however, to standard methods for simulating complex systems. While the general systems biology world is just beginning to deal with these challenges, there is an extensive literature dealing with them for more specialized self-assembly modeling. This review will examine the challenges of self-assembly modeling, nascent efforts to deal with these challenges in the systems modeling community, and some of the solutions offered in prior work on self-assembly specifically. The review concludes with some consideration of the likely role of self-assembly in the future of complex biological system models more generally.

  15. Quantitative study of Portland cement hydration by X-Ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis and geochemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F.; Seaman, J. C.; Simner, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the hydration of Portland cements containing blast-furnace slag and type V fly ash were investigated during cement curing using X-ray diffraction, with geochemical modeling used to calculate the total volume of hydrates. The goal was to evaluate the relationship between the starting component levels and the hydrate assemblages that develop during the curing process. Blast furnace-slag levels of 60, 45 and 30 wt.% were studied in blends containing fly ash and Portland cement. Geochemical modelling described the dissolution of the clinker, and predicted quantitatively the amount of hydrates. In all cases the experiments showed the presence of C-S-H, portlandite and ettringite. The quantities of ettringite, portlandite and the amorphous phases as determined by XRD agreed well with the calculated amounts of these phases after different periods of time. These findings show that changes in the bulk composition of hydrating cements can be described by geochemical models. Such a comparison between experimental and modelled data helps to understand in more detail the active processes occurring during cement hydration.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative examination of the performance of regional air quality models representing different modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhumralkar, C.M.; Ludwig, F.L.; Shannon, J.D.; McNaughton, D.

    1985-04-01

    The calculations of three different air quality models were compared with the best available observations. The comparisons were made without calibrating the models to improve agreement with the observations. Model performance was poor for short averaging times (less than 24 hours). Some of the poor performance can be traced to errors in the input meteorological fields, but error exist on all levels. It should be noted that these models were not originally designed for treating short-term episodes. For short-term episodes, much of the variance in the data can arise from small spatial scale features that tend to be averaged out over longer periods. These small spatial scale features cannot be resolved with the coarse grids that are used for the meteorological and emissions inputs. Thus, it is not surprising that the models performed for the longer averaging times. The models compared were RTM-II, ENAMAP-2 and ACID. (17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  18. Quantitative Outline-based Shape Analysis and Classification of Planetary Craterforms using Supervised Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Thomas Joseph; Radebaugh, Jani; Christiansen, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The shapes of craterform morphology on planetary surfaces provides rich information about their origins and evolution. While morphologic information provides rich visual clues to geologic processes and properties, the ability to quantitatively communicate this information is less easily accomplished. This study examines the morphology of craterforms using the quantitative outline-based shape methods of geometric morphometrics, commonly used in biology and paleontology. We examine and compare landforms on planetary surfaces using shape, a property of morphology that is invariant to translation, rotation, and size. We quantify the shapes of paterae on Io, martian calderas, terrestrial basaltic shield calderas, terrestrial ash-flow calderas, and lunar impact craters using elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and the Zahn and Roskies (Z-R) shape function, or tangent angle approach to produce multivariate shape descriptors. These shape descriptors are subjected to multivariate statistical analysis including canonical variate analysis (CVA), a multiple-comparison variant of discriminant analysis, to investigate the link between craterform shape and classification. Paterae on Io are most similar in shape to terrestrial ash-flow calderas and the shapes of terrestrial basaltic shield volcanoes are most similar to martian calderas. The shapes of lunar impact craters, including simple, transitional, and complex morphology, are classified with a 100% rate of success in all models. Multiple CVA models effectively predict and classify different craterforms using shape-based identification and demonstrate significant potential for use in the analysis of planetary surfaces.

  19. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of two-dimensional neovascular network complexity: the surface fractal dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Russo, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Franceschini, Barbara; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, Everardo; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Modeling the complex development and growth of tumor angiogenesis using mathematics and biological data is a burgeoning area of cancer research. Architectural complexity is the main feature of every anatomical system, including organs, tissues, cells and sub-cellular entities. The vascular system is a complex network whose geometrical characteristics cannot be properly defined using the principles of Euclidean geometry, which is only capable of interpreting regular and smooth objects that are almost impossible to find in Nature. However, fractal geometry is a more powerful means of quantifying the spatial complexity of real objects. This paper introduces the surface fractal dimension (D s ) as a numerical index of the two-dimensional (2-D) geometrical complexity of tumor vascular networks, and their behavior during computer-simulated changes in vessel density and distribution. We show that D s significantly depends on the number of vessels and their pattern of distribution. This demonstrates that the quantitative evaluation of the 2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular systems can be useful not only to measure its complex architecture, but also to model its development and growth. Studying the fractal properties of neovascularity induces reflections upon the real significance of the complex form of branched anatomical structures, in an attempt to define more appropriate methods of describing them quantitatively. This knowledge can be used to predict the aggressiveness of malignant tumors and design compounds that can halt the process of angiogenesis and influence tumor growth

  20. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) at 7 T: Effective Quantitative Imaging for Rodent Disease Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Chen, Yong; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Herrmann, Kelsey A.; Vincent, Jason A.; Dell, Katherine M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.; Griswold, Mark A.; Flask, Chris A.; Lu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    High field, preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners are now commonly used to quantitatively assess disease status and efficacy of novel therapies in a wide variety of rodent models. Unfortunately, conventional MRI methods are highly susceptible to respiratory and cardiac motion artifacts resulting in potentially inaccurate and misleading data. We have developed an initial preclinical, 7.0 T MRI implementation of the highly novel Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) methodology that has been previously described for clinical imaging applications. The MRF technology combines a priori variation in the MRI acquisition parameters with dictionary-based matching of acquired signal evolution profiles to simultaneously generate quantitative maps of T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density. This preclinical MRF acquisition was constructed from a Fast Imaging with Steady-state Free Precession (FISP) MRI pulse sequence to acquire 600 MRF images with both evolving T1 and T2 weighting in approximately 30 minutes. This initial high field preclinical MRF investigation demonstrated reproducible and differentiated estimates of in vitro phantoms with different relaxation times. In vivo preclinical MRF results in mouse kidneys and brain tumor models demonstrated an inherent resistance to respiratory motion artifacts as well as sensitivity to known pathology. These results suggest that MRF methodology may offer the opportunity for quantification of numerous MRI parameters for a wide variety of preclinical imaging applications. PMID:25639694

  1. A Cytomorphic Chip for Quantitative Modeling of Fundamental Bio-Molecular Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We describe a 0.35 μm BiCMOS silicon chip that quantitatively models fundamental molecular circuits via efficient log-domain cytomorphic transistor equivalents. These circuits include those for biochemical binding with automatic representation of non-modular and loading behavior, e.g., in cascade and fan-out topologies; for representing variable Hill-coefficient operation and cooperative binding; for representing inducer, transcription-factor, and DNA binding; for probabilistic gene transcription with analogic representations of log-linear and saturating operation; for gain, degradation, and dynamics of mRNA and protein variables in transcription and translation; and, for faithfully representing biological noise via tunable stochastic transistor circuits. The use of on-chip DACs and ADCs enables multiple chips to interact via incoming and outgoing molecular digital data packets and thus create scalable biochemical reaction networks. The use of off-chip digital processors and on-chip digital memory enables programmable connectivity and parameter storage. We show that published static and dynamic MATLAB models of synthetic biological circuits including repressilators, feed-forward loops, and feedback oscillators are in excellent quantitative agreement with those from transistor circuits on the chip. Computationally intensive stochastic Gillespie simulations of molecular production are also rapidly reproduced by the chip and can be reliably tuned over the range of signal-to-noise ratios observed in biological cells.

  2. Experiments and modeling of single plastic particle conversion in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Wu, Hao; Grévain, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Conversion of single high density polyethylene (PE) particles has been studied by experiments and modeling. The experiments were carried out in a single particle combustor for five different shapes and masses of particles at temperature conditions of 900 and 1100°C. Each experiment was recorded...... against the experiments as well as literature data. Furthermore, a simplified isothermal model appropriate for CFD applications was developed, in order to model the combustion of plastic particles in cement calciners. By comparing predictions with the isothermal and the non–isothermal models under typical...

  3. Quantitative assessment of changes in landslide risk using a regional scale run-out model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Haydar; Chen, Lixia; Ciurean, Roxana; van Westen, Cees; Reichenbach, Paola; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2015-04-01

    The risk of landslide hazard continuously changes in time and space and is rarely a static or constant phenomena in an affected area. However one of the main challenges of quantitatively assessing changes in landslide risk is the availability of multi-temporal data for the different components of risk. Furthermore, a truly "quantitative" landslide risk analysis requires the modeling of the landslide intensity (e.g. flow depth, velocities or impact pressures) affecting the elements at risk. Such a quantitative approach is often lacking in medium to regional scale studies in the scientific literature or is left out altogether. In this research we modelled the temporal and spatial changes of debris flow risk in a narrow alpine valley in the North Eastern Italian Alps. The debris flow inventory from 1996 to 2011 and multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEMs) were used to assess the susceptibility of debris flow triggering areas and to simulate debris flow run-out using the Flow-R regional scale model. In order to determine debris flow intensities, we used a linear relationship that was found between back calibrated physically based Flo-2D simulations (local scale models of five debris flows from 2003) and the probability values of the Flow-R software. This gave us the possibility to assign flow depth to a total of 10 separate classes on a regional scale. Debris flow vulnerability curves from the literature and one curve specifically for our case study area were used to determine the damage for different material and building types associated with the elements at risk. The building values were obtained from the Italian Revenue Agency (Agenzia delle Entrate) and were classified per cadastral zone according to the Real Estate Observatory data (Osservatorio del Mercato Immobiliare, Agenzia Entrate - OMI). The minimum and maximum market value for each building was obtained by multiplying the corresponding land-use value (€/msq) with building area and number of floors

  4. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  5. A pulsatile flow model for in vitro quantitative evaluation of prosthetic valve regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Giuliatti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A pulsatile pressure-flow model was developed for in vitro quantitative color Doppler flow mapping studies of valvular regurgitation. The flow through the system was generated by a piston which was driven by stepper motors controlled by a computer. The piston was connected to acrylic chambers designed to simulate "ventricular" and "atrial" heart chambers. Inside the "ventricular" chamber, a prosthetic heart valve was placed at the inflow connection with the "atrial" chamber while another prosthetic valve was positioned at the outflow connection with flexible tubes, elastic balloons and a reservoir arranged to mimic the peripheral circulation. The flow model was filled with a 0.25% corn starch/water suspension to improve Doppler imaging. A continuous flow pump transferred the liquid from the peripheral reservoir to another one connected to the "atrial" chamber. The dimensions of the flow model were designed to permit adequate imaging by Doppler echocardiography. Acoustic windows allowed placement of transducers distal and perpendicular to the valves, so that the ultrasound beam could be positioned parallel to the valvular flow. Strain-gauge and electromagnetic transducers were used for measurements of pressure and flow in different segments of the system. The flow model was also designed to fit different sizes and types of prosthetic valves. This pulsatile flow model was able to generate pressure and flow in the physiological human range, with independent adjustment of pulse duration and rate as well as of stroke volume. This model mimics flow profiles observed in patients with regurgitant prosthetic valves.

  6. Quantitative models for predicting adsorption of oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulfamerazine to swine manures with contrasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dengmiao; Feng, Yao; Liu, Yuanwang; Li, Jinpeng; Xue, Jianming; Li, Zhaojun

    2018-09-01

    Understanding antibiotic adsorption in livestock manures is crucial to assess the fate and risk of antibiotics in the environment. In this study, three quantitative models developed with swine manure-water distribution coefficients (LgK d ) for oxytetracycline (OTC), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and sulfamerazine (SM1) in swine manures. Physicochemical parameters (n=12) of the swine manure were used as independent variables using partial least-squares (PLSs) analysis. The cumulative cross-validated regression coefficients (Q 2 cum ) values, standard deviations (SDs) and external validation coefficient (Q 2 ext ) ranged from 0.761 to 0.868, 0.027 to 0.064, and 0.743 to 0.827 for the three models; as such, internal and external predictability of the models were strong. The pH, soluble organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON), and Ca were important explanatory variables for the OTC-Model, pH, SOC, and SON for the CIP-model, and pH, total organic nitrogen (TON), and SOC for the SM1-model. The high VIPs (variable importance in the projections) of pH (1.178-1.396), SOC (0.968-1.034), and SON (0.822 and 0.865) established these physicochemical parameters as likely being dominant (associatively) in affecting transport of antibiotics in swine manures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling and Quantitative Analysis of LTRACK–A Novel Mobility Management Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedek Kovács

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the improvements and parameter optimization issues of LTRACK, a recently proposed mobility management algorithm. Mathematical modelling of the algorithm and the behavior of the Mobile Node (MN are used to optimize the parameters of LTRACK. A numerical method is given to determine the optimal values of the parameters. Markov chains are used to model both the base algorithm and the so-called loop removal effect. An extended qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out to compare LTRACK to existing handover mechanisms such as MIP, Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP, Dynamic Hierarchical Mobility Management Strategy (DHMIP, Telecommunication Enhanced Mobile IP (TeleMIP, Cellular IP (CIP and HAWAII. LTRACK is sensitive to network topology and MN behavior so MN movement modelling is also introduced and discussed with different topologies. The techniques presented here can not only be used to model the LTRACK algorithm, but other algorithms too. There are many discussions and calculations to support our mathematical model to prove that it is adequate in many cases. The model is valid on various network levels, scalable vertically in the ISO-OSI layers and also scales well with the number of network elements.

  8. Experiments and Modelling of Coal Devolatilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuKuanrong; LiuQianxin

    1994-01-01

    The coal devolatilization process of different coals was studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis method.The experimental results and the kinetic parameters of devolatilization.K and E,have been obtained. A mathematical model for coal devolatiliztion has been proposed.and the model is simple and practical.The predictions of the model are shown to be in agreement with experimental results.

  9. Hazard Response Modeling Uncertainty (A Quantitative Method). Volume 2. Evaluation of Commonly Used Hazardous Gas Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    the HDA . The model will 89 explicitly account for initial dilution, aerosol evaporation, and entrainment for turbulent jets, which simplifies...D.N., Yohn, J.F., Koopman R.P. and Brown T.C., "Conduct of Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid Spill Experiments," Proc. Int. Cqnf. On Vapor Cloud Modeling

  10. Some Experiences with Numerical Modelling of Overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.

    2007-01-01

    across the edge of the overflow. To ensure critical flow across the edge, the upstream flow must be subcritical whereas the downstream flow is either supercritical or a free jet. Experimentally overflows are well studied. Based on laboratory experiments and Froude number scaling, numerous accurate...

  11. Quality of experience models for multimedia streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.; Cuadra Sánchez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how quality is perceived by viewers of multimedia streaming services is essential for efficient management of those services. Quality of Experience (QoE) is a subjective metric that quantifies the perceived quality, which is crucial in the process of optimizing tradeoff between quality

  12. A Cross-Discipline Modeling Capstone Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Marian L.; LoFaro, Thomas; Pillers Dobler, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) and the American Statistical Association (ASA) have both updated and revised their curriculum guidelines. The guidelines of both associations recommend that students engage in a "capstone" experience, be exposed to applications, and have opportunities to communicate mathematical and…

  13. [Quantitative models between canopy hyperspectrum and its component features at apple tree prosperous fruit stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun; Lei, Tong; Dong, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Hyperspectral technique has become the basis of quantitative remote sensing. Hyperspectrum of apple tree canopy at prosperous fruit stage consists of the complex information of fruits, leaves, stocks, soil and reflecting films, which was mostly affected by component features of canopy at this stage. First, the hyperspectrum of 18 sample apple trees with reflecting films was compared with that of 44 trees without reflecting films. It could be seen that the impact of reflecting films on reflectance was obvious, so the sample trees with ground reflecting films should be separated to analyze from those without ground films. Secondly, nine indexes of canopy components were built based on classified digital photos of 44 apple trees without ground films. Thirdly, the correlation between the nine indexes and canopy reflectance including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed. The results showed that the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf was the best, among which the max coefficient reached 0.815, and the correlation between reflectance and the ratio of leaf was a little better than that between reflectance and the density of fruit. Then models of correlation analysis, linear regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the hyperspectral reflectance and the ratio of fruit to leaf with the softwares of DPS and LIBSVM. It was feasible that all of the four models in 611-680 nm characteristic band are feasible to be used to predict, while the model accuracy of BP neural network and support vector regression was better than one-variable linear regression and multi-variable regression, and the accuracy of support vector regression model was the best. This study will be served as a reliable theoretical reference for the yield estimation of apples based on remote sensing data.

  14. Use of a plant level logic model for quantitative assessment of systems interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Rees, D.C.; Kripps, L.P.; Hunt, R.N.; Bradley, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a research program to investigate methods for identifying systems interactions (SIs) and for the evaluation of their importance. Phase 1 of the EPRI research project focused on the evaluation of methods for identification of SIs. Major results of the Phase 1 activities are the documentation of four different methodologies for identification of potential SIs and development of guidelines for performing an effective plant walkdown in support of an SI analysis. Phase II of the project, currently being performed, is utilizing a plant level logic model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to determine the quantitative importance of identified SIs. In Phase II, previously reported events involving interactions between systems were screened and selected on the basis of their relevance to the Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGandE) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant design and perceived potential safety significance. Selected events were then incorporated into the BGandE plant level GO logic model. The model is being exercised to calculate the relative importance of these events. Five previously identified event scenarios, extracted from licensee event reports (LERs) are being evaluated during the course of the study. A key feature of the approach being used in Phase II is the use of a logic model in a manner to effectively evaluate the impact of events on the system level and the plant level for the mitigation of transients. Preliminary study results indicate that the developed methodology can be a viable and effective means for determining the quantitative significance of SIs

  15. Pleiotropy analysis of quantitative traits at gene level by multivariate functional linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Boehnke, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao; Wu, Colin O; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-05-01

    In genetics, pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. A common approach is to analyze the phenotypic traits separately using univariate analyses and combine the test results through multiple comparisons. This approach may lead to low power. Multivariate functional linear models are developed to connect genetic variant data to multiple quantitative traits adjusting for covariates for a unified analysis. Three types of approximate F-distribution tests based on Pillai-Bartlett trace, Hotelling-Lawley trace, and Wilks's Lambda are introduced to test for association between multiple quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in one genetic region. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the false positive rates and power performance of the proposed models and tests. We show that the approximate F-distribution tests control the type I error rates very well. Overall, simultaneous analysis of multiple traits can increase power performance compared to an individual test of each trait. The proposed methods were applied to analyze (1) four lipid traits in eight European cohorts, and (2) three biochemical traits in the Trinity Students Study. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and SKAT-O for the three biochemical traits. The approximate F-distribution tests of the proposed functional linear models are more sensitive than those of the traditional multivariate linear models that in turn are more sensitive than SKAT-O in the univariate case. The analysis of the four lipid traits and the three biochemical traits detects more association than SKAT-O in the univariate case. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. A quantitative quasispecies theory-based model of virus escape mutation under immune selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-June; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-08-07

    Viral infections involve a complex interplay of the immune response and escape mutation of the virus quasispecies inside a single host. Although fundamental aspects of such a balance of mutation and selection pressure have been established by the quasispecies theory decades ago, its implications have largely remained qualitative. Here, we present a quantitative approach to model the virus evolution under cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response. The virus quasispecies dynamics are explicitly represented by mutations in the combined sequence space of a set of epitopes within the viral genome. We stochastically simulated the growth of a viral population originating from a single wild-type founder virus and its recognition and clearance by the immune response, as well as the expansion of its genetic diversity. Applied to the immune escape of a simian immunodeficiency virus epitope, model predictions were quantitatively comparable to the experimental data. Within the model parameter space, we found two qualitatively different regimes of infectious disease pathogenesis, each representing alternative fates of the immune response: It can clear the infection in finite time or eventually be overwhelmed by viral growth and escape mutation. The latter regime exhibits the characteristic disease progression pattern of human immunodeficiency virus, while the former is bounded by maximum mutation rates that can be suppressed by the immune response. Our results demonstrate that, by explicitly representing epitope mutations and thus providing a genotype-phenotype map, the quasispecies theory can form the basis of a detailed sequence-specific model of real-world viral pathogens evolving under immune selection.

  17. Mathematical Modeling: Are Prior Experiences Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czocher, Jennifer A.; Moss, Diana L.

    2017-01-01

    Why are math modeling problems the source of such frustration for students and teachers? The conceptual understanding that students have when engaging with a math modeling problem varies greatly. They need opportunities to make their own assumptions and design the mathematics to fit these assumptions (CCSSI 2010). Making these assumptions is part…

  18. Towards Generic Models of Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Shaker, Mohammad; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Context personalisation is a flourishing area of research with many applications. Context personalisation systems usually employ a user model to predict the appeal of the context to a particular user given a history of interactions. Most of the models used are context-dependent and their applicab...

  19. Need for collection of quantitative distribution data for dosimetry and metabolic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Problems in radiation dose distribution studies in humans are discussed. Data show the effective half-times for 7 Be and 75 Se in the mouse, rat, monkey, dog, and human show no correlation with weight, body surface, or other readily apparent factor that could be used to equate nonhuman and human data. Another problem sometimes encountered in attempting to extrapolate animal data to humans involves equivalent doses of the radiopharmaceutical. A usual human dose for a radiopharmaceutical is 1 ml or 0.017 mg/kg. The same solution injected into a mouse in a convenient volume of 0.1 ml results in a dose of 4 ml/kg or 240 times that received by the human. The effect on whole body retention produced by a dose difference of similar magnitude for selenium in the rat shows the retention is at least twice as great with the smaller amount. With the development of methods for the collection of data throughout the body representing the fractional distribution of radioactivity versus time, not only can more realistic dose estimates be made, but also the tools will be provided for the study of physiological and biochemical interrelationships in the intact subject from which compartmental models may be made which have diagnostic significance. The unique requirement for quantitative biologic data needed for calculation of radiation absorbed doses is the same as the unique scientific contribution that nuclear medicine can make, which is the quantitative in vivo study of physiologic and biochemical processes. The technique involved is not the same as quantitation of a radionuclide image, but is a step beyond

  20. General Methods for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetic Inference from Generalized Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villemereuil, Pierre; Schielzeth, Holger; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Morrissey, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Methods for inference and interpretation of evolutionary quantitative genetic parameters, and for prediction of the response to selection, are best developed for traits with normal distributions. Many traits of evolutionary interest, including many life history and behavioral traits, have inherently nonnormal distributions. The generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework has become a widely used tool for estimating quantitative genetic parameters for nonnormal traits. However, whereas GLMMs provide inference on a statistically convenient latent scale, it is often desirable to express quantitative genetic parameters on the scale upon which traits are measured. The parameters of fitted GLMMs, despite being on a latent scale, fully determine all quantities of potential interest on the scale on which traits are expressed. We provide expressions for deriving each of such quantities, including population means, phenotypic (co)variances, variance components including additive genetic (co)variances, and parameters such as heritability. We demonstrate that fixed effects have a strong impact on those parameters and show how to deal with this by averaging or integrating over fixed effects. The expressions require integration of quantities determined by the link function, over distributions of latent values. In general cases, the required integrals must be solved numerically, but efficient methods are available and we provide an implementation in an R package, QGglmm. We show that known formulas for quantities such as heritability of traits with binomial and Poisson distributions are special cases of our expressions. Additionally, we show how fitted GLMM can be incorporated into existing methods for predicting evolutionary trajectories. We demonstrate the accuracy of the resulting method for evolutionary prediction by simulation and apply our approach to data from a wild pedigreed vertebrate population. Copyright © 2016 de Villemereuil et al.

