WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling previous studies

  1. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Ormary Barberi; Pesántez Palacios, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  2. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  3. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  4. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  5. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  6. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  7. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one's daily life? Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal de; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling) at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001) of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study), asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6), regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  8. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogataj Habjan Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  9. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  10. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  11. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  12. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  14. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  15. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  16. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  17. Previous treatment influences fingolimod efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Eleonora; Guareschi, Angelica; Vitetta, Francesca; Senesi, Caterina; Curti, Erica; Montepietra, Sara; Simone, Anna Maria; Immovilli, Paolo; Caniatti, Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Pesci, Ilaria; Montanari, Enrico; Sola, Patrizia; Granella, Franco; Motti, Luisa; Ferraro, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Fingolimod (FTY) is licensed as a disease-modifying treatment in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FTY in a real-life setting and to explore the possible role of clinical and MRI parameters, including previous treatment type, in predicting its efficacy. Clinical and MRI data was collected on 127 patients assigned to treatment with FTY in six multiple sclerosis centers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, between August 2011 and June 2013. During a mean follow-up period of 10 months (range 1-22), we observed a total of 47 relapses in 39 patients (30.7%); new T2 lesions or gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions were present at follow-up MRI in 32/71 patients (45%). Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at the end of the follow-up period was not different when compared to the baseline EDSS. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients (2.4%). A higher proportion of patients previously treated with natalizumab showed clinical (41%) or MRI activity (54%). Previous treatment with natalizumab increased the risk of a relapse within 30 days (versus immunomodulatory drugs; OR: 4.3; p = 0.011) and at survival analysis (versus remaining patients; HR: 1.9; p = 0.046). Study limitations include a small population sample, a short observation period with variable timing of follow-up MRI and different baseline characteristics of patients previously treated with natalizumab compared to those treated with immunomodulatory drugs. This study confirms the efficacy of FTY in reducing relapse rate in patients previously treated with immunomodulatory drugs, while it seems to be less effective in patients discontinuing natalizumab. Due to the short duration of follow-up it is not possible to evaluate disability progression; however, no difference was observed between the groups.

  18. Previous infection and the risk of ischaemic stroke in Italy: the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, D; Vidale, S; Aguglia, U; Bassi, P; Cavallini, A; Galati, F; Guidetti, D; Marcello, N; Micieli, G; Pracucci, G; Rasura, M; Siniscalchi, A; Sterzi, R; Toni, D; Inzitari, D

    2015-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in new risk factors for ischaemic stroke. Acute and chronic infections could contribute to different aetiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis that lead to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae in particular increase the risk of ischaemic stroke in the population. This was a prospective case-control study involving 11 Italian stroke units. Controls were age- and sex-matched with cases, represented by patients admitted to hospital for acute ischaemic stroke. For each participant classical vascular risk factors and previous inflammatory and infectious events up to 1 month before were registered. Blood samples were collected to analyse inflammatory markers and titres of antibodies against C. pneumoniae. A total of 1002 participants were included (mean age 69 years) with 749 ischaemic stroke patients. Infections occurred within 1 month previously in 12% of the entire sample with a higher prevalence in the case group (14.4% vs. 3.9%). At multivariate analysis of the seropositivity of IgA antibodies against C. pneumoniae increased the risk of stroke significantly (relative risk 2.121; 95% confidence interval 1.255-3.584) and an early previous infection (up to 7 days before the event) contributed to a rise in probability of acute cerebral ischaemia (relative risk 3.692; 95% confidence interval 1.134-6.875). Early previous infections and persistent chronic infection of C. pneumoniae could contribute to increase the risk of ischaemic stroke significantly, in the elderly especially. © 2014 EAN.

  19. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  20. HIV-related neuropsychological impairment in patients with previous substance use: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    García-Torres, Amalia; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza (UNIR); Piñón-Blanco, Adolfo; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can result in cognitive disorders that significantly interfere with the daily activities of HIV patients. These disorders may be worse when there is a history of psychoactive substance use. Our objective is to assess the neuropsychological profile in a group of HIV patients with previous drug use compared to a group of HIV-negative patients with a history of drug use. The study included a total of 28 Spanish adult subjects, of which 14 were HIV-infected and ...

  1. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  2. Cystic echinococcosis in Jordan: A review of causative species, previous studies, serological and radiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal S; Al-Radaideh, Ali M; Rababah, Eman M; Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2018-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE)/hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease which occur in human and herbivore animals as a result of infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). In human, CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world including Jordan. The present review will cover CE causative agent: E. granulosus species/genotypes; life cycle of E. granulosus parasite, all published previous studies on CE in Jordan (humans, intermediate hosts, definitive host) as well as its diagnostic methods in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Effects of previous severe exercise on two and three parameter critical power modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kokubun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply the two and three-parameter critical power model equations after depletion of a fi xed amount of anaerobic work capacity (AWC, followed by a short rest period. Sixteen subjects underwent: (1 two practice trials for ergometer familiarization to severe exercise; (2 4-5 exercise bouts on different days for the estimation of critical power (CP and AWC using the two and three parameter models; (3 the same procedures as described in stage 2 were repeated after 30 s recovery from 180 s of exercise completed at an intensity that would have elicited exhaustion in around 300 s. The CP2parameter (130-174 W versus 131-170 W and CP3parameter (108 versus 100 W estimated after prior severe exercise followed by a short rest period remained stable compared to the fatigue-free tests. The AWC2parameter was reduced in response to prior severe exercise. The AWC3parameter was not significantly reduced. The correlations between CP2parameter derived from the same equation with and without prior AWC2parameter reduction were strong (r = 0.97-0.99, P ABSTRACT O propósito do presente estudo foi aplicar as equações do modelo de potência crítica de dois e três parâmetros após a depleção de uma quantia fi xa de capacidade de trabalho anaeróbio (AWC, seguido de um período curto de repouso. Dezesseis sujeitos realizaram: (1 duas familiarizações ao exercício severo no cicloergômetro; (2 4-5 exercícios máximos em dias diferentes para a estimativa da CP e AWC por meio dos modelos de dois e três parâmetros; (3 os mesmos procedimentos descritos no #2 foram realizados após 30 s de repouso e de um exercício de 180 s a uma intensidade em que a exaustão provavelmente ocorreria em ~300 s. A CP2parameter (130-174 W versus 131-170 W e CP3parameter (108 versus 100 W estimadas após o exercício prévio severo e seguido por um curto período de repouso permaneceu estável quando comparado às estimativas sem o exercício pr

  6. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  7. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  8. Third metacarpal condylar fatigue fractures in equine athletes occur within previously modelled subchondral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, R Christopher; Trope, Gareth D; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Anderson, Garry A; Parkin, Timothy D H; Mackie, Eleanor J; Seeman, Ego

    2010-10-01

    Bone modelling and remodelling reduce the risk of fatigue fractures; the former by adapting bone to its loading circumstances, the latter by replacing fatigued bone. Remodelling transiently increases porosity because of the normal delay in onset of the formation phase of the remodelling sequence. Protracted intense loading suppresses remodelling leaving modelling as the only means of maintaining bone strength. We therefore hypothesized that race horses with fatigue fractures of the distal third metacarpal bone (MC3) will have reduced porosity associated with suppressed remodelling while continued adaptive modelling will result in higher volume fraction (BV/TV) at this site. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we measured the distal aspect of the MC3 obtained at postmortem from 13 thoroughbred race horses with condylar fractures of the MC3 (cases), 8 horses without fractures (training controls), 14 horses with a fracture at another site (fractured controls) and 9 horses resting from training (resting controls). Porosity of the subchondral bone of MC3 was lower in cases than resting controls (12±1.4% vs. 18±1.6%, P=0.017) although areas of focal porosity were observed adjacent to fractures in 6/13 horses. BV/TV of the distal metacarpal epiphysis tended to be higher in horses with condylar fractures (0.79±0.015) than training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.070), but also higher in controls with a fracture elsewhere (0.79±0.014) than the training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.040). BV/TV was higher in horses over three years of age than those aged two or three years (0.79±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01, P=0.016). All metacarpal condylar fractures occurred within focal areas of high BV/TV. We infer that intense training in equine athletes suppresses remodelling of third metacarpal subchondral bone limiting damage repair while modelling increases regional bone volume in an attempt to minimise local stresses but may fail to offset bone

  9. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. l. Review of the previous studies. 1.2. Cytology, genetics, experimental studies, and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a review of the previous studies on Dactylis L., dealing with cytology,genetics, experimental studies and evolution. Following cytotypes of Dactylis are distributed mostly in Central Europe: 16 diploids, 7 tetraploids and also 2 hexaploids in North Africa. Some aneuploids and accessory chromosomes were also found in this genus. Data dealing with karyotypes of some taxa, and geographical distribution of cytotypes are also listed. Selected problems concerning crossing within diploids as well as tetraploids and also between diploids and teraploids were presented. Some opinions regarding the evolution in the genus Dactylis were also demonstrated. In all these hypotheses the following diploids are considered to be the oldest: D. smithii Link subsp. smithii, D. g. subsp. aschersoniana (Greabn. Thell. and D. g. subsp. himalayensis Dom.

  10. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  12. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  13. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiton Augusto dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training (ET is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM. However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05. The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05, and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05. This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  14. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kleiton Augusto dos Santos; Luiz, Rafael da Silva; Rampaso, Rodolfo Rosseto; de Abreu, Nayda Parísio; Moreira, Édson Dias; Mostarda, Cristiano Teixeira; De Angelis, Kátia; de Paulo Castro Teixeira, Vicente; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Schor, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (ptrained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (ptrained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (ptrained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (ptrained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  15. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  16. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  17. A time marker instrument for kinematics movement studies: a development of previous versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a time marker to study movements in kinematics. It contributes to elaborate a version of time marker which low cost and more efficient in comparison with the marker presented in another work as well as the earlier commercial version.

  18. Modelling the response of stable water isotopes in Greenland precipitation to orbital configurations of the previous interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Sjolte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relation between δ 18O of precipitation and temperature has been used in numerous studies to reconstruct past temperatures at ice core sites in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past two decades, it has become clear that the slope between δ 18O and temperature varies in both space and time. Here, we use a general circulation model driven by changes in orbital parameters to investigate the Greenland δ 18O–temperature relation for the previous interglacial, the Eemian. In our analysis, we focus on changes in the moisture source regions, and the results underline the importance of taking the seasonality of climate change into account. The orbitally driven experiments show that continental evaporation over North America increases during summer in the warm parts of the Eemian, while marine evaporation decreases. This likely flattens the Greenland δ 18O response to temperature during summer. Since the main climate change in the experiments occurs during summer this adds to a limited response of δ 18O, which is more strongly tied to temperature during winter than during summer. A south–west to north–east gradient in the δ 18O–temperature slope is also evident for Greenland, with low slopes in the south–west and steeper slopes in the north–east. This probably reflects the proportion of continental moisture and Arctic moisture arriving in Greenland, with more continental moisture in the south–west and less in the north–east, and vice versa for the Arctic moisture.

  19. Previously published midazolam-alfentanil response surface model cannot predict patient response well in gastrointestinal endoscopy sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jing-Yang; Ting, Chien-Kun; Huang, Yu-Ying; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2016-03-01

    A response surface model is a mathematical model used to predict multiple-drug pharmacodynamic interactions. With the use of a previously published volunteer model, we tested the accuracy of the midazolam-alfentanil response surface model during gastrointestinal endoscopy. We enrolled 35 adult patients scheduled for combined endoscopic procedures. Patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam and alfentanil, and monitored with real-time auditory evoked potential. Sedation Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scores were recorded by an independent observer every 2 minutes. Patients with OAA/S scores of ≥ 4 were designated as "awake". Pharmacokinetic profiles were calculated using the TIVA trainer. The published response surface model was modified to make estimations more reasonable. Patient response (OAA/S score ≥ 4 or response during gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure sedation. Accuracy in predicting an OAA/S score of response ranged from 0.04% to 2.94% at the time of arousal (OAA/S score ≥ 4) and from 0.24% to 15.55% when the patient was asleep (OAA/S score response of patients undergoing sedated gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Future model parameter adjustments are required. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. Segmental hair analysis after a single dose of zolpidem: comparison with a previous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaopei; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Jingshuo; Shi, Yan; Shen, Baohua; Shen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Hair is a useful aid and sometimes even the only matrix in the analytical strategy in drug-facilitated crime (DFC) investigations. In this novel study, segmental hair analysis was performed after a single 10 mg dose of zolpidem was given to 20 Chinese volunteers. Hair was collected 1 month after administration and was analyzed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Zolpidem concentrations were found to be in the range of 135.0-554.6 pg/mg in the proximal 0-2 cm segments. These results were markedly different from those reported by Villain et al., who used volunteers administered equal doses of zolpidem. The analytical method used, as well as the volunteers' hair color, inter-individual variations such as metabolic capacity, hair growth rate, drug incorporation rates, physical state of the hair, age, gender, body weight, etc. and diffusion from sweat or other secretions are all factors that should be considered when interpreting the DFC results.

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  2. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Craig

    2017-06-01

    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-01-01

    Background In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Methods and results Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ? 22 weeks? gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two w...

  4. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...

  5. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  6. Use of a PBPK model with dose-dependent elimination rates predicts higher peak dioxin exposures than previously estimated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, C. [NRC, NAS, WA, DC (United States); Michalek, J.E. [Air Force Research Lab., Brooks City-Base, TX (United States); Birnbaum, L.S.; DeVito, M.J. [PKB, ETD, ORD, NHEERL U.S. EPA, RTP, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is associated with increased risk for cancer, diabetes and reproductive toxicities in numerous epidemiological studies. Several of these studies base exposure estimates on measurements of blood levels years after the accidental or occupational exposures. Peak exposures have been estimated in these studies assuming a mono or biphasic elimination rate for TCDD, with estimates of half-life ranging from 5 to 12 years. Recent clinical studies suggest that the elimination rate of TCDD is dose dependent. To address this question a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model can be used to predict the concentration of TCDD with a dose-dependent elimination rate. The aims of this study were to validate a dose-dependent elimination rate by using a PBPK model and to adequately predict the concentration of TCDD shortly after the exposure.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis in a Drosophila model identifies previously implicated and novel pathways in the therapeutic mechanism in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eSingh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have taken advantage of a newly described Drosophila model to gain insights into the potential mechanism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, a group of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric conditions besides epilepsy. In the recently described Drosophila model that is inspired by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced kindling epileptogenesis in rodents, chronic PTZ treatment for seven days causes a decreased climbing speed and an altered CNS transcriptome, with the latter mimicking gene expression alterations reported in epileptogenesis. In the model, an increased climbing speed is further observed seven days after withdrawal from chronic PTZ. We used this post-PTZ withdrawal regime to identify potential AED mechanism. In this regime, treatment with each of the five AEDs tested, namely, ethosuximide (ETH, gabapentin (GBP, vigabatrin (VGB, sodium valproate (NaVP and levetiracetam (LEV, resulted in rescuing of the altered climbing behavior. The AEDs also normalized PTZ withdrawal induced transcriptomic perturbation in fly heads; whereas AED untreated flies showed a large number of up- and down-regulated genes which were enriched in several processes including gene expression and cell communication, the AED treated flies showed differential expression of only a small number of genes that did not enrich gene expression and cell communication processes. Gene expression and cell communication related upregulated genes in AED untreated flies overrepresented several pathways - spliceosome, RNA degradation, and ribosome in the former category, and inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling, endocytosis and hedgehog signaling in the latter. Transcriptome remodeling effect of AEDs was overall confirmed by microarray clustering that clearly separated the profiles of AED treated and untreated flies. Besides being consistent with previously implicated pathways, our results provide evidence for a role of

  8. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with a metal resurfacing inlay implant after failed previous surgery: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Reilingh, M. L.; Sierevelt, I. N.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a metal resurfacing inlay implant for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous surgical treatment. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive patients with a mean age of 38 years (20 to 60), for a mean of three years (2 to 5)

  9. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  10. Previous early antenatal service utilization improves timely booking: cross-sectional study at university of Gondar hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Tadesse; Adefris, Mulat; Andargie, Gashaw

    2014-01-01

    Early booking of antenatal care (ANC) is regarded as a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health care. However, existing evidence from developing countries indicate that lots of pregnant woman begin ANC booking lately. Objective. It was aimed to assess timing of ANC booking and associated factors among pregnant women attending ANC clinic at University of Gondar Hospital, 2013. An institution based cross-sectional study design was used to collect data with a face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify associated factors for early ANC visit using SPSS version 20. From total women (N = 369) interviewed, 47.4% were timely booked. Mothers with younger age (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.89, 10.53), formal education (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03, -7.61), previous early ANC visit (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 2.23, 9.86), and perceived ANC visit per pregnancy of four and greater were significantly associated with early ANC visit. Although late booking is a problem in this study, previous early utilization of ANC visit favors current timely booking. This indicates that the importance of early booking was appropriately addressed from previous visits. Counseling of timely booking during ANC visit should be strengthened. Moreover, empowering through education is also recommended.

  11. Effect of Acupressure, Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Women With Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Previous Depression: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji; Tobe, Chiharu

    2017-06-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of acupressure, acupuncture and moxibustion (oriental treatments) to prevent of the relapse/deterioration of perinatal depression in women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression. Between 2014 and 2016, there were 48 women with pregnancy-related anxiety and previous depression who had delivery at ≥ 22 weeks' gestation in our institute. Of these, oriental treatments were performed in eight and two women (totally 10, 21%) during pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. One of the 10 (10%) who received oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum, while 18 of the rest 38 who did not receive oriental treatments admitted depressive symptoms (47%, P = 0.065). The oriental treatments may be useful for pregnant women who need perinatal mental health care.

  12. [Cervical ripening after previous cesarean section with Foley catheter: A prospective study of 41 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourdedieu, C; Gnisci, A; Marcelli, M; Heckenroth, H; Gamerre, M; Agostini, A

    2015-05-01

    Effectiveness of cervical ripening with Foley catheter for patients requiring labor induction with a previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions. Prospective unicentric study conducted between 1 April 2011 and 31 October 2013 on 41 patients with medical indication for labor induction with a Bishop's scorecesarean section. Outcomes evaluated were mode of delivery, Bishop's score variations and maternal or neonatal complications. Cervical ripening was performed in 39 patients and 17 (43.5%) were delivered vaginally. A total of 24/39 (61.5%) patients were put into work and 10/39 (25.6%) came into work immediately after removal of the Foley catheter. The average score improvement Bishop was 2.7±0.6 points. No maternal or fetal complication was reported. Foley catheter is an interesting procedure in patients with previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions requiring labor induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  14. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management.We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00].A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  15. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers.Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7.It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  16. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  17. Studies on the immune response of previously infected lambs to vaccination with the radiation attenuated Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, D.N.; Sharma, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The immune response of lambs infected with the lungworm, Dictyocaulus filaria to vaccination with the radiation attenuated D.filaria vaccine was studied under experimental conditions. Healthy, un-infected lambs, 4-6 months of age were randomly distributed into three groups. Group one lambs were previously exposed to single or trickle infections of D.filaria before being vaccinated, group two lambs were vaccinated only whereas the group three lambs received neither infection nor were vaccinated. All the lambs were subsequently challanged with normal infective D.filaria larvae. The results of the experiment indicate that the vaccine confers very little or practically no immunity in lambs already exposed to the infection. The significance of these findings in the use of the vaccine for the control of lungworm disease in sheep under field conditions is discussed. (author)

  18. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  19. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  20. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  1. A comprehensive study of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 reveals three previously unidentified alleles on the TYR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ying; Wei, Ai-Hua; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Lian, Shi; Zhu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by defects in melanin production. OCA type 1 (OCA1) is the most serious and common type of OCA. This study characterized mutations associated with OCA1 in a series of Chinese patients. We recruited 41 unrelated patients with OCA and 100 healthy subjects from the Chinese Han population. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood samples. Mutational analysis of tyrosinase (TYR) genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, specifically to test the 100 control subjects and exclude the possibility of polymorphism. Mutational analysis and bioinformatics study were performed in TYR mutations. Among the 24 (58.5%) patients with OCA1, 21 different TYR mutations were identified, including three previously unidentified alleles (PUAs): one frameshift mutation (c.216delA) and two missense mutations (A241T and N364K). The proband mutation A241T carries three possible mutations in complex OCA. The findings of this study expand current knowledge and data of mutations associated with OCA1 in China and allow us to estimate or explore the mutation spectrum and relative frequencies of the TYR gene in the Chinese population.

  2. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  3. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  4. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  5. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  6. Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) After Previous Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy Is Feasible and Safe in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Luke F; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C; Dua, Kulwinder S; Jensen, Eric S; Kastenmeier, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and difficulty of performing the per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure in the setting of a prior Heller myotomy using a survival porcine model. Four pigs underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor partial anterior fundoplication followed by the POEM performed 4 weeks later. Two additional pigs served as controls, undergoing only the POEM. All procedures were completed without complications. The revisional POEM was not significantly more difficult than POEM controls based on procedure time, POEM procedure components, or procedure difficulty scores. Revisional POEM had a longer mean operative time when compared with Heller myotomy (126.0 vs. 83.8 min; Pmyotomy is safe and feasible in the porcine model and has potential as an option for patients suffering from recurrent or persistent symptoms after failed surgical myotomy.

  7. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  8. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  9. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of previously undetected intellectual disability by psychological assessment: a study of consecutively referred child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, David L; Stokes, John; Buccolo, Martin L; Pappalardo, Stephen; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-07-01

    Intellectual disability is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances and also complicates their treatment. Despite increases in the sophistication of medical detection of early risk for intellectual disability, there is remarkably little data about the detection of intellectual disability in cases referred for psychiatric treatment. In this study, we used a 10-year sample of 23,629 consecutive child and adolescent admissions (ages between 6 and 17) to inpatient psychiatric treatment. Eleven percent (n=2621) of these cases were referred for psychological assessment and were examined with a general measure of intellectual functioning (i.e., WISC-IV). Of these cases, 16% had Full Scale IQs below 70. Of the cases whose therapists then referred them for formal assessment of their adaptive functioning (i.e., ABAS-II) 81% were found to have composite scores below 70 as well. Only one of the cases whose Full Scale IQ was less than 70 had a referral diagnosis of intellectual disability. Cases with previously undetected intellectual disability were found to be significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and less likely to have a diagnosis of mood disorder than cases with IQs over 70. Disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses did not differ as a function of intellectual performance. These data suggest a high rate of undetected intellectual disability in cases with a psychiatric condition serious enough to require hospitalization and this raises the possibility that many such cases may be misdiagnosed, the basis of their problems may be misconceptualized, and they may be receiving treatments that do not take into account their intellectual level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  12. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  13. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-03-02

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients.

  14. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  15. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  16. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  17. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  19. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  20. SARC009: Phase 2 study of dasatinib in patients with previously treated, high-grade, advanced sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Scott M; Wathen, J Kyle; Lucas, David R; Choy, Edwin; Samuels, Brian L; Staddon, Arthur P; Ganjoo, Kristen N; von Mehren, Margaret; Chow, Warren A; Loeb, David M; Tawbi, Hussein A; Rushing, Daniel A; Patel, Shreyaskumar R; Thomas, Dafydd G; Chugh, Rashmi; Reinke, Denise K; Baker, Laurence H

    2016-03-15

    Dasatinib exhibited activity in preclinical models of sarcoma. The Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration (SARC) conducted a multicenter, phase 2 trial of dasatinib in patients with advanced sarcoma. Patients received dasatinib twice daily. The primary objective was to estimate the clinical benefit rate (CBR) (complete response or partial response within 6 months or stable disease duration of ≥6 months) with a target of ≥25%. Patients were enrolled into 1 of 7 different cohorts and assessed by imaging every 8 weeks using Choi criteria tumor response and a Bayesian hierarchical design. For each subtype, enrollment was stopped after a minimum of 9 patients were treated if there was a sarcoma (UPS) cohorts fully accrued and 6 of 47 and 8 of 42 evaluable patients, respectively, exhibited clinical benefit. The probability that the CBR was ≥25% in the LMS and UPS cohorts was 0.008 and 0.10, respectively. The median progression-free survival ranged from 0.9 months in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma to 2.2 months in patients with LMS. The median overall survival was 8.6 months. The most frequent adverse events were constitutional, gastrointestinal, and respiratory, and 36% of patients required dose reduction for toxicity. Serious adverse events attributed to therapy occurred in 11% of patients. Dasatinib may have activity in patients with UPS but is inactive as a single agent in the other sarcoma subtypes included herein. The Bayesian design allowed for the early termination of accrual in 5 subtypes because of lack of drug activity. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  1. Fever-Induced Brugada Syndrome Is More Common Than Previously Suspected: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanawong, Pattara; Vutthikraivit, Wasawat; Charoensri, Attawit; Jongraksak, Tanawat; Prombandankul, Awapa; Kanjanahattakij, Napatt; Rungaramsin, Sakda; Wisaratapong, Treechada; Ngarmukos, Tachapong

    2016-03-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is defined as presenting of type-1 Brugada pattern (BrP). BrS can also be induced by fever. This study demonstrated a highest prevalence of fever-induced BrS ever reported. During May 2014, febrile (oral temperature ≥ 38 °C) and nonfebrile patients underwent standard and high leads (V1 and V2 at 2nd intercostal space) electrocardiogram. Risk factor and cardiac symptoms were recorded. Patients with a persistent of type-1 BrP after fever had subsided were excluded. The prevalence of BrS, type-2 BrP and early repolarization pattern (ERP) were demonstrated. A total of 401 patients, 152 febrile, and 249 nonfebrile, were evaluated. BrS was identified in six febrile patients (five males and one female) and two males in nonfebrile patients. The study demonstrated higher prevalence of BrS in febrile group compared to nonfebrile group (4.0% vs 0.8%, respectively, P = 0.037). Among fever-induced BrS patients, three patients (50.0%) experienced cardiac symptoms before and at the time of presentation and two patients (33.3%) had history of first-degree relative sudden death. No ventricular arrhythmia was observed. All of type-1 BrP disappeared after fever had subsided. We found no difference in prevalence of type-2 BrP in febrile and nonfebrile group (2.0% vs 2.8%, respectively, P > 0.05) as well as ERP (3.3% vs 6.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Our study showed a highest prevalence of fever induced BrS ever reported. A larger study of prevalence, risk stratification, genetic test and management of fever-induced BrS should be done, especially in an endemic area. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  3. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  4. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  5. Self-shielding effects in burnup of Gd used as burnable absorber. Previous studies on its experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Continuing with the domestic 'Burnable Absorbers Research Plan' studies were done to estimate self-shielding effects during Gd 2 O 3 burnup as burnable absorber included in fuel pins of a CAREM geometry. In this way, its burnup was calculated without and with self-shielding. For the second case, were obtained values depending on internal pin radius and the effective one for the homogenized pin. For Gd 157, the burnup corresponding to the first case resulted 52.6 % and of 1.23 % for the effective one. That shows the magnitude of the effects under study. Considering that is necessary to perform one experimental verification, also are presented calculational results for the case to irradiate a pellet containing UO 2 (natural) and 8 wt % of Gd 2 O 3 , as a function of cooling time, that include: measurable isotopes concentrations, expected activities, and photon spectra for conditions able to be compared with bidimensional calculations with self-shielding. The irradiation time was supposed 30 dpp using RA-3 reactor at 10 MW. (author)

  6. A genome-wide association study confirms previously reported loci for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS has identified more than 30 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Caucasians. However, genomic understanding of T2D in Asians, especially Han Chinese, is still limited. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-stage GWAS was performed in Han Chinese from Mainland China. The discovery stage included 793 T2D cases and 806 healthy controls genotyped using Illumina Human 660- and 610-Quad BeadChips; and the replication stage included two independent case-control populations (a total of 4445 T2D cases and 4458 controls genotyped using TaqMan assay. We validated the associations of KCNQ1 (rs163182, p = 2.085×10(-17, OR 1.28 and C2CD4A/B (rs1370176, p = 3.677×10(-4, OR 1.124; rs1436953, p = 7.753×10(-6, OR 1.141; rs7172432, p = 4.001×10(-5, OR 1.134 in Han Chinese. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study represents the first GWAS of T2D with both discovery and replication sample sets recruited from Han Chinese men and women residing in Mainland China. We confirmed the associations of KCNQ1 and C2CD4A/B with T2D, with the latter for the first time being examined in Han Chinese. Arguably, eight more independent loci were replicated in our GWAS.

  7. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  8. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interpreting "Personality" Taxonomies: Why Previous Models Cannot Capture Individual-Specific Experiencing, Behaviour, Functioning and Development. Major Taxonomic Tasks Still Lay Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    As science seeks to make generalisations, a science of individual peculiarities encounters intricate challenges. This article explores these challenges by applying the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) and by exploring taxonomic "personality" research as an example. Analyses of researchers' interpretations of the taxonomic "personality" models, constructs and data that have been generated in the field reveal widespread erroneous assumptions about the abilities of previous methodologies to appropriately represent individual-specificity in the targeted phenomena. These assumptions, rooted in everyday thinking, fail to consider that individual-specificity and others' minds cannot be directly perceived, that abstract descriptions cannot serve as causal explanations, that between-individual structures cannot be isomorphic to within-individual structures, and that knowledge of compositional structures cannot explain the process structures of their functioning and development. These erroneous assumptions and serious methodological deficiencies in widely used standardised questionnaires have effectively prevented psychologists from establishing taxonomies that can comprehensively model individual-specificity in most of the kinds of phenomena explored as "personality", especially in experiencing and behaviour and in individuals' functioning and development. Contrary to previous assumptions, it is not universal models but rather different kinds of taxonomic models that are required for each of the different kinds of phenomena, variations and structures that are commonly conceived of as "personality". Consequently, to comprehensively explore individual-specificity, researchers have to apply a portfolio of complementary methodologies and develop different kinds of taxonomies, most of which have yet to be developed. Closing, the article derives some meta-desiderata for future research on individuals' "personality".

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  11. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  13. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  14. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J. B.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Erdal, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods A cohort consisting of the Danish...... population was followed from January 1997 to December 2006. The risk of MI, stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death associated with epilepsy was estimated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models stratified for occurrence of previous stroke. AED use was determined at baseline, and risks...... associated with exposure to individual AEDs were examined in patients with epilepsy. Results In patients without previous stroke, AED-treated epilepsy was associated with an increased risk of MI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95%CI, 1.00-1.19), stroke (HR, 2.22; 95%CI, 2.09-2.36), cardiovascular death (HR, 1...

  15. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2010-03-01

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  16. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  17. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  18. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  19. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  20. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  1. Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Dexamethasone (RCD) regimen induces cure in WSU-WM xenograft model and a partial remission in previously treated Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ramzi M; Aboukameel, Amro; Nabha, Sanaa; Ibrahim, Dina; Al-Katib, Ayad

    2002-08-01

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disease which remains incurable with current treatment protocols. We have previously established a permanent WM cell line, WSU-WM, which grows as a xenograft in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of Rituximab (RTX), Cyclophosphamide (CTX), Dexamethasone (DEX) [RCD]-Regimen in vivo WSU-WM SCID xenograft and in a patient with WM. For the pre-clinical efficacy study, WSU-WM-bearing SCID mice were randomly assigned to receive RTX (150 mg/kg/inj, i.v., QDX5), CTX (90 mg/kg/inj, s.c. QDX5) as single agents or diluent. The combination group received RTX at 150 mg/kg/inj, QDX5; CTX at 150 mg/kg/inj, QODX3 and DEX at 1.0 mg/kg/inj, i.v., QDX5. Tumor growth inhibition (T/C), tumor growth delay (T - C), and log10 kill (net) for RTX and CTX were 24.5%, 37 days, 5.52 and 88%, 0.0 days, 0.0log10 kill, respectively. No cures were observed with either agent; however, all mice (6/6, with bilateral tumors) were cured when treated with RCD-regimen. A 57-year-old patient with relapsed WM was treated with the RCD-regimen and showed an excellent partial remission for seven months. The patient tolerated the treatment very well, the hemoglobin improved dramatically, platelets remained stable, the IgM level normalized and there was only minimal involvement of bone marrow. Based on these results, the RCD regimen is effective against WM and its activity should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  2. Comparison of time until elective intestinal resection regarding previous anti-tumor necrosis factor exposure: a Brazilian study on patients with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents seems to reduce surgical rates and delay surgical procedures in prospective trials and population-based studies in the management of Crohn's disease (CD. This study aimed to identify whether preoperative anti-TNF agents influence the time from diagnosis to surgery. Methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with CD submitted to intestinal resections due to complications or medical therapy failure in a period of 7 years. The patients were allocated into 2 groups according to their previous exposure to anti-TNF agents in the preoperative period. Epidemiological aspects regarding age at diagnosis, smoking, perianal disease, and preoperative conventional therapy were considered. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to outline possible differences between the groups regarding the time to surgery. Results: A total of 123 patients were included (71 and 52 with and without previous exposure to biologics, respectively. The overall time to surgery was 108±6.9 months (maximum, 276 months. The survival estimation revealed no difference in the mean time to intestinal resection between the groups (99.78±10.62 months in the patients without and 114.01±9.07 months in those with previous anti-TNF use (log-rank P=0.35. There was no significant difference in the time to surgery regarding perianal CD (P=0.49, smoking (P=0.63, preoperative azathioprine (P=0.073 and steroid use (P=0.58. Conclusions: The time from diagnosis to surgery was not influenced by the preoperative use of anti-TNF therapy in this cohort of patients.

  3. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  4. Accuracy of preoperative real-time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in prediction of pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery: prospective, multicenter, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, A; Bouchahda, R; Derouich, S; Mkaouer, L; Kehila, M; Abouda, H; Channoufi, B; Bouyahia, M; Braham, M; Zhioua, F; Bouchahda, H; Mourali, M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of the transvaginal sonographic (TVS) sliding sign in predicting pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery. This was a multicenter, prospective, interventional, double-blind study of patients with a history of abdominopelvic surgery who were undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy during the 6-month period from March to August 2016 in one of three academic obstetrics and gynecology departments. Prior to surgery, patients were examined by TVS to assess the vesicouterine pouch, uterus, ovaries and pouch of Douglas, using the TVS pelvic sliding sign. Ultrasound findings and medical and surgical data were recorded. We assessed the accuracy of the preoperative TVS sliding sign in the prediction of pelvic adhesions overall and in each compartment separately. During the study period, complete TVS sliding sign and laparoscopic or laparotomic data were available for 107 women. Their mean age was 44.0 (95% CI, 41.6-46.4; range, 20-79) years. Their mean parity was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.7-2.3; range, 0-9) and the mean number of previous abdominal surgical procedures per patient was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.5; range, 1-4). Adhesions were noted in 27/107 (25.2%) patients. The TVS sliding sign had a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 92.6% in predicting pelvic adhesions. There was a significant relationship between adhesions in each compartment and the TVS sliding sign (P sign is an effective means to detect preoperatively pelvic adhesions in patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery. Use of such a non-invasive and well-tolerated technique could help in the planning of laparoscopy or laparotomy and counseling of these patients. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A pilot study of a metronomic chemotherapy regimen with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Yokoi, Takeshi Tamaki, Toshiki Shimizu, Shosaku NomuraFirst Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi City, Osaka, JapanBackground: Low-dose metronomic (LDM chemotherapy is a novel approach that involves frequent administration of a low dose of chemotherapeutic agent without a long interval.Purpose: The aim of this clinical pilot study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of LDM chemotherapy with weekly low-dose docetaxel for previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Patients and methods: The enrolled patients received 15 mg/m2 of docetaxel intravenously on a weekly basis without any interval.Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study; 20 were men, and seven were women. The median age was 62 years (range: 32–75. Eleven patients were stage IIIB, and 16 were stage IV. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 or 1. There was no severe hematological adverse effect; importantly, there was no neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. The objective response rate was 7.4% and the disease control rate was 51.9%. The median survival time was 16.4 months (95% CI: 5.7–36.4.Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that our metronomic regimen was well tolerated and active in patients with previously treated NSCLC. Thus, further investigation of this LDM regimen is warranted.Keywords: optimal biological dose, metronomic chemotherapy, docetaxel

  6. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  7. Global history of the ancient monocot family Araceae inferred with models accounting for past continental positions and previous ranges based on fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauheimer, Lars; Metzler, Dirk; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-09-01

    The family Araceae (3790 species, 117 genera) has one of the oldest fossil records among angiosperms. Ecologically, members of this family range from free-floating aquatics (Pistia and Lemna) to tropical epiphytes. Here, we infer some of the macroevolutionary processes that have led to the worldwide range of this family and test how the inclusion of fossil (formerly occupied) geographical ranges affects biogeographical reconstructions. Using a complete genus-level phylogeny from plastid sequences and outgroups representing the 13 other Alismatales families, we estimate divergence times by applying different clock models and reconstruct range shifts under different models of past continental connectivity, with or without the incorporation of fossil locations. Araceae began to diversify in the Early Cretaceous (when the breakup of Pangea was in its final stages), and all eight subfamilies existed before the K/T boundary. Early lineages persist in Laurasia, with several relatively recent entries into Africa, South America, South-East Asia and Australia. Water-associated habitats appear to be ancestral in the family, and DNA substitution rates are especially high in free-floating Araceae. Past distributions inferred when fossils are included differ in nontrivial ways from those without fossils. Our complete genus-level time-scale for the Araceae may prove to be useful for ecological and physiological studies. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and poor ovarian response? A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Younes, G; Tannus, S; Son, W Y; Chan, P; Buckett, W

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  10. Everolimus Plus Exemestane in Advanced Breast Cancer: Safety Results of the BALLET Study on Patients Previously Treated Without and with Chemotherapy in the Metastatic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Daniele; Montemurro, Filippo; Bordonaro, Roberto; Mafodda, Antonino; Romito, Sante; Michelotti, Andrea; Piovano, Pierluigi; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Bighin, Claudia; Sartori, Donata; Frassoldati, Antonio; Cazzaniga, Marina Elena; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Testore, Franco; Vici, Patrizia; Barone, Carlo Antonio; Schirone, Alessio; Piacentini, Federico; Nolè, Franco; Molino, Annamaria; Latini, Luciano; Simoncini, Edda Lucia; Roila, Fausto; Cognetti, Francesco; Nuzzo, Francesco; Foglietta, Jennifer; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Goffredo, Francesca; Portera, Giuseppe; Ascione, Gilda; Mariani, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%). One thousand one hundred and fifty-one Italian patients were included in the present post hoc analysis, which focused on two sets of patients: patients who never received chemotherapy in the metastatic setting (36.1%) and patients who received at least one chemotherapy treatment in the metastatic setting (63.9%). One thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (97.0%) prematurely discontinued the study drug, and the main reasons reported were disease progression (39.1%), local reimbursement of everolimus (31.1%), and adverse events (AEs) (16.1%). The median duration of study treatment exposure was 139.5 days for exemestane and 135.0 days for everolimus. At least one AE was experienced by 92.5% of patients. The incidence of everolimus-related AEs was higher (83.9%) when compared with those that occurred with exemestane (29.1%), and the most commonly reported everolimus-related AE was stomatitis (51.3%). However, no significant difference in terms of safety related to the combination occurred between patients without and with chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Real-life data of the Italian patients BALLET-related cohort were an adequate setting to state that previous chemotherapy did not affect the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane. With the advent of new targeted agents for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multiple lines of therapy may be possible, and components of the combined regimens can overlap from

  11. Higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes who had a previous injury to the ankle - a 17 years observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Bikos, Georgios; Meke, Maria; Vasileios, Korakakis; Valle, Xavier; Lohrer, Heinz; Maffulli, Nicola; Padhiar, Nat

    2018-01-01

    Inversion injury to the ankle and hamstring injuries are common problems in most sports. It is not known whether these injuries constitute a predisposing factor or a precursor of injury or re-injury of these anatomical locations. Therefore, we wished to test the hypothesis that a previous inversion ankle injury exerted a significant effect on the chance of an athlete suffering from a subsequent ipsilateral hamstring injury and vice versa. In an observational cohort study over 17 years (1998-2015), 367 elite track and field athletes, were grouped according to their first traumatic isolated ankle or hamstring injury. Fifty athletes experienced both injuries. The Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests ( p  < 0.05) were performed to test possible associations of ankle and hamstring injury with age, gender, athletics discipline, grade, and type of antecedent injury. Athletes with a preceding ankle injury had a statistically significantly higher chance of experiencing a subsequent hamstring injury compared with athletes who had experienced a hamstring injury as their first traumatic event (x 2  = 4.245, p  = 0.039). The proportion of both ankle and hamstring injury events was not statistically different between female (18%) and male (11%) athletes. Age and grade of injury did not influence the proportion of ankle and/or hamstring injury events. There is a statistically significantly higher frequency of hamstring injuries in elite track and field athletes having experienced a previous ankle ligament injury.

  12. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT PREECLAMPSIA TO WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA WHO WERE NORMOTENSIVE DURING THEIR PREVIOUS PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Guhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of the pregnant women and is the leading cause of maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. We designed a study to compare perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia to women with women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive during their previous pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode for a period of 1 year from March 2013 to February 2014. We conducted this study in multiparous women who developed pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy (n=110. Among these, women who had pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies (n=55 were compared to those who remained normotensive during their prior pregnancies (n=55. Maternal and foetal variables were compared. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of pre-eclampsia on foetal outcome, preterm delivery, IUGR, still births adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS No statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of age, gravida, parity. Women who experienced recurrent pre-eclampsia were at elevated risk for early onset of pre-eclampsia, deranged laboratory investigations (Hepatic and Renal parameters, Coagulation Profile, higher chances of maternal complications, foetal mortality and morbidity (Statistically significant P <0.05. Foetal loss was higher in women with recurrent pre-eclampsia (14.5% than in women with pre-eclampsia who had normotensive pregnancy history (1.8%. CONCLUSION Women with recurrent pre-eclampsia had a higher rate of perinatal loss compared to women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive in their prior pregnancies.

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias in a previously unscreened population--a pooled analysis from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Bhaumik, Suchismita; Mandal, Shyam Sunder; Samaddar, Anusree; Ray, Chinmayi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Biswas, Jaydip; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2013-04-01

    Population prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) is an important indicator to judge the disease burden in the community, to monitor the performance of cervical cancer screening program and to assess the impact of HPV vaccination program. India being a country without any cervical cancer screening program has no published data on the population prevalence of CIN and only a few large community-based studies to report the high-risk HPV prevalence. The objective of our study was to study HPV and CIN prevalence in a previously unscreened population. We pooled together the results of three research studies originally designed to assess the performance of visual inspection after acetic acid application and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2). Nearly 60% of the screened women had colposcopy irrespective of their screening test results. The diagnosis and grading of cervical neoplasias were based on histology. The age standardized prevalence of HPV by HC 2 test was 6.0%. Age-adjusted prevalence of CIN1 and CIN2 was 2.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of CIN3 was 0.4% and that of invasive cancer was 0.2%. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was relatively low in the population we studied, which is reflected in the low prevalence of high-grade CIN. The prevalence of CIN3 remained constant across age groups due to absence of screening. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  15. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  17. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  18. Effects of Film Modeling on the Reduction of Anxiety-Related Behaviors in Individuals Varying in Level of Previous Experience in the Stress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Barbara G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Evaluated influence of film preparation on children undergoing dental sessions with respect to peer modeling v demonstration of procedures and amount of information. Children exposed to peer-model videotaped presentations immediately preceding their restorative treatment exhibited fewer disruptive behaviors and less apprehension than those…

  19. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  20. Effect of treatment of a previous ectopic pregnancy on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Yan, Lei; Liu, Wen; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Miao; Ding, Lingling; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of previous ectopic pregnancies (EP) and different EP treatment methods on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. Women undergoing 51,268 fresh cycles of IVF-ICSI. In women who had had an EP before the IVF treatment and women who were diagnosed with fallopian disease without an EP (control group), division into three treatment subgroups: subgroup 1, conservative treatment; subgroup 2, salpingostomy; and subgroup 3 salpingectomy. Estimates of IVF-ICSI outcome and ovarian function based on number of antral follicles and rates of implantation, EP, clinical pregnancy, and delivery. For the experimental group and the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, or delivery. However, the risk of recurrent EP was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IVF-ICSI outcomes between the three treatment subgroups in terms of the basic antral follicle number or the dominant antral follicle numbers (>1.0 cm) after surgical treatment of EP. Our results suggest that women with a prior history of EP have a higher recurrence risk of EP after IVF in comparison with women with no history of EP. Previous EP has no effect on the main IVF-ICSI outcomes. For the treatment of EP, salpingostomy and salpingectomy do not statistically significantly affect ovarian function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Two consecutive phase II studies of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were resistant to previous treatment with fluoropyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Diaz-Rubio, E; de Gramont, A; Schilf, A; Gastiaburu, J J; Brienza, S; Itzhaki, M; Metzger, G; N'Daw, D; Vignoud, J; Abad, A; Francois, E; Gamelin, E; Marty, M; Sastre, J; Seitz, J F; Ychou, M

    1996-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum complex that possesses activity against human and murine cells in vitro and in vivo, including colorectal carcinoma-derived cell lines, and cells that have been selected for resistance to cisplatin. We report two consecutive phase II trials of L-OHP for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Fifty-eight patients were entered in study I, and 51 patients in study II. All of the patients had tumor progression when they were treated, prior to their enrollment, with a fluoropyrimidine-containing regimen. In both trials treatment consisted of L-OHP, 130 mg/m2, by i.v. infusion for two hours; the treatment was repeated every 21 days. Response to therapy: Study I: Fifty-five patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 11% (95% CI, 0.03-0.19). Study II: All 51 patients were assessed for response. The response rate was 10% (95% CI, 0.017-0.18). The overall response rate for the 106 evaluated patients was 10% (95% CI, 0.046-0.16). Times to disease progression in responders were 4, 4, 4.5+, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6+, 9, and 13 months. The dose-limiting toxic effect was sensory peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of severe peripheral neuropathy grades was: Study I: grade 3, 23% of patients, and grade 4, 8% of patients. Severe neuropathy had a favorable course in all of the patients who had long-term neurologic follow-up. Diarrhea and myeloid impairment were minor. L-OHP produced modest, but definite antitumor activity in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma who were previously resistant to chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidines. Toxicity is within acceptable limits of tolerance at the dose and schedule of oxaliplatin used in this trial.