  1. A generalized quantitative antibody homeostasis model: maintenance of global antibody equilibrium by effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechl, József

    2017-11-01

    The homeostasis of antibodies can be characterized as a balanced production, target-binding and receptor-mediated elimination regulated by an interaction network, which controls B-cell development and selection. Recently, we proposed a quantitative model to describe how the concentration and affinity of interacting partners generates a network. Here we argue that this physical, quantitative approach can be extended for the interpretation of effector functions of antibodies. We define global antibody equilibrium as the zone of molar equivalence of free antibody, free antigen and immune complex concentrations and of dissociation constant of apparent affinity: [Ab]=[Ag]=[AbAg]= K D . This zone corresponds to the biologically relevant K D range of reversible interactions. We show that thermodynamic and kinetic properties of antibody-antigen interactions correlate with immunological functions. The formation of stable, long-lived immune complexes correspond to a decrease of entropy and is a prerequisite for the generation of higher-order complexes. As the energy of formation of complexes increases, we observe a gradual shift from silent clearance to inflammatory reactions. These rules can also be applied to complement activation-related immune effector processes, linking the physicochemical principles of innate and adaptive humoral responses. Affinity of the receptors mediating effector functions shows a wide range of affinities, allowing the continuous sampling of antibody-bound antigen over the complete range of concentrations. The generation of multivalent, multicomponent complexes triggers effector functions by crosslinking these receptors on effector cells with increasing enzymatic degradation potential. Thus, antibody homeostasis is a thermodynamic system with complex network properties, nested into the host organism by proper immunoregulatory and effector pathways. Maintenance of global antibody equilibrium is achieved by innate qualitative signals modulating a

  2. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  3. Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mitsos

    Full Text Available Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i excessive CPU time requirements and ii loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  4. Quantitative model of super-Arrhenian behavior in glass forming materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, J. M.; Medvedev, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    The key feature of glass forming liquids is the super-Arrhenian temperature dependence of the mobility, where the mobility can increase by ten orders of magnitude or more as the temperature is decreased if crystallization does not intervene. A fundamental description of the super-Arrhenian behavior has been developed; specifically, the logarithm of the relaxation time is a linear function of 1 /U¯x , where U¯x is the independently determined excess molar internal energy and B is a material constant. This one-parameter mobility model quantitatively describes data for 21 glass forming materials, which are all the materials where there are sufficient experimental data for analysis. The effect of pressure on the loga mobility is also described using the same U¯x(T ,p ) function determined from the difference between the liquid and crystalline internal energies. It is also shown that B is well correlated with the heat of fusion. The prediction of the B /U¯x model is compared to the Adam and Gibbs 1 /T S¯x model, where the B /U¯x model is significantly better in unifying the full complement of mobility data. The implications of the B /U¯x model for the development of a fundamental description of glass are discussed.

  5. Multivariate characterisation and quantitative structure-property relationship modelling of nitroaromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, S. [Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden)], E-mail: sofie.jonsson@nat.oru.se; Eriksson, L.A. [Department of Natural Sciences and Orebro Life Science Center, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden); Bavel, B. van [Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden)

    2008-07-28

    A multivariate model to characterise nitroaromatics and related compounds based on molecular descriptors was calculated. Descriptors were collected from literature and through empirical, semi-empirical and density functional theory-based calculations. Principal components were used to describe the distribution of the compounds in a multidimensional space. Four components described 76% of the variation in the dataset. PC1 separated the compounds due to molecular weight, PC2 separated the different isomers, PC3 arranged the compounds according to different functional groups such as nitrobenzoic acids, nitrobenzenes, nitrotoluenes and nitroesters and PC4 differentiated the compounds containing chlorine from other compounds. Quantitative structure-property relationship models were calculated using partial least squares (PLS) projection to latent structures to predict gas chromatographic (GC) retention times and the distribution between the water phase and air using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). GC retention time was found to be dependent on the presence of polar amine groups, electronic descriptors including highest occupied molecular orbital, dipole moments and the melting point. The model of GC retention time was good, but the precision was not precise enough for practical use. An important environmental parameter was measured using SPME, the distribution between headspace (air) and the water phase. This parameter was mainly dependent on Henry's law constant, vapour pressure, log P, content of hydroxyl groups and atmospheric OH rate constant. The predictive capacity of the model substantially improved when recalculating a model using these five descriptors only.

  6. Quantitative utilization of prior biological knowledge in the Bayesian network modeling of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shouguo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bayesian Network (BN is a powerful approach to reconstructing genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, expression data by itself suffers from high noise and lack of power. Incorporating prior biological knowledge can improve the performance. As each type of prior knowledge on its own may be incomplete or limited by quality issues, integrating multiple sources of prior knowledge to utilize their consensus is desirable. Results We introduce a new method to incorporate the quantitative information from multiple sources of prior knowledge. It first uses the Naïve Bayesian classifier to assess the likelihood of functional linkage between gene pairs based on prior knowledge. In this study we included cocitation in PubMed and schematic similarity in Gene Ontology annotation. A candidate network edge reservoir is then created in which the copy number of each edge is proportional to the estimated likelihood of linkage between the two corresponding genes. In network simulation the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm is adopted, and samples from this reservoir at each iteration to generate new candidate networks. We evaluated the new algorithm using both simulated and real gene expression data including that from a yeast cell cycle and a mouse pancreas development/growth study. Incorporating prior knowledge led to a ~2 fold increase in the number of known transcription regulations recovered, without significant change in false positive rate. In contrast, without the prior knowledge BN modeling is not always better than a random selection, demonstrating the necessity in network modeling to supplement the gene expression data with additional information. Conclusion our new development provides a statistical means to utilize the quantitative information in prior biological knowledge in the BN modeling of gene expression data, which significantly improves the performance.

  7. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  8. Benchmarking the Sandbox: Quantitative Comparisons of Numerical and Analogue Models of Brittle Wedge Dynamics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiter, S.; Schreurs, G.; Geomod2008 Team

    2010-12-01

    When numerical and analogue models are used to investigate the evolution of deformation processes in crust and lithosphere, they face specific challenges related to, among others, large contrasts in material properties, the heterogeneous character of continental lithosphere, the presence of a free surface, the occurrence of large deformations including viscous flow and offset on shear zones, and the observation that several deformation mechanisms may be active simultaneously. These pose specific demands on numerical software and laboratory models. By combining the two techniques, we can utilize the strengths of each individual method and test the model-independence of our results. We can perhaps even consider our findings to be more robust if we find similar-to-same results irrespective of the modeling method that was used. To assess the role of modeling method and to quantify the variability among models with identical setups, we have performed a direct comparison of results of 11 numerical codes and 15 analogue experiments. We present three experiments that describe shortening of brittle wedges and that resemble setups frequently used by especially analogue modelers. Our first experiment translates a non-accreting wedge with a stable surface slope. In agreement with critical wedge theory, all models maintain their surface slope and do not show internal deformation. This experiment serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions for taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work. The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge, which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. The models accommodate shortening by formation of forward and backward shear zones. We compare surface slope, rate of dissipation of energy, root-mean-square velocity, and the location, dip angle and spacing of shear zones. All models show similar cross-sectional evolutions that demonstrate reproducibility to first order. However

  9. A Quantitative, Time-Dependent Model of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula: Step one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Paquette, J. A.; Farquhar, A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable discovery that oxygen isotopes in primitive meteorites were fractionated along a line of slope I rather than along the typical slope 0,52 terrestrial fractionation line occurred almost 40 years ago, However, a satisfactory, quantitative explanation for this observation has yet to be found, though many different explanations have been proposed, The first of these explanations proposed that the observed line represented the final product produced by mixing molecular cloud dust with a nucleosynthetic component, rich in O-16, possibly resulting from a nearby supernova explosion, Donald Clayton suggested that Galactic Chemical Evolution would gradually change the oxygen isotopic composition of the interstellar grain population by steadily producing O-16 in supernovae, then producing the heavier isotopes as secondary products in lower mass stars, Thiemens and collaborators proposed a chemical mechanism that relied on the availability of additional active rotational and vibrational states in otherwise-symmetric molecules, such as CO2, O3 or SiO2, containing two different oxygen isotopes and a second, photochemical process that suggested that differential photochemical dissociation processes could fractionate oxygen , This second line of research has been pursued by several groups, though none of the current models is quantitative,

  10. Quantitative modeling of the reaction/diffusion kinetics of two-chemistry photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin Andrew

    Optically driven diffusion in photopolymers is an appealing material platform for a broad range of applications, in which the recorded refractive index patterns serve either as images (e.g. data storage, display holography) or as optical elements (e.g. custom GRIN components, integrated optical devices). A quantitative understanding of the reaction/diffusion kinetics is difficult to obtain directly, but is nevertheless necessary in order to fully exploit the wide array of design freedoms in these materials. A general strategy for characterizing these kinetics is proposed, in which key processes are decoupled and independently measured. This strategy enables prediction of a material's potential refractive index change, solely on the basis of its chemical components. The degree to which a material does not reach this potential reveals the fraction of monomer that has participated in unwanted reactions, reducing spatial resolution and dynamic range. This approach is demonstrated for a model material similar to commercial media, achieving quantitative predictions of index response over three orders of exposure dose (~1 to ~103 mJ cm-2) and three orders of feature size (0.35 to 500 microns). The resulting insights enable guided, rational design of new material formulations with demonstrated performance improvement.

  11. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, R.; Koshmak, K.; Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Nannarone, S.; Mahne, N.; Doyle, B. P.; Pasquali, L.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  12. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R.; Koshmak, K.; Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Nannarone, S. [IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Mahne, N. [Elettra, s.s. 14, km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Doyle, B. P. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Pasquali, L., E-mail: luca.pasquali@unimore.it [IOM-CNR, s.s. 14, Km. 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dipartimento di Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari,” Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-07-14

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  13. Insights into the Key Compounds of Durian (Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') Pulp Odor by Odorant Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-01-25

    Sixteen compounds, previously identified as potent odorants by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis and the gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of static headspace samples, were quantitated in the pulp of durians, variety Monthong, and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated by dividing the concentrations obtained by the odor thresholds of the compounds in water. In combination with data recently reported for hydrogen sulfide and short-chain alkanethiols, OAVs > 1 were obtained for 19 compounds, among which ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1700000), ethanethiol (rotten onion; OAV 480000), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol (roasted onion; OAV 250000) were the most potent, followed by methanethiol (rotten, cabbage; OAV 45000), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian; OAV 23000), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity; OAV 22000). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that the overall odor of durian pulp could be mimicked by only two compounds, namely, ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol, when combined in their natural concentrations.

  14. Large scale experiments as a tool for numerical model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jens; Hansen, Erik Asp; Fuchs, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Experimental modelling is an important tool for study of hydrodynamic phenomena. The applicability of experiments can be expanded by the use of numerical models and experiments are important for documentation of the validity of numerical tools. In other cases numerical tools can be applied...

  15. Reactive transport modeling of the ABM experiment with Comsol Multiphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekala, Marek; Idiart, Andres; Arcos, David

    2012-01-01

    solution) in a stack of 30 bentonite blocks of 11 distinct initial compositions. In the model, ion diffusion is allowed between the individual bentonite blocks and between the bentonite blocks and a sand layer filling the bentonite-rock gap. The effective diffusion coefficient values for individual bentonite blocks were estimated based on the dry density of the bentonite, and the temperature-dependent evolution of the diffusion coefficients is approximated in the course of the simulation. In order to solve the problem, a set of non-linear algebraic equations (mass action law for the cation-exchange reactions, and charge and mass balance equations) have been coupled with Fickian diffusion equations. As mentioned above, the Finite Element code COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to carry out the simulations. Preliminary results for the studied problem indicate that the effect of diffusion for the studied cations and chloride is significant and has the potential to explain quantitatively the observed patterns of homogenisation in the chemical composition in the bentonite package. However, the work is currently in progress and further analyses, including a sensitivity study of variables such as diffusion coefficients and boundary conditions, are on-going. A model simulating coupled cation-exchange and diffusion of major ions in the Package 1 of the ABM field experiment has been developed. This work demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a reactive transport model directly into Comsol Multiphysics using conservation and mass action equations. Comsol offers an intuitive and at the same time powerful modelling environment for simulating coupled multiphase, multi-species reactive transport phenomena and mechanical effects in complex geometries. For this reason, Amphos 21 has been involved in work aiming to couple Comsol with other codes such as the geochemical code PHREEQC. Such code integration has the potential to provide tools uniquely suited to solving complicated reactive

  16. Indian Ocean experiments with a coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainer, I. [Sao Paulo, Univ. (Brazil). Dept. of Oceanography

    1997-03-01

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the equatorial Indian Ocean response to the seasonally varying monsoon winds. Special attention is given to the oceanic response to the spatial distribution and changes in direction of the zonal winds. The Indian Ocean is surrounded by an Asian land mass to the North and an African land mass to the West. The model extends latitudinally between 41 N and 41 S. The asymmetric atmospheric model is driven by a mass source/sink term that is proportional to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the oceans and the heat balance over the land. The ocean is modeled using the Anderson and McCreary reduced-gravity transport model that includes a prognostic equation for the SST. The coupled system is driven by the annual cycle as manifested by zonally symmetric and asymmetric land and ocean heating. They explored the different nature of the equatorial ocean response to various patterns of zonal wind stress forcing in order to isolate the impact of the remote response on the Somali current. The major conclusions are : i) the equatorial response is fundamentally different for easterlies and westerlies, ii) the impact of the remote forcing on the Somali current is a function of the annual cycle, iii) the size of the basin sets the phase of the interference of the remote forcing on the Somali current relative to the local forcing.

  17. Model Experiments for the Determination of Airflow in Large Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Model experiments are one of the methods used for the determination of airflow in large spaces. This paper will discuss the formation of the governing dimensionless numbers. It is shown that experiments with a reduced scale often will necessitate a fully developed turbulence level of the flow....... Details of the flow from supply openings are very important for the determination of room air distribution. It is in some cases possible to make a simplified supply opening for the model experiment....

  18. Silicon Carbide Derived Carbons: Experiments and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Miklos [Georgetown University, Washington DC 20057

    2011-02-28

    The main results of the computational modeling was: 1. Development of a new genealogical algorithm to generate vacancy clusters in diamond starting from monovacancies combined with energy criteria based on TBDFT energetics. The method revealed that for smaller vacancy clusters the energetically optimal shapes are compact but for larger sizes they tend to show graphitized regions. In fact smaller clusters of the size as small as 12 already show signatures of this graphitization. The modeling gives firm basis for the slit-pore modeling of porous carbon materials and explains some of their properties. 2. We discovered small vacancy clusters and their physical characteristics that can be used to spectroscopically identify them. 3. We found low barrier pathways for vacancy migration in diamond-like materials by obtaining for the first time optimized reaction pathways.

  19. Deformation of wrought uranium: Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, R.J., E-mail: rmccabe@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Capolungo, L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech - CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Marshall, P.E.; Cady, C.M.; Tome, C.N. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The room temperature deformation behavior of wrought polycrystalline uranium is studied using a combination of experimental techniques and polycrystal modeling. Electron backscatter diffraction is used to analyze the primary deformation twinning modes for wrought alpha-uranium. The {l_brace}1 3 0{r_brace}<3 1 0> twinning mode is found to be the most prominent twinning mode, with minor contributions from the '{l_brace}1 7 2{r_brace}'<3 1 2> and {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace}'<3 7 2>' twin modes. Because of the large number of deformation modes, each with limited deformation systems, a polycrystalline model is employed to identify and quantify the activity of each mode. Model predictions of the deformation behavior and texture development agree reasonably well with experimental measures and provide reliable information about deformation systems.

  20. Modeling of modification experiments involving neutral-gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many experiments involve the injection of neutral gases into the upper atmosphere. Examples are critical velocity experiments, MHD wave generation, ionospheric hole production, plasma striation formation, and ion tracing. Many of these experiments are discussed in other sessions of the Active Experiments Conference. This paper limits its discussion to: (1) the modeling of the neutral gas dynamics after injection, (2) subsequent formation of ionosphere holes, and (3) use of such holes as experimental tools

  1. Modeling plant interspecific interactions from experiments with perennial crop mixtures to predict optimal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, Virginia; Valdés, Matías; Tejera, Mauricio; Picasso, Valentín; Fort, Hugo

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of plant species richness to productivity and ecosystem functioning is a longstanding issue in ecology, with relevant implications for both conservation and agriculture. Both experiments and quantitative modeling are fundamental to the design of sustainable agroecosystems and the optimization of crop production. We modeled communities of perennial crop mixtures by using a generalized Lotka-Volterra model, i.e., a model such that the interspecific interactions are more general than purely competitive. We estimated model parameters -carrying capacities and interaction coefficients- from, respectively, the observed biomass of monocultures and bicultures measured in a large diversity experiment of seven perennial forage species in Iowa, United States. The sign and absolute value of the interaction coefficients showed that the biological interactions between species pairs included amensalism, competition, and parasitism (asymmetric positive-negative interaction), with various degrees of intensity. We tested the model fit by simulating the combinations of more than two species and comparing them with the polycultures experimental data. Overall, theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experiments. Using this model, we also simulated species combinations that were not sown. From all possible mixtures (sown and not sown) we identified which are the most productive species combinations. Our results demonstrate that a combination of experiments and modeling can contribute to the design of sustainable agricultural systems in general and to the optimization of crop production in particular. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. How predictive quantitative modelling of tissue organisation can inform liver disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasdo, Dirk; Hoehme, Stefan; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-10-01

    From the more than 100 liver diseases described, many of those with high incidence rates manifest themselves by histopathological changes, such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease, fibrosis, and, in its later stages, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, primary biliary cirrhosis and other disorders. Studies of disease pathogeneses are largely based on integrating -omics data pooled from cells at different locations with spatial information from stained liver structures in animal models. Even though this has led to significant insights, the complexity of interactions as well as the involvement of processes at many different time and length scales constrains the possibility to condense disease processes in illustrations, schemes and tables. The combination of modern imaging modalities with image processing and analysis, and mathematical models opens up a promising new approach towards a quantitative understanding of pathologies and of disease processes. This strategy is discussed for two examples, ammonia metabolism after drug-induced acute liver damage, and the recovery of liver mass as well as architecture during the subsequent regeneration process. This interdisciplinary approach permits integration of biological mechanisms and models of processes contributing to disease progression at various scales into mathematical models. These can be used to perform in silico simulations to promote unravelling the relation between architecture and function as below illustrated for liver regeneration, and bridging from the in vitro situation and animal models to humans. In the near future novel mechanisms will usually not be directly elucidated by modelling. However, models will falsify hypotheses and guide towards the most informative experimental design. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A quantitative model for estimating mean annual soil loss in cultivated land using 137Cs measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao; Zhao Qiguo; Du Mingyuan; Minami, Katsuyuki; Hatta, Tamao

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 137 Cs has been widely used to determine rates of cultivated soil loss, Many calibration relationships (including both empirical relationships and theoretical models) have been employed to estimate erosion rates from the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivated soil profile. However, there are important limitations which restrict the reliability of these models, which consider only the uniform distribution of 137 Cs in the plough layer and the depth. As a result, erosion rates they may be overestimated or underestimated. This article presents a quantitative model for the relation the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivate soil profile and the rate of soil erosion. According to a mass balance model, during the construction of this model we considered the following parameters: the remaining fraction of the surface enrichment layer (F R ), the thickness of the surface enrichment layer (H s ), the depth of the plough layer (H p ), input fraction of the total 137 Cs fallout deposition during a given year t (F t ), radioactive decay of 137 Cs (k), and sampling year (t). The simulation results showed that the amounts of erosion rates estimated using this model were very sensitive to changes in the values of the parameters F R , H s , and H p . We also observed that the relationship between the rate of soil loss and 137 Cs depletion is neither linear nor logarithmic, and is very complex. Although the model is an improvement over existing approaches to derive calibration relationships for cultivated soil, it requires empirical information on local soil properties and the behavior of 137 Cs in the soil profile. There is clearly still a need for more precise information on the latter aspect and, in particular, on the retention of 137 Cs fallout in the top few millimeters of the soil profile and on the enrichment and depletion effects associated with soil redistribution (i.e. for determining accurate values of F R and H s ). (author)

  4. Diffusion-weighted MRI and quantitative biophysical modeling of hippocampal neurite loss in chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen

    Full Text Available Chronic stress has detrimental effects on physiology, learning and memory and is involved in the development of anxiety and depressive disorders. Besides changes in synaptic formation and neurogenesis, chronic stress also induces dendritic remodeling in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Investigations of dendritic remodeling during development and treatment of stress are currently limited by the invasive nature of histological and stereological methods. Here we show that high field diffusion-weighted MRI combined with quantitative biophysical modeling of the hippocampal dendritic loss in 21 day restraint stressed rats highly correlates with former histological findings. Our study strongly indicates that diffusion-weighted MRI is sensitive to regional dendritic loss and thus a promising candidate for non-invasive studies of dendritic plasticity in chronic stress and stress-related disorders.

  5. Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sandels, Claes; Zhu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    There has been a large body of statements claiming that the large-scale deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) could eventually reshape the future distribution grid operation in numerous ways. Thus, it is necessary to introduce a framework to measure to what extent the power system......, comprising distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was made on the basis of the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden. Simulations are performed in two typical distribution network models for four seasons. The simulation...... results show that in general the DER deployment brings in the possibilities to reduce the power losses and voltage drops by compensating power from the local generation and optimizing the local load profiles....

  6. Model of an Evaporating Drop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    A computational model of an experimental procedure to measure vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops is developed to evaluate the uncertainty in the experimental results. Methanol, which is expected to have predominantly diffusive vapor transport, is chosen as a validation test for our model. The experimental process first uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the absorbance along lines passing through the vapor cloud. Since the measurement contains some errors, our model allows adding random noises to the computational integrated absorbance to mimic this. Then the resulting data are interpolated before passing through a computed tomography routine to generate the vapor distribution. Next, the gradients of the vapor distribution are computed along a given control volume surrounding the drop so that the diffusive flux can be evaluated as the net rate of diffusion out of the control volume. Our model of methanol evaporation shows that the accumulated errors of the whole experimental procedure affect the diffusive fluxes at different control volumes and are sensitive to how the noisy data of integrated absorbance are interpolated. This indicates the importance of investigating a variety of data fitting methods to choose which is best to present the data. Trinity University Mach Fellowship.

  7. Evaporation experiments and modelling for glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been developed to measure evaporation rates of different volatile components from commercial and model glass compositions. In the set-up the furnace atmosphere, temperature level, gas velocity and batch composition are controlled. Evaporation rates have been measured

  8. The JBEI quantitative metabolic modeling library (jQMM): a python library for modeling microbial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkel, Garrett W.; Ghosh, Amit; Kumar, Vinay S.

    2017-01-01

    analysis, new methods for the effective use of the ever more readily available and abundant -omics data (i.e. transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) are urgently needed.Results: The jQMM library presented here provides an open-source, Python-based framework for modeling internal metabolic fluxes......, it introduces the capability to use C-13 labeling experimental data to constrain comprehensive genome-scale models through a technique called two-scale C-13 Metabolic Flux Analysis (2S-C-13 MFA). In addition, the library includes a demonstration of a method that uses proteomics data to produce actionable...... insights to increase biofuel production. Finally, the use of the jQMM library is illustrated through the addition of several Jupyter notebook demonstration files that enhance reproducibility and provide the capability to be adapted to the user's specific needs.Conclusions: jQMM will facilitate the design...

  9. Using the ACT-R architecture to specify 39 quantitative process models of decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian N. Marewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypotheses about decision processes are often formulated qualitatively and remain silent about the interplay of decision, memorial, and other cognitive processes. At the same time, existing decision models are specified at varying levels of detail, making it difficult to compare them. We provide a methodological primer on how detailed cognitive architectures such as ACT-R allow remedying these problems. To make our point, we address a controversy, namely, whether noncompensatory or compensatory processes better describe how people make decisions from the accessibility of memories. We specify 39 models of accessibility-based decision processes in ACT-R, including the noncompensatory recognition heuristic and various other popular noncompensatory and compensatory decision models. Additionally, to illustrate how such models can be tested, we conduct a model comparison, fitting the models to one experiment and letting them generalize to another. Behavioral data are best accounted for by race models. These race models embody the noncompensatory recognition heuristic and compensatory models as a race between competing processes, dissolving the dichotomy between existing decision models.

  10. Methods for quantitative measurement of tooth wear using the area and volume of virtual model cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sulhee; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2018-04-01

    Clinicians must examine tooth wear to make a proper diagnosis. However, qualitative methods of measuring tooth wear have many disadvantages. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and evaluate quantitative parameters using the cusp area and volume of virtual dental models. The subjects of this study were the same virtual models that were used in our former study. The same age group classification and new tooth wear index (NTWI) scoring system were also reused. A virtual occlusal plane was generated with the highest cusp points and lowered vertically from 0.2 to 0.8 mm to create offset planes. The area and volume of each cusp was then measured and added together. In addition to the former analysis, the differential features of each cusp were analyzed. The scores of the new parameters differentiated the age and NTWI groups better than those analyzed in the former study. The Spearman ρ coefficients between the total area and the area of each cusp also showed higher scores at the levels of 0.6 mm (0.6A) and 0.8A. The mesiolingual cusp (MLC) showed a statistically significant difference ( P <0.01) from the other cusps in the paired t -test. Additionally, the MLC exhibited the highest percentage of change at 0.6A in some age and NTWI groups. Regarding the age groups, the MLC showed the highest score in groups 1 and 2. For the NTWI groups, the MLC was not significantly different in groups 3 and 4. These results support the proposal that the lingual cusp exhibits rapid wear because it serves as a functional cusp. Although this study has limitations due to its cross-sectional nature, it suggests better quantitative parameters and analytical tools for the characteristics of cusp wear.

  11. Numerical modeling of plasma plume evolution against ambient background gas in laser blow off experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bhavesh G.; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman; Singh, Rajesh; Kumar, Ajai

    2012-01-01

    Two dimensional numerical modelling based on simplified hydrodynamic evolution for an expanding plasma plume (created by laser blow off) against an ambient background gas has been carried out. A comparison with experimental observations shows that these simulations capture most features of the plasma plume expansion. The plume location and other gross features are reproduced as per the experimental observation in quantitative detail. The plume shape evolution and its dependence on the ambient background gas are in good qualitative agreement with the experiment. This suggests that a simplified hydrodynamic expansion model is adequate for the description of plasma plume expansion.

  12. Adhesive behaviour of gecko-inspired nanofibrillar arrays: combination of experiments and finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengzhi; Xu Yun; Gu Ping

    2012-01-01

    A polypropylene nanofibrillar array was successfully fabricated by template-assisted nanofabrication strategy. Adhesion properties of this gecko-inspired structure were studied through two parallel and independent approaches: experiments and finite element simulations. Experimental results show relatively good normal adhesion, but accompanied by high preloads. The interfacial adhesion was modelled by effective spring elements with piecewise-linear constitution. The effective elasticity of the fibre-array system was originally calculated from our measured elasticity of single nanowire. Comparisons of the experimental and simulative results reveal quantitative agreement except for some explainable deviations, which suggests the potential applicability of the present models and applied theories. (fast track communication)

  13. Micro- and nanoflows modeling and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Rudyak, Valery Ya; Maslov, Anatoly A; Minakov, Andrey V; Mironov, Sergey G

    2018-01-01

    This book describes physical, mathematical and experimental methods to model flows in micro- and nanofluidic devices. It takes in consideration flows in channels with a characteristic size between several hundreds of micrometers to several nanometers. Methods based on solving kinetic equations, coupled kinetic-hydrodynamic description, and molecular dynamics method are used. Based on detailed measurements of pressure distributions along the straight and bent microchannels, the hydraulic resistance coefficients are refined. Flows of disperse fluids (including disperse nanofluids) are considered in detail. Results of hydrodynamic modeling of the simplest micromixers are reported. Mixing of fluids in a Y-type and T-type micromixers is considered. The authors present a systematic study of jet flows, jets structure and laminar-turbulent transition. The influence of sound on the microjet structure is considered. New phenomena associated with turbulization and relaminarization of the mixing layer of microjets are di...

  14. Validation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR Model for Photosensitizer Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifuddin M. Zain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment method for cancer which utilizes a combination of oxygen, a photosensitizer and light to generate reactive singlet oxygen that eradicates tumors via direct cell-killing, vasculature damage and engagement of the immune system. Most of photosensitizers that are in clinical and pre-clinical assessments, or those that are already approved for clinical use, are mainly based on cyclic tetrapyrroles. In an attempt to discover new effective photosensitizers, we report the use of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR method to develop a model that could correlate the structural features of cyclic tetrapyrrole-based compounds with their photodynamic therapy (PDT activity. In this study, a set of 36 porphyrin derivatives was used in the model development where 24 of these compounds were in the training set and the remaining 12 compounds were in the test set. The development of the QSAR model involved the use of the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA method. Based on the method, r2 value, r2 (CV value and r2 prediction value of 0.87, 0.71 and 0.70 were obtained. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the experimental compounds in an external test set. This external test set comprises 20 porphyrin-based compounds with experimental IC50 values ranging from 0.39 µM to 7.04 µM. Thus the model showed good correlative and predictive ability, with a predictive correlation coefficient (r2 prediction for external test set of 0.52. The developed QSAR model was used to discover some compounds as new lead photosensitizers from this external test set.

  15. GMM - a general microstructural model for qualitative and quantitative studies of smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Hoekmark, H.

    1990-12-01

    A few years ago an attempt was made to accommodate a number of basic ideas on the fabric and interparticle forces that are assumed to be valid in montmorillonite clay in an integrated microstructural model and this resulted in an SKB report on 'Outlines of models of water and gas flow through smectite clay buffers'. This model gave reasonable agreement between predicted hydraulic conductivity values and actually recorded ones for room temperature and porewater that is poor in electrolytes. The present report describes an improved model that also accounts for effects generated by salt porewater and heating, and that provides a basis for both quantitative determination of transport capacities in a more general way, and also for analysis and prediction of rheological behaviour in bulk. It has been understood very early by investigators in this scientific field that full understanding of the physical state of porewater is asked for in order to make it possible to develop models for clay particle interaction. In particular, a deep insight in the nature of the interlamellar water and of the hydration mechanisms leading to an equilibrium state between the two types of water, and of forcefields in matured smectite clay, requires very qualified multi-discipline research and attempts have been made by the senior author to initiate and coordinate such work in the last 30 years. Despite this effort it has not been possible to get an unanimous understanding of these things but a number of major features have become more clear through the work that we have been able to carry out in the current SKB research work. Thus, NMR studies and precision measurements of the density of porewater as well as comprehensive electron microscopy and rheological testing in combination with application of stochastical mechanics, have led to the hypothetical microstructural model - the GMM - presented in this report. (au)

  16. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ormary Barberi Ruiz; María Dolores Pesántez Palacios

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  17. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: Model and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    consisting of a current source for the pyroelectric current, a dielectric capacitor for the adiabatic charging and discharging, and optionally a resistor to...polarization) in a piezoelectric material. To extract work from the pyroelectric effect, the material acts as the dielectric in a capacitor that is...amplifier was chosen for the setup. The pyroelectric element is commonly modeled as a dielectric capacitor and a current source in parallel, as seen in

  18. Modelling ohmic confinement experiments on the START tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    Ohmic confinement data from the tight aspect ratio tokamak START has been analysed using the ASTRA transport simulation code. Neoclassical expressions have been modified to describe tight aspect ratio configurations, and the comparison between START data and models of anomalous transport has been made quantitative using the standard χ 2 test from statistics. Four confinement models (T11, Rebut-Lallia-Watkins, Lackner-Gottardi, and Taroni et al's Bohm model) have been compared with the START data. Three of the models are found to simulate START's electron temperature data moderately well, while Taroni et al's Bohm model overestimates electron temperatures in START by an order of magnitude. Thus comparison with START data tends to discriminate against Bohm models; these models are pessimistic or ITER. (author)

  19. Quantitative study of quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas experiments via the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, S. P.; Gallucci, D.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation is shown to be an excellent model for quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas experiments, accurately reproducing the in situ density profiles recently obtained in the experiments of Trebbia et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 250403 (2006)] and van Amerongen et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090402 (2008)] and the density fluctuation data reported by Armijo et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 230402 (2010)]. To facilitate such agreement, we propose and implement a quasi-one-dimensional extension to the one-dimensional stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the low-energy, axial modes, while atoms in excited transverse modes are treated as independent ideal Bose gases.

  20. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) Model based on Clinical Data Measurement towards Quantitative Evaluation of Upper Limb Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzi, A. Ahmad; Sidek, S. N.; Mat Rosly, H.; Daud, N.; Yusof, H. Md

    2017-11-01

    Spasticity is common symptom presented amongst people with sensorimotor disabilities. Imbalanced signals from the central nervous systems (CNS) which are composed of the brain and spinal cord to the muscles ultimately leading to the injury and death of motor neurons. In clinical practice, the therapist assesses muscle spasticity using a standard assessment tool like Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Modified Tardiue Scale (MTS) or Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). This is done subjectively based on the experience and perception of the therapist subjected to the patient fatigue level and body posture. However, the inconsistency in the assessment is prevalent and could affect the efficacy of the rehabilitation process. Thus, the aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of data collection and the quantitative model of MAS developed to satisfy its description. Two subjects with MAS of 2 and 3 spasticity levels were involved in the clinical data measurement. Their level of spasticity was verified by expert therapist using current practice. Data collection was established using mechanical system equipped with data acquisition system and LABVIEW software. The procedure engaged repeated series of flexion of the affected arm that was moved against the platform using a lever mechanism and performed by the therapist. The data was then analyzed to investigate the characteristics of spasticity signal in correspondence to the MAS description. Experimental results revealed that the methodology used to quantify spasticity satisfied the MAS tool requirement according to the description. Therefore, the result is crucial and useful towards the development of formal spasticity quantification model.

  1. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  2. Bottom-up modeling approach for the quantitative estimation of parameters in pathogen-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Pollmächer, Johannes; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens can cause bloodstream infection and severe sepsis upon entering the blood stream of the host. The early immune response in human blood comprises the elimination of pathogens by antimicrobial peptides and innate immune cells, such as neutrophils or monocytes. Mathematical modeling is a predictive method to examine these complex processes and to quantify the dynamics of pathogen-host interactions. Since model parameters are often not directly accessible from experiment, their estimation is required by calibrating model predictions with experimental data. Depending on the complexity of the mathematical model, parameter estimation can be associated with excessively high computational costs in terms of run time and memory. We apply a strategy for reliable parameter estimation where different modeling approaches with increasing complexity are used that build on one another. This bottom-up modeling approach is applied to an experimental human whole-blood infection assay for Candida albicans. Aiming for the quantification of the relative impact of different routes of the immune response against this human-pathogenic fungus, we start from a non-spatial state-based model (SBM), because this level of model complexity allows estimating a priori unknown transition rates between various system states by the global optimization method simulated annealing. Building on the non-spatial SBM, an agent-based model (ABM) is implemented that incorporates the migration of interacting cells in three-dimensional space. The ABM takes advantage of estimated parameters from the non-spatial SBM, leading to a decreased dimensionality of the parameter space. This space can be scanned using a local optimization approach, i.e., least-squares error estimation based on an adaptive regular grid search, to predict cell migration parameters that are not accessible in experiment. In the future, spatio-temporal simulations of whole-blood samples may enable timely

  3. Disentangling the Complexity of HGF Signaling by Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza A D'Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways are characterized by crosstalk, feedback and feedforward mechanisms giving rise to highly complex and cell-context specific signaling networks. Dissecting the underlying relations is crucial to predict the impact of targeted perturbations. However, a major challenge in identifying cell-context specific signaling networks is the enormous number of potentially possible interactions. Here, we report a novel hybrid mathematical modeling strategy to systematically unravel hepatocyte growth factor (HGF stimulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, which critically contribute to liver regeneration. By combining time-resolved quantitative experimental data generated in primary mouse hepatocytes with interaction graph and ordinary differential equation modeling, we identify and experimentally validate a network structure that represents the experimental data best and indicates specific crosstalk mechanisms. Whereas the identified network is robust against single perturbations, combinatorial inhibition strategies are predicted that result in strong reduction of Akt and ERK activation. Thus, by capitalizing on the advantages of the two modeling approaches, we reduce the high combinatorial complexity and identify cell-context specific signaling networks.

  4. Observing Clonal Dynamics across Spatiotemporal Axes: A Prelude to Quantitative Fitness Models for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew W; Chan, Fong Chun; Shah, Sohrab P

    2018-02-01

    The ability to accurately model evolutionary dynamics in cancer would allow for prediction of progression and response to therapy. As a prelude to quantitative understanding of evolutionary dynamics, researchers must gather observations of in vivo tumor evolution. High-throughput genome sequencing now provides the means to profile the mutational content of evolving tumor clones from patient biopsies. Together with the development of models of tumor evolution, reconstructing evolutionary histories of individual tumors generates hypotheses about the dynamics of evolution that produced the observed clones. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the concepts involved in predicting evolutionary histories, and provide a workflow based on bulk and targeted-genome sequencing. We then describe the application of this workflow to time series data obtained for transformed and progressed follicular lymphomas (FL), and contrast the observed evolutionary dynamics between these two subtypes. We next describe results from a spatial sampling study of high-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer, propose mechanisms of disease spread based on the observed clonal mixtures, and provide examples of diversification through subclonal acquisition of driver mutations and convergent evolution. Finally, we state implications of the techniques discussed in this review as a necessary but insufficient step on the path to predictive modelling of disease dynamics. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Current Challenges in the First Principle Quantitative Modelling of the Lower Hybrid Current Drive in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysson, Y.; Bonoli, P. T.; Chen, J.; Garofalo, A.; Hillairet, J.; Li, M.; Qian, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Decker, J.; Ding, B. J.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Zhai, X.

    2017-10-01

    The Lower Hybrid (LH) wave is widely used in existing tokamaks for tailoring current density profile or extending pulse duration to steady-state regimes. Its high efficiency makes it particularly attractive for a fusion reactor, leading to consider it for this purpose in ITER tokamak. Nevertheless, if basics of the LH wave in tokamak plasma are well known, quantitative modeling of experimental observations based on first principles remains a highly challenging exercise, despite considerable numerical efforts achieved so far. In this context, a rigorous methodology must be carried out in the simulations to identify the minimum number of physical mechanisms that must be considered to reproduce experimental shot to shot observations and also scalings (density, power spectrum). Based on recent simulations carried out for EAST, Alcator C-Mod and Tore Supra tokamaks, the state of the art in LH modeling is reviewed. The capability of fast electron bremsstrahlung, internal inductance li and LH driven current at zero loop voltage to constrain all together LH simulations is discussed, as well as the needs of further improvements (diagnostics, codes, LH model), for robust interpretative and predictive simulations.

  6. MIQE précis: Practical implementation of minimum standard guidelines for fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustin, S.A.; Beaulieu, J.F.; Huggett, J.; Jaggi, R.; Kibenge, F.S.; Olsvik, P.A.; Penning, L.C.; Toegel, S.

    2010-01-01

    MIQE précis: Practical implementation of minimum standard guidelines for fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR experiments Stephen A Bustin1 , Jean-François Beaulieu2 , Jim Huggett3 , Rolf Jaggi4 , Frederick SB Kibenge5 , Pål A Olsvik6 , Louis C Penning7 and Stefan Toegel8 1 Centre for

  7. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormary Barberi Ruiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP of the National University of Education (UNAE of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials, pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subject nature of the pre professional practice and the demand of socio educational contexts where the practices have been emerging to resize them. By relating these elements allowed conceiving the modeling of the processes of the pre-professional practices for the development of professional skills of future teachers through four components: contextual projective, implementation (tutoring, accompaniment (teaching couple and monitoring (meetings at the beginning, during and end of practice. The initial training of teachers is inherent to teaching (academic and professional training, research and links with the community, these are fundamental pillars of Ecuadorian higher education.

  8. The OECI model: the CRO Aviano experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pieve, Lucia; Collazzo, Raffaele; Masutti, Monica; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the "Centro di Riferimento Oncologico" (CRO) National Cancer Institute joined the accreditation program of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) and was one of the first institutes in Italy to receive recognition as a Comprehensive Cancer Center. At the end of the project, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis aimed at identifying the pros and cons, both for the institute and of the accreditation model in general, was performed. The analysis shows significant strengths, such as the affinity with other improvement systems and current regulations, and the focus on a multidisciplinary approach. The proposed suggestions for improvement concern mainly the structure of the standards and aim to facilitate the assessment, benchmarking, and sharing of best practices. The OECI accreditation model provided a valuable executive tool and a framework in which we can identify several important development projects. An additional impact for our institute is the participation in the project BenchCan, of which the OECI is lead partner.

  9. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of the toxicity of organothiophosphate pesticides to Daphnia magna and Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Du, T.; Griff, T.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2009-01-01

    Within the REACH regulatory framework in the EU, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models are expected to help reduce the number of animals used for experimental testing. The objective of this study was to develop QSAR models to describe the acute toxicity of organothiophosphate

  10. Quantitative analysis of surface deformation and ductile flow in complex analogue geodynamic models based on PIV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krýza, Ondřej; Lexa, Ondrej; Závada, Prokop; Schulmann, Karel; Gapais, Denis; Cosgrove, John

    2017-04-01

    Recently, a PIV (particle image velocimetry) analysis method is optical method abundantly used in many technical branches where material flow visualization and quantification is important. Typical examples are studies of liquid flow through complex channel system, gas spreading or combustion problematics. In our current research we used this method for investigation of two types of complex analogue geodynamic and tectonic experiments. First class of experiments is aimed to model large-scale oroclinal buckling as an analogue of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic evolution of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) resulting from nortward drift of the North-China craton towards the Siberian craton. Here we studied relationship between lower crustal and lithospheric mantle flows and upper crustal deformation respectively. A second class of experiments is focused to more general study of a lower crustal flow in indentation systems that represent a major component of some large hot orogens (e.g. Bohemian massif). The most of simulations in both cases shows a strong dependency of a brittle structures shape, that are situated in upper crust, on folding style of a middle and lower ductile layers which is influenced by rheological, geometrical and thermal conditions of different parts across shortened domain. The purpose of PIV application is to quantify material redistribution in critical domains of the model. The derivation of flow direction and calculation of strain-rate and total displacement field in analogue experiments is generally difficult and time-expensive or often performed only on a base of visual evaluations. PIV method operates with set of images, where small tracer particles are seeded within modeled domain and are assumed to faithfully follow the material flow. On base of pixel coordinates estimation the material displacement field, velocity field, strain-rate, vorticity, tortuosity etc. are calculated. In our experiments we used velocity field divergence to

  11. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. Methods We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. Results All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Conclusion Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects

  12. Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Hoffmann, Rasmus; van Hedel, Karen; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-04-20

    The scientific evidence-base for policies to tackle health inequalities is limited. Natural policy experiments (NPE) have drawn increasing attention as a means to evaluating the effects of policies on health. Several analytical methods can be used to evaluate the outcomes of NPEs in terms of average population health, but it is unclear whether they can also be used to assess the outcomes of NPEs in terms of health inequalities. The aim of this study therefore was to assess whether, and to demonstrate how, a number of commonly used analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs can be applied to quantify the effect of policies on health inequalities. We identified seven quantitative analytical methods for the evaluation of NPEs: regression adjustment, propensity score matching, difference-in-differences analysis, fixed effects analysis, instrumental variable analysis, regression discontinuity and interrupted time-series. We assessed whether these methods can be used to quantify the effect of policies on the magnitude of health inequalities either by conducting a stratified analysis or by including an interaction term, and illustrated both approaches in a fictitious numerical example. All seven methods can be used to quantify the equity impact of policies on absolute and relative inequalities in health by conducting an analysis stratified by socioeconomic position, and all but one (propensity score matching) can be used to quantify equity impacts by inclusion of an interaction term between socioeconomic position and policy exposure. Methods commonly used in economics and econometrics for the evaluation of NPEs can also be applied to assess the equity impact of policies, and our illustrations provide guidance on how to do this appropriately. The low external validity of results from instrumental variable analysis and regression discontinuity makes these methods less desirable for assessing policy effects on population-level health inequalities. Increased use of the

  13. A quantitative evaluation of multiple biokinetic models using an assembled water phantom: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Yeh

    Full Text Available This study examined the feasibility of quantitatively evaluating multiple biokinetic models and established the validity of the different compartment models using an assembled water phantom. Most commercialized phantoms are made to survey the imaging system since this is essential to increase the diagnostic accuracy for quality assurance. In contrast, few customized phantoms are specifically made to represent multi-compartment biokinetic models. This is because the complicated calculations as defined to solve the biokinetic models and the time-consuming verifications of the obtained solutions are impeded greatly the progress over the past decade. Nevertheless, in this work, five biokinetic models were separately defined by five groups of simultaneous differential equations to obtain the time-dependent radioactive concentration changes inside the water phantom. The water phantom was assembled by seven acrylic boxes in four different sizes, and the boxes were linked to varying combinations of hoses to signify the multiple biokinetic models from the biomedical perspective. The boxes that were connected by hoses were then regarded as a closed water loop with only one infusion and drain. 129.1±24.2 MBq of Tc-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP solution was thoroughly infused into the water boxes before gamma scanning; then the water was replaced with de-ionized water to simulate the biological removal rate among the boxes. The water was driven by an automatic infusion pump at 6.7 c.c./min, while the biological half-life of the four different-sized boxes (64, 144, 252, and 612 c.c. was 4.8, 10.7, 18.8, and 45.5 min, respectively. The five models of derived time-dependent concentrations for the boxes were estimated either by a self-developed program run in MATLAB or by scanning via a gamma camera facility. Either agreement or disagreement between the practical scanning and the theoretical prediction in five models was thoroughly discussed. The

  14. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.