  2. Long-term clinical and economic outcomes in previously untreated paediatric patients with severe haemophilia A: A nationwide real-world study with 700 person-years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, K; Riikonen, P; Lassila, R; Arola, M; Huttunen, P; Lähteenmäki, P; Möttönen, M; Selander, T; Martikainen, J

    2018-03-01

    For previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A in Finland for the past 2 decades, the standard practice has been to start early primary prophylaxis. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes and costs of treatment with high-dose prophylaxis in PUPs from birth to adolescence, including immune tolerance induction (ITI). From the medical records of all PUPs born between June 1994 and May 2013 in Finland, we retrospectively extracted data on clinical outcomes and healthcare use. Using linear mixed models, we analysed longitudinal clinical outcome data. To analyse skewed cost data, including zero costs, we applied hurdle regression. All 62 patients received early regular prophylaxis; totally, they have had treatment for nearly 700 patient-years. The median age of starting home treatment was 1.1 years. The mean (SD) annual treatment costs (€ per kg) were 4391€ (3852). For ages 1-3, ITI comprised over half of the costs; in other groups, prophylactic FVIII treatment dominated. With these high costs, however, clinical outcomes were desirable; median (IQR) ABR was low at 0.19 (0.07-0.46) and so was AJBR at 0.06 (0-0.24). Thirteen (21%) patients developed a clinically significant inhibitor, 10 (16%) with a high titre. All ITIs were successful. The mean costs for ITI were 383 448€ (259 085). The expected ITI payback period was 1.81 (95% CI 0.62-12.12) years. Early high-dose prophylaxis leads to excellent long-term clinical outcomes, and early childhood ITI therapy seems to turn cost-neutral generally already in 2 years. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The priming effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 influenza vaccination in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-22

    The effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 (H1N1 pdm09) influenza infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent inactivated influenza vaccination in children has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H1N1 pdm09 natural infection and vaccination on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination in children. From October 2010 to May 2011, we conducted an open-label, multi-center study in children aged 6 months -18 years in Korea. We measured antibody titers with a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after vaccination with trivalent split or subunit vaccines containing H1N1 pdm, A/H3N2, and B. The subjects were classified into 4 groups depending on the presence of laboratory-confirmed H1N1 pdm09 infection and/or vaccination in the 2009-2010 season; Group I: vaccination (-)/infection(-), Group II: vaccination (-)/infection(+), Group III: vaccination (+)/infection(-), Group IV: vaccination (+)/infection(+). Among the subjects in group I, 47 subjects who had a baseline titer >1:10 were considered to have an asymptomatic infection. They were included into the final group II (n = 80). We defined the new group II as the infection-primed (IP) group and group III as the vaccine-primed (VP) group. Seroconversion rate (57.5 % vs 35.9 %, p = 0.001), seroprotection rate at 6 months after vaccination (70.8 % vs 61.8 %, p = 0.032), and GMT at 1 month after vaccination (129.9 vs 66.5, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. In the 9-18 year-old group, seroconversion rate and immunogenicity at 1 and 6 months were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. However in the 1-7 year-old age group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous H1N1 pdm09 infection appears to have positive effects on immunogenicity of subsequent inactivated influenza vaccines against H1N1 pdm09 in older

  4. A prospective flexible-dose study of paliperidone palmitate in nonacute but symptomatic patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; Cherubin, Pierre; Keim, Sofia; Rancans, Elmars; Bez, Yasin; Parellada, Eduard; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Vidailhet, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of flexible doses of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) in the subset of nonacute but symptomatic adult patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral antipsychotic agents in the PALMFlexS (Paliperidone Palmitate Flexible Dosing in Schizophrenia) study. This was an interventional, single-arm, international, multicenter, unblinded, 6-month study performed in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were categorized according to reasons for switching. In patients switching because of lack of efficacy or for other reasons, primary efficacy outcomes were the proportion achieving treatment response (defined as ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score from baseline to last-observation-carried-forward end point) and maintained efficacy (defined as noninferiority in the change in PANSS total score at end point versus baseline [Schuirmann's test]), respectively. A total of 593 patients (intention-to-treat population) were enrolled: 63.1% were male; their mean (SD) age was 38.4 (11.8) years; and 78.6% had paranoid schizophrenia. The main reasons for transition to PP were patient's wish (n = 259 [43.7%]), lack of efficacy (n = 144 [24.3%]), lack of compliance (n = 138 [23.3%]), and lack of tolerability (n = 52 [8.8%]) with the previous oral antipsychotic medication. The recommended PP initiation regimen (150 milligram equivalents [mg eq] day 1 and 100 mg eq day 8) was administered in 93.9% of patients. Mean PANSS total score decreased from 71.5 (14.6) at baseline to 59.7 (18.1) at end point (mean change, -11.7 [15.9]; 95% CI, -13.0 to -10.5; P < 0.0001). Sixty-four percent of patients showed an improvement of ≥20% in PANSS total score, and the percentage of patients rated mildly ill or less in Clinical Global Impression-Severity increased from 31.8% to 63.2%. Mean personal and social performance total score (SD) increased

  5. Safety and tolerability of frovatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine and prevention of menstrual migraine: Results of a new analysis of data from five previously published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, E Anne; Pawsey, Stephen P; Campbell, John C; Hu, Xiaojun

    2010-04-01

    Triptans are a recommended first-line treatment for moderate to severe migraine. Using clinical trial data, we evaluated the safety and tolerability of frovatriptan as acute treatment (AT) and as short-term preventive (STP) therapy for menstrual migraine (MM). Data from 2 Phase III AT trials (AT1: randomized, placebo controlled, 1 attack; AT2: 12-months, noncomparative, open label) and 3 Phase IIIb STP trials in MM (MMP1 and MMP2: randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, 3 perimenstrual periods; MMP3: open label, noncomparative, 12 perimenstrual periods) were analyzed. In AT1, patients treated each attack with frovatriptan 2.5 mg, sumatriptan 100 mg, or placebo. In AT2, they used frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In MMP1 and MMP2, women administered frovatriptan 2.5 mg for 6 days during the perimenstrual period, taking a loading dose of 2 or 4 tablets on day 1, followed by once-daily or BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg, respectively; in MMP3, they used BID frovatriptan 2.5 mg. In AT1, which was previously published in part, group differences in adverse events (AEs) were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and response rates were compared using logistic regression. Post hoc analyses of sustained pain-free status with no AEs (SNAE) and sustained pain response with no AEs (SPRNAE) were performed using a 2-sample test for equality of proportions without continuity correction. For AT2 and the STP studies, data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results of individual safety analyses for the STP studies were previously reported; the present report includes new results from a pooled analysis of MMP1 and MMP2 and a new analysis of MMP3 in which AEs were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 8.0. AT1 included 1206 patients in the safety group; AT2 included 496. In the STP studies, safety data were collected for 1487 women. In AT1 and AT2, 85.6% and 88.3%, respectively, of enrolled patients were women. Overall, AEs were generally mild to moderate (AT

  6. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  7. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A real life study of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth quadruple therapy in naïve and previously treated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas José Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a quadruple regimen (BMTO of the "3-in-1 capsule" (containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole and tetracycline plus omeprazole in naïve and previously treated patients diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in the clinical setting in Seville (Spain. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out on consecutive patients with a confirmed H. pylori infection and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. After providing their informed consent, the patients were treated for ten days with a 3-in-1 capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium (140 mg, metronidazole (125 mg and tetracycline (125 mg: Pylera®, three capsules four times daily, plus omeprazole (20 or 40 mg twice daily. Eradication of infection was determined by a negative urea breath test at least 28 days after the end of treatment. Results: A total of 58 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study, two of whom withdrew early due to vomiting on days three and five, respectively. In this cohort, 17 patients (29.3% had a prior history of medication to treat H. pylori. In the intent-to-treat population, eradication was achieved in 97.6% (40/41 and 82.4% (14/17 of cases in patients treated with BMTO as a first-line or rescue therapy, respectively. At least one adverse event was reported by 28 (48% patients, mostly mild effects (86%. Conclusion: A ten day treatment with BMTO is an effective and safe strategy to combat confirmed H. pylori infection in patients.

  10. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee [Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine] [and others

    2000-12-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m{sup 2} (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  11. Comment on "Assessing Discrepancies Between Previous Plate Kinematic Models of Mesozoic Iberia and Their Constraints" by Barnett-Moore Et Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; van der Meer, Douwe G.

    2017-12-01

    In their recent paper, Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) reflect on current models of Iberian plate motion in the Jurassic and Cretaceous as well as ongoing debates on the reliability of the various types of kinematic data that form independent constraints on Iberia's motion relative to Eurasia. They question the validity of various marine geophysical, seismic, tomographic, geological, and paleomagnetic data sets from the Bay of Biscay, Central Atlantic Ocean, and Iberia for kinematic reconstruction of Iberia and conclude that neither models invoking Aptian-Albian transtension, nor compression, are consistent with currently available data. An important element in their analysis is that they discard the large paleomagnetic data set from the Jurassic and Cretaceous from Iberia based on perceived limitations of that data set. In addition, they argue that seismic tomographic images exclude a scenario of subduction in the Aptian-Albian in the Pyrenees, and based on this "question the validity of current plate reconstructions, their constraints, and geodynamic scenarios, which are in support of this scenario [e.g., Vissers et al., 2016]." We welcome the discussion raised by Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) on the reliability and usefulness of paleomagnetic data as independent constraint for Iberia's plate motion in the Mesozoic. Taking these paleomagnetic data at face value, Vissers et al. (2016) recently showed that these are consistent with an 40° counterclockwise rotation of Iberia in the Aptian, requiring up to 500 km of Aptian convergence across the Pyrenees, that is, through subduction. In this comment, we aim to critically assess whether and how the concerns on the quality of paleomagnetic data raised by Barnett-Moore et al. (2016) may allow for an alternative explanation, particularly one with a Mesozoic rotation of Iberia that is small enough so as to not requiring subduction. We also reassess whether seismic tomographic images indeed refute subduction scenarios, using 8

  12. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  13. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  14. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  15. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Esther; Franckena, Martine; Wiemer, Erik; van Doorn, Lena; Kraan, Jaco; Westermann, Anneke; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and HER2 is frequently seen in

  16. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  17. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  18. Studies on DANESS Code Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon

    2009-09-01

    The DANESS code modeling study has been performed. DANESS code is widely used in a dynamic fuel cycle analysis. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used the DANESS code for the Korean national nuclear fuel cycle scenario analysis. In this report, the important models such as Energy-demand scenario model, New Reactor Capacity Decision Model, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Facility History Model, and Fuel Cycle Model are investigated. And, some models in the interface module are refined and inserted for Korean nuclear fuel cycle model. Some application studies have also been performed for GNEP cases and for US fast reactor scenarios with various conversion ratios

  19. A pilot study of the combination of cyclosporin A and interferon alfacon-1 for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Scott J; Morrissey, Mary J; Wiley, Thelma E; Layden, Thomas J; Jensen, Donald M

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of interferon and cyclosporine for the treatment of hepatitis C in previous nonresponder patients. Preliminary data indicated that adding the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A to interferon might improve response rates in patients with hepatitis C. Ten previous virologic nonresponders with genotype 1 infection were included. Treatment consisted of interferon alfacon-1, 15 microg/d, and cyclosporine, 100 mg twice daily, for 4 weeks. The dose of interferon alfacon-1 was then decreased to 15 microg three times weekly, and cyclosporine was reduced to 50 mg twice daily. Therapy was continued for 48 weeks unless viremia persisted at week 24. Three of 10 subjects had an on-treatment virologic response, although one had a breakthrough with recurrent viremia during treatment and two relapsed after therapy was completed. On treatment responders had significantly higher trough cyclosporine levels at week 4 compared with nonresponders (P = 0.025). Serum creatinine levels remained stable, and no patient developed diabetes. Triglyceride levels increased during treatment. Cyclosporine was dose reduced in two patients for hypertension. Selected patients with hepatitis C tolerated therapy, including cyclosporine without severe or irreversible toxicity. Despite an association between higher cyclosporine levels and on-treatment response, the combination of cyclosporine and interferon was ineffective in producing a sustained response in previous nonresponder patients.

  20. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  1. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  2. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  3. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  4. Timing of dose relative to sexual intercourse attempt in previous sildenafil citrate users treated with tadalafil: a geographical comparison from a single arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Glina, Sidney; Abdo, Carmita H N; Hernandez-Serrano, Ruben; Rampazzo, Claudia; Sotomayor, Mariano; West, Teena M; Gallagher, Gabrielle L; Lenero, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of > or =6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use.

  5. Recommendations for Conducting Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses for Students with Disabilities Based on Previous DIF Studies. Research Report. ETS RR-11-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzick, Heather; Stone, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help ensure that strategies for differential item functioning (DIF) detection for students with disabilities are appropriate and lead to meaningful results. We surveyed existing DIF studies for students with disabilities and describe them in terms of study design, statistical approach, sample characteristics, and…

  6. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  7. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  8. A Comparative Study of the Previously Graduated Dentists' Knowledge versus those Recently Graduated as to Proper Prescription of Interaoral Radiography and Panoramic Views

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal R.; Rahimi R.; Ahmadi Motamayel F.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problems: The first step to decrease the patients' exposure to unnecessary radiography radiation is the proper prescription of radiography. . Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of general dental practitioners as to proper prescription of intraoral radiography and panoramic views. Materials and Method: In this study, a questionnaire on the dentists' knowledge about the proper prescription of dental radiography was used. A total of eighty one general d...

  9. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  10. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  11. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  12. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  13. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  14. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Schimmer

    Full Text Available An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML.Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3. Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d to determine the morphologic complete response rate.In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence. Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d. In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7 and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5 arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient.Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  15. A multicenter phase I/II study of obatoclax mesylate administered as a 3- or 24-hour infusion in older patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Aaron D; Raza, Azra; Carter, Thomas H; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Tallman, Martin S; Goard, Carolyn; Borthakur, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    An open-label phase I/II study of single-agent obatoclax determined a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and schedule, safety, and efficacy in older patients (≥ 70 yr) with untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phase I evaluated the safety of obatoclax infused for 3 hours on 3 consecutive days (3 h × 3 d) in 2-week cycles. Initial obatoclax dose was 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 3). Obatoclax was increased to 45 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if ≤ 1 patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) if DLT occurred in ≥ 2 patients. In the phase II study, 12 patients were randomized to receive obatoclax at the dose identified during phase I (3 h × 3 d) or 60 mg/day administered by continuous infusion over 24 hours for 3 days (24 h × 3 d) to determine the morphologic complete response rate. In phase I, two of three patients receiving obatoclax 30 mg/day (3 h × 3 d) experienced grade 3 neurologic DLTs (confusion, ataxia, and somnolence). Obatoclax was decreased to 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d). In phase II, no clinically relevant safety differences were observed between the 20 mg/day (3 h × 3 d; n = 7) and 60 mg/day (24 h × 3 d; n = 5) arms. Neurologic and psychiatric adverse events were most common and were generally transient and reversible. Complete response was not achieved in any patient. Obatoclax 20 mg/day was the MTD (3 h × 3 d) in older patients with AML. In the schedules tested, single-agent obatoclax was not associated with an objective response. Evaluation in additional subgroups or in combination with other chemotherapy modalities may be considered for future study. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00684918.

  16. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  17. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p muscles were 63 cm (13%; p muscle atrophy. Increased Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Outcomes following detection of low level plasma HIV RNA in HIV-infected patients previously virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Annabelle M; Cheng, Allen C; Watson, Kerrie; Lewin, Sharon R; Hoy, Jennifer F

    2017-06-01

    Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA 200 copies/mL. Factors associated with LLV included co-morbid type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count. Clinician management of VL 20-200 copies/mL was generally conservative, with infrequent requests for genotypic analysis (3.3% cases) or change in ART (<1% cases). LLV following virological suppression is common, and occurred as an isolated viral blip in half the patients. Those patients with persistent or recurrent LLV had higher rates of type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count.

  19. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines in participants previously vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine: a randomized, observer-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W

    2014-11-01

    Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Healthy adults (aged 19-40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4(+) T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4(+) T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Vaccines in Participants Previously Vaccinated With Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized, Observer-Blind, Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Methods. Healthy adults (aged 19–40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4+/CD8+ T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Results. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4+ T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. Conclusions. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Registration. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. PMID:24864125

  1. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  2. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D.G.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  4. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  5. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    OpenAIRE

    Yaremenko, L. M.; Grabovoy, A. N.; Shepelev, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim. In order to analyze the dynamics of expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the large hemispheres in the simulation of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection.Materials and methods. The study is conducted on 185 male mature white rats from Wistar line weighing 260-290 g, in which the damage of the brain was modulated. The brain for study was taken on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th and 90th days...

  6. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Yaremenko; A. N. Grabovoy; S. E. Shepelev

    2017-01-01

    Aim. In order to analyze the dynamics of expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the large hemispheres in the simulation of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection. Materials and methods. The study is conducted on 185 male mature white rats from Wistar line weighing 260-290 g, in which the damage of the brain was modulated. The brain for study was taken on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th and 90th...

  7. Treatment rationale and study design for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating onartuzumab (MetMAb) in combination with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX-6 in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Johanna C; Ervin, Thomas J; Gallinson, David; Singh, Jaswinder; Wallace, James A; Saleh, Mansoor N; Vallone, Marcy; Phan, See-Chun; Hack, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway is associated with poor prognosis, more aggressive biological characteristics of the tumor, and shortened survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Onartuzumab (MetMAb) is a recombinant humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody directed against MET. We present the treatment rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized multicenter placebo-controlled phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MetMAb combined with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX-6 (5-fluoruracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin). Eligible patients with previously untreated mCRC are randomized 1:1 to either mFOLFOX-6 combined with bevacizumab and placebo followed by 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus bevacizumab and placebo or mFOLFOX6, bevacizumab plus MetMAb followed by 5 FU/LV, bevacizumab, and MetMAb. The primary end point of this study is progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end points include overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. Subanalyses will be performed to evaluate the effect of MET receptor expression on study primary and secondary end points. Correlative studies will be performed on tissue- and blood-derived biomarkers related to both HGF/MET signaling and other associated pathway markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  9. Urban Studies: A Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Terry L.; Sundeen, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The urban studies learning model described in this article was found to increase students' self-esteem, imbue a more flexible and open perspective, contribute to the capacity for self-direction, produce increases on the feeling reactivity, spontaneity, and acceptance of aggression scales, and expand interpersonal competence. (Author/WI)

  10. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  11. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  12. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2009-01-01

    and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...... work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP....

  13. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  14. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  15. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  16. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  17. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  18. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  19. Birth after caesarean study – planned vaginal birth or planned elective repeat caesarean for women at term with a single previous caesarean birth: protocol for a patient preference study and randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For women who have a caesarean section in their preceding pregnancy, two care policies for birth are considered standard: planned vaginal birth and planned elective repeat caesarean. Currently available information about the benefits and harms of both forms of care are derived from retrospective and prospective cohort studies. There have been no randomised trials, and recognising the deficiencies in the literature, there have been calls for methodologically rigorous studies to assess maternal and infant health outcomes associated with both care policies. The aims of our study are to assess in women with a previous caesarean birth, who are eligible in the subsequent pregnancy for a vaginal birth, whether a policy of planned vaginal birth after caesarean compared with a policy of planned repeat caesarean affects the risk of serious complications for the woman and her infant. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred patient preference study and a randomised clinical trial. Inclusion Criteria: Women with a single prior caesarean presenting in their next pregnancy with a single, live fetus in cephalic presentation, who have reached 37 weeks gestation, and who do not have a contraindication to a planned VBAC. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible women will be given an information sheet during pregnancy, and will be recruited to the study from 37 weeks gestation after an obstetrician has confirmed eligibility for a planned vaginal birth. Written informed consent will be obtained. Women who consent to the patient preference study will be allocated their preference for either planned VBAC or planned, elective repeat caesarean. Women who consent to the randomised trial will be randomly allocated to either the planned vaginal birth after caesarean or planned elective repeat caesarean group. Treatment Groups: Women in the planned vaginal birth group will await spontaneous onset of labour whilst appropriate. Women in the elective repeat

  20. Occupancy models to study wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa; Adams, Michael John

    2005-01-01

    Many wildlife studies seek to understand changes or differences in the proportion of sites occupied by a species of interest. These studies are hampered by imperfect detection of these species, which can result in some sites appearing to be unoccupied that are actually occupied. Occupancy models solve this problem and produce unbiased estimates of occupancy and related parameters. Required data (detection/non-detection information) are relatively simple and inexpensive to collect. Software is available free of charge to aid investigators in occupancy estimation.

  1. Treatment Rationale and Design for J-AXEL: A Randomized Phase 3 Study Comparing Nab-Paclitaxel With Docetaxel in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneshima, Yasuto; Morita, Satoshi; Ando, Masahiko; Miura, Satoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Abe, Tetsuya; Kato, Terufumi; Kondo, Masashi; Hosomi, Yukio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Okamoto, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel is a promising new therapeutic agent for all histologic types of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We recently performed a phase 2 study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC, finding promising activity and acceptable toxicity for this regimen. We have now designed a randomized phase 3 intergroup study (J-AXEL, UMIN000017487) to examine the clinical benefit and safety of nab-paclitaxel compared to docetaxel in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Patients are randomized to receive either docetaxel (60 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks, control arm) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m 2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks, experimental arm), with each drug being administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study will evaluate the noninferiority of nab-paclitaxel relative to docetaxel for the primary end point of overall survival. If the primary objective is achieved, this study will provide evidence for a new alternative treatment option for patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rodent models for studying empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Sehoon; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-11-01

    Empathy is the important capacity to recognize and share emotions with others. Recent evidence shows that rodents possess a remarkable affective sensitivity to the emotional state of others and that primitive forms of empathy exist in social lives of rodents. However, due to the ambiguous definitional boundaries between empathy, emotional contagion and other related terms, distinct components of empathic behaviors in rodents need to be clarified. Hence, we review recent experimental studies demonstrating that rodents are able to share emotions with others. Specifically, we highlight several behavioral models that examine different aspects of rodent empathic behaviors in response to the various distress of conspecifics. Experimental approaches using rodent behavioral models will help elucidate the neural circuitry of empathy and its neurochemical association. Integrating these findings with corresponding experiments in humans will ultimately provide novel insights into therapeutic interventions for mental disorders associated with empathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  4. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X...... as the nanoparticles are reduced. The Cu/ZnO nanoparticles are tested on a  µ-reactor platform and prove to be active towards methanol synthesis, making it an excellent model system for further investigations into activity depended morphology changes....

  5. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  6. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  7. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  8. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S., E-mail: s.zelzer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Wachter, M. F., E-mail: fredericwachter@googlemail.com; Bellemann, N., E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Gockner, T., E-mail: theresa.gockner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Mokry, T., E-mail: theresa.mokry@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmitz, A., E-mail: anne.schmitz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Aulmann, S., E-mail: sebastian.aulmann@mail.com [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Stampfl, U., E-mail: ulrike.stampfl@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.de [SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Kauczor, H. U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Radeleff, B. A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.

  9. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, C. M.; Fritz, S.; Vollherbst, D.; Zelzer, S.; Wachter, M. F.; Bellemann, N.; Gockner, T.; Mokry, T.; Schmitz, A.; Aulmann, S.; Stampfl, U.; Pereira, P.; Kauczor, H. U.; Werner, J.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm 3 , and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm 3 , and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver

  10. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Si Y.; Hyun, Sinjae

    2013-01-01

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  11. Patient preference with respect to QoL and reduction in opioid-induced constipation (OIC) after treatment with prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone compared with previous analgesic therapy [PREFER study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, V C P C; Vanelderen, P J L; Koopmans-Klein, G; van Megen, Y J B; Van Zundert, J; Huygen, F J P M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient preference in terms of quality of life (QoL), analgesia and bowel function for patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, when treated with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR compared with the previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesic treatment . This was a 3-week open-label phase 3b study conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, after 3 weeks patients could enter an extension phase. Patient preference with respect to QoL for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment compared with previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics was assessed. A patient was considered a responder with respect to QoL if this assessment was 'better' or 'much better' compared with previous WHO-step I or II analgesics at any time point. Response rate with respect to QoL was 59.2% (95% CI: 51.7-66.8%) for the Full Analysis (FA)-population, for the Per Protocol-population response rate was 71.7% (95% CI: 63.1-80.3%). Explorative analysis showed that response rate with respect to QoL was highest in constipated patients pretreated with WHO-step II analgesics (73.8%). Mean ± SD pain score in the FA-population at start was 74.7 ± 16.6 decreasing to 53.9 ± 24.3 after a median (range) treatment period of 173.5 (31-771) days. For constipated subjects the significant reduction in constipation [improvement of the Bowel Function Index (BFI)], was -24.8 points (95% CI: -17.1 to -32.5). BFI for non-constipated subjects remained well below 28.8. Adverse events with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment were well-known opioid-related adverse events. This study shows that the studied patients previously treated with WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics prefer treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR with respect to QoL. Moreover, the study shows that treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR significantly reduces OIC in constipated patients and that non-constipated patients do not develop OIC during treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR.

  12. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Yaremenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In order to analyze the dynamics of expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the large hemispheres in the simulation of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection. Materials and methods. The study is conducted on 185 male mature white rats from Wistar line weighing 260-290 g, in which the damage of the brain was modulated. The brain for study was taken on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th and 90th days after the start of the experiment. The histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical methods were used. Results. Observations have shown that sensitization by the brain antigen causes neurodegenerative changes in the sensorimotor cortex and a moderate increase in the number of GFAP+-gliocytes, which is gradually increasing. The discirculatory changes that occurred with PO and BCA against the background of previous sensitization practically do not lead to changes in the number of GFAP+-cells. Against the background of sensitization by brain antigen, brain ischemia leads to an increase in the number of gliocytes that are GFAP labeled. In the affected hemisphere, their number reaches a maximum in the end of the acute period of ischemia, after which it decreases. But even in 3 months after transient vascular lesion, there are almost twice as many as in conditionally intact rats. This can be a factor that will significantly affect the function of brain regions after a vascular accident. The increase in the number of GFAP+-gliocytes in the contralateral hemisphere allows us to speak about a certain systemic response of astrocytic glia after ischemic trauma. An early reaction to increase of the number of labeled astrocytes just a day after ischemic attack suggests that some of this type of gliocytes does not expresses GFAP under normal conditions. The action of Imunofan in MEAs results in a less significant decrease in manifestations of

  13. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  14. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J

    2004-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C......-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in glucose-tolerant subjects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of the polymorphism on the serum insulin and C-peptide responses to an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous GDM and to investigate...

  15. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  16. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  17. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety.From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127, diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127 and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127.In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  18. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  19. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    evaluation group (MEG) is a European initiative on evaluation of technical models used within the major industrial hazard area and is supported by the EC DGXII, Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development. Closely related to MEG is REDIPHEM, which is the acronym of a research project supported...... by the EC Environment Research Programme focusing on assessment of the quality of experimental data and models for dense gas dispersion created within the EC funded research programmes. Technical models are used in a number of areas of industrial hazards assessment. It is becoming more and more apparent...... of ensuring that model development is of a standard that is commensurate with the importance of model use. The aim of MEG is to improve the culture in which models are developed and used and so ensure that technical models used in all aspects of major hazard evaluation are up to date with technical...

  20. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  1. Tirapazamine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: A report of the international CATAPULT I study group. Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pawel, J; von Roemeling, R; Gatzemeier, U; Boyer, M; Elisson, L O; Clark, P; Talbot, D; Rey, A; Butler, T W; Hirsh, V; Olver, I; Bergman, B; Ayoub, J; Richardson, G; Dunlop, D; Arcenas, A; Vescio, R; Viallet, J; Treat, J

    2000-03-01

    A phase III trial, Cisplatin and Tirapazamine in Subjects with Advanced Previously Untreated Non-Small-Cell Lung Tumors (CATAPULT I), was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine plus cisplatin for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated NSCLC were randomized to receive either tirapazamine (390 mg/m(2) infused over 2 hours) followed 1 hour later by cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) over 1 hour) or 75 mg/m(2) of cisplatin alone, every 3 weeks for a maximum of eight cycles. A total of 446 patients with NSCLC (17% with stage IIIB disease and pleural effusions; 83% with stage IV disease) were entered onto the study. Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was >/= 60 for all patients (for 10%, KPS = 60; for 90%, KPS = 70 to 100). Sixty patients (14%) had clinically stable brain metastases. The median survival was significantly longer (34.6 v 27. 7 weeks; P =.0078) and the response rate was significantly greater (27.5% v 13.7%; P CATAPULT I study shows that tirapazamine enhances the activity of cisplatin in patients with advanced NSCLC and confirms that hypoxia is an exploitable therapeutic target in human malignancies.

  2. A double-blind cross-over controlled study to evaluate the effect of human biosynthetic growth hormone on ovarian stimulation in previous poor responders to in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S M; Huang, Z H; Morris, I D; Matson, P L; Buck, P; Lieberman, B A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of exogenous human biosynthetic growth hormone (HGH; 12 IU/day; Norditropin, Novo-Nordisk) on the response to ovarian stimulation using a buserelin/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) regimen was assessed in women who had previously shown a 'poor response' in spite of increasing doses of HMG. Forty patients were recruited into a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study. The serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on day 2-5 of a menstrual cycle (HGH compared to the placebo cycle resulted in increased serum concentrations of fasting insulin on the 8th (median 3.9 versus 5.8 mU/l; P HGH. After 8 days of co-treatment with HGH the number of cohort follicles (14-16.9 mm) was significantly increased, but this change was not sustained on the day of HCG administration. No statistical difference in the serum oestradiol on the 8th day of HMG or day of HCG, length of the follicular phase, total dose of HMG used, or the number of oocytes collected was seen between the placebo or HGH cycles. This study demonstrates that HGH does not improve the ovarian response to ovulation induction in previous poor responders.

  3. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  4. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Martins Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  5. Evaluating EML Modeling Tools for Insurance Purposes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Gustavsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As with any situation that involves economical risk refineries may share their risk with insurers. The decision process generally includes modelling to determine to which extent the process area can be damaged. On the extreme end of modelling the so-called Estimated Maximum Loss (EML scenarios are found. These scenarios predict the maximum loss a particular installation can sustain. Unfortunately no standard model for this exists. Thus the insurers reach different results due to applying different models and different assumptions. Therefore, a study has been conducted on a case in a Swedish refinery where several scenarios previously had been modelled by two different insurance brokers using two different softwares, ExTool and SLAM. This study reviews the concept of EML and analyses the used models to see which parameters are most uncertain. Also a third model, EFFECTS, was employed in an attempt to reach a conclusion with higher reliability.

  6. Battlescale Forecast Model Sensitivity Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauter, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    .... Changes to the surface observations used in the Battlescale Forecast Model initialization led to no significant changes in the resulting forecast values of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, or wind direction...

  7. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  8. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  9. BIOMOVS: an international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1988-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (author)

  10. BIOMOVS: An international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1987-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (orig.)

  11. An Integrated Modeling Study of the Miho Catchment in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, J.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, A.; Zheng, C.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards such as flooding and drought have been causing increasingly severe damages to our society. This has brought more attention to the importance of understanding hydrological systems. Hydrological models are generally employed to quantify the hydrological processes involved in natural hazards. Many previous hydrological modeling studies in Korea have generally focused on either surface or groundwater, respectively, and integrated surface and groundwater modeling studies are limited. This study presents the development, calibration and verification of a physically based surface water and groundwater integrated model for the Miho catchment in Korea. The integrated model employed in this study is GSFLOW developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which couples the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). The integrated model for the Miho catchment was calibrated and verified for the period from 2004 to 2013 using both surface and subsurface observations, including streamflow, groundwater heads, and wetland and spring locations. The modeling results show that the calibrated model can reproduce the temporal variation of streamflow and groundwater head fluctuation and capture the dynamics of the hydrologic system. This study provides an invaluable framework for understanding the water cycle in the Miho catchment and for development of effective water management strategies in the future.

  12. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  13. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Imitation Modeling and Institutional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Y. Barbashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of imitation modeling in the conduct of institutional research. The institutional approach is based on the observation of social behavior. To understand a social process means to determine the key rules that individuals use, undertaking social actions associated with this process or phenomenon. This does not mean that institutions determine behavioral reactions, although there are a number of social situations where the majority of individuals follow the dominant rules. If the main laws of development of the institutional patterns are known, one can describe most of the social processes accurately. The author believes that the main difficulty with the analysis of institutional processes is their recursive nature: from the standards of behavior one may find the proposed actions of social agents who follow, obey or violate institutions, but the possibility of reconstructive analysis is not obvious. The author demonstrates how the institutional approach is applied to the analysis of social behavior. The article describes the basic principles and methodology of imitation modeling. Imitation modeling reveals the importance of institutions in structuring social transactions. The article concludes that in the long term institutional processes are not determined by initial conditions.

  15. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  16. A Phase II Study of the c-Met Inhibitor Tivantinib in Combination with FOLFOX for the Treatment of Patients with Previously Untreated Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Distal Esophagus, Gastroesophageal Junction, or Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Shubham; Patel, Manish; Kurkjian, Carla; Hemphill, Brian; Flores, Maria; Thompson, Dana; Bendell, Johanna

    2017-08-09

    This phase I/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose of tivantinib in combination with standard dose FOLFOX for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination for patients with previously untreated metastatic adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus, gastroesophageal (GE) junction, or stomach. Patients with advanced solid tumors for which FOLFOX would be appropriate chemotherapy received escalating doses of tivantinib BID (days 1-14) in a standard 3 + 3 design in phase I. In phase II, patients with advanced GE cancer received standard FOLFOX day 1 and tivantinib (360 mg PO BID) days 1-14 of each 2-week cycle. Restaging occurred every four cycles. The primary phase II endpoint was response rate (RR). Forty-nine patients were enrolled (15 on phase I and 34 on phase II). The expansion dose was established as tivantinib 360 mg BID in combination with FOLFOX. Thirty-two phase II patients were treated for a median of eight cycles (range, 1-38), with an overall RR of 38%. Treatment-related toxicities included neutropenia, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, and peripheral neuropathy. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.1 hmonths with a median time to progression of 7.0 months. Median overall survival was 9.6 months. Two patients remain on study at the time of this analysis. The combination treatment of tivantinib plus FOLFOX in patients with advanced GE cancer showed a response and PFS in the range of historical controls for first-line FOLFOX therapy. However, two patients had extended time on study treatment (36 and 45 cycles) at the time of data cutoff.

  17. Executive Function in Previously Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C; Harlé, Katia M; Noble, Kimberly G; McCall, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    In studies of children adopted from institutions, being raised in an institution has been associated consistently with an increased risk of persistent cognitive, academic, and social-emotional problems. These findings raise questions about the neurocognitive mechanisms that contribute to these negative outcomes. Theory and models based on studies of animals indicate that development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences during early childhood. In this article, we review recent studies of postinstitutionalized children that examined EF components such as inhibitory control, working memory, shifting, and planning. We then describe emerging research on the structure and function of the PFC. Converging evidence suggests both EF difficulties and alterations in development of the PFC following early institutionalization. We conclude by discussing possible explanations for these findings and implications for prevention and intervention, and by offering suggestions for ongoing research.

  18. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  19. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  20. From “Mr. Guthrie is profoundly mistaken ...” to “Our data do not seem to confirm the results of a previous study on...”: A diachronic study of polemicity in academic writing (1810-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Salager-Meyer

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the quantitative and qualitative diachronic evolution of critical (Cr with respect to non-critical (NCr references in English medical discourse over a 185 year-period.Materials and Methods: We analyzed a corpus of 90 medical articles drawn from 34 different journals published between 1810 and 1995. Cr and NCr references were recorded in each paper and their frequency of occurrence was computed per 20 year-period. Results were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests.Results: Our quantitative results indicate that in the corpus as a whole NCr significantly outweigh Cr references. When diachronically analyzed, our quantitative data revealed that the corpus analyzed could be divided into 2 blocks: Block A (1810-1929 and Block B (1930-1995, the cutting point being the 1930’s when NCr references started exhibiting a dramatic ascent. Our findings further showed that, proportionally speaking, Cr references were significantly more frequent in Block A than in Block B, but that NCr references significantly outnumbered Cr ones in Block B. Our quantitative data also indicated that the NCr/Cr reference ratio remained rather constant for the first 120 years studied, but that it changed radically from the 1930’s. Finally, our qualitative findings revealed that 19th and early 20th century Cr references were formulated in a much more direct, involved, personal and author-responsible manner than their mid- and late 20th century counterparts, the rhetorical features of the latter being a pronounced hedginess and the shifting of the disagreeement responsibility from a human agent (who became a detached and apparently neutral actor to an inanimate “talking fact/finding” which is then given a prominent thematic position.Conclusions: We conclude that 19th and early 20th century medical papers adopted a critical stand more frequently than mid- and late 20th century medical discourse did, and that the

  1. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  2. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  3. Myocardial adaption to HI(RT in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scharf

    Full Text Available Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance training (HI(RT induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study.80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(RT-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years. HI(RT comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(RT all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging.Indexed left (LV and right ventricular (RV volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2 and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2 significantly increased with HI(RT (all p<0.001. Mean LV and RV remodeling indices of HI(RT-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87], indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2 and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2 stroke volume significantly increased with HI(RT (p<0.001. Myocardial strain and strain rates did not change following resistance exercise. Left atrial volume at end systole slightly increased after HI(RT (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411, the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79.22 weeks of HI(RT lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men.The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health

  4. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  5. Application of Model Animals in the Study of Drug Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Drug safety is a key factor in drug research and development, Drug toxicology test is the main method to evaluate the safety of drugs, The body condition of an animal has important implications for the results of the study, Previous toxicological studies of drugs were carried out in normal animals in the past, There is a great deviation from the clinical practice.The purpose of this study is to investigate the necessity of model animals as a substitute for normal animals for toxicological studies, It is expected to provide exact guidance for future drug safety evaluation.

  6. Study on competitive interaction models in Cayley tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.G.M.A.

    1987-12-01

    We propose two kinds of models in the Cayley tree to simulate Ising models with axial anisotropy in the cubic lattice. The interaction in the direction of the anisotropy is simulated by the interaction along the branches of the tree. The interaction in the planes perpendicular to the anisotropy direction, in the first model, is simulated by interactions between spins in neighbour branches of the same generation arising from same site of the previous generation. In the second model, the simulation of the interaction in the planes are produced by mean field interactions among all spins in sites of the same generation arising from the same site of the previous generations. We study these models in the limit of infinite coordination number. First, we analyse a situation with antiferromagnetic interactions along the branches between first neighbours only, and we find the analogous of a metamagnetic Ising model. In the following, we introduce competitive interactions between first and second neighbours along the branches, to simulate the ANNNI model. We obtain one equation of differences which relates the magnetization of one generation with the magnetization of the two previous generations, to permit a detailed study of the modulated phase region. We note that the wave number of the modulation, for one fixed temperature, changes with the competition parameter to form a devil's staircase with a fractal dimension which increases with the temperature. We discuss the existence of strange atractors, related to a possible caothic phase. Finally, we show the obtained results when we consider interactions along the branches with three neighbours. (author)

  7. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m 2 intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  8. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  9. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF SOFTWARE QUALITY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Vilas. M. Thakare; Ashwin B. Tomar

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a basis for software quality model research, through a systematic study ofpapers. It identifies nearly seventy software quality research papers from journals and classifies paper asper research topic, estimation approach, study context and data set. The paper results combined withother knowledge provides support for recommendations in future software quality model research, toincrease the area of search for relevant studies, carefully select the papers within a set ...

  10. A model for fine mapping in family based association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stefan; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2009-01-01

    Genome wide association studies for complex diseases are typically followed by more focused characterization of the identified genetic region. We propose a latent class model to evaluate a candidate region with several measured markers using observations on families. The main goal is to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the observed markers and the putative true but unobserved disease locus in the region. Based on this model, we estimate the joint distribution of alleles at the observed markers and the unobserved true disease locus, and a penetrance parameter measuring the impact of the disease allele on disease risk. A family specific random effect allows for varying baseline disease prevalences for different families. We present a likelihood framework for our model and assess its properties in simulations. We apply the model to an Alzheimer data set and confirm previous findings in the ApoE region.

  11. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  12. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  13. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  14. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were det...

  15. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  16. An Ionospheric Metric Study Using Operational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Scherliess, L.; Harris, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    One of the outstanding challenges in upgrading ionospheric operational models is quantifying their improvement. This challenge is not necessarily an absolute accuracy one, but rather answering the question, "Is the newest operational model an improvement over its predecessor under operational scenarios?" There are few documented cases where ionospheric models are compared either with each other or against "ground truth". For example a CEDAR workshop team, PRIMO, spent almost a decade carrying out a models comparison with ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements from the Millstone Hill, Massachusetts location [Anderson et al.,1998]. The result of this study was that all models were different and specific conditions could be found when each was the "best" model. Similarly, a National Space Weather Metrics ionospheric challenge was held and results were presented at a National Space Weather meeting. The results were again found to be open to interpretation, and issues with the value of the specific metrics were raised (Fuller-Rowell, private communication, 2003). Hence, unlike the tropospheric weather community, who have established metrics and exercised them on new models over many decades to quantify improvement, the ionospheric community has not yet settled on a metric of both scientific and operational value. We report on a study in which metrics were used to compare various forms of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Ionospheric Forecast Model (IFM), and the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Model (USU-GAIM) models. The ground truth for this study was a group of 11 ionosonde data sets taken between 20 March and 19 April 2004. The metric parameter was the ionosphere's critical frequency. The metric was referenced to the IRI. Hence, the study addressed the specific question what improvement does IFM and USU-GAIM have over IRI. Both strengths (improvements) and weaknesses of these models are discussed

  17. How valuable are model organisms for transposable element studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, M G; Evgen'ev, M B

    1999-01-01

    Model organisms have proved to be highly informative for many types of genetic studies involving 'conventional' genes. The results have often been successfully generalized to other closely related organisms and also, perhaps surprisingly frequently, to more distantly related organisms. Because of the wealth of previous knowledge and their availability and convenience, model organisms were often the species of choice for many of the earlier studies of transposable elements. The question arises whether the results of genetic studies of transposable elements in model organisms can be extrapolated in the same ways as those of conventional genes? A number of observations suggest that special care needs to be taken in generalizing the results from model organisms to other species. A hallmark of many transposable elements is their ability to amplify rapidly in species genomes. Rapid spread of a newly invaded element throughout a species range has also been demonstrated. The types and genomic copy numbers of transposable elements have been shown to differ greatly between some closely related species. Horizontal transfer of transposable elements appears to be more frequent than for nonmobile genes. Furthermore, the population structure of some model organisms has been subject to drastic recent changes that may have some bearing on their transposable element genomic complements. In order to initiate discussion of this question, several case studies of transposable elements in well-studied Drosophila species are presented.

  18. The ARM-GCSS Intercomparison Study of Single-Column Models and Cloud System Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederwall, R.T.; Rodriques, D.J.; Krueger, S.K.; Randall, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Single-Column Model (SCM) Working Group (WC) and the Cloud Working Group (CWG) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program have begun a collaboration with the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) WGs. The forcing data sets derived from the special ARM radiosonde measurements made during the SCM Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs), the wealth of cloud and related data sets collected by the ARM Program, and the ARM infrastructure support of the SCM WG are of great value to GCSS. In return, GCSS brings the efforts of an international group of cloud system modelers to bear on ARM data sets and ARM-related scientific questions. The first major activity of the ARM-GCSS collaboration is a model intercomparison study involving SCMs and cloud system models (CSMs), also known as cloud-resolving or cloud-ensemble models. The SCM methodologies developed in the ARM Program have matured to the point where an intercomparison will help identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches. CSM simulations will bring much additional information about clouds to evaluate cloud parameterizations used in the SCMs. CSMs and SCMs have been compared successfully in previous GCSS intercomparison studies for tropical conditions. The ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site offers an opportunity for GCSS to test their models in continental, mid-latitude conditions. The Summer 1997 SCM IOP has been chosen since it provides a wide range of summertime weather events that will be a challenging test of these models

  19. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  20. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  1. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  2. Comparative Study of Bancruptcy Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isye Arieshanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early indication of bancruptcy is important for a company. If companies aware of  potency of their bancruptcy, they can take a preventive action to anticipate the bancruptcy. In order to detect the potency of a bancruptcy, a company can utilize a a model of bancruptcy prediction. The prediction model can be built using a machine learning methods. However, the choice of machine learning methods should be performed carefully. Because the suitability of a model depends on the problem specifically. Therefore, in this paper we perform a comparative study of several machine leaning methods for bancruptcy prediction. According to the comparative study, the performance of several models that based on machine learning methods (k-NN, fuzzy k-NN, SVM, Bagging Nearest Neighbour SVM, Multilayer Perceptron(MLP, Hybrid of MLP + Multiple Linear Regression, it can be showed that fuzzy k-NN method achieve the best performance with accuracy 77.5%

  3. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  4. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  5. Atopic Dermatitis Studies through In Vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne De Vuyst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex inflammatory skin condition that is not fully understood. Epidermal barrier defects and Th2 immune response dysregulations are thought to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A vicious circle takes place between these alterations, and it can further be complicated by additional genetic and environmental factors. Studies investigating in more depth the etiology of the disease are thus needed in order to develop functional treatments. In recent years, there have been significant advances regarding in vitro models reproducing important features of AD. However, since a lot of models have been developed, finding the appropriate experimental setting can be difficult. Therefore, herein, we review the different types of in vitro models mimicking features of AD. The simplest models are two-dimensional culture systems composed of immune cells or keratinocytes, whereas three-dimensional skin or epidermal equivalents reconstitute more complex stratified tissues exhibiting barrier properties. In those models, hallmarks of AD are obtained, either by challenging tissues with interleukin cocktails overexpressed in AD epidermis or by silencing expression of pivotal genes encoding epidermal barrier proteins. Tissue equivalents cocultured with lymphocytes or containing AD patient cells are also described. Furthermore, each model is placed in its study context with a brief summary of the main results obtained. In conclusion, the described in vitro models are useful tools to better understand AD pathogenesis, but also to screen new compounds in the field of AD, which probably will open the way to new preventive or therapeutic strategies.

  6. Modeling and Study of the Cerenkov Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, I; Makovicka, L; Mishev, A; Stamenov, J N

    2003-01-01

    The studies realized in INRNE (Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy) particulary in cosmic rays detection and construction of Muonic Cerenkov Telescope in University of Blagoevgrad [1] shows the need to develop a theoretical model based on observed phenomenon and to refine it for the detection system optimisation. The effect was introduced in EGS4 code system. The first simulations were consecrated to different geometry of water tank in total reflection. The model was compared with experimental data realised with gamma source using the telescope. A simple atmospheric model is introduced in EGS4. The comparison between CORSIKA and EGS4 codes was realised.

  7. Differential Equations Models to Study Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Velázquez, Judith; Hense, Burkhard A

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical models to study quorum sensing (QS) have become an important tool to explore all aspects of this type of bacterial communication. A wide spectrum of mathematical tools and methods such as dynamical systems, stochastics, and spatial models can be employed. In this chapter, we focus on giving an overview of models consisting of differential equations (DE), which can be used to describe changing quantities, for example, the dynamics of one or more signaling molecule in time and space, often in conjunction with bacterial growth dynamics. The chapter is divided into two sections: ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) models of QS. Rates of change are represented mathematically by derivatives, i.e., in terms of DE. ODE models allow describing changes in one independent variable, for example, time. PDE models can be used to follow changes in more than one independent variable, for example, time and space. Both types of models often consist of systems (i.e., more than one equation) of equations, such as equations for bacterial growth and autoinducer concentration dynamics. Almost from the onset, mathematical modeling of QS using differential equations has been an interdisciplinary endeavor and many of the works we revised here will be placed into their biological context.

  8. A Distribution Line Model for Lightning Overvoltage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Susumu; Noda, Taku; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    Recently, the focus of lightning protection measures for distribution lines has moved from a nearby lightning stroke to a direct lightning stroke. Studies of direct lightning stroke countermeasures are generally carried out by digital simulations using the EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program). Thus, components of a distribution line must be modeled appropriately in the EMTP for accurate simulations. The authors have previously clarified the surge response of a distribution line by pulse tests using a reduced-scale distribution line model. In this paper, first, the results of the pulse tests are simulated in the EMTP using a conventional model which represents a distribution pole by a single lossless distributed-parameter line model, and comparisons with the test results show that transient overvoltages generated at the insulators cannot accurately be reproduced by the conventional model. This indicates that a special treatment is required to represent the transient response of a distribution pole and wires. Then, this paper proposes new EMTP models of the pole and wires which can reproduce the transient overvoltages at the insulators. The parameter values of the proposed models can be determined based on a pulse test result.

  9. Study protocol of a phase II clinical trial (KSCC1501A) examining oxaliplatin + S-1 for treatment of HER2-negative advanced/recurrent gastric cancer previously untreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Emi, Yasunori; Oki, Eiji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Akagi, Yoshito; Baba, Hideo; Baba, Eishi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-08

    Oxaliplatin + S-1 is a recognized treatment regimen in Japan, but there are no Japanese clinical data on an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg/m 2 . The current research involves a single-arm, prospective, phase II clinical trial to examine the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin + S-1 with an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg/m 2 to treat HER2-negative advanced/recurrent gastric cancer previously untreated with chemotherapy in Japan. The primary endpoint of this trial will be the response rate, and the secondary endpoints will be the safety profile of oxaliplatin + S-1, progression-free survival, the response rate in subjects under the age of 75, overall survival, time to treatment failure, duration of treatment, time to failure of strategy, and dose intensity. The threshold response rate is 45% and the expected response rate is 60%. Assuming that a one-tailed score test will be performed with an α of 0.05, 68 patients are needed to ensure a statistical power of 80%. Planned enrollment is 70 subjects and the total duration of this trial is expected to be 3 years. Since replacing cisplatin with oxaliplatin should provide the same level of therapeutic efficacy while limiting adverse events and simplifying treatment, oxaliplatin + S-1 may be increasingly used to treat gastric cancer in Japan. Verifying the efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin + S-1 with an oxaliplatin dose of 130 mg is an important task that the current trial has set out to achieve. The protocol was registered at the website of the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN), Japan (protocol ID UMIN000017550) on May 29, 2015. The details are available at the following web address: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ .

  10. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J; López-Sendón, José L; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enrolling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.91). Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available.