    2009-12-01

    , the knowledge generated from these studies cannot be easily generalized or transferred to other basins. Here, we present an approach to integrate the quantitative and qualitative methods to study water issues and capture the contextual knowledge of water management- by combining the NSSs framework and an area of artificial intelligence called qualitative reasoning. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin dispute as an example, we demonstrate how quantitative modeling and qualitative reasoning can be integrated to examine the impact of over abstraction of water from the river on the ecosystem and the role of governance in shaping the evolution of the ACF water dispute.

  15. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K

    2005-01-01

    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  16. Quantitative model of the effects of contamination and space environment on in-flight aging of thermal coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Emilie; Roussel, Jean-François; Remaury, Stéphanie; Faye, Delphine; Guigue, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The in-orbit aging of thermo-optical properties of thermal coatings critically impacts both spacecraft thermal balance and heating power consumption. Nevertheless, in-flight thermal coating aging is generally larger than the one measured on ground and the current knowledge does not allow making reliable predictions1. As a result, a large oversizing of thermal control systems is required. To address this issue, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales has developed a low-cost experiment, called THERME, which enables to monitor the in-flight time-evolution of the solar absorptivity of a large variety of coatings, including commonly used coatings and new materials by measuring their temperature. This experiment has been carried out on sunsynchronous spacecrafts for more than 27 years, allowing thus the generation of a very large set of telemetry measurements. The aim of this work was to develop a model able to semi-quantitatively reproduce these data with a restraint number of parameters. The underlying objectives were to better understand the contribution of the different involved phenomena and, later on, to predict the thermal coating aging at end of life. The physical processes modeled include contamination deposition, UV aging of both contamination layers and intrinsic material and atomic oxygen erosion. Efforts were particularly focused on the satellite leading wall as this face is exposed to the highest variations in environmental conditions during the solar cycle. The non-monotonous time-evolution of the solar absorptivity of thermal coatings is shown to be due to a succession of contamination and contaminant erosion by atomic oxygen phased with the solar cycle.

  17. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  18. Establishment of quantitative severity evaluation model for spinal cord injury by metabolomic fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Peng

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating event with a limited hope for recovery and represents an enormous public health issue. It is crucial to understand the disturbances in the metabolic network after SCI to identify injury mechanisms and opportunities for treatment intervention. Through plasma 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR screening, we identified 15 metabolites that made up an "Eigen-metabolome" capable of distinguishing rats with severe SCI from healthy control rats. Forty enzymes regulated these 15 metabolites in the metabolic network. We also found that 16 metabolites regulated by 130 enzymes in the metabolic network impacted neurobehavioral recovery. Using the Eigen-metabolome, we established a linear discrimination model to cluster rats with severe and mild SCI and control rats into separate groups and identify the interactive relationships between metabolic biomarkers in the global metabolic network. We identified 10 clusters in the global metabolic network and defined them as distinct metabolic disturbance domains of SCI. Metabolic paths such as retinal, glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid metabolism; NAD-NADPH conversion process, tyrosine metabolism, and cadaverine and putrescine metabolism were included. In summary, we presented a novel interdisciplinary method that integrates metabolomics and global metabolic network analysis to visualize metabolic network disturbances after SCI. Our study demonstrated the systems biological study paradigm that integration of 1H-NMR, metabolomics, and global metabolic network analysis is useful to visualize complex metabolic disturbances after severe SCI. Furthermore, our findings may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation model for clinical use.

  19. Currency risk and prices of oil and petroleum products: a simulation with a quantitative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniasi, L.; Ottavi, D.; Rubino, E.; Saracino, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the exchange rates of the US Dollar against the four major European currencies and the prices of oil and its main products in those countries. In fact, the sensitivity of the prices to the exchange rate movements is of fundamental importance for the refining and distribution industries of importing countries. The result of the analysis shows that in neither free market conditions, as those present in Great Britain, France and Germany, nor in regulated markets, i.e. the italian one, do the variations of petroleum product prices fully absorb the variation of the exchange rates. In order to assess the above relationship, we first tested the order of co-integration of the time series of exchange rates of EMS currencies with those of international prices of oil and its derivative products; then we used a transfer-function model to reproduce the quantitative relationships between those variables. Using these results, we then reproduced domestic price functions with partial adjustment mechanisms. Finally, we used the above model to run a simulation of the deviation from the steady-state pattern caused by exchange-rate exogenous shocks. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Quantitative modelling of amyloidogenic processing and its influence by SORLA in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Baum, Katharina; Lao, Angelyn; Rateitschak, Katja; Schmitz, Yvonne; Teichmann, Anke; Wiesner, Burkhard; Petersen, Claus Munck; Nykjaer, Anders; Wolf, Jana; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Willnow, Thomas E

    2012-01-04

    The extent of proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) into neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is central to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, modifiers that increase Aβ production rates are risk factors in the sporadic form of AD. In a novel systems biology approach, we combined quantitative biochemical studies with mathematical modelling to establish a kinetic model of amyloidogenic processing, and to evaluate the influence by SORLA/SORL1, an inhibitor of APP processing and important genetic risk factor. Contrary to previous hypotheses, our studies demonstrate that secretases represent allosteric enzymes that require cooperativity by APP oligomerization for efficient processing. Cooperativity enables swift adaptive changes in secretase activity with even small alterations in APP concentration. We also show that SORLA prevents APP oligomerization both in cultured cells and in the brain in vivo, eliminating the preferred form of the substrate and causing secretases to switch to a less efficient non-allosteric mode of action. These data represent the first mathematical description of the contribution of genetic risk factors to AD substantiating the relevance of subtle changes in SORLA levels for amyloidogenic processing as proposed for patients carrying SORL1 risk alleles.

  1. Automatic and quantitative measurement of collagen gel contraction using model-guided segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Yang, Tai-Hua; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C.; Sun, Yung-Nien; Su, Fong-Chin; An, Kai-Nan

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative measurement of collagen gel contraction plays a critical role in the field of tissue engineering because it provides spatial-temporal assessment (e.g., changes of gel area and diameter during the contraction process) reflecting the cell behavior and tissue material properties. So far the assessment of collagen gels relies on manual segmentation, which is time-consuming and suffers from serious intra- and inter-observer variability. In this study, we propose an automatic method combining various image processing techniques to resolve these problems. The proposed method first detects the maximal feasible contraction range of circular references (e.g., culture dish) and avoids the interference of irrelevant objects in the given image. Then, a three-step color conversion strategy is applied to normalize and enhance the contrast between the gel and background. We subsequently introduce a deformable circular model which utilizes regional intensity contrast and circular shape constraint to locate the gel boundary. An adaptive weighting scheme was employed to coordinate the model behavior, so that the proposed system can overcome variations of gel boundary appearances at different contraction stages. Two measurements of collagen gels (i.e., area and diameter) can readily be obtained based on the segmentation results. Experimental results, including 120 gel images for accuracy validation, showed high agreement between the proposed method and manual segmentation with an average dice similarity coefficient larger than 0.95. The results also demonstrated obvious improvement in gel contours obtained by the proposed method over two popular, generic segmentation methods.

  2. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  3. A probabilistic quantitative risk assessment model for the long-term work zone crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-11-01

    Work zones especially long-term work zones increase traffic conflicts and cause safety problems. Proper casualty risk assessment for a work zone is of importance for both traffic safety engineers and travelers. This paper develops a novel probabilistic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model to evaluate the casualty risk combining frequency and consequence of all accident scenarios triggered by long-term work zone crashes. The casualty risk is measured by the individual risk and societal risk. The individual risk can be interpreted as the frequency of a driver/passenger being killed or injured, and the societal risk describes the relation between frequency and the number of casualties. The proposed probabilistic QRA model consists of the estimation of work zone crash frequency, an event tree and consequence estimation models. There are seven intermediate events--age (A), crash unit (CU), vehicle type (VT), alcohol (AL), light condition (LC), crash type (CT) and severity (S)--in the event tree. Since the estimated value of probability for some intermediate event may have large uncertainty, the uncertainty can thus be characterized by a random variable. The consequence estimation model takes into account the combination effects of speed and emergency medical service response time (ERT) on the consequence of work zone crash. Finally, a numerical example based on the Southeast Michigan work zone crash data is carried out. The numerical results show that there will be a 62% decrease of individual fatality risk and 44% reduction of individual injury risk if the mean travel speed is slowed down by 20%. In addition, there will be a 5% reduction of individual fatality risk and 0.05% reduction of individual injury risk if ERT is reduced by 20%. In other words, slowing down speed is more effective than reducing ERT in the casualty risk mitigation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Wee1 Kinase as a Therapeutic Target in a Model of Proneural Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescarbeau, Rebecca S; Lei, Liang; Bakken, Katrina K; Sims, Peter A; Sarkaria, Jann N; Canoll, Peter; White, Forest M

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain cancer. With a median survival of about a year, new approaches to treating this disease are necessary. To identify signaling molecules regulating GBM progression in a genetically engineered murine model of proneural GBM, we quantified phosphotyrosine-mediated signaling using mass spectrometry. Oncogenic signals, including phosphorylated ERK MAPK, PI3K, and PDGFR, were found to be increased in the murine tumors relative to brain. Phosphorylation of CDK1 pY15, associated with the G2 arrest checkpoint, was identified as the most differentially phosphorylated site, with a 14-fold increase in phosphorylation in the tumors. To assess the role of this checkpoint as a potential therapeutic target, syngeneic primary cell lines derived from these tumors were treated with MK-1775, an inhibitor of Wee1, the kinase responsible for CDK1 Y15 phosphorylation. MK-1775 treatment led to mitotic catastrophe, as defined by increased DNA damage and cell death by apoptosis. To assess the extensibility of targeting Wee1/CDK1 in GBM, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cell lines were also treated with MK-1775. Although the response was more heterogeneous, on-target Wee1 inhibition led to decreased CDK1 Y15 phosphorylation and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in each line. These results were also validated in vivo, where single-agent MK-1775 demonstrated an antitumor effect on a flank PDX tumor model, increasing mouse survival by 1.74-fold. This study highlights the ability of unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomics to reveal therapeutic targets in tumor models, and the potential for Wee1 inhibition as a treatment approach in preclinical models of GBM. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1332-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL FOR QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF DYNAMICALLY STABLE FORMS OF RIVER CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zenkin

    2017-01-01

    systems. The determination of regularities of development of bed forms and quantitative relations between their parameters are based on modeling the “right” forms of riverbed.The research has resulted in establishing and testing methodology of simulation modeling, which allows one to identify dynamically stable form of riverbed. 

  7. An experiment on a ball-lightning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, F.V.; Ignatovich, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss total internal reflection (TIR) from an interface between glass and gainy gaseous media and propose an experiment for strong light amplification related to investigation of a ball-lightning model

  8. Model and Computing Experiment for Research and Aerosols Usage Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daler K. Sharipov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a math model for research and management of aerosols released into the atmosphere as well as numerical algorithm used as hardware and software systems for conducting computing experiment.

  9. Modeling and experiment to threshing unit of stripper combine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and experiment to threshing unit of stripper combine. ... were conducted with the different feed rates and drum rotator speeds for the rice stripped mixtures. ... and damage as well as for threshing unit design and process optimization.

  10. Quantitative structure activity relationship model for predicting the depletion percentage of skin allergic chemical substances of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongzong; Wang Tao; Zhang Kejun; Duan Yunbo; Yuan Shuping; Fu Aiping; Hu Zhide

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative model was developed to predict the depletion percentage of glutathione (DPG) compounds by gene expression programming (GEP). Each kind of compound was represented by several calculated structural descriptors involving constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical features of compounds. The GEP method produced a nonlinear and five-descriptor quantitative model with a mean error and a correlation coefficient of 10.52 and 0.94 for the training set, 22.80 and 0.85 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones, better than those of the heuristic method

  11. Engineering teacher training models and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tirados, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Education Area, we renewed the programme, content and methodology, teaching the course under the name of "Initial Teacher Training Course within the framework of the European Higher Education Area". Continuous Training means learning throughout one's life as an Engineering teacher. They are actions designed to update and improve teaching staff, and are systematically offered on the current issues of: Teaching Strategies, training for research, training for personal development, classroom innovations, etc. They are activities aimed at conceptual change, changing the way of teaching and bringing teaching staff up-to-date. At the same time, the Institution is at the disposal of all teaching staff as a meeting point to discuss issues in common, attend conferences, department meetings, etc. In this Congress we present a justification of both training models and their design together with some results obtained on: training needs, participation, how it is developing and to what extent students are profiting from it.

  12. Improved quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT reconstruction with Monte Carlo scatter modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Chun, Se Young; Srinivasa, Ravi N; Kaza, Ravi K; Cuneo, Kyle C; Majdalany, Bill S; Novelli, Paula M; Ljungberg, Michael; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-01

    In 90 Y microsphere radioembolization (RE), accurate post-therapy imaging-based dosimetry is important for establishing absorbed dose versus outcome relationships for developing future treatment planning strategies. Additionally, accurately assessing microsphere distributions is important because of concerns for unexpected activity deposition outside the liver. Quantitative 90 Y imaging by either SPECT or PET is challenging. In 90 Y SPECT model based methods are necessary for scatter correction because energy window-based methods are not feasible with the continuous bremsstrahlung energy spectrum. The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a scatter estimation method for accurate 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT imaging. Since a fully Monte Carlo (MC) approach to 90 Y SPECT reconstruction is computationally very demanding, in the present study the scatter estimate generated by a MC simulator was combined with an analytical projector in the 3D OS-EM reconstruction model. A single window (105 to 195-keV) was used for both the acquisition and the projector modeling. A liver/lung torso phantom with intrahepatic lesions and low-uptake extrahepatic objects was imaged to evaluate SPECT/CT reconstruction without and with scatter correction. Clinical application was demonstrated by applying the reconstruction approach to five patients treated with RE to determine lesion and normal liver activity concentrations using a (liver) relative calibration. There was convergence of the scatter estimate after just two updates, greatly reducing computational requirements. In the phantom study, compared with reconstruction without scatter correction, with MC scatter modeling there was substantial improvement in activity recovery in intrahepatic lesions (from > 55% to > 86%), normal liver (from 113% to 104%), and lungs (from 227% to 104%) with only a small degradation in noise (13% vs. 17%). Similarly, with scatter modeling contrast improved substantially both visually and in

  13. A quantitative exposure model simulating human norovirus transmission during preparation of deli sandwiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stals, Ambroos; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Baert, Leen; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-02

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of food borne gastroenteritis worldwide. They are often transmitted via infected and shedding food handlers manipulating foods such as deli sandwiches. The presented study aimed to simulate HuNoV transmission during the preparation of deli sandwiches in a sandwich bar. A quantitative exposure model was developed by combining the GoldSim® and @Risk® software packages. Input data were collected from scientific literature and from a two week observational study performed at two sandwich bars. The model included three food handlers working during a three hour shift on a shared working surface where deli sandwiches are prepared. The model consisted of three components. The first component simulated the preparation of the deli sandwiches and contained the HuNoV reservoirs, locations within the model allowing the accumulation of NoV and the working of intervention measures. The second component covered the contamination sources being (1) the initial HuNoV contaminated lettuce used on the sandwiches and (2) HuNoV originating from a shedding food handler. The third component included four possible intervention measures to reduce HuNoV transmission: hand and surface disinfection during preparation of the sandwiches, hand gloving and hand washing after a restroom visit. A single HuNoV shedding food handler could cause mean levels of 43±18, 81±37 and 18±7 HuNoV particles present on the deli sandwiches, hands and working surfaces, respectively. Introduction of contaminated lettuce as the only source of HuNoV resulted in the presence of 6.4±0.8 and 4.3±0.4 HuNoV on the food and hand reservoirs. The inclusion of hand and surface disinfection and hand gloving as a single intervention measure was not effective in the model as only marginal reductions of HuNoV levels were noticeable in the different reservoirs. High compliance of hand washing after a restroom visit did reduce HuNoV presence substantially on all reservoirs. The

  14. Model developments for quantitative estimates of the benefits of the signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    A novel framework for quantitative estimates of the benefits of signals on nuclear power plant availability and economics has been developed in this work. The models developed in this work quantify how the perfect signals affect the human operator's success in restoring the power plant to the desired state when it enters undesirable transients. Also, the models quantify the economic benefits of these perfect signals. The models have been applied to the condensate feedwater system of the nuclear power plant for demonstration. (Author)

  15. Absolute quantitation of myocardial blood flow with {sup 201}Tl and dynamic SPECT in canine: optimisation and validation of kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Kim, Kyeong-Min; Nakazawa, Mayumi; Sohlberg, Antti; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Takuya; Watabe, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita City, Osaka (Japan); Eberl, Stefan [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Suita City, Osaka (Japan); Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, PET and Nuclear Medicine Department, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Tamura, Yoshikazu [Akita Kumiai General Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Akita City (Japan); Ono, Yukihiko [Akita Research Institute of Brain, Akita City (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    {sup 201}Tl has been extensively used for myocardial perfusion and viability assessment. Unlike {sup 99m}Tc-labelled agents, such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmine, the regional concentration of {sup 201}Tl varies with time. This study is intended to validate a kinetic modelling approach for in vivo quantitative estimation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and volume of distribution of {sup 201}Tl using dynamic SPECT. Dynamic SPECT was carried out on 20 normal canines after the intravenous administration of {sup 201}Tl using a commercial SPECT system. Seven animals were studied at rest, nine during adenosine infusion, and four after beta-blocker administration. Quantitative images were reconstructed with a previously validated technique, employing OS-EM with attenuation-correction, and transmission-dependent convolution subtraction scatter correction. Measured regional time-activity curves in myocardial segments were fitted to two- and three-compartment models. Regional MBF was defined as the influx rate constant (K{sub 1}) with corrections for the partial volume effect, haematocrit and limited first-pass extraction fraction, and was compared with that determined from radio-labelled microspheres experiments. Regional time-activity curves responded well to pharmacological stress. Quantitative MBF values were higher with adenosine and decreased after beta-blocker compared to a resting condition. MBFs obtained with SPECT (MBF{sub SPECT}) correlated well with the MBF values obtained by the radio-labelled microspheres (MBF{sub MS}) (MBF{sub SPECT} = -0.067 + 1.042 x MBF{sub MS}, p < 0.001). The three-compartment model provided better fit than the two-compartment model, but the difference in MBF values between the two methods was small and could be accounted for with a simple linear regression. Absolute quantitation of regional MBF, for a wide physiological flow range, appears to be feasible using {sup 201}Tl and dynamic SPECT. (orig.)

  16. Large scale FCI experiments in subassembly geometry. Test facility and model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, H.; Gast, K.

    A program is outlined for the study of fuel/coolant interaction under SNR conditions. The program consists of a) under water explosion experiments with full size models of the SNR-core, in which the fuel/coolant system is simulated by a pyrotechnic mixture. b) large scale fuel/coolant interaction experiments with up to 5kg of molten UO 2 interacting with liquid sodium at 300 deg C to 600 deg C in a highly instrumented test facility simulating an SNR subassembly. The experimental results will be compared to theoretical models under development at Karlsruhe. Commencement of the experiments is expected for the beginning of 1975

  17. Multiple-Strain Approach and Probabilistic Modeling of Consumer Habits in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, Matteo; Rizzi, Rita; Varisco, Giorgio; Daminelli, Paolo; Cunico, Elena Cosciani; Luini, Mario; Graber, Hans Ulrich; Paterlini, Franco; Guitian, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models are extensively applied to inform management of a broad range of food safety risks. Inevitably, QMRA modeling involves an element of simplification of the biological process of interest. Two features that are frequently simplified or disregarded are the pathogenicity of multiple strains of a single pathogen and consumer behavior at the household level. In this study, we developed a QMRA model with a multiple-strain approach and a consumer phase module (CPM) based on uncertainty distributions fitted from field data. We modeled exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in raw milk in Lombardy; a specific enterotoxin production module was thus included. The model is adaptable and could be used to assess the risk related to other pathogens in raw milk as well as other staphylococcal enterotoxins. The multiplestrain approach, implemented as a multinomial process, allowed the inclusion of variability and uncertainty with regard to pathogenicity at the bacterial level. Data from 301 questionnaires submitted to raw milk consumers were used to obtain uncertainty distributions for the CPM. The distributions were modeled to be easily updatable with further data or evidence. The sources of uncertainty due to the multiple-strain approach and the CPM were identified, and their impact on the output was assessed by comparing specific scenarios to the baseline. When the distributions reflecting the uncertainty in consumer behavior were fixed to the 95th percentile, the risk of exposure increased up to 160 times. This reflects the importance of taking into consideration the diversity of consumers' habits at the household level and the impact that the lack of knowledge about variables in the CPM can have on the final QMRA estimates. The multiple-strain approach lends itself to use in other food matrices besides raw milk and allows the model to better capture the complexity of the real world and to be capable of geographical

  18. Development of Experience-based Learning about Atmospheric Environment with Quantitative Viewpoint aimed at Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Y.; Tago, H.