  11. Overview of the reactor safety study consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, I.B.; Yaniv, S.S.; Blond, R.M.; McGrath, P.E.; Church, H.W.; Wayland, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) is a comprehensive assessment of the potential risk to the public from accidents in light water power reactors. The engineering analysis of the plants is described in detail in the Reactor Safety Study: it provides an estimate of the probability versus magnitude of the release of radioactive material. The consequence model, which is the subject of this paper, describes the progression of the postulated accident after the release of the radioactive material from the containment. A brief discussion of the manner in which the consequence calculations are performed is presented. The emphasis in the description is on the models and data that differ significantly from those previously used for these types of assessments. The results of the risk calculations for 100 light water power reactors are summarized

  12. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  13. Studi Model Penerimaan Tehnologi (Technology Acceptance Model) Novice Accountant

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiana, Rustiana

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates adoption or application of behavior information technologyacceptance. Davis' Technology Acceptance Model is employed to explain perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and intention to use in information systems. The respondents were 228 accounting students in management information system. Data was collected by questionnaire and then analyzed by using linear regression analysis and independent t-test. The results are in line with most of the hypotheses, only hypo...

  14. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  15. Parametric study of a thorium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Models for radionuclides distribution in the human body and dosimetry involve assumptions on the biokinetic behavior of the material among compartments representing organs and tissues in the body. One of the most important problem in biokinetic modeling is the assignment of transfer coefficients and biological half-lives to body compartments. In Brazil there are many areas of high natural radioactivity, where the population is chronically exposed to radionuclides of the thorium series. The uncertainties of the thorium biokinetic model are a major cause of uncertainty in the estimates of the committed dose equivalent of the population living in high background areas. The purpose of this study is to discuss the variability in the thorium activities accumulated in the body compartments in relation to the variations in the transfer coefficients and compartments biological half-lives of a thorium-recycling model for continuous exposure. Multiple regression analysis methods were applied to analyze the results. (author)

  16. Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment

  17. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  18. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    PRELIMINARY MULTIDOMAIN MODELLING AND SIMULATION STUDY OF A. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT) TOWER VIBRATION. I. lliyasu1, I. Iliyasu2, I. K. Tanimu3 and D. O Obada4. 1,4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE. NIGERIA.

  19. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  20. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  1. Studying and Modeling Vibration Transducers and Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Ágoston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents types and operating mode of vibration sensors. Piezoelectric sensing elements are often used in accelerometers. It will be investigate the structure and transfer function of the seismic mass type sensing element. The article presents how the piezoelectric sensing element works and how can be modeled with an electronic circuit. The transfer functions of the electronic circuit models are studied in Matlab and the results are presented. It will be presented the influence of the seismic mass on the accelerometer’s working frequency domain.

  2. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  3. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. Keywords: Oral hygiene, Pregnancy, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  4. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  5. Docking and Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Some Previously Studied and newly Designed Ligands to Catalytic Core Domain of HIV-1 Integrase and an Investigation to Effects of Conformational Changes of Protein on Docking Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ercan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, AIDS still remains as a worldwide pandemic and continues to cause many death which arise from HIV-1 virus. For nearly 35 years, drugs that target various steps of virus life cycle have been developed. HIV-1 integrase is the one of these steps which is essential for virus life cycle. Computer aided drug design is being used in many drug design studies as also used in development of the first HIV-1 integrase inhibitor Raltegravir. In this study 3 ligands which are used as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and 4 newly designed ligands were docked to catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase. Each of ligands docked to three different conformations of protein. Prepared complexes (21 item were carried out by 50 ns MD simulations and results were analyzed. Finally, the binding free energies of ligands were calculated. Hereunder, it was determined that designed ligands L01 and L03 gave favorable results. The questions about the ligands which have low docking scores in a conformation of protein could give better scores in another conformation of protein and if the MD simulations carry the different oriented and different localized ligands in same position at the end of simulation were answered.

  6. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.

    2017-11-01

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  7. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-11-15

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  8. Janus kinase-2 inhibitor fedratinib in patients with myelofibrosis previously treated with ruxolitinib (JAKARTA-2): a single-arm, open-label, non-randomised, phase 2, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Claire N; Schaap, Nicolaas; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Tiu, Ramon V; Zachee, Pierre; Jourdan, Eric; Winton, Elliott; Silver, Richard T; Schouten, Harry C; Passamonti, Francesco; Zweegman, Sonja; Talpaz, Moshe; Lager, Joanne; Shun, Zhenming; Mesa, Ruben A

    2017-07-01

    Myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by splenomegaly, cytopenias, bone marrow fibrosis, and debilitating symptoms including fatigue, weight loss, and bone pain. Mutations in Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) occur in approximately 50% of patients. The only approved JAK2 inhibitor for myelofibrosis is the dual JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib. 58-71% of patients treated with ruxolitinib in clinical trials so far have not achieved the primary endpoint of 35% or more reduction in spleen volume from baseline assessed by MRI or CT. Furthermore, more than 50% of patients discontinue ruxolitinib treatment after 3-5 years. On the basis of this unmet need, we investigated the efficacy and safety of fedratinib, a JAK2-selective inhibitor, in patients with ruxolitinib-resistant or ruxolitinib-intolerant myelofibrosis. This single-arm, open-label, non-randomised, phase 2, multicentre study, done at 31 sites in nine countries, enrolled adult patients with a current diagnosis of intermediate or high-risk primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythaemia vera myelofibrosis, or post-essential thrombocythaemia myelofibrosis, found to be ruxolitinib resistant or intolerant after at least 14 days of treatment. Other main inclusion criteria were palpable splenomegaly (≥5 cm below the left costal margin), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and life expectancy of 6 months or less. Patients received oral fedratinib at a starting dose of 400 mg once per day, for six consecutive 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was spleen response (defined as the proportion of patients with a ≥35% reduction in spleen volume as determined by blinded CT and MRI at a central imaging laboratory). We did the primary analysis in the per-protocol population only (patients treated with fedratinib, for whom a baseline and at least one post-baseline spleen volume measurement was available) and the safety analysis in all patients receiving at least one dose of

  9. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  10. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future

  11. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  12. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y. [and others

    2000-01-19

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future.

  13. A phase II study of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus carboplatin as the first-line therapy in elderly patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Yusuke; Hosomi, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Kageaki; Nagamata, Makoto; Takagi, Yusuke; Mikura, Shinichiro

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this clinical trial was to explore the efficacy and tolerability of first-line chemotherapy with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel), a novel agent that uses a drug delivery system, plus carboplatin, in elderly Japanese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this phase II, single-arm, open-label, single-institutional study, we aimed to enroll 37 elderly patients, aged more than 70 years, with advanced NSCLC of performance status 0 or 1. The patients received each cycle of first-line therapy consisting of 100 mg/m(2) nab-paclitaxel intravenously administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 21-day cycle, plus carboplatin area under curve 6 on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for up to six cycles. The primary end point was determining the objective response rate, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The study was interrupted early because of two treatment-related deaths and 1 life-threatening severe adverse event; therefore, only 10 patients (median age, 77 years; range 71-82 years) were enrolled. The primary end point of the objective response was 50 % for the 10 patients analyzed. Progression-free survival was 4.48 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.36-6.44], and overall survival was 7.89 months (95 % CI 0.36-26.88). Common treatment-related adverse events higher than grade 2 included decreased neutrophil counts, anemia, decreased albumin, anorexia, and peripheral neuropathy. Regarding severe adverse events, two patients had febrile neutropenia and lung infection. Two patients died, and one patient had febrile neutropenia with intubation during the first cycle. The Data and Safety Monitoring Committee therefore recommended interruption of patient enrollment. Nab-paclitaxel plus carboplatin, without dose reduction, is indicated to be toxic and intolerable as first-line chemotherapy in elderly Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC. Care must be taken when

  14. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    improvement in lung function throughout 12 weeks. Both MF/F doses were superior to MF in improving asthma control and reducing nocturnal awakenings due to asthma requiring short-acting beta(2)-agonist use. All treatments were well tolerated. Asthma patients who were poorly controlled on high-dose ICS...... with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...... recorded. Seven hundred twenty-eight patients were randomized. Significant improvement from baseline to week 12 occurred for mean change in FEV(1) AUC(0-12h) with MF/F 400/10 microg (4.19 L x hour) versus MF 400 microg (2.04 L x hour; p

  16. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard M.; Xing, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments that propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation, and switching mechanism of the motor. In a previous article, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here, we further analyze that model, showing that 1), the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with latest experiments; 2), with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, as recently observed; and 3), the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwell-time distribution. The predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental procedures for verification. PMID:19383460

  17. A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Louis D; Nash, Martyn P; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM) model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD) processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

  18. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, F; Lo, C; Berry, R; Xing, J

    2009-03-19

    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  19. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, F.; Lo, C.; Berry, R.; Xing, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  20. Hearing characteristics of cephalopods: modeling and environmental impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Shi, Feng; Song, Jiakun; Zhang, Xugang; Yu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are some of the most intriguing molluscs, and they represent economically important commercial marine species for fisheries. Previous studies have shown that cephalopods are sensitive to underwater particle motion, especially at low frequencies in the order of 10 Hz. The present paper deals with quantitative modeling of the statocyst system in three cephalopod species: Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Loligo vulgaris. The octopus's macula/statolith organ was modeled as a 2nd-order dynamic oscillator using parameter values estimated from scanning electron micrograph images. The modeling results agree reasonably well with experimental data (acceleration threshold) in the three cephalopod species. Insights made from quantitative modeling and simulating the particle motion sensing mechanism of cephalopods elucidated their underwater particle motion detection capabilities. Sensitivity to emerging environmental issues, such as low frequency noise caused by near-shore wind farms and increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the ocean, and sensitivity to sounds produced by impending landslides were investigated in octopus using the model. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

  2. A multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled study of rh-endostatin (Endostar) in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Li, Lu; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Shuliang; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Xiangqun; Yu, Yongfeng; Zhou, Caicun; Li, Wei; Liao, Meilin; Li, Baolan; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Ping; Hu, Chunhong; Hu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Based on promising efficacy in a single-arm study, a randomized phase II trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of adding rh-endostatin (Endostar) to first-line standard etoposide and carboplatin (EC) chemotherapy for treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. One hundred forty Chinese patients with pathologically confirmed, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to EC alone or rh-endostatin + EC for 4-6 cycles, followed by single-agent rh-endostatin until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival, Objective response rate (ORR), and quality of life. Median PFS was 6.4 months with rh-endostatin + EC (n = 69) and 5.9 months with EC (n = 69) (hazard ratio 0.8 [95% confidence interval 0.6-1.1]). PFS was significantly higher with rh-endostatin + EC than with EC (hazard ratio 0.4 [0.2-0.9; p = 0.020]) in female. Median overall survival was similar in both groups (12.1 versus 12.4 months, respectively [p = 0.82]). ORR was higher in the rh-endostatin + EC group (75.4%) than in the EC group (66.7%) (p = 0.348). The efficacy of rh-endostatin + EC relative to that of EC was reflected by greater improvements in patient-assessed quality of life scores after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. There was no difference between each regimen in the incidence of nonhematological or Grade III-IV hematological toxicities. Addition of rh-endostatin to EC for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer had an acceptable toxicity profile, but did not improve overall survival, PFS, and ORR.

  3. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The second part of the study deals with questions concerning the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the air pathway and their diffusion. On the basis of an introductory lecture on basic principles the interrelations within the whole complex to be considered are discussed. For the release itself, the fundamental issues concerning type and quantity of radioactive substances and their time behaviour are established. With regard to diffusion, calculation models and their parameters are reviewed. Much the same as the first colloquium, this one too aims at compiling existing models and data, determining the known facts and the questions still open and formulating tasks for the further activities. Thirteen questions emerged. They are concerned, above all, with the existing conditions for release and diffusion at the site. These questions will be dealt with in the forms of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. Results will be reported on at further colloquia. (orig.) [de

  4. Modeling measurement error in tumor characterization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoram Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etiologic studies of cancer increasingly use molecular features such as gene expression, DNA methylation and sequence mutation to subclassify the cancer type. In large population-based studies, the tumor tissues available for study are archival specimens that provide variable amounts of amplifiable DNA for molecular analysis. As molecular features measured from small amounts of tumor DNA are inherently noisy, we propose a novel approach to improve statistical efficiency when comparing groups of samples. We illustrate the phenomenon using the MethyLight technology, applying our proposed analysis to compare MLH1 DNA methylation levels in males and females studied in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Results We introduce two methods for computing empirical weights to model heteroscedasticity that is caused by sampling variable quantities of DNA for molecular analysis. In a simulation study, we show that using these weights in a linear regression model is more powerful for identifying differentially methylated loci than standard regression analysis. The increase in power depends on the underlying relationship between variation in outcome measure and input DNA quantity in the study samples. Conclusions Tumor characteristics measured from small amounts of tumor DNA are inherently noisy. We propose a statistical analysis that accounts for the measurement error due to sampling variation of the molecular feature and show how it can improve the power to detect differential characteristics between patient groups.

  5. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  6. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  7. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  8. Indiscriminate behaviors in previously institutionalized young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-03-01

    This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs. 3.5%; P Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5]). Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors.

  9. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  10. Mathematical modelling of simultaneous solvent evaporation and chemical curing in thermoset coatings: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model, describing the curing behaviour of a two-component, solvent-based, thermoset coating, is used to conduct a parameter study. The model includes curing reactions, solvent intra-film diffusion and evaporation, film gelation, vitrification, and crosslinking. A case study...... concentration of solvent. Simulations of solvent evaporation are compared to experimental data from a previous investigation. As part of the parameter study, mechanisms of this complex coating system are discussed....

  11. Comparative study of cost models for tokamak DEMO fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yamazaki, Kozo; Arimoto, Hideki; Ban, Kanae; Kondo, Takuya; Tobita, Kenji; Goto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Cost evaluation analysis of the tokamak-type demonstration reactor DEMO using the PEC (physics-engineering-cost) system code is underway to establish a cost evaluation model for the DEMO reactor design. As a reference case, a DEMO reactor with reference to the SSTR (steady state tokamak reactor) was designed using PEC code. The calculated total capital cost was in the same order of that proposed previously in cost evaluation studies for the SSTR. Design parameter scanning analysis and multi regression analysis illustrated the effect of parameters on the total capital cost. The capital cost was predicted to be inside the range of several thousands of M$s in this study. (author)

  12. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  13. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  14. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  15. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  16. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  17. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  18. Flow regulation in coronary vascular tree: a model study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhou Xie

    Full Text Available Coronary blood flow can always be matched to the metabolic demand of the myocardium due to the regulation of vasoactive segments. Myocardial compressive forces play an important role in determining coronary blood flow but its impact on flow regulation is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a coronary specified flow regulation model, which can integrate myocardial compressive forces and other identified regulation factors, to further investigate the coronary blood flow regulation behavior.A theoretical coronary flow regulation model including the myogenic, shear-dependent and metabolic responses was developed. Myocardial compressive forces were included in the modified wall tension model. Shear-dependent response was estimated by using the experimental data from coronary circulation. Capillary density and basal oxygen consumption were specified to corresponding to those in coronary circulation. Zero flow pressure was also modeled by using a simplified capillary model.Pressure-flow relations predicted by the proposed model are consistent with previous experimental data. The predicted diameter changes in small arteries are in good agreement with experiment observations in adenosine infusion and inhibition of NO synthesis conditions. Results demonstrate that the myocardial compressive forces acting on the vessel wall would extend the auto-regulatory range by decreasing the myogenic tone at the given perfusion pressure.Myocardial compressive forces had great impact on coronary auto-regulation effect. The proposed model was proved to be consistent with experiment observations and can be employed to investigate the coronary blood flow regulation effect in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  19. Detailed kinetic modeling study of n-pentanol oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Heufer, Karl Alexander

    2012-10-18

    To help overcome the world\\'s dependence upon fossil fuels, suitable biofuels are promising alternatives that can be used in the transportation sector. Recent research on internal combustion engines shows that short alcoholic fuels (e.g., ethanol or n-butanol) have reduced pollutant emissions and increased knock resistance compared to fossil fuels. Although higher molecular weight alcohols (e.g., n-pentanol and n-hexanol) exhibit higher reactivity that lowers their knock resistance, they are suitable for diesel engines or advanced engine concepts, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), where higher reactivity at lower temperatures is necessary for engine operation. The present study presents a detailed kinetic model for n-pentanol based on modeling rules previously presented for n-butanol. This approach was initially validated using quantum chemistry calculations to verify the most stable n-pentanol conformation and to obtain C-H and C-C bond dissociation energies. The proposed model has been validated against ignition delay time data, speciation data from a jet-stirred reactor, and laminar flame velocity measurements. Overall, the model shows good agreement with the experiments and permits a detailed discussion of the differences between alcohols and alkanes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  1. A Simple Model to Study Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Houck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau proteins play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, but in pathological conditions, tauopathies, tau is modified by phosphorylation and can aggregate into aberrant aggregates. These aggregates could be toxic to cells, and different cell models have been used to test for compounds that might prevent these tau modifications. Here, we have used a cell model involving the overexpression of human tau in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing tau in a stable manner, we have been able to replicate the phosphorylation of intracellular tau. This intracellular tau increases its own level of phosphorylation and aggregates, likely due to the regulatory effect of some growth factors on specific tau kinases such as GSK3. In these conditions, a change in secreted tau was observed. Reversal of phosphorylation and aggregation of tau was found by the use of lithium, a GSK3 inhibitor. Thus, we propose this as a simple cell model to study tau pathology in nonneuronal cells due to their viability and ease to work with.

  2. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  3. Study of gap conductance model for thermo mechanical fully coupled finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Cha; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    A light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod consists of zirconium alloy cladding and uranium dioxide pellets, with a slight gap between them. Therefore, the mechanical integrity of zirconium alloy cladding is the most critical issue, as it is an important barrier for fission products released into the environment. To evaluate the stress and strain of the cladding during operation, fuel performance codes with a one-dimensional (1D) approach have been reported since the 1970s. However, it is difficult for a 1D model to simulate the stress and strain of the cladding accurately owing to a lack of degree of freedom. A LWR fuel performance code should include thermo-mechanical coupled model owing to the existence of the fuel-cladding gap. Generally, the gap that is filled with helium gas results in temperature drop along radius direction. The gap conductance that determines temperature gradient within the gap is very sensitive to gap thickness. For instance, once the gap size increases up to several microns in certain region, difference of surface temperatures increases up to 100 Kelvin. Therefore, iterative thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is required to solve temperature distribution throughout pellet and cladding. Consequently, the Finite Element (FE) module, which can simulate a higher degree of freedom numerically, is an indispensable requirement to understand the thermomechanical behavior of cladding. FRAPCON-3, which is reliable performance code, has iterative loop for thermo-mechanical coupled calculation to solve 1D gap conductance model. In FEMAXI-III, 1D thermal analysis module and FE module for stress-strain analysis were separated. 1D thermal module includes iterative analysis between them. DIONISIO code focused on thermal contact model as function of surface roughness and contact pressure when the gap is closed. In previous works, gap conductance model has been developed only for 1D model or hybrid model (1D and FE). To simulate temperature, stress and strain

  4. Model study radioecology Biblis. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the study deals with questions concerning radiation on account of the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the aquatic pathway. The discussion is preceded by a lecture on the basis for the calculations, and on a lecture on the results of primary radiological model calculations. The colloquium aims at establishing existing knowledge, at coordinating deviating opinions, and at elaborating questions still open and the possibility to deal with these. On the whole, ten questions have emerged. They are mainly concerned with site conditions. These questions will be dealt with in the form of partial studies by individual participants or by task groups. The results will be discussed at further colloquia. (orig.) [de

  5. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Generalized Linear Models in Family Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs), as defined by J. A. Nelder and R. W. M. Wedderburn (1972), unify a class of regression models for categorical, discrete, and continuous response variables. As an extension of classical linear models, GLMs provide a common body of theory and methodology for some seemingly unrelated models and procedures, such as…

  7. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  8. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  9. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  10. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of 2-methylbutanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-05-01

    2-Methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) is one of several next-generation biofuels that can be used as an alternative fuel or blending component for combustion engines. This paper presents new experimental data for 2-methylbutanol, including ignition delay times in a high-pressure shock tube and premixed laminar flame speeds in a constant volume combustion vessel. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured for 2-methylbutanol/air mixtures at three equivalence ratios, temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250. K, and at nominal pressures near 20 and 40. bar. Laminar flame speed data were obtained using the spherically propagating premixed flame configuration at pressures of 1, 2, and 5. bar. A detailed chemical kinetic model for 2-methylbutanol oxidation was developed including high- and low-temperature chemistry based on previous modeling studies on butanol and pentanol isomers. The proposed model was tested against new and existing experimental data at pressures of 1-40. atm, temperatures of 740-1636. K, equivalence ratios of 0.25-2.0. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were conducted for identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions, and to obtain better understanding of the combustion characteristics of larger alcohols.

  11. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Association between obstetric complications & previous pregnancy outcomes with current pregnancy outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.

  13. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  14. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  16. A transgenic Xenopus laevis reporter model to study lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelii Ny

    2013-07-01

    The importance of the blood- and lymph vessels in the transport of essential fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells in vertebrates warrants optimal insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying their development. Mouse and zebrafish models of lymphatic development are instrumental for gene discovery and gene characterization but are challenging for certain aspects, e.g. no direct accessibility of embryonic stages, or non-straightforward visualization of early lymphatic sprouting, respectively. We previously demonstrated that the Xenopus tadpole is a valuable model to study the processes of lymphatic development. However, a fluorescent Xenopus reporter directly visualizing the lymph vessels was lacking. Here, we created transgenic Tg(Flk1:eGFP Xenopus laevis reporter lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in blood- and lymph vessels driven by the Flk1 (VEGFR-2 promoter. We also established a high-resolution fluorescent dye labeling technique selectively and persistently visualizing lymphatic endothelial cells, even in conditions of impaired lymph vessel formation or drainage function upon silencing of lymphangiogenic factors. Next, we applied the model to dynamically document blood and lymphatic sprouting and patterning of the initially avascular tadpole fin. Furthermore, quantifiable models of spontaneous or induced lymphatic sprouting into the tadpole fin were developed for dynamic analysis of loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes using pharmacologic or genetic manipulation. Together with angiography and lymphangiography to assess functionality, Tg(Flk1:eGFP reporter tadpoles readily allowed detailed lymphatic phenotyping of live tadpoles by fluorescence microscopy. The Tg(Flk1:eGFP tadpoles represent a versatile model for functional lymph/angiogenomics and drug screening.

  17. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  18. Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  19. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ying; Yu, Jin-Feng; Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  20. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  1. Day-and-Night Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Under Free-Living Conditions: Results of a Single-Arm 1-Month Experience Compared With a Previously Reported Feasibility Study of Evening and Night at Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Eric; Farret, Anne; Kropff, Jort; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Messori, Mirko; Place, Jerome; Visentin, Roberto; Calore, Roberta; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Magni, Paolo; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Avogaro, Angelo; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris; del Favero, Simone; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    After testing of a wearable artificial pancreas (AP) during evening and night (E/N-AP) under free-living conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we investigated AP during day and night (D/N-AP) for 1 month. Twenty adult patients with T1D who completed a previous randomized crossover study

  2. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  3. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbockel, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Various models were constructed which will allow for the variation of system components. Computer studies were then performed using the models constructed in order to study the effects of various system changes. In particular, GaAs and Si flat plate solar power arrays were studied and compared. Series and shunt resistance models were constructed. Models for the chemical kinetics of the annealing process were prepared. For all models constructed, various parametric studies were performed.