    2014-12-01

    The word "ESD (Education for Sustainable Development)" has spread over the world in UN decade (2005 - 2014), and the momentum of the educational innovation aimed at ESD also has grown in the world. Especially, environmental educations recognized as one of the most important ESD have developed in many countries including Japan, but most of those are still mainly experiences in nature. Those could develop "Respect for Environment" of the educational targets of ESD, however we would have to take a further step in order to enhance "Ability of analysis and thinking logically about the environment" which are also targets of ESD.Thus, we developed experienced-learning program about atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5), for understanding the state of the environment objectively based on quantitative data. PM2.5 is known for harmful, and various human activities are considered a source of it, therefore environmental standards for PM2.5 have been established in many countries. This program was tested on junior high school students of 13 - 15 years old, and the questionnaire survey also was conducted to them before and after the program for evaluating educational effects. Students experienced to measure the concentration of PM2.5 at 5 places around their school in a practical manner. The measured concentration of PM2.5 ranged from 19 to 41 μg/m3/day, that value at the most crowded roadside exceeded Japan's environmental standard (35 μg/m3/day). Many of them expressed "Value of PM2.5 is high" in their individual discussion notes. As a consistent with that, the answer "Don't know" to the question "What do you think about the state of the air?" markedly decreased after the program, on the other hand the answer "Pollution" to the same question increased instead. From above-mentioned, it was considered that they could judge the state of the air objectively. Consequently, the questionnaire result "Concern about Air Pollution" increased significantly after the program compared

  19. Environmental determinants of tropical forest and savanna distribution: A quantitative model evaluation and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Piao, Shilong; Rabin, Sam; Shen, Zehao

    2014-07-01

    The distributions of tropical ecosystems are rapidly being altered by climate change and anthropogenic activities. One possible trend—the loss of tropical forests and replacement by savannas—could result in significant shifts in ecosystem services and biodiversity loss. However, the influence and the relative importance of environmental factors in regulating the distribution of tropical forest and savanna biomes are still poorly understood, which makes it difficult to predict future tropical forest and savanna distributions in the context of climate change. Here we use boosted regression trees to quantitatively evaluate the importance of environmental predictors—mainly climatic, edaphic, and fire factors—for the tropical forest-savanna distribution at a mesoscale across the tropics (between 15°N and 35°S). Our results demonstrate that climate alone can explain most of the distribution of tropical forest and savanna at the scale considered; dry season average precipitation is the single most important determinant across tropical Asia-Australia, Africa, and South America. Given the strong tendency of increased seasonality and decreased dry season precipitation predicted by global climate models, we estimate that about 28% of what is now tropical forest would likely be lost to savanna by the late 21st century under the future scenario considered. This study highlights the importance of climate seasonality and interannual variability in predicting the distribution of tropical forest and savanna, supporting the climate as the primary driver in the savanna biogeography.

  20. Model-independent quantitative measurement of nanomechanical oscillator vibrations using electron-microscope linescans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huan; Fenton, J. C.; Chiatti, O. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Warburton, P. A. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Nanoscale mechanical resonators are highly sensitive devices and, therefore, for application as highly sensitive mass balances, they are potentially superior to micromachined cantilevers. The absolute measurement of nanoscale displacements of such resonators remains a challenge, however, since the optical signal reflected from a cantilever whose dimensions are sub-wavelength is at best very weak. We describe a technique for quantitative analysis and fitting of scanning-electron microscope (SEM) linescans across a cantilever resonator, involving deconvolution from the vibrating resonator profile using the stationary resonator profile. This enables determination of the absolute amplitude of nanomechanical cantilever oscillations even when the oscillation amplitude is much smaller than the cantilever width. This technique is independent of any model of secondary-electron emission from the resonator and is, therefore, applicable to resonators with arbitrary geometry and material inhomogeneity. We demonstrate the technique using focussed-ion-beam–deposited tungsten cantilevers of radius ∼60–170 nm inside a field-emission SEM, with excitation of the cantilever by a piezoelectric actuator allowing measurement of the full frequency response. Oscillation amplitudes approaching the size of the primary electron-beam can be resolved. We further show that the optimum electron-beam scan speed is determined by a compromise between deflection of the cantilever at low scan speeds and limited spatial resolution at high scan speeds. Our technique will be an important tool for use in precise characterization of nanomechanical resonator devices.

  1. Quantitative analysis of aqueous phase composition of model dentin adhesives experiencing phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Pamatmat, Francis; Misra, Anil; Laurence, Jennifer S.; Marangos, Orestes; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    There have been reports of the sensitivity of our current dentin adhesives to excess moisture, for example, water-blisters in adhesives placed on over-wet surfaces, and phase separation with concomitant limited infiltration of the critical dimethacrylate component into the demineralized dentin matrix. To determine quantitatively the hydrophobic/hydrophilic components in the aqueous phase when exposed to over-wet environments, model adhesives were mixed with 16, 33, and 50 wt % water to yield well-separated phases. Based upon high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection, it was found that the amounts of hydrophobic BisGMA and hydrophobic initiators are less than 0.1 wt % in the aqueous phase. The amount of these compounds decreased with an increase in the initial water content. The major components of the aqueous phase were hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and water, and the HEMA content ranged from 18.3 to 14.7 wt %. Different BisGMA homologues and the relative content of these homologues in the aqueous phase have been identified; however, the amount of crosslinkable BisGMA was minimal and, thus, could not help in the formation of a crosslinked polymer network in the aqueous phase. Without the protection afforded by a strong crosslinked network, the poorly photoreactive compounds of this aqueous phase could be leached easily. These results suggest that adhesive formulations should be designed to include hydrophilic multimethacrylate monomers and water compatible initiators. PMID:22331596

  2. Microsegregation in multicomponent alloy analysed by quantitative phase-field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, M; Takaki, T; Shibuta, Y

    2015-01-01

    Microsegregation behaviour in a ternary alloy system has been analysed by means of quantitative phase-field (Q-PF) simulations with a particular attention directed at an influence of tie-line shift stemming from different liquid diffusivities of the solute elements. The Q-PF model developed for non-isothermal solidification in multicomponent alloys with non-zero solid diffusivities was applied to analysis of microsegregation in a ternary alloy consisting of fast and slow diffusing solute elements. The accuracy of the Q-PF simulation was first verified by performing the convergence test of segregation ratio with respect to the interface thickness. From one-dimensional analysis, it was found that the microsegregation of slow diffusing element is reduced due to the tie-line shift. In two-dimensional simulations, the refinement of microstructure, viz., the decrease of secondary arms spacing occurs at low cooling rates due to the formation of diffusion layer of slow diffusing element. It yields the reductions of degrees of microsegregation for both the fast and slow diffusing elements. Importantly, in a wide range of cooling rates, the degree of microsegregation of the slow diffusing element is always lower than that of the fast diffusing element, which is entirely ascribable to the influence of tie-line shift. (paper)

  3. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds.

  4. Quantitative assessment of bone defect healing by multidetector CT in a pig model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegger, Carolin; Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Miese, Falk R.; Antoch, Gerald; Scherer, Axel; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael; Hakimi, Ahmad R.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate multidetector CT volumetry in the assessment of bone defect healing in comparison to histopathological findings in an animal model. In 16 mini-pigs, a circumscribed tibial bone defect was created. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the tibia was performed on a 64-row scanner 42 days after the operation. The extent of bone healing was estimated quantitatively by MDCT volumetry using a commercially available software programme (syngo Volume, Siemens, Germany).The volume of the entire defect (including all pixels from -100 to 3,000 HU), the nonconsolidated areas (-100 to 500 HU), and areas of osseous consolidation (500 to 3,000 HU) were assessed and the extent of consolidation was calculated. Histomorphometry served as the reference standard. The extent of osseous consolidation in MDCT volumetry ranged from 19 to 92% (mean 65.4 ± 18.5%). There was a significant correlation between histologically visible newly formed bone and the extent of osseous consolidation on MDCT volumetry (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation was detected between osseous consolidation on MDCT and histological areas of persisting defect (r = -0.9, P < 0.0001). MDCT volumetry is a promising tool for noninvasive monitoring of bone healing, showing excellent correlation with histomorphometry. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative assessment of bone defect healing by multidetector CT in a pig model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Carolin; Kroepil, Patric; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Miese, Falk R.; Antoch, Gerald; Scherer, Axel [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hakimi, Ahmad R. [Universtity Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Oral Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    To evaluate multidetector CT volumetry in the assessment of bone defect healing in comparison to histopathological findings in an animal model. In 16 mini-pigs, a circumscribed tibial bone defect was created. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the tibia was performed on a 64-row scanner 42 days after the operation. The extent of bone healing was estimated quantitatively by MDCT volumetry using a commercially available software programme (syngo Volume, Siemens, Germany).The volume of the entire defect (including all pixels from -100 to 3,000 HU), the nonconsolidated areas (-100 to 500 HU), and areas of osseous consolidation (500 to 3,000 HU) were assessed and the extent of consolidation was calculated. Histomorphometry served as the reference standard. The extent of osseous consolidation in MDCT volumetry ranged from 19 to 92% (mean 65.4 {+-} 18.5%). There was a significant correlation between histologically visible newly formed bone and the extent of osseous consolidation on MDCT volumetry (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). A significant negative correlation was detected between osseous consolidation on MDCT and histological areas of persisting defect (r = -0.9, P < 0.0001). MDCT volumetry is a promising tool for noninvasive monitoring of bone healing, showing excellent correlation with histomorphometry. (orig.)

  6. A two-locus model of spatially varying stabilizing or directional selection on a quantitative trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroldinger, Ludwig; Bürger, Reinhard

    2014-06-01

    The consequences of spatially varying, stabilizing or directional selection on a quantitative trait in a subdivided population are studied. A deterministic two-locus two-deme model is employed to explore the effects of migration, the degree of divergent selection, and the genetic architecture, i.e., the recombination rate and ratio of locus effects, on the maintenance of genetic variation. The possible equilibrium configurations are determined as functions of the migration rate. They depend crucially on the strength of divergent selection and the genetic architecture. The maximum migration rates are investigated below which a stable fully polymorphic equilibrium or a stable single-locus polymorphism can exist. Under stabilizing selection, but with different optima in the demes, strong recombination may facilitate the maintenance of polymorphism. However usually, and in particular with directional selection in opposite direction, the critical migration rates are maximized by a concentrated genetic architecture, i.e., by a major locus and a tightly linked minor one. Thus, complementing previous work on the evolution of genetic architectures in subdivided populations subject to diversifying selection, it is shown that concentrated architectures may aid the maintenance of polymorphism. Conditions are obtained when this is the case. Finally, the dependence of the phenotypic variance, linkage disequilibrium, and various measures of local adaptation and differentiation on the parameters is elaborated. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan’s current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 × 10−8 (95th percentile: 3.20 × 10−7). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  8. Analysis of genetic effects of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on quantitative traits: genetic model for diploid plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lide; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jun

    2007-06-01

    A genetic model was proposed for simultaneously analyzing genetic effects of nuclear, cytoplasm, and nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction (NCI) as well as their genotype by environment (GE) interaction for quantitative traits of diploid plants. In the model, the NCI effects were further partitioned into additive and dominance nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction components. Mixed linear model approaches were used for statistical analysis. On the basis of diallel cross designs, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the genetic model was robust for estimating variance components under several situations without specific effects. Random genetic effects were predicted by an adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) method. Data on four quantitative traits (boll number, lint percentage, fiber length, and micronaire) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were analyzed as a worked example to show the effectiveness of the model.

  9. Gestalt isomorphism and the primacy of subjective conscious experience: a Gestalt Bubble model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehar, Steven

    2003-08-01

    A serious crisis is identified in theories of neurocomputation, marked by a persistent disparity between the phenomenological or experiential account of visual perception and the neurophysiological level of description of the visual system. In particular, conventional concepts of neural processing offer no explanation for the holistic global aspects of perception identified by Gestalt theory. The problem is paradigmatic and can be traced to contemporary concepts of the functional role of the neural cell, known as the Neuron Doctrine. In the absence of an alternative neurophysiologically plausible model, I propose a perceptual modeling approach, to model the percept as experienced subjectively, rather than modeling the objective neurophysiological state of the visual system that supposedly subserves that experience. A Gestalt Bubble model is presented to demonstrate how the elusive Gestalt principles of emergence, reification, and invariance can be expressed in a quantitative model of the subjective experience of visual consciousness. That model in turn reveals a unique computational strategy underlying visual processing, which is unlike any algorithm devised by man, and certainly unlike the atomistic feed-forward model of neurocomputation offered by the Neuron Doctrine paradigm. The perceptual modeling approach reveals the primary function of perception as that of generating a fully spatial virtual-reality replica of the external world in an internal representation. The common objections to this "picture-in-the-head" concept of perceptual representation are shown to be ill founded.

  10. Quantitative Validation of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) for ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Millennia; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Garcia, Y.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Goodenow, D. A.; Myers, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) provided observed medical event data on 33 ISS and 111 STS person-missions for use in further improving and validating the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). Using only the crew characteristics from these observed missions, the newest development version, IMM v4.0, will simulate these missions to predict medical events and outcomes. Comparing IMM predictions to the actual observed medical event counts will provide external validation and identify areas of possible improvement. In an effort to improve the power of detecting differences in this validation study, the total over each program ISS and STS will serve as the main quantitative comparison objective, specifically the following parameters: total medical events (TME), probability of loss of crew life (LOCL), and probability of evacuation (EVAC). Scatter plots of observed versus median predicted TMEs (with error bars reflecting the simulation intervals) will graphically display comparisons while linear regression will serve as the statistical test of agreement. Two scatter plots will be analyzed 1) where each point reflects a mission and 2) where each point reflects a condition-specific total number of occurrences. The coefficient of determination (R2) resulting from a linear regression with no intercept bias (intercept fixed at zero) will serve as an overall metric of agreement between IMM and the real world system (RWS). In an effort to identify as many possible discrepancies as possible for further inspection, the -level for all statistical tests comparing IMM predictions to observed data will be set to 0.1. This less stringent criterion, along with the multiple testing being conducted, should detect all perceived differences including many false positive signals resulting from random variation. The results of these analyses will reveal areas of the model requiring adjustment to improve overall IMM output, which will thereby provide better decision support for

  11. TF insert experiment log book. 2nd Experiment of CS model coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro

    2001-12-01

    The cool down of CS model coil and TF insert was started on August 20, 2001. It took almost one month and immediately started coil charge since September 17, 2001. The charge test of TF insert and CS model coil was completed on October 19, 2001. In this campaign, total shot numbers were 88 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was about 4 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. This is an experiment logbook for 2nd experiment of CS model coil and TF insert for charge test. (author)

  12. Fechner’s law in metacognition: a quantitative model of visual working memory confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Ronald; Yoo, Aspen H.; Ma, Wei Ji

    2016-01-01

    Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner’s law – which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity – might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner’s law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment. The model provides an excellent account of human confidence rating distributions as well as the relation between performance and confidence. Moreover, the best-fitting mapping in a model with a highly flexible mapping closely resembles the logarithmic mapping, suggesting that no alternative mapping exists that accounts better for the data than Fechner's law. We propose a neural implementation of the model and find that this model also fits the behavioral data well. Furthermore, we find that jointly fitting memory errors and confidence ratings boosts the power to distinguish previously proposed VWM encoding models by a factor of 5.99 compared to fitting only memory errors. Finally, we show that Fechner's law also accounts for metacognitive judgments in a word recognition memory task, which is a first indication that it may be a general law in metacognition. Our work presents the first model to jointly account for errors and confidence ratings in VWM and could lay the groundwork for understanding the computational mechanisms of metacognition. PMID:28221087

  13. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  14. Model of CSR Induced Bursts in Slicing Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.; Heifets, S.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a model describing the CSR bursts observed in recent experiments at the Advanced Light Source at the LBL. The model is based on the linear theory of the CSR instability in electron rings. We describe how an initial perturbation of the beam generated by the laser pulse evolves in time when the beam is unstable due to the CSR wakefield

  15. MODIS volcanic ash retrievals vs FALL3D transport model: a quantitative comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.; Folch, A.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite retrievals and transport models represents the key tools to monitor the volcanic clouds evolution. Because of the harming effects of fine ash particles on aircrafts, the real-time tracking and forecasting of volcanic clouds is key for aviation safety. Together with the security reasons also the economical consequences of a disruption of airports must be taken into account. The airport closures due to the recent Icelandic Eyjafjöll eruption caused millions of passengers to be stranded not only in Europe, but across the world. IATA (the International Air Transport Association) estimates that the worldwide airline industry has lost a total of about 2.5 billion of Euro during the disruption. Both security and economical issues require reliable and robust ash cloud retrievals and trajectory forecasting. The intercomparison between remote sensing and modeling is required to assure precise and reliable volcanic ash products. In this work we perform a quantitative comparison between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of volcanic ash cloud mass and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with the FALL3D ash dispersal model. MODIS, aboard the NASA-Terra and NASA-Aqua polar satellites, is a multispectral instrument with 36 spectral bands operating in the VIS-TIR spectral range and spatial resolution varying between 250 and 1000 m at nadir. The MODIS channels centered around 11 and 12 micron have been used for the ash retrievals through the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm and MODTRAN simulations. FALL3D is a 3-D time-dependent Eulerian model for the transport and deposition of volcanic particles that outputs, among other variables, cloud column mass and AOD. Three MODIS images collected the October 28, 29 and 30 on Mt. Etna volcano during the 2002 eruption have been considered as test cases. The results show a general good agreement between the retrieved and the modeled volcanic clouds in the first 300 km from the vents. Even if the

  16. Longitudinal Multiplexed Measurement of Quantitative Proteomic Signatures in Mouse Lymphoma Models Using Magneto-Nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Rok; Appelmann, Iris; Miething, Cornelius; Shultz, Tyler O; Ruderman, Daniel; Kim, Dokyoon; Mallick, Parag; Lowe, Scott W; Wang, Shan X

    2018-01-01

    Cancer proteomics is the manifestation of relevant biological processes in cancer development. Thus, it reflects the activities of tumor cells, host-tumor interactions, and systemic responses to cancer therapy. To understand the causal effects of tumorigenesis or therapeutic intervention, longitudinal studies are greatly needed. However, most of the conventional mouse experiments are unlikely to accommodate frequent collection of serum samples with a large enough volume for multiple protein assays towards single-object analysis. Here, we present a technique based on magneto-nanosensors to longitudinally monitor the protein profiles in individual mice of lymphoma models using a small volume of a sample for multiplex assays. Methods: Drug-sensitive and -resistant cancer cell lines were used to develop the mouse models that render different outcomes upon the drug treatment. Two groups of mice were inoculated with each cell line, and treated with either cyclophosphamide or vehicle solution. Serum samples taken longitudinally from each mouse in the groups were measured with 6-plex magneto-nanosensor cytokine assays. To find the origin of IL-6, experiments were performed using IL-6 knock-out mice. Results: The differences in serum IL-6 and GCSF levels between the drug-treated and untreated groups were revealed by the magneto-nanosensor measurement on individual mice. Using the multiplex assays and mouse models, we found that IL-6 is secreted by the host in the presence of tumor cells upon the drug treatment. Conclusion: The multiplex magneto-nanosensor assays enable longitudinal proteomic studies on mouse tumor models to understand tumor development and therapy mechanisms more precisely within a single biological object.

  17. A Quantitative Human Spacecraft Design Evaluation Model for Assessing Crew Accommodation and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, Christine

    Crew performance, including both accommodation and utilization factors, is an integral part of every human spaceflight mission from commercial space tourism, to the demanding journey to Mars and beyond. Spacecraft were historically built by engineers and technologists trying to adapt the vehicle into cutting edge rocketry with the assumption that the astronauts could be trained and will adapt to the design. By and large, that is still the current state of the art. It is recognized, however, that poor human-machine design integration can lead to catastrophic and deadly mishaps. The premise of this work relies on the idea that if an accurate predictive model exists to forecast crew performance issues as a result of spacecraft design and operations, it can help designers and managers make better decisions throughout the design process, and ensure that the crewmembers are well-integrated with the system from the very start. The result should be a high-quality, user-friendly spacecraft that optimizes the utilization of the crew while keeping them alive, healthy, and happy during the course of the mission. Therefore, the goal of this work was to develop an integrative framework to quantitatively evaluate a spacecraft design from the crew performance perspective. The approach presented here is done at a very fundamental level starting with identifying and defining basic terminology, and then builds up important axioms of human spaceflight that lay the foundation for how such a framework can be developed. With the framework established, a methodology for characterizing the outcome using a mathematical model was developed by pulling from existing metrics and data collected on human performance in space. Representative test scenarios were run to show what information could be garnered and how it could be applied as a useful, understandable metric for future spacecraft design. While the model is the primary tangible product from this research, the more interesting outcome of

  18. Quantitative acid-base physiology using the Stewart model. Does it improve our understanding of what is really wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, R.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Traditional theories of acid-base balance are based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate proton concentration. The recent revival of quantitative acid-base physiology using the Stewart model has increased our understanding of complicated acid-base disorders, but has also led to several

  19. Physically based dynamic run-out modelling for quantitative debris flow risk assessment: a case study in Tresenda, northern Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quan Luna, B.; Blahůt, Jan; Camera, C.; Van Westen, C.; Apuani, T.; Jetten, V.; Sterlacchini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2014), s. 645-661 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : debris flow * FLO-2D * run-out * quantitative hazard and risk assessment * vulnerability * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2014

  20. A Quantitative Study of Faculty Perceptions and Attitudes on Asynchronous Virtual Teamwork Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolusky, G. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study used a web-based questionnaire to assess the attitudes and perceptions of online and hybrid faculty towards student-centered asynchronous virtual teamwork (AVT) using the technology acceptance model (TAM) of Davis (1989). AVT is online student participation in a team approach to problem-solving culminating in a written…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models for Liver Toxicity Using ToxCast Assays and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (MCBIOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative Analysis of Predictive Models for Liver Toxicity Using ToxCast Assays and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Jie Liu1,2, Richard Judson1, Matthew T. Martin1, Huixiao Hong3, Imran Shah1 1National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), US EPA, RTP, NC...

  2. Using ISOS consensus test protocols for development of quantitative life test models in ageing of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Stoichkov, V.; Kumar, D.