  4. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  5. Mathematical modelling with case studies using Maple and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Mathematical ModelingMathematical models An overview of the book Some modeling approaches Modeling for decision makingCompartmental Models Introduction Exponential decay and radioactivity Case study: detecting art forgeries Case study: Pacific rats colonize New Zealand Lake pollution models Case study: Lake Burley Griffin Drug assimilation into the blood Case study: dull, dizzy, or dead? Cascades of compartments First-order linear DEs Equilibrium points and stability Case study: money, money, money makes the world go aroundModels of Single PopulationsExponential growth Density-

  6. Comparative study of void fraction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Some models for the calculation of void fraction in water in sub-cooled boiling and saturated vertical upward flow with forced convection have been selected and compared with experimental results in the pressure range of 1 to 150 bar. In order to know the void fraction axial distribution it is necessary to determine the net generation of vapour and the fluid temperature distribution in the slightly sub-cooled boiling region. It was verified that the net generation of vapour was well represented by the Saha-Zuber model. The selected models for the void fraction calculation present adequate results but with a tendency to super-estimate the experimental results, in particular the homogeneous models. The drift flux model is recommended, followed by the Armand and Smith models. (F.E.) [pt

  7. Study of dissolution process and its modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mathematical concepts and language aiming to describe and represent the interactions and dynamics of a system is known as a mathematical model. Mathematical modelling finds a huge number of successful applications in a vast amount of science, social and engineering fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, computer sciences, artificial intelligence, bioengineering, finance, economy and others. In this research, we aim to propose a mathematical model that predicts the dissolution of a solid material immersed in a fluid. The developed model can be used to evaluate the rate of mass transfer and the mass transfer coefficient. Further research is expected to be carried out to use the model as a base to develop useful models for the pharmaceutical industry to gain information about the dissolution of medicaments in the body stream and this could play a key role in formulation of medicaments.

  8. Studies in Learning Monotonic Models from Data

    OpenAIRE

    Barile, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of new data mining algorithms which were the result of our research into the enforcement of monotony restrictions when learning (mostly non-parametric) models from data. Not only can judicious use of domain knowledge improve the predictive accuracy of data mining algorithms but also, crucially, models that are consistent with the knowledge of domain experts will be accepted and adopted much earlier than models that are not. Unfortunately, domain knowledge that i...

  9. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  10. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  11. Bayesian graphical models for genomewide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzilli, Claudio J; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C

    2006-07-01

    As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being collected in such studies. We use discrete graphical models as a data-mining tool, searching for single- or multilocus patterns of association around a causative site. The approach is fully Bayesian, allowing us to incorporate prior knowledge on the spatial dependencies around each marker due to linkage disequilibrium, which reduces considerably the number of possible graphical structures. A Markov chain-Monte Carlo scheme is developed that yields samples from the posterior distribution of graphs conditional on the data from which probabilistic statements about the strength of any genotype-phenotype association can be made. Using data simulated under scenarios that vary in marker density, genotype relative risk of a causative allele, and mode of inheritance, we show that the proposed approach has better localization properties and leads to lower false-positive rates than do single-locus analyses. Finally, we present an application of our method to a quasi-synthetic data set in which data from the CYP2D6 region are embedded within simulated data on 100K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis is quick (<5 min), and we are able to localize the causative site to a very short interval.

  12. A computational study of pyrolysis reactions of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder

    2010-01-01

    Enthalpies of reaction for the initial steps in the pyrolysis of lignin have been evaluated at the CBS-4m level of theory using fully substituted b-O-4 dilignols. Values for competing unimolecular decomposition reactions are consistent with results previously published for phenethyl phenyl ether models, but with lowered selectivity. Chain propagating reactions of free...

  13. A comparative study of turbulence models for dissolved air flotation flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min A; Lee, Kyun Ho; Chung, Jae Dong [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Seung Ho [Tops Engineering Co, Ltd., Gwangmyeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The dissolved air flotation (DAF) system is a water treatment process that removes contaminants by attaching micro bubbles to them, causing them to float to the water surface. In the present study, two-phase flow of air-water mixture is simulated to investigate changes in the internal flow analysis of DAF systems caused by using different turbulence models. Internal micro bubble distribution, velocity, and computation time are compared between several turbulence models for a given DAF geometry and condition. As a result, it is observed that the standard κ-ε model, which has been frequently used in previous research, predicts somewhat different behavior than other turbulence models.

  14. A comparative study of turbulence models for dissolved air flotation flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min A; Lee, Kyun Ho; Chung, Jae Dong; Seo, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The dissolved air flotation (DAF) system is a water treatment process that removes contaminants by attaching micro bubbles to them, causing them to float to the water surface. In the present study, two-phase flow of air-water mixture is simulated to investigate changes in the internal flow analysis of DAF systems caused by using different turbulence models. Internal micro bubble distribution, velocity, and computation time are compared between several turbulence models for a given DAF geometry and condition. As a result, it is observed that the standard κ-ε model, which has been frequently used in previous research, predicts somewhat different behavior than other turbulence models

  15. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  16. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  17. Static response of deformable microchannels: a comparative modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Christov, Ivan C.

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative modelling study of fluid–structure interactions in microchannels. Through a mathematical analysis based on plate theory and the lubrication approximation for low-Reynolds-number flow, we derive models for the flow rate-pressure drop relation for long shallow microchannels with both thin and thick deformable top walls. These relations are tested against full three-dimensional two-way-coupled fluid–structure interaction simulations. Three types of microchannels, representing different elasticity regimes and having been experimentally characterized previously, are chosen as benchmarks for our theory and simulations. Good agreement is found in most cases for the predicted, simulated and measured flow rate-pressure drop relationships. The numerical simulations performed allow us to also carefully examine the deformation profile of the top wall of the microchannel in any cross section, showing good agreement with the theory. Specifically, the prediction that span-wise displacement in a long shallow microchannel decouples from the flow-wise deformation is confirmed, and the predicted scaling of the maximum displacement with the hydrodynamic pressure and the various material and geometric parameters is validated.

  18. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of a CUBIPOD Armoured Roundhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Aldama, J. M. Urrutia

    The present report presents results from a three‐dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period September 2008 - December 2008. The model tests were carried out to study the stability of a CUBIPOD armoured roundhead under short‐crested wave attack. Few long‐crested w......The present report presents results from a three‐dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period September 2008 - December 2008. The model tests were carried out to study the stability of a CUBIPOD armoured roundhead under short‐crested wave attack. Few long......‐crested wave tests were performed as well. One objective of the tests was to compare the stability of CUBIPOD armoured roundheads to the stability of cube armoured roundheads. This could be done by choosing a model test setup identical to that previous used in a study of the stability of a cube armoured...

  19. Theoretical study on optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Hung Gi.

    1984-08-01

    The optical model potential of non-local effect on the rounded edge of the potential is derived. On the basis of this potential the functional form of the optical model potential, the energy dependence and relationship of its parameters, and the dependency of the values of the parameters on energy change are shown in this paper. (author)

  20. Amorphous track models: A numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, L.; Bassler, N.

    2010-01-01

    We present an open-source code library for amorphous track modelling which is suppose to faciliate the application and numerical comparability as well as serve as a frame-work for the implementation of new models. We show an example of using the library indicating the choice of submodels has a si...

  1. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  2. Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the Framework of Modified Strömgren Filters ... The study conveys a good agreement of GALEV models with modified Strömgren colours but with poor UV model predictions and observed globular cluster data, while the spectroscopic models perform badly because of ...

  3. Study on Standard Fatigue Vehicle Load Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. P.; Li, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    Based on the measured data of truck from three artery expressways in Guangdong Province, the statistical analysis of truck weight was conducted according to axle number. The standard fatigue vehicle model applied to industrial areas in the middle and late was obtained, which adopted equivalence damage principle, Miner linear accumulation law, water discharge method and damage ratio theory. Compared with the fatigue vehicle model Specified by the current bridge design code, the proposed model has better applicability. It is of certain reference value for the fatigue design of bridge in China.

  4. Overview of Model Inter-Comparison in Japan’s Study for Reference Air Quality Modeling (J-STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Chatani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inter-comparison of regional air quality models is an effective way to understand uncertainty in ambient pollutant concentrations simulated using various model configurations, as well as to find ways to improve model performance. Based on the outcomes and experiences of Japanese projects thus far, a new model inter-comparison project called Japan’s study for reference air quality modeling (J-STREAM has begun. The objective of J-STREAM is to establish reference air quality modeling for source apportionment and effective strategy making to suppress secondary air pollutants including PM2.5 and photochemical ozone in Japan through model inter-comparison. The first phase focuses on understanding the ranges and limitations in ambient PM2.5 and ozone concentrations simulated by participants using common input datasets. The second phase focuses on issues revealed in previous studies in simulating secondary inorganic aerosols, as well as on the three-dimensional characteristics of photochemical ozone as a new target. The third phase focuses on comparing source apportionments and sensitivities under heavy air pollution episodes simulated by participating models. Detailed understanding of model performance, uncertainty, and possible improvements to urban-scale air pollution involving secondary pollutants, as well as detailed sector-wise source apportionments over megacities in Japan are expected.

  5. Comparison of five bacteriophages as models for viral aerosol studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Toulouse, Marie-Josée; Martel, Bruno; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    Bacteriophages are perceived to be good models for the study of airborne viruses because they are safe to use, some of them display structural features similar to those of human and animal viruses, and they are relatively easy to produce in large quantities. Yet, only a few studies have investigated them as models. It has previously been demonstrated that aerosolization, environmental conditions, and sampling conditions affect viral infectivity, but viral infectivity is virus dependent. Thus, several virus models are likely needed to study their general behavior in aerosols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerosolization and sampling on the infectivity of five tail-less bacteriophages and two pathogenic viruses: MS2 (a single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] phage of the Leviviridae family), Φ6 (a segmented double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] phage of the Cystoviridae family), ΦX174 (a single-stranded DNA [ssDNA] phage of the Microviridae family), PM2 (a double-stranded DNA [dsDNA] phage of the Corticoviridae family), PR772 (a dsDNA phage of the Tectiviridae family), human influenza A virus H1N1 (an ssRNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family), and the poultry virus Newcastle disease virus (NDV; an ssRNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family). Three nebulizers and two nebulization salt buffers (with or without organic fluid) were tested, as were two aerosol sampling devices, a liquid cyclone (SKC BioSampler) and a dry cyclone (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health two-stage cyclone bioaerosol sampler). The presence of viruses in collected air samples was detected by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our results showed that these selected five phages behave differently when aerosolized and sampled. RNA phage MS2 and ssDNA phage ΦX174 were the most resistant to aerosolization and sampling. The presence of organic fluid in the nebulization buffer protected phages PR772 and Φ6 throughout the aerosolization and sampling with dry cyclones. In this

  6. Pulse radiolysis studies of model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijman, M.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of the structure of membranes on the processes in cell membranes were examined. Different models of the membranes were evaluated. Pulse radiolysis was used as the technique to examine the membranes. (R.B.)

  7. Neuronal Models for Studying Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Koechling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the aged human population. It is characterized by the presence of two main pathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques containing -amyloid peptide and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, consisting of fibrillar polymers of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Both of these histological characteristics of the disease have been simulated in genetically modified animals, which today include numerous mouse, fish, worm, and fly models of AD. The objective of this review is to present some of the main animal models that exist for reproducing symptoms of the disorder and their advantages and shortcomings as suitable models of the pathological processes. Moreover, we will discuss the results and conclusions which have been drawn from the use of these models so far and their contribution to the development of therapeutic applications for AD.

  8. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  9. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  10. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. A comparative study of generalized linear mixed modelling and artificial neural network approach for the joint modelling of survival and incidence of Dengue patients in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapugoda, J. C.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Survival time of patients with a disease and the incidence of that particular disease (count) is frequently observed in medical studies with the data of a clustered nature. In many cases, though, the survival times and the count can be correlated in a way that, diseases that occur rarely could have shorter survival times or vice versa. Due to this fact, joint modelling of these two variables will provide interesting and certainly improved results than modelling these separately. Authors have previously proposed a methodology using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) by joining the Discrete Time Hazard model with the Poisson Regression model to jointly model survival and count model. As Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) has become a most powerful computational tool to model complex non-linear systems, it was proposed to develop a new joint model of survival and count of Dengue patients of Sri Lanka by using that approach. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a model using ANN approach and compare the results with the previously developed GLMM model. As the response variables are continuous in nature, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) approach was adopted to model the data. To compare the model fit, measures such as root mean square error (RMSE), absolute mean error (AME) and correlation coefficient (R) were used. The measures indicate the GRNN model fits the data better than the GLMM model.

  12. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  13. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  14. Multidimensional Big Spatial Data Modeling Through A Case Study: Lte Rf Subsystem Power Consumption Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Musiige, Deogratius; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study for comparing different multidimensional mathematical modeling methodologies used in multidimensional spatial big data modeling and proposing a new technique. An analysis of multidimensional modeling approaches (neural networks, polynomial interpolation and homoto...

  15. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Eggers, Sander M; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth; van Stralen, Maartje M

    2014-07-18

    This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct

  16. OCT-aided anastomosis platform study in the rodent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-02-01

    Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.

  17. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  18. A Comparative Study of Theoretical Graph Models for Characterizing Structural Networks of Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD, that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.

  19. Model Servqual Dengan Pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Sistem Informasi)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfaizal, Yusmedi

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul “MODEL SERVQUAL DENGAN PENDEKATAN STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Sistem Informasi)”. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui model Servqual dengan pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling pada mahasiswa sistem informasi. Peneliti memutuskan untuk mengambil sampel sebanyak 100 responden. Untuk menguji model digunakan analisis SEM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tangibility, reliability responsiveness, assurance dan emphaty mempunyai pengaruh...

  20. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Three different models for calculating edge diffraction are examined. The methods of Vanderkooy, Terai and Biot & Tolstoy are compared with measurements. Although a good agreement is obtained, the measurements also show that none of the methods work completely satisfactorily. The desired properties...

  1. Studies in Learning Monotonic Models from Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barile, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of new data mining algorithms which were the result of our research into the enforcement of monotony restrictions when learning (mostly non-parametric) models from data. Not only can judicious use of domain knowledge improve the predictive accuracy of data mining

  2. Study on geo-information modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2006), s. 1108-1113 ISSN 1109-2777 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : control GIS * geo- information modelling * uncertainty * spatial temporal approach Web Services Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  3. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  4. Energy demand modelling and GHG emission reduction: case study Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, in order to comply with all of the presented tasks. Planning future energy demand, considering various policy options like regulation, fiscal and financial measures, becomes one of the crucial issues of future national...... energy strategy. This paper analyses Croatian long term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG emissions. For that purpose the national energy demand model was constructed (NeD model). The model is comprised out of six modules each representing one sector, following Croatian national...... energy balance; industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. For three of the modules (industry, transport and households) previously developed long term energy demand models were used, while for the remaining three new models were constructed. As an additional feature, new...

  5. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  6. Study on modeling of operator's learning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seichi; Hasegawa, Naoko

    1998-01-01

    One effective method to analyze the causes of human errors is to model the behavior of human and to simulate it. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has developed an operator team behavior simulation system called SYBORG (Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group) to analyze the human errors and to establish the countermeasures for them. As an operator behavior model which composes SYBORG has no learning mechanism and the knowledge of a plant is fixed, it cannot take suitable actions when unknown situations occur nor learn anything from the experience. However, considering actual operators, learning is an essential human factor to enhance their abilities to diagnose plant anomalies. In this paper, Q learning with 1/f fluctuation was proposed as a learning mechanism of an operator and simulation using the mechanism was conducted. The results showed the effectiveness of the learning mechanism. (author)

  7. Modelling approach for photochemical pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silibello, C.; Catenacci, G.; Calori, G.; Crapanzano, G.; Pirovano, G.

    1996-01-01

    The comprehension of the relationships between primary pollutants emissions and secondary pollutants concentration and deposition is necessary to design policies and strategies for the maintenance of a healthy environment. The use of mathematical models is a powerful tool to assess the effect of the emissions and of physical and chemical transformations of pollutants on air quality. A photochemical model, Calgrid, developed by CARB (California Air Resources Board), has been used to test the effect of different meteorological and air quality, scenarios on the ozone concentration levels. This way we can evaluate the influence of these conditions to determine the most important chemical species and reactions in atmosphere. The ozone levels are strongly related to the reactive hydrocarbons concentrations and to the solar radiation flux

  8. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  9. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. LEARNING MODEL IN SCHOOL OF VOCATIONAL STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pervin; Yıldırım, Osman

    2008-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to determine which individual and environmental characteristics affecting training. Instead of both types of evaluation models, to be proactive, the evaluation of training mentioned in this research is focused on how training affects individuals. To this end, in this thesis the factors affecting to the training effectiveness were examined in regard of trainee perspectives. According to the research results, it is revealed that mostly related to the training effec...

  11. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  12. Study on Chinese Low Carbon Economic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huifeng Li; Xiaofang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Global warming, which is caused by over consumption of fossil energy during economic development in human society, threatens global ecological balance, tampers social and economic development, imperils energy security, ecological safety, water and food safety, and endangers the entire human race. Low carbon economy is a new economic development model based on low energy consumption, low pollution, and low-emission-based. This paper analyzes the Status quo and Limits of the Chinese Low Carbon ...

  13. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  14. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  15. Pilot Study of a Patient-Centered Radiology Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J Shannon; Furtado, Vanessa F; Keller, Lisa A; Lotti, Judith Borsody; Saltalamacchia, Catherine A; Lennes, Inga T; Salazar, Gloria M

    2017-02-01

    The Radiology Process Model (RPM) was previously described in terms of its conceptual basis and proposed survey items. The current study describes the first pilot application of the RPM in the field and the results of initial psychometric analysis. We used an Institutional Review Board-approved pilot RPM survey in 100 patients having outpatient interventional radiology procedures. The 24 survey items had 4 or 5 levels of severity. We assessed for missing data, items that patients found confusing, any suggestions by patients for additional items and clarity of items from patient feedback. Factor analysis was performed and internal consistency measured. Construct validity was assessed by correlation of patient responses to the items as a summated scale with a visual analog scale (VAS) they completed indicating their interventional radiology experience. The visual analog scale and the RPM summated scale were strongly correlated (r = 0.7). Factor analysis showed four factors: interactions with facility and doctors/staff, time-sensitive aspects, pain, and anxiety. The items showed high internal consistency (alpha: 0.86) as a group and approximately 0.7 to 0.9 by the factors. Analysis shows that two items could be deleted (cost and communication between radiologist and referrers). Revision of two items and potential addition of others are discussed. The RPM shows initial evidence of psychometric validity and internal consistency reliability. Minor changes are anticipated before wider use. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computerised modelling for developmental biology : an exploration with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, Laura M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in developmental biology rely on the construction and analysis of models. This research presents a broad view of modelling approaches for developmental biology, with a focus on computational methods. An overview of modelling techniques is given, followed by several case studies. Using

  17. Sensitivity Study of Stochastic Walking Load Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    is to employ a stochastic load model accounting for mean values and standard deviations for the walking load parameters, and to use this as a basis for estimation of structural response. This, however, requires decisions to be made in terms of statistical istributions and their parameters, and the paper...... investigates whether statistical distributions of bridge response are sensitive to some of the decisions made by the engineer doing the analyses. For the paper a selected part of potential influences are examined and footbridge responses are extracted using Monte-Carlo simulations and focus is on estimating...

  18. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  19. Tsunami propagation modelling – a sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tkalich

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian Ocean (2004 Tsunami and following tragic consequences demonstrated lack of relevant experience and preparedness among involved coastal nations. After the event, scientific and forecasting circles of affected countries have started a capacity building to tackle similar problems in the future. Different approaches have been used for tsunami propagation, such as Boussinesq and Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE. These approximations were obtained assuming different relevant importance of nonlinear, dispersion and spatial gradient variation phenomena and terms. The paper describes further development of original TUNAMI-N2 model to take into account additional phenomena: astronomic tide, sea bottom friction, dispersion, Coriolis force, and spherical curvature. The code is modified to be suitable for operational forecasting, and the resulting version (TUNAMI-N2-NUS is verified using test cases, results of other models, and real case scenarios. Using the 2004 Tsunami event as one of the scenarios, the paper examines sensitivity of numerical solutions to variation of different phenomena and parameters, and the results are analyzed and ranked accordingly.

  20. Comparison of conventional study model measurements and 3D digital study model measurements from laser scanned dental impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahani, F.; Jazaldi, F.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    The field of orthodontics is always evolving,and this includes the use of innovative technology. One type of orthodontic technology is the development of three-dimensional (3D) digital study models that replace conventional study models made by stone. This study aims to compare the mesio-distal teeth width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurements between a 3D digital study model and a conventional study model. Twelve sets of upper arch dental impressions were taken from subjects with non-crowding teeth. The impressions were taken twice, once with alginate and once with polivinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions used in the conventional study model and the polivinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to obtain the 3D digital study model. Scanning was performed using a laser triangulation scanner device assembled by the School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics at the Institut Teknologi Bandung and David Laser Scan software. For the conventional model, themesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width were measured using digital calipers; in the 3D digital study model they were measured using software. There were no significant differences between the mesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurments between the conventional and 3D digital study models (p>0.05). Thus, measurements using 3D digital study models are as accurate as those obtained from conventional study models

  1. Measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution based on land-use regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Foraster, Maria; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-10-15

    Land-use regression (LUR) models are increasingly used to estimate air pollution exposure in epidemiologic studies. These models use air pollution measurements taken at a small set of locations and modeling based on geographical covariates for which data are available at all study participant locations. The process of LUR model development commonly includes a variable selection procedure. When LUR model predictions are used as explanatory variables in a model for a health outcome, measurement error can lead to bias of the regression coefficients and to inflation of their variance. In previous studies dealing with spatial predictions of air pollution, bias was shown to be small while most of the effect of measurement error was on the variance. In this study, we show that in realistic cases where LUR models are applied to health data, bias in health-effect estimates can be substantial. This bias depends on the number of air pollution measurement sites, the number of available predictors for model selection, and the amount of explainable variability in the true exposure. These results should be taken into account when interpreting health effects from studies that used LUR models.

  2. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  3. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  4. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  5. Modeling study of the ABS relay valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Lin, Min; Guo, Bin; Luo, Zai; Xu, Weidong

    2011-05-01

    The ABS (anti-lock braking system) relay valve is the key component of anti-lock braking system in most commercial vehicles such as trucks, tractor-trailers, etc. In this paper, structure of ABS relay valve and its work theory were analyzed. Then a mathematical model of ABS relay valve, which was investigated by dividing into electronic part, magnetic part, pneumatic part and mechanical part, was set up. The displacement of spools and the response of pressure increasing, holding, releasing of ABS relay valve were simulated and analyzed under conditions of control pressure 500 KPa, braking pressure 600 KPa, atmospheric pressure 100 KPa and air temperature 310 K. Thisarticle provides reliable theory for improving the performance and efficiency of anti-lock braking system of vehicles.

  6. Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Narayan, K M Venkat; Reilly, Carolyn M; Foster, Jennifer; McCullough, Marjorie; Ziegler, Thomas R; Guo, Ying; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to analyze relationships between diet quality and intrapersonal variables, including perceptions of threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus development, benefits and barriers of healthy eating, and dietary self-efficacy, in a convenience sample of 75 community-dwelling women (55% minority; mean age, 35.5 years; SD, 5.5 years) with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diet quality was defined by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Multiple regression was used to identify predictors of AHEI diet quality. Women had moderate AHEI diet quality (mean score, 47.6; SD, 14.3). Only higher levels of education and self-efficacy significantly predicted better AHEI diet quality, controlling for other contributing variables. There is a significant opportunity to improve diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Improving self-efficacy may be an important component to include in nutrition interventions. In addition to identifying other important individual components, future studies of diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are needed to investigate the scope of influence beyond the individual to potential family, social, and environmental factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Studies and modeling of cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campioni, G.

    2004-11-01

    With the purpose of updating knowledge in the fields of cold neutron sources, the work of this thesis has been run according to the 3 following axes. First, the gathering of specific information forming the materials of this work. This set of knowledge covers the following fields: cold neutron, cross-sections for the different cold moderators, flux slowing down, different measurements of the cold flux and finally, issues in the thermal analysis of the problem. Secondly, the study and development of suitable computation tools. After an analysis of the problem, several tools have been planed, implemented and tested in the 3-dimensional radiation transport code Tripoli-4. In particular, a module of uncoupling, integrated in the official version of Tripoli-4, can perform Monte-Carlo parametric studies with a spare factor of Cpu time fetching 50 times. A module of coupling, simulating neutron guides, has also been developed and implemented in the Monte-Carlo code McStas. Thirdly, achieving a complete study for the validation of the installed calculation chain. These studies focus on 3 cold sources currently functioning: SP1 from Orphee reactor and 2 other sources (SFH and SFV) from the HFR at the Laue Langevin Institute. These studies give examples of problems and methods for the design of future cold sources

  8. Comments and corrections on 3D modeling studies of locomotor muscle moment arms in archosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bates

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs. These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bipedal and quadrupedal posture in various independent archosaur lineages, and in doing so further our understanding of changes in anatomy, locomotion and ecology during the group’s >250 million year evolutionary history. Subsequent work by others has led us to re-evaluate our models, which revealed a methodological error that impacted on the results obtained from the abduction–adduction and long-axis rotation moment arms in our published studies. In this paper we present corrected abduction–adduction and long axis rotation moment arms for all our models, and evaluate the impact of this new data on the conclusions of our previous studies. We find that, in general, our newly corrected data differed only slightly from that previously published, with very few qualitative changes in muscle moments (e.g., muscles originally identified as abductors remained abductors. As a result the majority of our previous conclusions regarding the functional evolution of key muscles in these archosaur groups are upheld.