    2017-01-01

    As Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) development matures, the demand grows for rapid characterisation of degradation and application of Quantitative Accelerated Life Tests (QALT) models to predict and improve reliability. To date, most accelerated testing on OPVs has been conducted using ISOS consensus...

  3. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.

    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35:

  4. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance and the economics which are important factors of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles, and a fuel cycle cost analysis model was suggested to incorporate various uncertainties in the fuel cycle cost calculation. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. In this model, the proliferation resistance was described an a relative size of the barrier that must be overcome in order to acquire nuclear weapons. Therefore, a larger barriers means that the risk of failure is great, expenditure of resources is large and the time scales for implementation is long. The electromotive force was expressed as the political motivation of the potential proliferators, such as an unauthorized party or a national group to acquire nuclear weapons. The electrical current was then defined as a proliferation resistance index. There are two electrical circuit models used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance: the series and the parallel circuits. In the series circuit model of the proliferation resistance, a potential proliferator has to overcome all resistance barriers to achieve the manufacturing of the nuclear weapons. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency)'s safeguards philosophy relies on the defense-in-depth principle against nuclear proliferation at a specific facility. The parallel circuit model was also used to imitate the risk of proliferation for

  5. Quantitative modeling of clinical, cellular, and extracellular matrix variables suggest prognostic indicators in cancer: a model in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, Irene; Piqueras, Marta; Montaner, David; Villamón, Eva; Berbegall, Ana P; Cañete, Adela; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Risk classification and treatment stratification for cancer patients is restricted by our incomplete picture of the complex and unknown interactions between the patient's organism and tumor tissues (transformed cells supported by tumor stroma). Moreover, all clinical factors and laboratory studies used to indicate treatment effectiveness and outcomes are by their nature a simplification of the biological system of cancer, and cannot yet incorporate all possible prognostic indicators. A multiparametric analysis on 184 tumor cylinders was performed. To highlight the benefit of integrating digitized medical imaging into this field, we present the results of computational studies carried out on quantitative measurements, taken from stromal and cancer cells and various extracellular matrix fibers interpenetrated by glycosaminoglycans, and eight current approaches to risk stratification systems in patients with primary and nonprimary neuroblastoma. New tumor tissue indicators from both fields, the cellular and the extracellular elements, emerge as reliable prognostic markers for risk stratification and could be used as molecular targets of specific therapies. The key to dealing with personalized therapy lies in the mathematical modeling. The use of bioinformatics in patient-tumor-microenvironment data management allows a predictive model in neuroblastoma.

  6. Surgical Simulations Based on Limited Quantitative Data: Understanding How Musculoskeletal Models Can Be Used to Predict Moment Arms and Guide Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Nichols

    Full Text Available The utility of biomechanical models and simulations to examine clinical problems is currently limited by the need for extensive amounts of experimental data describing how a given procedure or disease affects the musculoskeletal system. Methods capable of predicting how individual biomechanical parameters are altered by surgery are necessary for the efficient development of surgical simulations. In this study, we evaluate to what extent models based on limited amounts of quantitative data can be used to predict how surgery influences muscle moment arms, a critical parameter that defines how muscle force is transformed into joint torque. We specifically examine proximal row carpectomy and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion, two common surgeries to treat wrist osteoarthritis. Using models of these surgeries, which are based on limited data and many assumptions, we perform simulations to formulate a hypothesis regarding how these wrist surgeries influence muscle moment arms. Importantly, the hypothesis is based on analysis of only the primary wrist muscles. We then test the simulation-based hypothesis using a cadaveric experiment that measures moment arms of both the primary wrist and extrinsic thumb muscles. The measured moment arms of the primary wrist muscles are used to verify the hypothesis, while those of the extrinsic thumb muscles are used as cross-validation to test whether the hypothesis is generalizable. The moment arms estimated by the models and measured in the cadaveric experiment both indicate that a critical difference between the surgeries is how they alter radial-ulnar deviation versus flexion-extension moment arms at the wrist. Thus, our results demonstrate that models based on limited quantitative data can provide novel insights. This work also highlights that synergistically utilizing simulation and experimental methods can aid the design of experiments and make it possible to test the predictive limits of current computer

  7. Application of non-quantitative modelling in the analysis of a network warfare environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available based on the use of secular associations, chronological origins, linked concepts, categorizations and context specifications. This paper proposes the use of non-quantitative methods through a morphological analysis to better explore and define...

  8. A bibliography of terrain modeling (geomorphometry), the quantitative representation of topography: supplement 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Terrain modeling, the practice of ground-surface quantification, is an amalgam of Earth science, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The discipline is known variously as geomorphometry (or simply morphometry), terrain analysis, and quantitative geomorphology. It continues to grow through myriad applications to hydrology, geohazards mapping, tectonics, sea-floor and planetary exploration, and other fields. Dating nominally to the co-founders of academic geography, Alexander von Humboldt (1808, 1817) and Carl Ritter (1826, 1828), the field was revolutionized late in the 20th Century by the computer manipulation of spatial arrays of terrain heights, or digital elevation models (DEMs), which can quantify and portray ground-surface form over large areas (Maune, 2001). Morphometric procedures are implemented routinely by commercial geographic information systems (GIS) as well as specialized software (Harvey and Eash, 1996; Köthe and others, 1996; ESRI, 1997; Drzewiecki et al., 1999; Dikau and Saurer, 1999; Djokic and Maidment, 2000; Wilson and Gallant, 2000; Breuer, 2001; Guth, 2001; Eastman, 2002). The new Earth Surface edition of the Journal of Geophysical Research, specializing in surficial processes, is the latest of many publication venues for terrain modeling. This is the fourth update of a bibliography and introduction to terrain modeling (Pike, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999) designed to collect the diverse, scattered literature on surface measurement as a resource for the research community. The use of DEMs in science and technology continues to accelerate and diversify (Pike, 2000a). New work appears so frequently that a sampling must suffice to represent the vast literature. This report adds 1636 entries to the 4374 in the four earlier publications1. Forty-eight additional entries correct dead Internet links and other errors found in the prior listings. Chronicling the history of terrain modeling, many entries in this report predate the 1999 supplement

  9. Statistical Modeling Approach to Quantitative Analysis of Interobserver Variability in Breast Contouring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinzhong, E-mail: jyang4@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A.; Reed, Valerie K.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Lifei; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To develop a new approach for interobserver variability analysis. Methods and Materials: Eight radiation oncologists specializing in breast cancer radiation therapy delineated a patient's left breast “from scratch” and from a template that was generated using deformable image registration. Three of the radiation oncologists had previously received training in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus contouring for breast cancer atlas. The simultaneous truth and performance level estimation algorithm was applied to the 8 contours delineated “from scratch” to produce a group consensus contour. Individual Jaccard scores were fitted to a beta distribution model. We also applied this analysis to 2 or more patients, which were contoured by 9 breast radiation oncologists from 8 institutions. Results: The beta distribution model had a mean of 86.2%, standard deviation (SD) of ±5.9%, a skewness of −0.7, and excess kurtosis of 0.55, exemplifying broad interobserver variability. The 3 RTOG-trained physicians had higher agreement scores than average, indicating that their contours were close to the group consensus contour. One physician had high sensitivity but lower specificity than the others, which implies that this physician tended to contour a structure larger than those of the others. Two other physicians had low sensitivity but specificity similar to the others, which implies that they tended to contour a structure smaller than the others. With this information, they could adjust their contouring practice to be more consistent with others if desired. When contouring from the template, the beta distribution model had a mean of 92.3%, SD ± 3.4%, skewness of −0.79, and excess kurtosis of 0.83, which indicated a much better consistency among individual contours. Similar results were obtained for the analysis of 2 additional patients. Conclusions: The proposed statistical approach was able to measure interobserver variability quantitatively

  10. Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito

    2015-01-01

    Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input-output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration.

  11. 3D vs 2D laparoscopic systems: Development of a performance quantitative validation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedi, Andrea; Donarini, Erica; Lamera, Roberta; Sgroi, Giovanni; Turati, Luca; Ercole, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The new technology ensures 3D laparoscopic vision by adding depth to the traditional two dimensions. This realistic vision gives the surgeon the feeling of operating in real space. Hospital of Treviglio-Caravaggio isn't an university or scientific institution; in 2014 a new 3D laparoscopic technology was acquired therefore it led to evaluation of the of the appropriateness in term of patient outcome and safety. The project aims at achieving the development of a quantitative validation model that would ensure low cost and a reliable measure of the performance of 3D technology versus 2D mode. In addition, it aims at demonstrating how new technologies, such as open source hardware and software and 3D printing, could help research with no significant cost increase. For these reasons, in order to define criteria of appropriateness in the use of 3D technologies, it was decided to perform a study to technically validate the use of the best technology in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and safety in the use of a system between laparoscopic vision in 3D and the traditional 2D. 30 surgeons were enrolled in order to perform an exercise through the use of laparoscopic forceps inside a trainer. The exercise consisted of having surgeons with different level of seniority, grouped by type of specialization (eg. surgery, urology, gynecology), exercising videolaparoscopy with two technologies (2D and 3D) through the use of a anthropometric phantom. The target assigned to the surgeon was that to pass "needle and thread" without touching the metal part in the shortest time possible. The rings selected for the exercise had each a coefficient of difficulty determined by depth, diameter, angle from the positioning and from the point of view. The analysis of the data collected from the above exercise has mathematically confirmed that the 3D technique ensures a learning curve lower in novice and greater accuracy in the performance of the task with respect to 2D.

  12. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail: rettmann.maryam@mayo.edu; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  13. A study on the quantitative model of human response time using the amount and the similarity of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Jin

    2006-02-01

    The mental capacity to retain or recall information, or memory is related to human performance during processing of information. Although a large number of studies have been carried out on human performance, little is known about the similarity effect. The purpose of this study was to propose and validate a quantitative and predictive model on human response time in the user interface with the basic concepts of information amount, similarity and degree of practice. It was difficult to explain human performance by only similarity or information amount. There were two difficulties: constructing a quantitative model on human response time and validating the proposed model by experimental work. A quantitative model based on the Hick's law, the law of practice and similarity theory was developed. The model was validated under various experimental conditions by measuring the participants' response time in the environment of a computer-based display. Human performance was improved by degree of similarity and practice in the user interface. Also we found the age-related human performance which was degraded as he or she was more elder. The proposed model may be useful for training operators who will handle some interfaces and predicting human performance by changing system design

  14. Cognitive Modeling of Video Game Player User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohil, Corey J.; Biocca, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for the use of cognitive modeling to gain a detailed and dynamic look into user experience during game play. Applying cognitive models to game play data can help researchers understand a player's attentional focus, memory status, learning state, and decision strategies (among other things) as these cognitive processes occurred throughout game play. This is a stark contrast to the common approach of trying to assess the long-term impact of games on cognitive functioning after game play has ended. We describe what cognitive models are, what they can be used for and how game researchers could benefit by adopting these methods. We also provide details of a single model - based on decision field theory - that has been successfUlly applied to data sets from memory, perception, and decision making experiments, and has recently found application in real world scenarios. We examine possibilities for applying this model to game-play data.

  15. Topographic evolution of sandbars: Flume experiment and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Logan, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of sandbar formation and evolution were carried out in a laboratory flume and the topographic characteristics of these barforms were compared to predictions from a computational flow and sediment transport model with bed evolution. The flume experiment produced sandbars with approximate mode 2, whereas numerical simulations produced a bed morphology better approximated as alternate bars, mode 1. In addition, bar formation occurred more rapidly in the laboratory channel than for the model channel. This paper focuses on a steady-flow laboratory experiment without upstream sediment supply. Future experiments will examine the effects of unsteady flow and sediment supply and the use of numerical models to simulate the response of barform topography to these influences.

  16. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  17. Detecting physics beyond the Standard Model with the REDTOP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, D.; León, D.; Fabela, B.; Pedraza, M. I.

    2017-10-01

    REDTOP is an experiment at its proposal stage. It belongs to the High Intensity class of experiments. REDTOP will use a 1.8 GeV continuous proton beam impinging on a fixed target. It is expected to produce about 1013 η mesons per year. The main goal of REDTOP is to look for physics beyond the Standard Model by detecting rare η decays. The detector is designed with innovative technologies based on the detection of prompt Cherenkov light, such that interesting events can be observed and the background events are efficiently rejected. The experimental design, the physics program and the running plan of the experiment is presented.

  18. Grimsel Test Site: modelling radionuclide migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.; Hadermann, J.

    1994-09-01

    In the migration field experiments at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site, the processes of nuclide transport through a well defined fractured shear-zone in crystalline rock are being investigated. For these experiments, model calculations have been performed to obtain indications on validity and limitation of the model applied and the data deduced under field conditions. The model consists of a hydrological part, where the dipole flow fields of the experiments are determined, and a nuclide transport part, where the flow field driven nuclide propagation through the shear-zone is calculated. In addition to the description of the model, analytical expressions are given to guide the interpretation of experimental results. From the analysis of experimental breakthrough curves for conservative uranine, weakly sorbing sodium and more stronger sorbing strontium tracers, the following main results can be derived: i) The model is able to represent the breakthrough curves of the migration field experiments to a high degree of accuracy, ii) The process of matrix diffusion is manifest through the tails of the breakthrough curves decreasing with time as t -3/2 and through the special shape of the tail ends, both confirmed by the experiments, iii) For nuclide sorbing rapidly, not too strongly, linearly, and exhibiting a reversible cation exchange process on fault gouge, the laboratory sorption coefficient can reasonably well be extrapolated to field conditions. Adequate care in selecting and preparing the rock samples is, of course, a necessary requirement. Using the parameters determined in the previous analysis, predictions are made for experiments in a smaller an faster flow field. For conservative uranine and weakly sorbing sodium, the agreement of predicted and measured breakthrough curves is good, for the more stronger sorbing strontium reasonable, confirming that the model describes the main nuclide transport processes adequately. (author) figs., tabs., 29 refs

  19. Modelling of laboratory high-pressure infiltration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the modelling of break-through curves from a series of two-tracer dynamic infiltration experiments, which are intended to complement larger scale experiments at the Nagra Grimsel Test Site. The tracers are 82 Br, which is expected to be non-sorbing, and 24 Na, which is weakly sorbing. The 24 Na concentration is well below the natural Na concentration in the infiltration fluid, so that sorption on the rock is governed by isotopic exchange, exhibiting a linear isotherm. The rock specimens are sub-samples (cores) of granodiorite from the Grimsel Test Site, each containing a distinct shear zone. Best-fits to the break-through curves using single-porosity and dual-porosity transport models are compared and several physical parameters are extracted. It is shown that the dual-porosity model is required in order to reproduce the tailing part of the break-through curves for the non-sorbing tracer. The single-porosity model is sufficient to reproduce the break-through curves for the sorbing tracer within the estimated experimental errors. Extracted K d values are shown to agree well with a field rock-water interaction experiment and in situ migration experiments. Static, laboratory batch-sorption experiments give a larger K d , but this difference could be explained by the larger surface area available for sorption in the artificially crushed samples used in the laboratory and by a slightly different water chemistry. (author) 13 figs., tabs., 19 refs

  20. Hohlraum modeling for opacity experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Martin, M. E.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Perry, T. S.; Heeter, R. F.; Opachich, Y. P.; Moore, A. S.; Kline, J. L.; Johns, H. M.; Liedahl, D. A.; Cardenas, T.; Olson, R. E.; Wilde, B. H.; Urbatsch, T. J.

    2018-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of experiments that measure iron opacity in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) using laser-driven hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A previous set of experiments fielded at Sandia's Z facility [Bailey et al., Nature 517, 56 (2015)] have shown up to factors of two discrepancies between the theory and experiment, casting doubt on the validity of the opacity models. The purpose of the new experiments is to make corroborating measurements at the same densities and temperatures, with the initial measurements made at a temperature of 160 eV and an electron density of 0.7 × 1022 cm-3. The X-ray hot spots of a laser-driven hohlraum are not in LTE, and the iron must be shielded from a direct line-of-sight to obtain the data [Perry et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 5617 (1996)]. This shielding is provided either with the internal structure (e.g., baffles) or external wall shapes that divide the hohlraum into a laser-heated portion and an LTE portion. In contrast, most inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are simple cylinders lacking complex gold walls, and the design codes are not typically applied to targets like those for the opacity experiments. We will discuss the initial basis for the modeling using LASNEX, and the subsequent modeling of five different hohlraum geometries that have been fielded on the NIF to date. This includes a comparison of calculated and measured radiation temperatures.

  1. Quantitative measurements and modeling of cargo–motor interactions during fast transport in the living axon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, Pamela E; Loewenberg, Michael; Pascal, Jennifer; Chauviere, Arnaud; Gonzales, Aaron; Cristini, Vittorio; Bearer, Elaine L

    2012-01-01

    The kinesins have long been known to drive microtubule-based transport of sub-cellular components, yet the mechanisms of their attachment to cargo remain a mystery. Several different cargo-receptors have been proposed based on their in vitro binding affinities to kinesin-1. Only two of these—phosphatidyl inositol, a negatively charged lipid, and the carboxyl terminus of the amyloid precursor protein (APP-C), a trans-membrane protein—have been reported to mediate motility in living systems. A major question is how these many different cargo, receptors and motors interact to produce the complex choreography of vesicular transport within living cells. Here we describe an experimental assay that identifies cargo–motor receptors by their ability to recruit active motors and drive transport of exogenous cargo towards the synapse in living axons. Cargo is engineered by derivatizing the surface of polystyrene fluorescent nanospheres (100 nm diameter) with charged residues or with synthetic peptides derived from candidate motor receptor proteins, all designed to display a terminal COOH group. After injection into the squid giant axon, particle movements are imaged by laser-scanning confocal time-lapse microscopy. In this report we compare the motility of negatively charged beads with APP-C beads in the presence of glycine-conjugated non-motile beads using new strategies to measure bead movements. The ensuing quantitative analysis of time-lapse digital sequences reveals detailed information about bead movements: instantaneous and maximum velocities, run lengths, pause frequencies and pause durations. These measurements provide parameters for a mathematical model that predicts the spatiotemporal evolution of distribution of the two different types of bead cargo in the axon. The results reveal that negatively charged beads differ from APP-C beads in velocity and dispersion, and predict that at long time points APP-C will achieve greater progress towards the presynaptic

  2. The Comparison of Distributed P2P Trust Models Based on Quantitative Parameters in the File Downloading Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varied P2P trust models have been proposed recently; it is necessary to develop an effective method to evaluate these trust models to resolve the commonalities (guiding the newly generated trust models in theory and individuality (assisting a decision maker in choosing an optimal trust model to implement in specific context issues. A new method for analyzing and comparing P2P trust models based on hierarchical parameters quantization in the file downloading scenarios is proposed in this paper. Several parameters are extracted from the functional attributes and quality feature of trust relationship, as well as requirements from the specific network context and the evaluators. Several distributed P2P trust models are analyzed quantitatively with extracted parameters modeled into a hierarchical model. The fuzzy inferring method is applied to the hierarchical modeling of parameters to fuse the evaluated values of the candidate trust models, and then the relative optimal one is selected based on the sorted overall quantitative values. Finally, analyses and simulation are performed. The results show that the proposed method is reasonable and effective compared with the previous algorithms.

  3. Quantitative Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.

  4. Applying real-time quantitative PCR to diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle by quantifying SRY gene: a comparison experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Freemartinism generally occurs in female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most bovine heterosexual twin females are freemartins. However, about 10% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. Farmers mostly cull bovine fertile heterosexual twin females due to the lack of a practical diagnostic approach. Culling of such animals results in economic and genetic-material losses both for dairy and beef industry. Methods In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was performed to establish the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were used in this study, while three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Results Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that SRY gene were absent in three heterosexual twin females and only two of them were verified as fertile in later age. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was more than 14.2% in freemartins and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical difference between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. Discussion Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR is a better detection method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle as compare to qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We concluded that low-level of SRY would not influence fertility of bovine heterosexual twin female.

  5. Numerical modeling of the 2017 active seismic infrasound balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Q.; Komjathy, A.; Garcia, R.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Lai, V. H.; Kedar, S.; Levillain, E.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a numerical tool to propagate acoustic and gravity waves in a coupled solid-fluid medium with topography. It is a hybrid method between a continuous Galerkin and a discontinuous Galerkin method that accounts for non-linear atmospheric waves, visco-elastic waves and topography. We apply this method to a recent experiment that took place in the Nevada desert to study acoustic waves from seismic events. This experiment, developed by JPL and its partners, wants to demonstrate the viability of a new approach to probe seismic-induced acoustic waves from a balloon platform. To the best of our knowledge, this could be the only way, for planetary missions, to perform tomography when one faces challenging surface conditions, with high pressure and temperature (e.g. Venus), and thus when it is impossible to use conventional electronics routinely employed on Earth. To fully demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique one should also be able to reconstruct the observed signals from numerical modeling. To model the seismic hammer experiment and the subsequent acoustic wave propagation, we rely on a subsurface seismic model constructed from the seismometers measurements during the 2017 Nevada experiment and an atmospheric model built from meteorological data. The source is considered as a Gaussian point source located at the surface. Comparison between the numerical modeling and the experimental data could help future mission designs and provide great insights into the planet's interior structure.

  6. Applying quantitative adiposity feature analysis models to predict benefit of bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; More, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    How to rationally identify epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients who will benefit from bevacizumab or other antiangiogenic therapies is a critical issue in EOC treatments. The motivation of this study is to quantitatively measure adiposity features from CT images and investigate the feasibility of predicting potential benefit of EOC patients with or without receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy treatment using multivariate statistical models built based on quantitative adiposity image features. A dataset involving CT images from 59 advanced EOC patients were included. Among them, 32 patients received maintenance bevacizumab after primary chemotherapy and the remaining 27 patients did not. We developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (VFA) and visceral fat areas (SFA) and then extracted 7 adiposity-related quantitative features. Three multivariate data analysis models (linear regression, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression) were performed respectively to investigate the potential association between the model-generated prediction results and the patients' progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The results show that using all 3 statistical models, a statistically significant association was detected between the model-generated results and both of the two clinical outcomes in the group of patients receiving maintenance bevacizumab (p<0.01), while there were no significant association for both PFS and OS in the group of patients without receiving maintenance bevacizumab. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using quantitative adiposity-related CT image features based statistical prediction models to generate a new clinical marker and predict the clinical outcome of EOC patients receiving maintenance bevacizumab-based chemotherapy.