  9. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  10. Theory, modeling, and integrated studies in the Arase (ERG) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kanako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Katoh, Yuto; Amano, Takanobu; Saito, Shinji; Shoji, Masafumi; Nakamizo, Aoi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Nakano, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Shigeto; Kamiya, Kei; Takahashi, Naoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nose, Masahito; Fok, Mei-Ching; Tanaka, Takashi; Ieda, Akimasa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of underlying mechanisms of drastic variations of the near-Earth space (geospace) is one of the current focuses of the magnetospheric physics. The science target of the geospace research project Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) is to understand the geospace variations with a focus on the relativistic electron acceleration and loss processes. In order to achieve the goal, the ERG project consists of the three parts: the Arase (ERG) satellite, ground-based observations, and theory/modeling/integrated studies. The role of theory/modeling/integrated studies part is to promote relevant theoretical and simulation studies as well as integrated data analysis to combine different kinds of observations and modeling. Here we provide technical reports on simulation and empirical models related to the ERG project together with their roles in the integrated studies of dynamic geospace variations. The simulation and empirical models covered include the radial diffusion model of the radiation belt electrons, GEMSIS-RB and RBW models, CIMI model with global MHD simulation REPPU, GEMSIS-RC model, plasmasphere thermosphere model, self-consistent wave-particle interaction simulations (electron hybrid code and ion hybrid code), the ionospheric electric potential (GEMSIS-POT) model, and SuperDARN electric field models with data assimilation. ERG (Arase) science center tools to support integrated studies with various kinds of data are also briefly introduced.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  12. Hydra, a powerful model for aging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Szymon; Fischer, Kathleen; Austad, Steven; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarian Hydra polyps escape senescence, most likely due to the robust activity of their three stem cell populations. These stem cells continuously self-renew in the body column and differentiate at the extremities following a tightly coordinated spatial pattern. Paul Brien showed in 1953 that in one particular species, Hydra oligactis, cold-dependent sexual differentiation leads to rapid aging and death. Here, we review the features of this inducible aging phenotype. These cellular alterations, detected several weeks after aging was induced, are characterized by a decreasing density of somatic interstitial cell derivatives, a disorganization of the apical nervous system, and a disorganization of myofibers of the epithelial cells. Consequently, tissue replacement required to maintain homeostasis, feeding behavior, and contractility of the animal are dramatically affected. Interestingly, this aging phenotype is not observed in all H. oligactis strains, thus providing a powerful experimental model for investigations of the genetic control of aging. Given the presence in the cnidarian genome of a large number of human orthologs that have been lost in ecdysozoans, such approaches might help uncover novel regulators of aging in vertebrates. PMID:26120246

  13. A model system for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.; Perlmutter, E.

    1984-01-01

    The search for the ''lethal lesion:'' which would yield a molecular explanation of biological survival curves led to attempts to correlate unrepaired DNA lesions with loss of reproductive integrity. Such studies have shown the crucial importance of DNA repair systems. The unrepaired DSB has been sought for such correlation, but in such study the DNA was too large, polydisperse, and/or structurally complex to permit precise measurement of break induction and repair. Therefore, an analog of higher order systems but with a genome of readily measurable size, is needed. Bacteriophage T4 is such an analog. Both its biological (PFU) and molecular (DNA) survival curves are exponentials. Its aerobic /sub PFU/D/sub 37///sub DNA/D/sub 37/ ratio, (410 +- 4.5Gy/540 +- 25 Gy) indicates that 76 +- 4% of lethality at low multiplicity infection (moi 1) the survival is greater than can be explained if the assumption of no parental DSB repair were valid. Both T4 and its host have DSB repair systems which can be studied by the infectious center method. Results of such studies are discussed

  14. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H. Coskun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  15. Bayesian Graphical Models for Genomewide Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Verzilli, Claudio J.; Stallard, Nigel; Whittaker, John C.

    2006-01-01

    As the extent of human genetic variation becomes more fully characterized, the research community is faced with the challenging task of using this information to dissect the heritable components of complex traits. Genomewide association studies offer great promise in this respect, but their analysis poses formidable difficulties. In this article, we describe a computationally efficient approach to mining genotype-phenotype associations that scales to the size of the data sets currently being ...

  16. Mechanical krill models for studying coordinated swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alice; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    The global biomass of Homo sapiens is about a third of the biomass of Euphausia superba, commonly known as the Antarctic krill. Krill participate in organized social behavior. Propulsive jets generated by individual krill in a school have been suggested to be important in providing hydrodynamic sensory cues. The importance of body positions and body angles on the wakes generated is challenging to study in free swimming krill. Our solution to study the flow fields of multiple krill was to develop mechanical krill robots. We designed krillbots using mostly 3D printed parts that are actuated by stepper motors. The krillbot limb lengths, angles, inter-limb spacing and pleopod stroke frequency were dynamically scaled using published data on free-swimming krill kinematics. The vertical and horizontal spacing between krillbots, as well as the body angle, are adjustable. In this study, we conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements with two tethered krillbots in a flow tank with no background flow. One krillbot was placed above and behind the other. Both krillbots were at a zero-degree body angle. Wake-body interactions visualized from PIV data will be presented.

  17. Computational state space models for activity and intention recognition. A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krüger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Computational state space models (CSSMs enable the knowledge-based construction of Bayesian filters for recognizing intentions and reconstructing activities of human protagonists in application domains such as smart environments, assisted living, or security. Computational, i. e., algorithmic, representations allow the construction of increasingly complex human behaviour models. However, the symbolic models used in CSSMs potentially suffer from combinatorial explosion, rendering inference intractable outside of the limited experimental settings investigated in present research. The objective of this study was to obtain data on the feasibility of CSSM-based inference in domains of realistic complexity. METHODS: A typical instrumental activity of daily living was used as a trial scenario. As primary sensor modality, wearable inertial measurement units were employed. The results achievable by CSSM methods were evaluated by comparison with those obtained from established training-based methods (hidden Markov models, HMMs using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The influence of modeling factors on CSSM performance was analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The symbolic domain model was found to have more than 10(8 states, exceeding the complexity of models considered in previous research by at least three orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, if factors and procedures governing the inference process were suitably chosen, CSSMs outperformed HMMs. Specifically, inference methods used in previous studies (particle filters were found to perform substantially inferior in comparison to a marginal filtering procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the combinatorial explosion caused by rich CSSM models does not inevitably lead to intractable inference or inferior performance. This means that the potential benefits of CSSM models (knowledge-based model construction, model reusability, reduced need for training data are

  18. Contemporary European Studies: A Model for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannerbeck, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…

  19. Physical Model Method for Seismic Study of Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Roşca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behaviour of concrete dams by means of the physical model method is very useful to understand the failure mechanism of these structures to action of the strong earthquakes. Physical model method consists in two main processes. Firstly, a study model must be designed by a physical modeling process using the dynamic modeling theory. The result is a equations system of dimensioning the physical model. After the construction and instrumentation of the scale physical model a structural analysis based on experimental means is performed. The experimental results are gathered and are available to be analysed. Depending on the aim of the research may be designed an elastic or a failure physical model. The requirements for the elastic model construction are easier to accomplish in contrast with those required for a failure model, but the obtained results provide narrow information. In order to study the behaviour of concrete dams to strong seismic action is required the employment of failure physical models able to simulate accurately the possible opening of joint, sliding between concrete blocks and the cracking of concrete. The design relations for both elastic and failure physical models are based on dimensional analysis and consist of similitude relations among the physical quantities involved in the phenomenon. The using of physical models of great or medium dimensions as well as its instrumentation creates great advantages, but this operation involves a large amount of financial, logistic and time resources.

  20. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  1. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  2. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  3. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  4. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  5. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  6. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  7. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  8. Kinetic models and parameters estimation study of biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth kinetics and modeling of ethanol production from inulin by Pichia caribbica (KC977491) were studied in a batch system. Unstructured models were proposed using the logistic equation for growth, the Luedeking-Piret equation for ethanol production and modified Leudeking-Piret model for substrate consumption.

  9. Kinetic models and parameters estimation study of biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaq

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... The growth kinetics and modeling of ethanol production from inulin by Pichia caribbica (KC977491) were studied in a batch system. Unstructured models were proposed using the logistic equation for growth, the Luedeking-Piret equation for ethanol production and modified Leudeking-Piret model for.

  10. A CASE STUDY OF MODELING A TORUS IN DIFFERENT MODELING SOFTWARES

    OpenAIRE

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica; KRASIĆ Sonja; PEJIĆ Petar; TOŠIĆ Zlata

    2017-01-01

    Modeling of the complex geometric shapes requires the use of appropriate softwares. This study analyzes the process of modeling with two different computer softwares, AutoCAD and Rhinoceros. The aim is to demonstrate the similarities and differences between these softwares when used for modeling torus, a double curved geometric surface. The two modeling processes are compared in order to investigate the potentials of these softwares in the modeling of an architectural structure comprising a s...

  11. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  12. System Dynamic Modelling for a Balanced Scorecard: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    and the number of measures. Originality/value - A large number of case studies and surveys are now present in the literature of BSC. However, there is a lack of more theoretical and analytical modelling of the BSC. Our paper just throws a little light to this modelling approach....... variables: skills, customer base and work in process. We are able to show that only minimal changes may create large effects on profit. Research limitations/implications - Our analytical model is based on both assumed but also on case documented assumptions of a concrete model. In every such kind of model......Purpose - The purpose of this research is to make an analytical model of the BSC foundation by using a dynamic simulation approach for a 'hypothetical case' model, based on only part of an actual case study of BSC. Design/methodology/approach - The model includes five perspectives and a number...

  13. A Tower Model for Lightning Overvoltage Studies Based on the Result of an FDTD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku

    This paper describes a method for deriving a transmission tower model for EMTP lightning overvoltage studies from a numerical electromagnetic simulation result obtained by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method. The FDTD simulation carried out in this paper takes into account the following items which have been ignored or over-simplified in previously-presented simulations: (i) resistivity of the ground soil; (ii) arms, major slant elements, and foundations of the tower; (iii) development speed of the lightning return stroke. For validation purpose a pulse test of a 500-kV transmission tower is simulated, and a comparison with the measured result shows that the present FDTD simulation gives a sufficiently accurate result. Using this validated FDTD-based simulation method the insulator-string voltages of a tower for a lightning stroke are calculated, and based on the simulation result the parameter values of the proposed tower model for EMTP studies are determined in a systematic way. Since previously-presented models include trial-and-error process in the parameter determination, it can be said that the proposed model is more general in this regard. As an illustrative example, the 500-kV transmission tower mentioned above is modeled, and it is shown that the derived model closely reproduces the FDTD simulation result.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  15. Regression models for analyzing radiological visual grading studies--an empirical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, S Ehsan; Löve, Áskell; Fredrikson, Mats; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-10-30

    For optimizing and evaluating image quality in medical imaging, one can use visual grading experiments, where observers rate some aspect of image quality on an ordinal scale. To analyze the grading data, several regression methods are available, and this study aimed at empirically comparing such techniques, in particular when including random effects in the models, which is appropriate for observers and patients. Data were taken from a previous study where 6 observers graded or ranked in 40 patients the image quality of four imaging protocols, differing in radiation dose and image reconstruction method. The models tested included linear regression, the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression, the partial proportional odds model, the stereotype logistic regression model and rank-order logistic regression (for ranking data). In the first two models, random effects as well as fixed effects could be included; in the remaining three, only fixed effects. In general, the goodness of fit (AIC and McFadden's Pseudo R (2)) showed small differences between the models with fixed effects only. For the mixed-effects models, higher AIC and lower Pseudo R (2) was obtained, which may be related to the different number of parameters in these models. The estimated potential for dose reduction by new image reconstruction methods varied only slightly between models. The authors suggest that the most suitable approach may be to use ordinal logistic regression, which can handle ordinal data and random effects appropriately.

  16. Improvement in Geoid Models for Ocean Circulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, Byron D.; Chambers, Don P.; Poole, Steve; Ries, John c.

    2003-01-01

    At wavelengths of 500 km and longer, the GRACE GGM01 Model produces a significantly better marine geoid than any previous model. This conclusion follows from evaluating the geostrophic currents determined by combining the model with a mean sea surface from altimetry. The agreement with currents computed from a traditional hydrographic map is very close, which suggests that one of the primary missions of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission, to determine the absolute dynamic ocean topography, may soon be met. This solution has been made available to the public at http://www.csr.utexs.edu/grace/gravity. The results reported in this paper have been presented at the 2003 EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly. Two articles are currently being prepared for Geophysical Research Letters to summarize these results.

  17. Symbolic-computation study of the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger model in inhomogeneous optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Bo; Gao Yitian

    2005-01-01

    A realistic, inhomogeneous fiber in the optical communication systems can be described by the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger model (also named as the normalized nonlinear Schrodinger model with periodically varying coefficients, dispersion managed nonlinear Schrodinger model or nonlinear Schrodinger model with variable coefficients). Hereby, we extend to this model a direct method, perform symbolic computation and obtain two families of the exact, analytic bright-solitonic solutions, with or without the chirp respectively. The parameters addressed include the shape of the bright soliton, soliton amplitude, inverse width of the soliton, chirp, frequency, center of the soliton and center of the phase of the soliton. Of optical and physical interests, we discuss some previously-published special cases of our solutions. Those solutions could help the future studies on the optical communication systems. ms

  18. Lithium-ion battery models: a comparative study and a model-based powerline communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saidani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various Lithium-ion (Li-ion battery models are evaluated according to their accuracy, complexity and physical interpretability. An initial classification into physical, empirical and abstract models is introduced. Also known as white, black and grey boxes, respectively, the nature and characteristics of these model types are compared. Since the Li-ion battery cell is a thermo-electro-chemical system, the models are either in the thermal or in the electrochemical state-space. Physical models attempt to capture key features of the physical process inside the cell. Empirical models describe the system with empirical parameters offering poor analytical, whereas abstract models provide an alternative representation. In addition, a model selection guideline is proposed based on applications and design requirements. A complex model with a detailed analytical insight is of use for battery designers but impractical for real-time applications and in situ diagnosis. In automotive applications, an abstract model reproducing the battery behavior in an equivalent but more practical form, mainly as an equivalent circuit diagram, is recommended for the purpose of battery management. As a general rule, a trade-off should be reached between the high fidelity and the computational feasibility. Especially if the model is embedded in a real-time monitoring unit such as a microprocessor or a FPGA, the calculation time and memory requirements rise dramatically with a higher number of parameters. Moreover, examples of equivalent circuit models of Lithium-ion batteries are covered. Equivalent circuit topologies are introduced and compared according to the previously introduced criteria. An experimental sequence to model a 20 Ah cell is presented and the results are used for the purposes of powerline communication.

  19. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  20. Pulse radiolysis studies in model lipid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, L.K.; Hasegawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetic and spectral behavior of radicals formed by hydroxyl radical attack on linoleate anions has been studied by pulse radiolysis. Reactivity of OH toward this surfactant is an order of magnitude greater in monomeric form (kOH + linoleate = 8.0 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 ) than in mecellar form (kOH + lin(micelle) = 1.0 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 ). Abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the doubly allylic position gives rise to an intense absorption in the UV region (lambda max = 282-286 nm, epsilon approximately 3 x 10 4 M -1 cm -1 ) which may be used as a probe of radical activity at that site. This abstraction may occur, to a small extent, directly via OH attack. However, greater than 90% of initial attack occurs at other sites. Subsequent secondary abstraction of doubly allylic H atoms appears to occur predominantly by: (1) intramolecular processes in monomers, (2) intermolecular processes in micelles. Disappearance of radicals by secondary processes is slower in the micellar pseudo phase than in monomeric solution. (orig.) 891 HK 892 KR [de

  1. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  2. A double-blind study of SB-220453 (Tonerbasat) in the glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Jesper Filtenborg; Iversen, H K; Olesen, J

    2004-01-01

    , scored 0-10, was registered for 12 h, and fulfillment of International Headache Society (IHS) criteria was recorded until 24 h. Four subjects had a hypotensive episode after SB-220453 plus GTN but none after GTN alone. The reaction was unexpected, since animal models and previous human studies had shown......The need for experimental migraine models increases as therapeutic options widen. In the present study, we investigated SB-220453 for efficacy in the glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) human experimental migraine model. SB-220453 is a novel benzopyran compound, which in animal models inhibits neurogenic...... towards reduction after SB-220453 compared with placebo (median 4 vs. 7, P = 0.15). However, no reduction was seen in the number of subjects experiencing delayed headache (8 vs. 8), number of subjects reporting migraine (6 vs. 8), migraine attacks fulfilling IHS criteria 1.1 or 1.7 (6 vs. 7) or IHS 1...

  3. Regional air quality in the four corners studys region: modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochumson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional Eulerian air pollutant transport model was used in an air quality study of the Four Corners region conducted for the National Commission on Air Quality. The regional modeling methodology and some sample results from the regional air quality analysis are presented. One major advantage of the regional transport model that was employed is that its solution involves the calculation of transfer coefficients that relate emissions to ambient concentrations and deposition and which can be used repeatedly to evaluate alternative scenarios and regulatory policies which represent different emission source configurations. The regional transport model was used in the calculation of the concentration and deposition of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and primary fine particulates; and these estimates were used as inputs to regional atmospheric visibility and mass budget calculations. Previous studies have shown that the methods used in the regional air quality analysis give good agreement when comparing observed and estimated values.

  4. Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.

  5. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  6. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  7. Case study modelling for an ettringite treatment process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process modelled in this study includes the formation of ettringite and the recovery of gibbsite through the decomposition of recycled ettringite. The modelling of this process was done using PHREEQC and the results presented in this paper are based on the outcome of different case studies that investigated how the ...

  8. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  9. An Integrated Approach to Mathematical Modeling: A Classroom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Helen M.

    Modeling, simulation, and discrete mathematics have all been identified by professional mathematics education organizations as important areas for secondary school study. This classroom study focused on the components and tools for modeling and how students use these tools to construct their understanding of contextual problems in the content area…

  10. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  11. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  12. Comparative study on the wake deflection behind yawed wind turbine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottler, Jannik; Mühle, Franz; Bartl, Jan; Peinke, Joachim; Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Sætran, Lars; Hölling, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In this wind tunnel campaign, detailed wake measurements behind two different model wind turbines in yawed conditions were performed. The wake deflections were quantified by estimating the rotor-averaged available power within the wake. By using two different model wind turbines, the influence of the rotor design and turbine geometry on the wake deflection caused by a yaw misalignment of 30° could be judged. It was found that the wake deflections three rotor diameters downstream were equal while at six rotor diameters downstream insignificant differences were observed. The results compare well with previous experimental and numerical studies.

  13. Estudios previos cursados y género de los maestros de primaria en formación: efectos sobre la resolución de problemas / Pre-service primary teachers' gender and studies previously undertaken: effects on problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Caballer Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo analiza la influencia del género y los estudios previos cursados en la resolución de problemas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental con dos variables independientes (género y estudios previos y una variable dependiente (puntuación en los problemas. Se administró un cuadernillo con dos problemas de diferente estructura a 66 estudiantes de tercer curso del Grado de Maestro en Educacion Primaria de la misma Facultad (Facultad de Magisterio de la Universidad de Valencia, España. Los resultados de los análisis de varianza simple muestran que: a los estudiantes de sexo masculino resuelven el problema difícil con más éxito que las estudiantes, b los estudiantes que han cursado bachillerato no resuelven los problemas significativamente mejor que los que no lo han cursado y, c los estudiantes que siguieron un itinerario en 4º de la ESO con Física y Química resuelven significativamente mejor los problemas que los restantes. Abstract: This study analyses the influence of gender and studies previously undertaken on problem-solving. An experimental design was used with two independent variables (gender and studies previously undertaken and one dependent variable (scores in the problems. A booklet containing two word problems that differ from each other in structure was administered to 66 third-year pre-service primary teachers from the same Faculty (Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Valencia, Spain. The results of the analyses of variance simple showed that: a men undergraduate students solve the difficult problem more successfully than women undergraduate students, b students who had completed post-compulsory secondary education do not solve the problems significantly better than the others, and c students who had studied physics and chemistry in the tenth grade at high school solve the problems significantly better than the others.

  14. Study of melting of molecular crystals by a modified Pople-Karasz model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Mustafa; Özgan, Şükrü; Keskin, Mustafa

    2005-02-01

    A new modified model that combines the modified models of Chandrasekhar et al. with those of Keskin and Özgan, which are based on the Pople-Karasz theory, is applied to study the thermodynamics of melting and solid-solid transitions of molecular crystals. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are evaluated relative to those of the perfectly ordered one using the lowest approximation of the cluster-variation method, which is identical to the mean-field approximation. A good agreement is found between the present modified theory and the available experimental data. For melting transitions the agreement is excellent and much better than with the calculations of the Pople-Karasz theory and its previous modified theories. Approximate agreement is obtained for the solid-solid transitions. However, for these transition the experimental agreement with the present modified theory is still better than previous modified theories except at zero and low pressures.

  15. Muscular and glenohumeral changes in the shoulder after brachial plexus birth palsy: an MRI study in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldado Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder abnormalities are the major cause of morbidity in upper brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP. We developed a rat model of upper trunk BPBP and compared our findings to previously reported animal models and to clinical findings in humans. Methods Forty-three 5-day-old newborn rats underwent selective upper trunk neurectomy of the right brachial plexus and were studied 3 to 20 weeks after surgery. The passive shoulder external rotation was measured and the shoulder joint was assessed bilaterally by a 7.2T MRI bilaterally. Results We found a marked decrease in passive shoulder external rotation, associated with a severe subscapularis muscle atrophy and contracture. None however developed the typical pattern of glenohumeral dysplasia. Conclusions In contradiction with previous reports, our study shows that the rat model is not adequate for preclinical studies of shoulder dysplasia. However, it might serve as a useful model for studies analyzing shoulder contracture occurring after upper BPBP.

  16. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  17. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  18. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  19. Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Silva Penna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

  20. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  1. Complete wind farm electromagnetic transient modelling for grid integration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubia, I.; Ostolaza, X.; Susperregui, A.; Tapia, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling methodology to analyse the impact of wind farms in surrounding networks. Based on the transient modelling of the asynchronous generator, the multi-machine model of a wind farm composed of N generators is developed. The model incorporates step-up power transformers, distribution lines and surrounding loads up to their connection to the power network. This model allows the simulation of symmetric and asymmetric short-circuits located in the distribution network and the analysis of transient stability of wind farms. It can be also used to study the islanding operation of wind farms

  2. An Electromyographic-driven Musculoskeletal Torque Model using Neuro-Fuzzy System Identification: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zohreh; Edrisi, Mehdi; Marateb, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the torque from high-density surface electromyography signals of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and the medial and lateral heads of triceps brachii muscles during moderate-to-high isometric elbow flexion-extension. The elbow torque was estimated in two following steps: First, surface electromyography (EMG) amplitudes were estimated using principal component analysis, and then a fuzzy model was proposed to illustrate the relationship between the EMG amplitudes and the measured torque signal. A neuro-fuzzy method, with which the optimum number of rules could be estimated, was used to identify the model with suitable complexity. Utilizing the proposed neuro-fuzzy model, the clinical interpretability was introduced; contrary to the previous linear and nonlinear black-box system identification models. It also reduced the estimation error compared with that of the most recent and accurate nonlinear dynamic model introduced in the literature. The optimum number of the rules for all trials was 4 ± 1, that might be related to motor control strategies and the % variance accounted for criterion was 96.40 ± 3.38 which in fact showed considerable improvement compared with the previous methods. The proposed method is thus a promising new tool for EMG-Torque modeling in clinical applications. PMID:25426427

  3. Establishing a common ground for the use of structural equation modelling for construction related research studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural equation modelling (SEM for research studies in construction related field has been on the increase over the years. The essence of this study is not to compare the level of usage of SEM with other modelling methods, neither is it to examine its extent of adoption in construction management - as this has been researched in previous works - but to arrive at a common ground for future construction related research works, based on the findings and recommendations from existing studies on the subject of SEM. Research materials within and outside the field of construction management were reviewed and it was discovered that SEM using AMOS (covariance approach is the most appropriate method for construction research studies. This is not just because it is the most available of the software programs, but because of the numerous benefits and advantages highlighted from previous studies. The study also recommended appropriate sample size as well as cut-off value for various required goodness-of-fit tests of SEM model.

  4. using explanatory models to derive simple tools for Avanced Life Support system studies - Crop Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, J.

    System-level analyses for Advanced Life Support (ALS) require mathematical models for various processes, such as biomass production and waste management, which would ideally be integrated into overall system models. Explanatory models (also referred to as mechanistic or process models) would provide the basis for a more robust system model, as these would be based on an understanding of processes specific to ALS studies. However, integrating such models may not always be practicable because of their complexity, especially for initial system-level analyses where simple sub-models may be satisfactory. One way to address this is to capture important features of explanatory models in simple models that may be readily integrated for system-level analyses. In this paper, explanatory crop models were used to generate parameters and multi-variable polynomial equations for basic models that are suitable for estimating the direction and magnitude of daily changes in canopy gas-exchange, harvest index, and production scheduling due to off- nominal conditions for ALS system studies. The simplest variant of these models consists of only a few equations, and has been integrated into a top-level SIMULINK model for the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), a large-scale human-rated test facility under development at NASA Johnson Space Center. When included in systems studies, the simple crop models may help identify issues that need to be addressed using more detailed modeling studies and specific experiments. Similar modeling simplifications may also prove useful for other ALS sub-systems, as well as for Earth system applications.

  5. The Effects of the Previous Outcome on Probabilistic Choice in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew T.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of previous outcomes on subsequent choices in a probabilistic-choice task. Twenty-four rats were trained to choose between a certain outcome (1 or 3 pellets) versus an uncertain outcome (3 or 9 pellets), delivered with a probability of .1, .33, .67, and .9 in different phases. Uncertain outcome choices increased with the probability of uncertain food. Additionally, uncertain choices increased with the probability of uncertain food following both certain-choice outcomes and unrewarded uncertain choices. However, following uncertain-choice food outcomes, there was a tendency to choose the uncertain outcome in all cases, indicating that the rats continued to “gamble” after successful uncertain choices, regardless of the overall probability or magnitude of food. A subsequent manipulation, in which the probability of uncertain food varied within each session as a function of the previous uncertain outcome, examined how the previous outcome and probability of uncertain food affected choice in a dynamic environment. Uncertain-choice behavior increased with the probability of uncertain food. The rats exhibited increased sensitivity to probability changes and a greater degree of win–stay/lose–shift behavior than in the static phase. Simulations of two sequential choice models were performed to explore the possible mechanisms of reward value computations. The simulation results supported an exponentially decaying value function that updated as a function of trial (rather than time). These results emphasize the importance of analyzing global and local factors in choice behavior and suggest avenues for the future development of sequential-choice models. PMID:23205915

  6. A Critical Review of Model-Based Economic Studies of Depression: Modelling Techniques, Model Structure and Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Haji Ali Afzali; Jonathan Karnon; Jodi Gray

    2012-01-01

    Depression is the most common mental health disorder and is recognized as a chronic disease characterized by multiple acute episodes/relapses. Although modelling techniques play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of depression interventions, comparatively little attention has been paid to issues around modelling studies with a focus on potential biases. This, however, is important as different modelling approaches, variations in model structure and input parameters may ...

  7. Study on the Effects of Diverting Water into Upper Burnt Pocket, Navigation Pool Number 18, Illinois and A Field Test of the Regression Simulation Model Previously Developed on Navigation Pool Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    The concomitant ecological responses are visible in virtually every pool. The vast increase in the surface area of water by the inundation of the...abundant on 7-2V-78 and 8-14-78. Lesser amounts of Aphanizominon flos- aguae were also observed at MC and FP-B on 10-2-78, and FP-Aand FP-C on 9-6-78

  8. Study of a Model Equation in Detonation Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2014-04-24

    Here we analyze properties of an equation that we previously proposed to model the dynamics of unstable detonation waves [A. R. Kasimov, L. M. Faria, and R. R. Rosales, Model for shock wave chaos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 (2013), 104104]. The equation is ut+ 1/2 (u2-uu (0-, t))x=f (x, u (0-, t)), x > 0, t < 0. It describes a detonation shock at x = 0 with the reaction zone in x > 0. We investigate the nature of the steady-state solutions of this nonlocal hyperbolic balance law, the linear stability of these solutions, and the nonlinear dynamics. We establish the existence of instability followed by a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  10. Case studies of computer model applications in consulting practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebein, Gary; Paek, Hyun; Lorang, Mark; McGuinnes, Courtney

    2002-05-01

    Six case studies of computer model applications in a consulting practice will be presented to present the range of issues that can be studied with computer models as well as to understand the limitations of the technique at the present time. Case studies of elliptical conference rooms demonstrate basic acoustic ray principles and suggest remediation strategies. Models of a large themed entertainment venue with multiple amplified sound sources show how visualization of the acoustic ray paths can assist a consultant and client in value engineering locations and amounts of acoustic materials. The acoustic problems with an angled ceiling and large rear wall were studied when an historic church was converted to a music performance hall. The computer model of an historic hall did not present enough detailed information and was supplemented with physical model studies and full size mock-up tests of the insertion of an elevator door that would open directly into the concert room. Studies to demonstrate the amount of room model detail to obtain realistic auralizations were also conducted. The integration of architectural acoustic design and audio system design were studied in computer models of a large church sanctuary.

  11. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  12. Studying cancer metastasis: Existing models, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marion, Denise M S; Domanska, Urszula M; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis causes most cancer-related deaths. Several model systems to study the complex and multi step process of metastasis exist, including in vitro systems, ex-vivo organ slices, Drosophila Melanogaster and zebrafish models and the use of the chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized chicken eggs. These models are relatively easy and cheap but often lack the opportunity to study the complete metastasis cascade. More complex but also more expensive is the use of animal models including the more recently developed patient derived tumor xenografts (PDTX). In this review, we give an overview of the existing metastatic models, discuss the challenges of improving current models to enhance translation from the preclinical to the clinical setting and consider future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Optical Models Regarding the Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abolmasoomi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Until now, many models have been presented for optical study of the human eye. In recent years, surgery on the anterior section of the eye (such as cataract and photo-refractive surgery has increased, so a study on the optics of the eye and evaluation of vision quality has become more important. Material and Methods: In this article, some of these models are considered. They include models with spherical and conic-section surfaces (for cornea and lens, simple models and new models with complex surfaces. Results: Evaluation of the optical models of the eye provides the possibility of enhancing the representation of human vision and also increasing the accuracy of surgery on the anterior section of the eye to enable higher quality vision.

  14. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  15. Water balance at an arid site: a model validation study of bare soil evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.L.; Campbell, G.S.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains results of model validation studies conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The model validation tests consisted of using unsaturated water flow models to simulate water balance experiments conducted at the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The BWTF is a lysimeter facility designed to collect field data on long-term water balance and radionuclide tracer movement. It has been operated by PNL for the NLLWMP since 1978. An experimental test case, developed from data collected at the BWTF, was used to evaluate predictions from different water flow models. The major focus of the validation study was to evaluate how the use of different evaporation models affected the accuracy of predictions of evaporation, storage, and drainage made by the whole model. Four evaporation models were tested including two empirical models and two mechanistic models. The empirical models estimate actual evaporation from potential evaporation; the mechanistic models describe water vapor diffusion within the soil profile and between the soil and the atmosphere in terms of fundamental soil properties, and transport processes. The water flow models that included the diffusion-type evaporation submodels performed best overall. The empirical models performed poorly in their description of evaporation and profile water storage during summer months. The predictions of drainage were supported quite well by the experimental data. This indicates that the method used to estimate hydraulic conductivity needed for the Darcian submodel was adequate. This important result supports recommendations for these procedures that were made previously based on laboratory results.

  16. The Role of Decision Models in Health Care Policy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, Ava; Schapira, Marilyn M; Cravens, Catherine; Chambers, James D; Neumann, Peter J; Siegel, Joanna; Lawrence, William

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) underwent a National Coverage Determination on computed tomography colonography (CTC) to screen for colorectal cancer. The Cancer Intervention & Surveillance Network developed decision models to inform this decision. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of models in this decision. We performed a descriptive case study. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with members of the CMS coverage and analysis group (CAG) and Medicare Coverage and Analysis Advisory Committee (MEDCAC) panelists. Informed by previously published literature, we developed a coding scheme to analyze interview transcripts, MEDCAC meeting transcripts, and the final CMS decision memo. Four members of the CAG and 8 MEDCAC panelists were interviewed. The total number of codes across all study documents was 772. We found evidence that decision makers believed in the adequacy of models to inform decision making. In interview transcripts, the code Models Are Adequate to Inform was more frequent than the code Models Are Inadequate to Inform (47 times v. 5). Discussion of model conceptualization dominated the MEDCAC meeting (Model Conceptualization assigned 113 times) and was frequently discussed during interviews (Model Conceptualization assigned 84 times). We also found evidence that the models helped to focus the policy discussion. Across study documents, the codes Focus on Cost, Focus on Clinical-Health Impact, and Focus on Inadequacy of Evidence Base were assigned 99, 98, and 97 times, respectively. Decision makers involved in the CTC decision believed in the adequacy of models to inform coverage decisions. The model played a role in focusing the CTC coverage policy discussion. © The Authors 2016.

  17. Model Organisms Fact Sheet: Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research organisms to explore the basic biology and chemistry of life. Scientists decide which organism to study ... and much is already known about their genetic makeup . For these and other reasons, studying model organisms ...

  18. Formal Modeling in a Commercial Setting: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, A.; Chechik, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a case study conducted in collaboration with Nortel to demonstrate the feasibility of applying formal modeling techniques to telecommunication systems. A formal description language, SDL, was chosen by our qualitative CASE tool evaluation to model a multimedia-messaging system described by an 80-page natural language specification. Our model was used to identify errors in the software requirements document and to derive test suites, shadowing the existing development proc...

  19. A characteristic study of CCF modeling techniques and optimization of CCF defense strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Chull

    2000-02-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs ) are among the major contributors to risk and core damage frequency (CDF ) from operating nuclear power plants (NPPs ). Our study on CCF focused on the following aspects : 1) a characteristic study on the CCF modeling techniques and 2) development of the optimal CCF defense strategy. Firstly, the characteristics of CCF modeling techniques were studied through sensitivity study of CCF occurrence probability upon system redundancy. The modeling techniques considered in this study include those most widely used worldwide, i.e., beta factor, MGL, alpha factor, and binomial failure rate models. We found that MGL and alpha factor models are essentially identical in terms of the CCF probability. Secondly, in the study for CCF defense, the various methods identified in the previous studies for defending against CCF were classified into five different categories. Based on these categories, we developed a generic method by which the optimal CCF defense strategy can be selected. The method is not only qualitative but also quantitative in nature: the selection of the optimal strategy among candidates is based on the use of analytic hierarchical process (AHP). We applied this method to two motor-driven valves for containment sump isolation in Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants. The result indicates that the method for developing an optimal CCF defense strategy is effective

  20. Comparative study of stability in different TCP/RED models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nga, J.H.C.; Iu, H.H.C.; Ling, S.H.; Lam, H.K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the stability issue of the average queue length of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) model when interacting with Random Early Detection (RED). The model used for the study has shown period doubling bifurcation (PDB) and border collision bifurcation (BCB) in the average queue size at certain values of parameters when original RED is deployed. In this paper, we adopt a gentle version of RED and a newly derived RED algorithm into the model to study the improvement in stability of average queue size of the system

  1. Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Santer, Benjamin D; Gleckler, Peter J

    2009-05-26

    Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simulated regional climate. Accordingly, 42 performance metrics based on seasonal temperature and precipitation, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are constructed and applied to 21 global models. However, no strong relationship is found between the score of the models on the metrics and results of the D&A analysis. Instead, the importance of having ensembles of runs with enough realizations to reduce the effects of natural internal climate variability is emphasized. Also, the superiority of the multimodel ensemble average (MM) to any 1 individual model, already found in global studies examining the mean climate, is true in this regional study that includes measures of variability as well. Evidence is shown that this superiority is largely caused by the cancellation of offsetting errors in the individual global models. Results with both the MM and models picked randomly confirm the original D&A results of anthropogenically forced JFM temperature changes in the western U.S. Future projections of temperature do not depend on model performance until the 2080s, after which the better performing models show warmer temperatures.

  2. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies.......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic...

  3. Rolling Process Modeling Report. Finite-Element Model Validation and Parametric Study on various Rolling Process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum alloy plate-type fuel for high-performance research reactors in the United States. This work supports the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll-separating forces for various rolling mill geometries for PNNL, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Y-12 National Security Complex, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory. The model developed and presented in a previous report has been subjected to further validation study using new sets of experimental data generated from a rolling mill at PNNL. Simulation results of both hot rolling and cold rolling of uranium-10% molybdenum coupons have been compared with experimental results. The model was used to predict roll-separating forces at different temperatures and reductions for five rolling mills within the National Nuclear Security Administration Fuel Fabrication Capability project. This report also presents initial results of a finite-element model microstructure-based approach to study the surface roughness at the interface between zirconium and uranium-10% molybdenum.

  4. Experimental and modeling studies of mass transfer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaining a better understanding of mass transfer problems in encapsulated cell systems and in tissue engineering requires both experimental investigations and mathematical modelling. Specific mass transfer studies are reviewed including oxygen transfer in immobilised animal cell culture systems, modelling of ...

  5. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...

  6. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  7. HARMONIC LOAD MODELING: A CASE STUDY OF 33 KV ABUJA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    model spectrum of the feeder under study revealed that the 11th and 13thharmonic orders have the highest percentage of amplitude relative to the ... model spectrum showed that the 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 32nd, 33rd and 34thharmonic orders have higher percentage of .... Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC.

  8. Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

  9. Deformed shell model studies of spectroscopic properties of Zn and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-05

    Apr 5, 2014 ... the generating coordinate method framework (GCM+PNAMP), (v) projected Hartree– ... shall first study its spectroscopic properties using deformed shell model (DSM) to test the effectiveness of the model for ... Section. 3 gives DSM results for 64Zn for spectroscopic properties and then the results for both 2ν.

  10. Studying cancer metastasis : Existing models, challenges and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marion, Denise M. S.; Domanska, Urszula M.; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.

    Cancer metastasis causes most cancer-related deaths. Several model systems to study the complex and multi step process of metastasis exist, including in vitro systems, ex-vivo organ slices, Drosophila Melanogaster and zebrafish models and the use of the chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized

  11. Generative Topic Modeling in Image Data Mining and Bioinformatics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic topic models have been developed for applications in various domains such as text mining, information retrieval and computer vision and bioinformatics domain. In this thesis, we focus on developing novel probabilistic topic models for image mining and bioinformatics studies. Specifically, a probabilistic topic-connection (PTC) model…

  12. Computer simulation study of water using a fluctuating charge model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Hydrogen bonding in small water clusters is studied through computer simulation methods using a sophisticated, empirical model of interaction developed by Rick et al (S W Rick, S J Stuart and B J Berne 1994 J. Chem. Phys. 101 6141) and others. The model allows for the charges on the interacting sites to ...

  13. Are previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis a predictor for vaginal symptoms in breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Malene R; Goukasian, Irina; Panduro, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with breast cancer exposed to aromatase inhibitors, and to investigate if the risk of vaginal symptoms is associated with previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis. Methods Patients from Rigshospitalet and Herlev...... University Hospital, Denmark, were identified through the register of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperation Group and 78 patients participated in the study. Semiquantitave questionnaires and telephone interview were used to assess the prevalence of vaginal symptoms and previous episode(s) of bacterial vaginosis....... Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between vaginal symptoms and previous episodes of bacterial vaginosis. Results Moderate to severe symptoms due to vaginal itching/irritation were experienced by 6.4% (95% CI: 2.8-14.1%), vaginal dryness by 28.4% (95% CI: 19...

  14. The effect of infected external computers on the spread of viruses: A compartment modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan

    2013-12-01

    Inevitably, there exist infected computers outside of the Internet. This paper aims to understand how infected external computers affect the spread of computer viruses. For that purpose, a new virus-antivirus spreading model, which takes into account the effect of infected/immune external computers, is established. A systematic study shows that, unlike most previous models, the proposed model admits no virus-free equilibrium and admits a globally asymptotically stable viral equilibrium. This result implies that it would be practically impossible to eradicate viruses on the Internet. As a result, inhibiting the virus prevalence to below an acceptable level would be the next best thing. A theoretical study reveals the effect of different parameters on the steady virus prevalence. On this basis, a number of suggestions are made so as to contain virus spreading.

  15. Ontogenetic study of the supraorbital region in modern humans: a longitudinal test of the spatial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Gabriela N; Smith, Fred H

    2006-06-01

    The structural significance of the hominid supraorbital torus and its morphological variation have always been a controversial topic in physical anthropology. Understanding the function of browridge variation in living and fossil human populations is relevant to questions of human evolution. This study utilizes radiograph images to evaluate the spatial model in modern humans during ontogeny. This structural model attributes variation in the supraorbital region to the positional relationship between the neurocranium and the orbits. The relationship between measurements of the antero-posterior supraorbital length and the factors specified in the spatial model were assessed by correlation and partial correlation analyses. Growth rates were also examined to study ontogenetic trajectories and infer aspects of developmental relationships between critical variables. Results agree with previous research supporting the existence of spatial influences between the neural and orbital-upper facial regions on browridge length during ontogeny.

  16. Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.

    Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observations and records. We show that nonlinear and dispersive tsunami propagation models may be necessary for many landslide tsunami case studies. GEOWAVE is a comprehensive tsunami simulation model formed in part by combining the Tsunami Open and Progressive Initial Conditions System (TOPICS) with the fully non-linear Boussinesq water wave model FUNWAVE. TOPICS uses curve fits of numerical results from a fully nonlinear potential flow model to provide approximate landslide tsunami sources for tsunami propagation models, based on marine geology data and interpretations. In this work, we validate GEOWAVE with successful case studies of the 1946 Unimak, Alaska, the 1994 Skagway, Alaska, and the 1998 Papua New Guinea events. GEOWAVE simulates accurate runup and inundation at the same time, with no additional user interference or effort, using a slot technique. Wave breaking, if it occurs during shoaling or runup, is also accounted for with a dissipative breaking model acting on the wave front. The success of our case studies depends on the combination of accurate tsunami sources and an advanced tsunami propagation and inundation model.

  17. Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Watts

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observations and records. We show that nonlinear and dispersive tsunami propagation models may be necessary for many landslide tsunami case studies. GEOWAVE is a comprehensive tsunami simulation model formed in part by combining the Tsunami Open and Progressive Initial Conditions System (TOPICS with the fully non-linear Boussinesq water wave model FUNWAVE. TOPICS uses curve fits of numerical results from a fully nonlinear potential flow model to provide approximate landslide tsunami sources for tsunami propagation models, based on marine geology data and interpretations. In this work, we validate GEOWAVE with successful case studies of the 1946 Unimak, Alaska, the 1994 Skagway, Alaska, and the 1998 Papua New Guinea events. GEOWAVE simulates accurate runup and inundation at the same time, with no additional user interference or effort, using a slot technique. Wave breaking, if it occurs during shoaling or runup, is also accounted for with a dissipative breaking model acting on the wave front. The success of our case studies depends on the combination of accurate tsunami sources and an advanced tsunami propagation and inundation model.

  18. A study for production simulation model generation system based on data model at a shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Gi Back

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation technology is a type of shipbuilding product lifecycle management solution used to support production planning or decision-making. Normally, most shipbuilding processes are consisted of job shop production, and the modeling and simulation require professional skills and experience on shipbuilding. For these reasons, many shipbuilding companies have difficulties adapting simulation systems, regardless of the necessity for the technology. In this paper, the data model for shipyard production simulation model generation was defined by analyzing the iterative simulation modeling procedure. The shipyard production simulation data model defined in this study contains the information necessary for the conventional simulation modeling procedure and can serve as a basis for simulation model generation. The efficacy of the developed system was validated by applying it to the simulation model generation of the panel block production line. By implementing the initial simulation model generation process, which was performed in the past with a simulation modeler, the proposed system substantially reduced the modeling time. In addition, by reducing the difficulties posed by different modeler-dependent generation methods, the proposed system makes the standardization of the simulation model quality possible.

  19. A CASE STUDY OF MODELING A TORUS IN DIFFERENT MODELING SOFTWARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELJKOVIĆ Milica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the complex geometric shapes requires the use of appropriate softwares. This study analyzes the process of modeling with two different computer softwares, AutoCAD and Rhinoceros. The aim is to demonstrate the similarities and differences between these softwares when used for modeling torus, a double curved geometric surface. The two modeling processes are compared in order to investigate the potentials of these softwares in the modeling of an architectural structure comprising a shell of the torus. After a detailed comparative analysis, the essential characteristics and shortcomings of these programs are emphasized and they were used to recommend the more appropriate one.

  20. Animal models for the study of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with an effective vaccine, an estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV worldwide. Current antiviral therapies, including interferon and nucleot(side analogues, rarely cure chronic hepatitis B. Animal models are very crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and developing new therapeutic drugs or strategies. HBV can only infect humans and chimpanzees, with the use of chimpanzees in HBV research strongly restricted. Thus, most advances in HBV research have been gained using mouse models with HBV replication or infection or models with HBV-related hepadnaviral infection. This review summarizes the animal models currently available for the study of HBV infection.

  1. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  2. Porosity of Concrete - Morphological Study of Model Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study has developed a comprehensive methodological framework for characterizing geometrical and morphological aspects of pore space in cementitious materials and explored its application to actual cement pastes and model concretes for the purpose of predicting mechanical and transport

  3. Undergraduate student nurses' perceptions of two practice learning models: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Phase 1 of this study examined student, mentor and clinical manager's perceptions of a 'Hub and Spoke' practice learning model in year 1 of an undergraduate nursing programme. Findings from Phase 1 suggested that the model had significant educational merit in orientating students to clinical learning and emphasising the primacy of the mentor relationship in developing and supporting students. Following the students through year 2 of their programme, wherein they experienced a 'rotational' practice learning model, which provided an opportunity to explore student perceptions of both models. To explore undergraduate nurses' perceptions of two experienced practice learning models: hub and spoke model, and the classical rotational model. In a previous study the hub and spoke model appeared to develop 1st year students' sense of belongingness, continuity and quality of practice learning, there for it was important to understand what students reported about these issues when recounting their 2nd year experience in the clinical setting that was organised according to a classical rotational model. Qualitative approach utilising focus groups. 10 under-graduate student nurses at the end of 2nd year. Focus group interviews. Students responded in ways that indicate they believed the experiences of year 1 had raised their faith in their ability to cope with the practice learning and educational demands of nursing. They saw themselves as being better prepared for year 2 as a result of their exposure to hubs and spokes. The study has identified traits of resilience, continued belongingness and self-confidence in orientation to learning in clinical practice in hub and spoke experienced students. The student nurses found the hub and spoke model valid in 1st year, whilst stating that for 2nd year the rotational model can be valid. This supports earlier findings that student nurses require a structured and supportive 1st year learning environment to enable development of resilience

  4. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  5. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  6. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  7. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  8. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  9. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  12. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  13. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  14. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  15. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  16. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  17. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  18. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  19. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  20. The study of prescriptive and descriptive models of decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok A Divekar; Sunita Bangal; Sumangala D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of decision making can be loosely divided into two parts: the study of prescriptive models and the study of descriptive models. Prescriptive decision scientists are concerned with prescribing methods for making optimal decisions. Descriptive decision researchers are concerned with the bounded way in which the decisions are actually made. The statistics courses treat risk from a prescriptive, by suggesting rational methods. This paper brings out the work done by many researchers by e...