  7. Integrated multiscale biomaterials experiment and modelling: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Markus J.; Genin, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in multiscale models and computational power have enabled a broad toolset to predict how molecules, cells, tissues and organs behave and develop. A key theme in biological systems is the emergence of macroscale behaviour from collective behaviours across a range of length and timescales, and a key element of these models is therefore hierarchical simulation. However, this predictive capacity has far outstripped our ability to validate predictions experimentally, particularly when multiple hierarchical levels are involved. The state of the art represents careful integration of multiscale experiment and modelling, and yields not only validation, but also insights into deformation and relaxation mechanisms across scales. We present here a sampling of key results that highlight both challenges and opportunities for integrated multiscale experiment and modelling in biological systems. PMID:28981126

  8. Women's opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.

  9. Women's opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj Kishore Biswas

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014 were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years, other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.

  10. Study on the quantitative relationship between Agricultural water and fertilization process and non-point source pollution based on field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, K.; Wu, Z.; Guan, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, with the prominent of water environment problem and the relative increase of point source pollution governance, especially the agricultural non-point source pollution problem caused by the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides has become increasingly aroused people's concern and attention. In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between agriculture water and fertilizer and non-point source pollution, on the basis of elm field experiment and combined with agricultural drainage irrigation model, the agricultural irrigation water and the relationship between fertilizer and fertilization scheme and non-point source pollution were analyzed and calculated by field emission intensity index. The results show that the variation of displacement varies greatly under different irrigation conditions. When the irrigation water increased from 22cm to 42cm, the irrigation water increased by 20 cm while the field displacement increased by 11.92 cm, about 66.22% of the added value of irrigation water. Then the irrigation water increased from 42 to 68, irrigation water increased 26 cm, and the field displacement increased by 22.48 cm, accounting for 86.46% of irrigation water. So there is an "inflection point" between the irrigation water amount and field displacement amount. The load intensity increases with the increase of irrigation water and shows a significant power correlation. Under the different irrigation condition, the increase amplitude of load intensity with the increase of irrigation water is different. When the irrigation water is smaller, the load intensity increase relatively less, and when the irrigation water increased to about 42 cm, the load intensity will increase considerably. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the fertilization and load intensity. The load intensity had obvious difference in different fertilization modes even with same fertilization level, in which the fertilizer field unit load intensity

  11. Qupe--a Rich Internet Application to take a step forward in the analysis of mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaum, Stefan P; Neuweger, Heiko; Fränzel, Benjamin; Lange, Sita; Mertens, Dominik; Trötschel, Christian; Wolters, Dirk; Kalinowski, Jörn; Nattkemper, Tim W; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    The goal of present -omics sciences is to understand biological systems as a whole in terms of interactions of the individual cellular components. One of the main building blocks in this field of study is proteomics where tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination with isotopic labelling techniques provides a common way to obtain a direct insight into regulation at the protein level. Methods to identify and quantify the peptides contained in a sample are well established, and their output usually results in lists of identified proteins and calculated relative abundance values. The next step is to move ahead from these abstract lists and apply statistical inference methods to compare measurements, to identify genes that are significantly up- or down-regulated, or to detect clusters of proteins with similar expression profiles. We introduce the Rich Internet Application (RIA) Qupe providing comprehensive data management and analysis functions for LC-MS/MS experiments. Starting with the import of mass spectra data the system guides the experimenter through the process of protein identification by database search, the calculation of protein abundance ratios, and in particular, the statistical evaluation of the quantification results including multivariate analysis methods such as analysis of variance or hierarchical cluster analysis. While a data model to store these results has been developed, a well-defined programming interface facilitates the integration of novel approaches. A compute cluster is utilized to distribute computationally intensive calculations, and a web service allows to interchange information with other -omics software applications. To demonstrate that Qupe represents a step forward in quantitative proteomics analysis an application study on Corynebacterium glutamicum has been carried out. Qupe is implemented in Java utilizing Hibernate, Echo2, R and the Spring framework. We encourage the usage of the RIA in the sense of the 'software as a

  12. A Quantitative Examination of User Experience as an Antecedent to Student Perception in Technology Acceptance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rory

    2013-01-01

    Internet-enabled mobile devices have increased the accessibility of learning content for students. Given the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing technology, a thorough understanding of the acceptance factors that impact a learner's intention to use mobile technology as an augment to their studies is warranted. Student acceptance of mobile…

  13. Thermal-hydraulic Experiments for Advanced Physical Model Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chulhwa

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of prediction models is needed to enhance the safety analysis capability through experimental database of local phenomena. To improve the two-phase interfacial area transport model, the various experiments were carried out with local two-phase interfacial structure test facilities. 2 Χ 2 and 6 Χ 6 rod bundle test facilities were used for the experiment on the droplet behavior. The experiments on the droplet behavior inside a heated rod bundle geometry. The experiments used GIRLS and JICO and CFD analysis were carried out to comprehend the local condensation of steam jet, turbulent jet induced by condensation and the thermal mixing in a pool. In order to develop a model for key phenomena of newly adapted safety system, experiments for boiling inside a pool and condensation in horizontal channel have been performed. An experimental database of the CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and PDO (Post-dryout) was constructed. The mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by surface modifications in nano-fluid was investigated in boiling mode and rapid quenching mode. The special measurement techniques were developed. They are Double-sensor optical void probe, Optic Rod, PIV technique and UBIM system

  14. Quantitative Comparison of Effects of Dofetilide, Sotalol, Quinidine, and Verapamil between Human Ex vivo Trabeculae and In silico Ventricular Models Incorporating Inter-Individual Action Potential Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Britton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:In silico modeling could soon become a mainstream method of pro-arrhythmic risk assessment in drug development. However, a lack of human-specific data and appropriate modeling techniques has previously prevented quantitative comparison of drug effects between in silico models and recordings from human cardiac preparations. Here, we directly compare changes in repolarization biomarkers caused by dofetilide, dl-sotalol, quinidine, and verapamil, between in silico populations of human ventricular cell models and ex vivo human ventricular trabeculae.Methods and Results:Ex vivo recordings from human ventricular trabeculae in control conditions were used to develop populations of in silico human ventricular cell models that integrated intra- and inter-individual variability in action potential (AP biomarker values. Models were based on the O'Hara-Rudy ventricular cardiomyocyte model, but integrated experimental AP variability through variation in underlying ionic conductances. Changes to AP duration, triangulation and early after-depolarization occurrence from application of the four drugs at multiple concentrations and pacing frequencies were compared between simulations and experiments. To assess the impact of variability in IC50 measurements, and the effects of including state-dependent drug binding dynamics, each drug simulation was repeated with two different IC50 datasets, and with both the original O'Hara-Rudy hERG model and a recently published state-dependent model of hERG and hERG block. For the selective hERG blockers dofetilide and sotalol, simulation predictions of AP prolongation and repolarization abnormality occurrence showed overall good agreement with experiments. However, for multichannel blockers quinidine and verapamil, simulations were not in agreement with experiments across all IC50 datasets and IKr block models tested. Quinidine simulations resulted in overprolonged APs and high incidence of repolarization

  15. Experiments and Modeling of G-Jitter Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, F. W.; Ramachandran, N.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    While there is a general understanding of the acceleration environment onboard an orbiting spacecraft, past research efforts in the modeling and analysis area have still not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter can use to assess how an experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling for better understanding the effect of residual gravity and gentler on experiments. The approach is to use magnetic fluids that respond to an imposed magnetic field gradient in much the same way as fluid density responds to a gravitational field. By utilizing a programmable power source in conjunction with an electromagnet, both static and dynamic body forces can be simulated in lab experiments. The paper provides an overview of the technique and includes recent results from the experiments.

  16. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, A.

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs

  17. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  18. Quantitative rainfall metrics for comparing volumetric rainfall retrievals to fine scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Scott; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Giangrande, Scott; Fridlind, Ann; Theisen, Adam; Jensen, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation processes play a significant role in the energy balance of convective systems for example, through latent heating and evaporative cooling. Heavy precipitation "cores" can also be a proxy for vigorous convection and vertical motions. However, comparisons between rainfall rate retrievals from volumetric remote sensors with forecast rain fields from high-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations are complicated by differences in the location and timing of storm morphological features. This presentation will outline a series of metrics for diagnosing the spatial variability and statistical properties of precipitation maps produced both from models and retrievals. We include existing metrics such as Contoured by Frequency Altitude Diagrams (Yuter and Houze 1995) and Statistical Coverage Products (May and Lane 2009) and propose new metrics based on morphology, cell and feature based statistics. Work presented focuses on observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains radar network consisting of three agile X-Band radar systems with a very dense coverage pattern and a C Band system providing site wide coverage. By combining multiple sensors resolutions of 250m2 can be achieved, allowing improved characterization of fine-scale features. Analyses compare data collected during the Midlattitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) with simulations of observed systems using the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model. May, P. T., and T. P. Lane, 2009: A method for using weather radar data to test cloud resolving models. Meteorological Applications, 16, 425-425, doi:10.1002/met.150, 10.1002/met.150. Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze, 1995: Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Microphysical Evolution of Florida Cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency Distributions of Vertical Velocity, Reflectivity, and Differential Reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1941-1963, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1995)1232.0.CO;2.

  19. Quantitative model of transport-aperture coordination during reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Y P; Hossain, Abul B M I; Stelmach, George E

    2008-06-01

    It has been found in our previous studies that the initiation of aperture closure during reach-to-grasp movements occurs when the hand distance to target crosses a threshold that is a function of peak aperture amplitude, hand velocity, and hand acceleration. Thus, a stable relationship between those four movement parameters is observed at the moment of aperture closure initiation. Based on the concept of optimal control of movements (Naslin 1969) and its application for reach-to-grasp movement regulation (Hoff and Arbib 1993), it was hypothesized that the mathematical equation expressing that relationship can be generalized to describe coordination between hand transport and finger aperture during the entire reach-to-grasp movement by adding aperture velocity and acceleration to the above four movement parameters. The present study examines whether this hypothesis is supported by the data obtained in experiments in which young adults performed reach-to-grasp movements in eight combinations of two reach-amplitude conditions and four movement-speed conditions. It was found that linear approximation of the mathematical model described the relationship among the six movement parameters for the entire aperture-closure phase with very high precision for each condition, thus supporting the hypothesis for that phase. Testing whether one mathematical model could approximate the data across all the experimental conditions revealed that it was possible to achieve the same high level of data-fitting precision only by including in the model two additional, condition-encoding parameters and using a nonlinear, artificial neural network-based approximator with two hidden layers comprising three and two neurons, respectively. This result indicates that transport-aperture coordination, as a specific relationship between the parameters of hand transport and finger aperture, significantly depends on the condition-encoding variables. The data from the aperture-opening phase also fit a

  20. Study on quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for natural gas pipelines based on fuzzy comprehensive assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zeyang; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    As an important part of national energy supply system, transmission pipelines for natural gas are possible to cause serious environmental pollution, life and property loss in case of accident. The third party damage is one of the most significant causes for natural gas pipeline system accidents, and it is very important to establish an effective quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage for reducing the number of gas pipelines operation accidents. Against the third party damage accident has the characteristics such as diversity, complexity and uncertainty, this paper establishes a quantitative risk assessment model of the third party damage based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). Firstly, risk sources of third party damage should be identified exactly, and the weight of factors could be determined via improved AHP, finally the importance of each factor is calculated by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The results show that the quantitative risk assessment model is suitable for the third party damage of natural gas pipelines and improvement measures could be put forward to avoid accidents based on the importance of each factor. (paper)

  1. First experiments results about the engineering model of Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, A.; Ginier, R.; Sauvage, M.

    1964-01-01

    This report deals with the first series of experiments carried out on the engineering model of Rapsodie and on an associated sodium facility set in a laboratory hall of Cadarache. It conveys more precisely: 1/ - The difficulties encountered during the erection and assembly of the engineering model and a compilation of the results of the first series of experiments and tests carried out on this installation (loading of the subassemblies preheating, thermal chocks...). 2/ - The experiments and tests carried out on the two prototypes control rod drive mechanisms which brought to the choice for the design of the definitive drive mechanism. As a whole, the results proved the validity of the general design principles adopted for Rapsodie. (authors) [fr

  2. Assessment of the Eu migration experiments and their modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2001-01-01

    The humic acid transport of heavy metals in underground water was investigated in laboratory experiments using the lanthanide Eu in the form of 152 Eu 3+ , which is both a model heavy metal and an indicator for assessing the potential hazards of ultimate storage sites for radioactive waste [de

  3. Breakthrough without subsidies? : PV business model experiments in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a lack of steady governmental support for PV in the Netherlands over the last decade, from 2008 onwards an increased number of initiatives started experimenting with new business models for PV. Though absolute numbers of installed capacity are still low, this is a promising sign. In this

  4. Design of spatial experiments: Model fitting and prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.V.

    1996-03-01

    The main objective of the paper is to describe and develop model oriented methods and algorithms for the design of spatial experiments. Unlike many other publications in this area, the approach proposed here is essentially based on the ideas of convex design theory.

  5. The LHCf experiment modelling cosmic rays at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; D'Alessandro, R; Faus, A; Fukui, K; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Mizuishi, M; Menjo, H; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S B; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Tamura, T; Taki, K; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, K

    2008-01-01

    The LHCf experiment at LHC has been designed to provide a calibration of nuclear interaction models used in cosmic ray physics up to energies relevant to test the region between the knee and the GZK cut-off. Details of the detector and its performances are discussed.

  6. A quantitative modeling of the contributions of localized surface plasmon resonance and interband transitions to absorbance of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Y. C.; Liu, Y.; Fung, S.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative modeling of the contributions of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and interband transitions to absorbance of gold nanoparticles has been achieved based on Lorentz–Drude dispersion function and Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximation. The contributions are well modeled with three Lorentz oscillators. Influence of the structural properties of the gold nanoparticles on the LSPR and interband transitions has been examined. In addition, the dielectric function of the gold nanoparticles has been extracted from the modeling to absorbance, and it is found to be consistent with the result yielded from the spectroscopic ellipsometric analysis.

  7. Social Experiences of Beginning Braille Readers in Literacy Activities: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Erin, Jane N.; Barclay, Lizbeth; Sitar, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-design investigation examined the social experiences of beginning braille readers who were initially taught contracted or alphabetic braille in literacy activities as part of the ABC Braille Study. No differences in the quality or quantity of social experiences were found between the two groups over time. (Contains 4 tables.)

  8. Quantitative global sensitivity analysis of a biologically based dose-response pregnancy model for the thyroid endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumen, Annie; McNally, Kevin; George, Nysia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Loizou, George D

    2015-01-01

    A deterministic biologically based dose-response model for the thyroidal system in a near-term pregnant woman and the fetus was recently developed to evaluate quantitatively thyroid hormone perturbations. The current work focuses on conducting a quantitative global sensitivity analysis on this complex model to identify and characterize the sources and contributions of uncertainties in the predicted model output. The workflow and methodologies suitable for computationally expensive models, such as the Morris screening method and Gaussian Emulation processes, were used for the implementation of the global sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity indices, such as main, total and interaction effects, were computed for a screened set of the total thyroidal system descriptive model input parameters. Furthermore, a narrower sub-set of the most influential parameters affecting the model output of maternal thyroid hormone levels were identified in addition to the characterization of their overall and pair-wise parameter interaction quotients. The characteristic trends of influence in model output for each of these individual model input parameters over their plausible ranges were elucidated using Gaussian Emulation processes. Through global sensitivity analysis we have gained a better understanding of the model behavior and performance beyond the domains of observation by the simultaneous variation in model inputs over their range of plausible uncertainties. The sensitivity analysis helped identify parameters that determine the driving mechanisms of the maternal and fetal iodide kinetics, thyroid function and their interactions, and contributed to an improved understanding of the system modeled. We have thus demonstrated the use and application of global sensitivity analysis for a biologically based dose-response model for sensitive life-stages such as pregnancy that provides richer information on the model and the thyroidal system modeled compared to local sensitivity analysis.

  9. Quantitative global sensitivity analysis of a biologically based dose-response pregnancy model for the thyroid endocrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eLumen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic biologically based dose-response model for the thyroidal system in a near-term pregnant woman and the fetus was recently developed to evaluate quantitatively thyroid hormone perturbations. The current work focuses on conducting a quantitative global sensitivity analysis on this complex model to identify and characterize the sources and contributions of uncertainties in the predicted model output. The workflow and methodologies suitable for computationally expensive models, such as the Morris screening method and Gaussian Emulation processes, were used for the implementation of the global sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity indices, such as main, total and interaction effects, were computed for a screened set of the total thyroidal system descriptive model input parameters. Furthermore, a narrower sub-set of the most influential parameters affecting the model output of maternal thyroid hormone levels were identified in addition to the characterization of their overall and pair-wise parameter interaction quotients. The characteristic trends of influence in model output for each of these individual model input parameters over their plausible ranges were elucidated using Gaussian Emulation processes. Through global sensitivity analysis we have gained a better understanding of the model behavior and performance beyond the domains of observation by the simultaneous variation in model inputs over their range of plausible uncertainties. The sensitivity analysis helped identify parameters that determine the driving mechanisms of the maternal and fetal iodide kinetics, thyroid function and their interactions, and contributed to an improved understanding of the system modeled. We have thus demonstrated the use and application of global sensitivity analysis for a biologically based dose-response model for sensitive life-stages such as pregnancy that provides richer information on the model and the thyroidal system modeled compared to local

  10. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  11. Modeling optical behavior of birefringent biological tissues for evaluation of quantitative polarized light microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM) is a popular tool for the investigation of birefringent architectures in biological tissues. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, is such a birefringent material. Interpretation of results of qPLM in terms of collagen network architecture and

  12. Toward quantitative prediction of charge mobility in organic semiconductors: tunneling enabled hopping model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Peng, Qian; Wang, Linjun; Li, Haijiao; Liao, Yi; Ma, Zhiying; Shuai, Zhigang

    2012-07-10

    A tunneling-enabled hopping mechanism is proposed, providing a pratical tool to quantitatively assess charge mobility in organic semiconductors. The paradoxical phenomena in TIPS-pentacene is well explained in that the optical probe indicates localized charges while transport measurements show bands of charge. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 76 FR 28819 - NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software Reliability Models for Digital Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0109] NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software...: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued for public comment a document entitled: NUREG/CR-XXXX...-XXXX is available electronically under ADAMS Accession Number ML111020087. Federal Rulemaking Web Site...

  14. A Quantitative Comparative Study of Blended and Traditional Models in the Secondary Advanced Placement Statistics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Susan T.

    2017-01-01

    Technology is becoming an integral tool in the classroom and can make a positive impact on how the students learn. This quantitative comparative research study examined gender-based differences among secondary Advanced Placement (AP) Statistic students comparing Educational Testing Service (ETS) College Board AP Statistic examination scores…

  15. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  16. The Nucleation and Propagation of Thrust Ramps: Insights from Quantitative Analysis of Frictional Analog (Sandbox) Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, P.; Haq, S. S.; Marshak, S.

    2012-12-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) provides a unique opportunity to analyze deformation in sandbox analog models at a scale that allows documentation of movement within and around individual shear structures. We employed PIV analysis to quantify deformation in sandbox experiments designed to simulate the initiation of thrust ramps developed during crustal shortening (i.e., contractional deformation). Our intent was to answer a long-standing question: Do ramps initiate at the tip of a detachment, or do they initiate in the interior of a deforming layer and propagate up-dip and down-dip until they link to the detachment at a location to the hinterland of the detachment's tip line? Most geometric studies of ramp-flat geometries in fold-thrust belts assume that ramps propagate up-dip from the tip of the detachment, and grow only in one direction. Field studies, in contrast, reveal that layer-parallel shortening structures develop to the foreland of the last ramp to form, suggesting that ramps initiate in a thrust sheet that has already undergone displacement above a detachment. Published sandbox models, using color-sand marker layers, support this idea. To test this idea further, we set up a model using a 3 m-long by 0.31-m wide glass-walled sandbox with a rigid backstop. The sand layer was sifted onto a sheet of mylar that could be pulled beneath the rigid backstop. Sand used in our experiments consisted of <250 μm-diameter grains. We carried out multiple runs using 4 cm, 5 cm and 6 cm-thick layers. Images were acquired over 1 mm displacement intervals using an 18 mega-pixel camera. By moving the camera at specific steps during the experiment, we sampled the development of several thrust ramps. The images taken during experimental runs were analyzed with a MATLAB-based program called 'PIV LAB' that utilizes an image cross-correlation subroutine to determine displacement fields of the sand particles. Our results demonstrate that: (1) thrust ramps initiate within the

  17. Quantitative evaluation of the risk induced by dominant geomorphological processes on different land uses, based on GIS spatial analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ştefan, Bilaşco; Sanda, Roşca; Ioan, Fodorean; Iuliu, Vescan; Sorin, Filip; Dănuţ, Petrea

    2017-12-01

    Maramureş Land is mostly characterized by agricultural and forestry land use due to its specific configuration of topography and its specific pedoclimatic conditions. Taking into consideration the trend of the last century from the perspective of land management, a decrease in the surface of agricultural lands to the advantage of built-up and grass lands, as well as an accelerated decrease in the forest cover due to uncontrolled and irrational forest exploitation, has become obvious. The field analysis performed on the territory of Maramureş Land has highlighted a high frequency of two geomorphologic processes — landslides and soil erosion — which have a major negative impact on land use due to their rate of occurrence. The main aim of the present study is the GIS modeling of the two geomorphologic processes, determining a state of vulnerability (the USLE model for soil erosion and a quantitative model based on the morphometric characteristics of the territory, derived from the HG. 447/2003) and their integration in a complex model of cumulated vulnerability identification. The modeling of the risk exposure was performed using a quantitative approach based on models and equations of spatial analysis, which were developed with modeled raster data structures and primary vector data, through a matrix highlighting the correspondence between vulnerability and land use classes. The quantitative analysis of the risk was performed by taking into consideration the exposure classes as modeled databases and the land price as a primary alphanumeric database using spatial analysis techniques for each class by means of the attribute table. The spatial results highlight the territories with a high risk to present geomorphologic processes that have a high degree of occurrence and represent a useful tool in the process of spatial planning.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of the risk induced by dominant geomorphological processes on different land uses, based on GIS spatial analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ştefan, Bilaşco; Sanda, Roşca; Ioan, Fodorean; Iuliu, Vescan; Sorin, Filip; Dănuţ, Petrea

    2018-06-01

    Maramureş Land is mostly characterized by agricultural and forestry land use due to its specific configuration of topography and its specific pedoclimatic conditions. Taking into consideration the trend of the last century from the perspective of land management, a decrease in the surface of agricultural lands to the advantage of built-up and grass lands, as well as an accelerated decrease in the forest cover due to uncontrolled and irrational forest exploitation, has become obvious. The field analysis performed on the territory of Maramureş Land has highlighted a high frequency of two geomorphologic processes — landslides and soil erosion — which have a major negative impact on land use due to their rate of occurrence. The main aim of the present study is the GIS modeling of the two geomorphologic processes, determining a state of vulnerability (the USLE model for soil erosion and a quantitative model based on the morphometric characteristics of the territory, derived from the HG. 447/2003) and their integration in a complex model of cumulated vulnerability identification. The modeling of the risk exposure was performed using a quantitative approach based on models and equations of spatial analysis, which were developed with modeled raster data structures and primary vector data, through a matrix highlighting the correspondence between vulnerability and land use classes. The quantitative analysis of the risk was performed by taking into consideration the exposure classes as modeled databases and the land price as a primary alphanumeric database using spatial analysis techniques for each class by means of the attribute table. The spatial results highlight the territories with a high risk to present geomorphologic processes that have a high degree of occurrence and represent a useful tool in the process of spatial planning.

  19. Vibrational kinetics in CO electric discharge lasers - Modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A. C.; Hanson, R. K.; Mitchner, M.

    1980-01-01

    A model of CO laser vibrational kinetics is developed, and predicted vibrational distributions are compared with measurements. The experimental distributions were obtained at various flow locations in a transverse CW discharge in supersonic (M = 3) flow. Good qualitative agreement is obtained in the comparisons, including the prediction of a total inversion at low discharge current densities. The major area of discrepancy is an observed loss in vibrational energy downstream of the discharge which is not predicted by the model. This discrepancy may be due to three-dimensional effects in the experiment which are not included in the model. Possible kinetic effects which may contribute to vibrational energy loss are also examined.

  20. Modelling and Experiments of a Standing Wave Piezomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Helbo, Jan; Blanke, Mogens

    The paper presents a new contact model for standing wave piezomotors. The contact model is based on the Hertz theory for normal contact deformations and elastic contact theory for tangential loads. The contact theory is simplified into a model with discrete springs for normal and tangential loads...... which allows the calculation of slip/stick transitions. Simulations show that tip trajectories in general cannot be prescribed. The paper presents the principle of a bending resonator. Experiments indicate that the bending vibrations are too small to generate rotor rotations. However, due to unintended...

  1. Modelling and Experiments of a Standing Wave Piezomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Andersen, Brian; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a new contact model for standing wave piezomotors. The contact model is based on the Hertz theory for normal contact deformations and elastic contact theory for tangential loads. The contact theory is simplified into a model with discrete springs for normal and tangential loads...... which allows the calculation of slip/stick transitions. Simulations show that tip trajectories in general cannot be prescribed. The paper presents the principle of a bending resonator. Experiments indicate that the bending vibrations are too small to generate rotor rotations. However, due to unintended...

  2. Turkish experience with the use of IAEA planning models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikret, H.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the IAEA planning methodologies for energy and electricity planning have been transferred to Turkey as part of Technical Co-operation projects on the subject matter. The transfer has been supplemented by adequate training to national experts through their participation in the above projects and in the training courses on these models organized by the IAEA. The experience gathered in the use of these models in Turkey is described in this paper, highlighting how the models are imbedded in the country's planning procedure for energy and electricity matters. (author). 7 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Turkish experience with the use of IAEA planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fikret, H [Ministry of Energy and Natural Resouces, Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    Most of the IAEA planning methodologies for energy and electricity planning have been transferred to Turkey as part of Technical Co-operation projects on the subject matter. The transfer has been supplemented by adequate training to national experts through their participation in the above projects and in the training courses on these models organized by the IAEA. The experience gathered in the use of these models in Turkey is described in this paper, highlighting how the models are imbedded in the country`s planning procedure for energy and electricity matters. (author). 7 figs, 6 tabs.

  4. PARAMETRIC MODELING, CREATIVITY, AND DESIGN: TWO EXPERIENCES WITH ARCHITECTURE’ STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Florio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reflect on the use of the parametric modeling in two didactic experiences. The first experiment involved resources of the Paracloud program and its relation with the Rhinoceros program, that resulted in the production of physical models produced with the aid of the laser cutting. In the second experiment, the students had produced algorithms in the Grasshopper, resulting in families of structures and coverings. The study objects are both the physical models and digital algorithms resultants from this experimentation. For the analysis and synthesis of the results, we adopted four important assumptions: 1. the value of attitudes and environment of work; 2. the importance of experimentation and improvisation; 3. understanding of the design process as a situated act and as a ill-defined problem; 4. the inclusion of creative and critical thought in the disciplines. The results allow us to affirm that the parametric modeling stimulates creativity, therefore allowing combination of different parameters, that result in unexpected discoveries. Keywords: Teach-Learning, Parametric Modeling, Laser Cutter, Grasshopper, Design Process, Creativity.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model and its application in analysis of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper fill the gap in nonlinear dynamics model in terms of qualitative and quantitative combined methods, allowing the qualitative model and quantitative model to perfectly combine and overcome their weaknesses by learning from each other. These two types of models use their strengths to make up for the other’s deficiencies. The qualitative and quantitative combined models can surmount the weakness that the qualitative model cannot be applied and verified in a quantitative manner, and the high costs and long time of multiple construction as well as verification of the quantitative model. The combined model is more practical and efficient, which is of great significance for nonlinear dynamics. The qualitative and quantitative combined modeling and model analytical method raised in this paper is not only applied to nonlinear dynamics, but can be adopted and drawn on in the modeling and model analysis of other fields. Additionally, the analytical method of qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper can satisfactorily resolve the problems with the price system’s existing nonlinear dynamics model analytical method. The three-dimensional dynamics model of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate established in this paper make estimates about the best commodity prices using the model results, thereby providing a theoretical basis for the government’s macro-control of price. Meanwhile, this model also offer theoretical guidance to how to enhance people’s purchasing power and consumption levels through price regulation and hence to improve people’s living standards.

  6. Large-Scale Survey Findings Inform Patients’ Experiences in Using Secure Messaging to Engage in Patient-Provider Communication and Self-Care Management: A Quantitative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nitin R; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background Secure email messaging is part of a national transformation initiative in the United States to promote new models of care that support enhanced patient-provider communication. To date, only a limited number of large-scale studies have evaluated users’ experiences in using secure email messaging. Objective To quantitatively assess veteran patients’ experiences in using secure email messaging in a large patient sample. Methods A cross-sectional mail-delivered paper-and-pencil survey study was conducted with a sample of respondents identified as registered for the Veteran Health Administrations’ Web-based patient portal (My HealtheVet) and opted to use secure messaging. The survey collected demographic data, assessed computer and health literacy, and secure messaging use. Analyses conducted on survey data include frequencies and proportions, chi-square tests, and one-way analysis of variance. Results The majority of respondents (N=819) reported using secure messaging 6 months or longer (n=499, 60.9%). They reported secure messaging to be helpful for completing medication refills (n=546, 66.7%), managing appointments (n=343, 41.9%), looking up test results (n=350, 42.7%), and asking health-related questions (n=340, 41.5%). Notably, some respondents reported using secure messaging to address sensitive health topics (n=67, 8.2%). Survey responses indicated that younger age (P=.039) and higher levels of education (P=.025) and income (P=.003) were associated with more frequent use of secure messaging. Females were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, compared with their male counterparts (P=.098). Minorities were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, at least once a month, compared with nonminorities (P=.086). Individuals with higher levels of health literacy reported more frequent use of secure messaging (P=.007), greater satisfaction (P=.002), and indicated that secure messaging is a useful (P=.002) and easy

  7. Large-Scale Survey Findings Inform Patients' Experiences in Using Secure Messaging to Engage in Patient-Provider Communication and Self-Care Management: A Quantitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie N; Patel, Nitin R; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole

    2015-12-21

    Secure email messaging is part of a national transformation initiative in the United States to promote new models of care that support enhanced patient-provider communication. To date, only a limited number of large-scale studies have evaluated users' experiences in using secure email messaging. To quantitatively assess veteran patients' experiences in using secure email messaging in a large patient sample. A cross-sectional mail-delivered paper-and-pencil survey study was conducted with a sample of respondents identified as registered for the Veteran Health Administrations' Web-based patient portal (My HealtheVet) and opted to use secure messaging. The survey collected demographic data, assessed computer and health literacy, and secure messaging use. Analyses conducted on survey data include frequencies and proportions, chi-square tests, and one-way analysis of variance. The majority of respondents (N=819) reported using secure messaging 6 months or longer (n=499, 60.9%). They reported secure messaging to be helpful for completing medication refills (n=546, 66.7%), managing appointments (n=343, 41.9%), looking up test results (n=350, 42.7%), and asking health-related questions (n=340, 41.5%). Notably, some respondents reported using secure messaging to address sensitive health topics (n=67, 8.2%). Survey responses indicated that younger age (P=.039) and higher levels of education (P=.025) and income (P=.003) were associated with more frequent use of secure messaging. Females were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, compared with their male counterparts (P=.098). Minorities were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, at least once a month, compared with nonminorities (P=.086). Individuals with higher levels of health literacy reported more frequent use of secure messaging (P=.007), greater satisfaction (P=.002), and indicated that secure messaging is a useful (P=.002) and easy-to-use (P≤.001) communication tool, compared

  8. Drilling in tempered glass – modelling and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    The present paper reports experimentally and numerically obtained results for the process of drilling in tempered glass. The experimental results are drilling depths on the edge in 19mm tempered glass with a known residual stress state measured by a scattered light polariscope. The experiments have...... been modelled using a state-of-the-art model and compared with satisfying result to the performed experiments. The numerical model has been used for a parametric study, investigating the redistribution of residual stresses during the process of drilling. This is done for investigating the possibility...... of applying forces in such holes and thereby being able to mechanically assemble tempered glass without the need of drilling holes before the tempering process. The paper is the result of currently ongoing research and the results should be treated as so....

  9. Equation of state experiments and theory relevant to planetary modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Graboske, H.C. Jr.; Nellis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years there have been a number of static and shockwave experiments on the properties of planetary materials. The highest pressure measurements, and the ones most relevant to planetary modelling, have been obtained by shock compression. Of particular interest to the Jovian group are results for H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 . Although the properties of metallic hydrogen have not been measured, they have been the subject of extensive calculations. In addition recent shock wave experiments on iron report to have detected melting under Earth core conditions. From this data theoretical models have been developed for computing the equations of state of materials used in planetary studies. A compelling feature that has followed from the use of improved material properties is a simplification in the planetary models. (author)

  10. Modelling the Grimsel migration field experiments at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.

    1997-01-01

    For several years tracer migration experiments have been performed at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site as a joint undertaking of Nagra, PNC and PSI. The aims of modelling the migration experiments are (1) to better understand the nuclide transport through crystalline rock; (2) to gain information on validity of methods and correlating parameters; (3) to improve models for safety assessments. The PSI modelling results, presented here, show a consistent picture for the investigated tracers (the non-sorbing uranine, the weakly sorbing sodium, the moderately sorbing strontium and the more strongly sorbing cesium). They represent an important step in building up confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  11. [Influence of Spectral Pre-Processing on PLS Quantitative Model of Detecting Cu in Navel Orange by LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Lin-tao; Liu, Mu-hua; Huang, Lin; Yao, Ming-yin; Chen, Tian-bing; He, Xiu-wen; Yang, Ping; Hu, Hui-qin; Nie, Jiang-hui

    2015-05-01

    Cu in navel orange was detected rapidly by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) for quantitative analysis, then the effect on the detection accuracy of the model with different spectral data ptetreatment methods was explored. Spectral data for the 52 Gannan navel orange samples were pretreated by different data smoothing, mean centralized and standard normal variable transform. Then 319~338 nm wavelength section containing characteristic spectral lines of Cu was selected to build PLS models, the main evaluation indexes of models such as regression coefficient (r), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were compared and analyzed. Three indicators of PLS model after 13 points smoothing and processing of the mean center were found reaching 0. 992 8, 3. 43 and 3. 4 respectively, the average relative error of prediction model is only 5. 55%, and in one word, the quality of calibration and prediction of this model are the best results. The results show that selecting the appropriate data pre-processing method, the prediction accuracy of PLS quantitative model of fruits and vegetables detected by LIBS can be improved effectively, providing a new method for fast and accurate detection of fruits and vegetables by LIBS.

  12. Machine learning-based kinetic modeling: a robust and reproducible solution for quantitative analysis of dynamic PET data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leyun; Cheng, Caixia; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2017-05-07

    A variety of compartment models are used for the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. Traditionally, these models use an iterative fitting (IF) method to find the least squares between the measured and calculated values over time, which may encounter some problems such as the overfitting of model parameters and a lack of reproducibility, especially when handling noisy data or error data. In this paper, a machine learning (ML) based kinetic modeling method is introduced, which can fully utilize a historical reference database to build a moderate kinetic model directly dealing with noisy data but not trying to smooth the noise in the image. Also, due to the database, the presented method is capable of automatically adjusting the models using a multi-thread grid parameter searching technique. Furthermore, a candidate competition concept is proposed to combine the advantages of the ML and IF modeling methods, which could find a balance between fitting to historical data and to the unseen target curve. The machine learning based method provides a robust and reproducible solution that is user-independent for VOI-based and pixel-wise quantitative analysis of dynamic PET data.

  13. Novel Uses of In Vitro Data to Develop Quantitative Biological Activity Relationship Models for in Vivo Carcinogenicity Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Prachi; Povinelli, Richard J; Merrill, Stephen J; Bozdag, Serdar; Sem, Daniel S

    2015-04-01

    The availability of large in vitro datasets enables better insight into the mode of action of chemicals and better identification of potential mechanism(s) of toxicity. Several studies have shown that not all in vitro assays can contribute as equal predictors of in vivo carcinogenicity for development of hybrid Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. We propose two novel approaches for the use of mechanistically relevant in vitro assay data in the identification of relevant biological descriptors and development of Quantitative Biological Activity Relationship (QBAR) models for carcinogenicity prediction. We demonstrate that in vitro assay data can be used to develop QBAR models for in vivo carcinogenicity prediction via two case studies corroborated with firm scientific rationale. The case studies demonstrate the similarities between QBAR and QSAR modeling in: (i) the selection of relevant descriptors to be used in the machine learning algorithm, and (ii) the development of a computational model that maps chemical or biological descriptors to a toxic endpoint. The results of both the case studies show: (i) improved accuracy and sensitivity which is especially desirable under regulatory requirements, and (ii) overall adherence with the OECD/REACH guidelines. Such mechanism based models can be used along with QSAR models for prediction of mechanistically complex toxic endpoints. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Machine learning-based kinetic modeling: a robust and reproducible solution for quantitative analysis of dynamic PET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leyun; Cheng, Caixia; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2017-05-01

    A variety of compartment models are used for the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. Traditionally, these models use an iterative fitting (IF) method to find the least squares between the measured and calculated values over time, which may encounter some problems such as the overfitting of model parameters and a lack of reproducibility, especially when handling noisy data or error data. In this paper, a machine learning (ML) based kinetic modeling method is introduced, which can fully utilize a historical reference database to build a moderate kinetic model directly dealing with noisy data but not trying to smooth the noise in the image. Also, due to the database, the presented method is capable of automatically adjusting the models using a multi-thread grid parameter searching technique. Furthermore, a candidate competition concept is proposed to combine the advantages of the ML and IF modeling methods, which could find a balance between fitting to historical data and to the unseen target curve. The machine learning based method provides a robust and reproducible solution that is user-independent for VOI-based and pixel-wise quantitative analysis of dynamic PET data.

  15. ExSTA: External Standard Addition Method for Accurate High-Throughput Quantitation in Targeted Proteomics Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yassene; Pan, Jingxi; Zhang, Suping; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H

    2018-03-01

    Targeted proteomics using MRM with stable-isotope-labeled internal-standard (SIS) peptides is the current method of choice for protein quantitation in complex biological matrices. Better quantitation can be achieved with the internal standard-addition method, where successive increments of synthesized natural form (NAT) of the endogenous analyte are added to each sample, a response curve is generated, and the endogenous concentration is determined at the x-intercept. Internal NAT-addition, however, requires multiple analyses of each sample, resulting in increased sample consumption and analysis time. To compare the following three methods, an MRM assay for 34 high-to-moderate abundance human plasma proteins is used: classical internal SIS-addition, internal NAT-addition, and external NAT-addition-generated in buffer using NAT and SIS peptides. Using endogenous-free chicken plasma, the accuracy is also evaluated. The internal NAT-addition outperforms the other two in precision and accuracy. However, the curves derived by internal vs. external NAT-addition differ by only ≈3.8% in slope, providing comparable accuracies and precision with good CV values. While the internal NAT-addition method may be "ideal", this new external NAT-addition can be used to determine the concentration of high-to-moderate abundance endogenous plasma proteins, providing a robust and cost-effective alternative for clinical analyses or other high-throughput applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Defect evolution in cosmology and condensed matter quantitative analysis with the velocity-dependent one-scale model

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2016-01-01

    This book sheds new light on topological defects in widely differing systems, using the Velocity-Dependent One-Scale Model to better understand their evolution. Topological defects – cosmic strings, monopoles, domain walls or others - necessarily form at cosmological (and condensed matter) phase transitions. If they are stable and long-lived they will be fossil relics of higher-energy physics. Understanding their behaviour and consequences is a key part of any serious attempt to understand the universe, and this requires modelling their evolution. The velocity-dependent one-scale model is the only fully quantitative model of defect network evolution, and the canonical model in the field. This book provides a review of the model, explaining its physical content and describing its broad range of applicability.

  17. Discrete fracture modelling for the Stripa tracer validation experiment predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, W.; Wallmann, P.

    1992-02-01

    Groundwater flow and transport through three-dimensional networks of discrete fractures was modeled to predict the recovery of tracer from tracer injection experiments conducted during phase 3 of the Stripa site characterization and validation protect. Predictions were made on the basis of an updated version of the site scale discrete fracture conceptual model used for flow predictions and preliminary transport modelling. In this model, individual fractures were treated as stochastic features described by probability distributions of geometric and hydrologic properties. Fractures were divided into three populations: Fractures in fracture zones near the drift, non-fracture zone fractures within 31 m of the drift, and fractures in fracture zones over 31 meters from the drift axis. Fractures outside fracture zones are not modelled beyond 31 meters from the drift axis. Transport predictions were produced using the FracMan discrete fracture modelling package for each of five tracer experiments. Output was produced in the seven formats specified by the Stripa task force on fracture flow modelling. (au)

  18. Physiological role of Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocyte cell investigated quantitatively by kinetic modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Hou

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 channel is a delayed rectifier channel abundant in human T lymphocytes. Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders lead to the over-expression of Kv1.3 in T cells. To quantitatively study the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of Kv1.3 in T cells, it is necessary to have a precise kinetic model of Kv1.3. In this study, we firstly established a kinetic model capable to precisely replicate all the kinetic features for Kv1.3 channels, and then constructed a T-cell model composed of ion channels including Ca2+-release activated calcium (CRAC channel, intermediate K+ (IK channel, TASK channel and Kv1.3 channel for quantitatively simulating the changes in membrane potentials and local Ca2+ signaling messengers during activation of T cells. Based on the experimental data from current-clamp recordings, we successfully demonstrated that Kv1.3 dominated the membrane potential of T cells to manipulate the Ca2+ influx via CRAC channel. Our results revealed that the deficient expression of Kv1.3 channel would cause the less Ca2+ signal, leading to the less efficiency in secretion. This was the first successful attempt to simulate membrane potential in non-excitable cells, which laid a solid basis for quantitatively studying the regulatory mechanism and physiological role of channels in non-excitable cells.

  19. Dynamically Scaled Model Experiment of a Mooring Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergdahl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of mooring cables for marine structures is scale-dependent, and perfect dynamic similitude between full-scale prototypes and small-scale physical model tests is difficult to achieve. The best possible scaling is here sought by means of a specific set of dimensionless parameters, and the model accuracy is also evaluated by two alternative sets of dimensionless parameters. A special feature of the presented experiment is that a chain was scaled to have correct propagation celerity for longitudinal elastic waves, thus providing perfect geometrical and dynamic scaling in vacuum, which is unique. The scaling error due to incorrect Reynolds number seemed to be of minor importance. The 33 m experimental chain could then be considered a scaled 76 mm stud chain with the length 1240 m, i.e., at the length scale of 1:37.6. Due to the correct elastic scale, the physical model was able to reproduce the effect of snatch loads giving rise to tensional shock waves propagating along the cable. The results from the experiment were used to validate the newly developed cable-dynamics code, MooDy, which utilises a discontinuous Galerkin FEM formulation. The validation of MooDy proved to be successful for the presented experiments. The experimental data is made available here for validation of other numerical codes by publishing digitised time series of two of the experiments.

  20. Novel mathematic models for quantitative transitivity of quality-markers in extraction process of the Buyanghuanwu decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Tian; Xiao, Mei-Feng; Deng, Kai-Wen; Yang, Yan-Tao; Zhou, Yi-Qun; Zhou, Jin; He, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Wen-Long

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, to research and formulate an efficiency extraction system for Chinese herbal medicine, scientists have always been facing a great challenge for quality management, so that the transitivity of Q-markers in quantitative analysis of TCM was proposed by Prof. Liu recently. In order to improve the quality of extraction from raw medicinal materials for clinical preparations, a series of integrated mathematic models for transitivity of Q-markers in quantitative analysis of TCM were established. Buyanghuanwu decoction (BYHWD) was a commonly TCMs prescription, which was used to prevent and treat the ischemic heart and brain diseases. In this paper, we selected BYHWD as an extraction experimental subject to study the quantitative transitivity of TCM. Based on theory of Fick's Rule and Noyes-Whitney equation, novel kinetic models were established for extraction of active components. Meanwhile, fitting out kinetic equations of extracted models and then calculating the inherent parameters in material piece and Q-marker quantitative transfer coefficients, which were considered as indexes to evaluate transitivity of Q-markers in quantitative analysis of the extraction process of BYHWD. HPLC was applied to screen and analyze the potential Q-markers in the extraction process. Fick's Rule and Noyes-Whitney equation were adopted for mathematically modeling extraction process. Kinetic parameters were fitted and calculated by the Statistical Program for Social Sciences 20.0 software. The transferable efficiency was described and evaluated by potential Q-markers transfer trajectory via transitivity availability AUC, extraction ratio P, and decomposition ratio D respectively. The Q-marker was identified with AUC, P, D. Astragaloside IV, laetrile, paeoniflorin, and ferulic acid were studied as potential Q-markers from BYHWD. The relative technologic parameters were presented by mathematic models, which could adequately illustrate the inherent properties of raw materials