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Sample records for modeling previous studies

  1. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  2. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  3. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  4. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  5. Study of cystic artery by arteriography. Importance of previous cholecystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, G.O.

    An oral cholecystography previously to celiac and mesenteric arteriography is performed, in order to identify the cystic artery, in 42 patients with pancreatitis, according Seldinger technique. The cystic artery was identified in all the cases, the pattern being the outlet of the cystic artery from the right hepatic artery. Infusion pump and seriography were not used.

  6. 75 FR 91 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-604...: Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair): Docket No. FAA-2009-1227; Directorate... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate previously held...

  7. Vibrations of twisted cantilevered plates - Summary of previous and current studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissa, A. W.; Macbain, J. C.; Kielb, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    This work summarizes a comprehensive study made of the free vibrations of twisted, cantilevered plates of rectangular planform. Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations previously made by others have resulted in frequency results which disagree considerably. To clarify the problem a joint industry/government/university research effort was initiated to obtain comprehensive theoretical and experimental results for models having useful ranges of aspect ratios, thickness ratios and twist angles. Theoretical data came from 19 independent computer analyses, including finite element, shell theory and beam theory idealizations. Two independent sets of experimental data were also obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are summarized and compared.

  8. Cyclostratigraphy for Chinese red clay sequences: Implications to changing previous age models and paleoclimate interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, T.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Zhang, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau contains red clay sequence which has continuous alternation of sedimentary cycles with recurrent paleoclimatic fluctuations. Absence of abundant fossils and inability of radiometric dating method made magnetostratigraphy a leading method to build age model for the red clay. Here magnetostratigraphic age model in red clay sequence is tested using cyclostratigraphy as orbital parameters of Earth are known. Milankovitch periodicities recorded in magnetic susceptibility and grain size in the Shilou red clay section are investigated and previously found age of 11 Ma for this section is re-evaluated. Magnetostratigraphy dating based on only visual correlation could potentially lead to erroneous age model. In this study the correlation is executed through the iteration procedure until it is supported by cyclostratigraphy; i.e. Milankovitch cycles are resolved in the best possible manner. Our new approach provides an age of 5.2 Ma for the Shilou profile. Wavelet analysis reveals that a 400 kyr eccentricity cycle is well preserved and the existence of a 100 kyr eccentricity in the red clay sequence on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau suggests that eccentricity plays a vital role in Pliocene climate evolution. Paleomonsoon evolution is reconstructed and divided into three intervals (5.2-4.5 Ma, 4.5-3.6 Ma and 3.6-2.58 Ma). The earliest stage indicates that summer and winter monsoon cycles may rapidly alter, whereas the middle stage reflects an intensification of winter monsoon and aridification in Asia, and the youngest stage is characterized by relatively intensified summer monsoon. This study demonstrates that cyclostratigraphy can greatly assist magnetostratigraphy in dating the red clay sequences, and implies that many published age models for the red clay sequences should likely be re-assessed where possible. An evaluation of the monsoon system and climate change in eastern Asia might prominently benefit from this approach.

  9. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  10. Study on the Effects of Diverting Water into Upper Burnt Pocket, Navigation Pool Number 18, Illinois and A Field Test of the Regression Simulation Model Previously Developed on Navigation Pool Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    concentrations generally accepted as levels which, when combined with specific morphological , hydrological ani climatic factors, can lead to excessive...River Basin Commission from The River Studies Center, Univ. Wisconsin-La Crosse. 114 pp. Simons, D. B. 1979. River and canal morphology . Chapter 5 in...subintegerrima (Vahi) Fern. PHYTOLACCACEAE Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed PLATANACEAE Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore POACEAE Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw

  11. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L

    2013-12-15

    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; pTBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  12. A methodology for modeling photocatalytic reactors for indoor pollution control using previously estimated kinetic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passalia, Claudio; Alfano, Orlando M. [INTEC - Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, CONICET - UNL, Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); FICH - Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Brandi, Rodolfo J., E-mail: rbrandi@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [INTEC - Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, CONICET - UNL, Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); FICH - Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indoor pollution control via photocatalytic reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaling-up methodology based on previously determined mechanistic kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation interchange model between catalytic walls using configuration factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modeling and experimental validation of a complex geometry photocatalytic reactor. - Abstract: A methodology for modeling photocatalytic reactors for their application in indoor air pollution control is carried out. The methodology implies, firstly, the determination of intrinsic reaction kinetics for the removal of formaldehyde. This is achieved by means of a simple geometry, continuous reactor operating under kinetic control regime and steady state. The kinetic parameters were estimated from experimental data by means of a nonlinear optimization algorithm. The second step was the application of the obtained kinetic parameters to a very different photoreactor configuration. In this case, the reactor is a corrugated wall type using nanosize TiO{sub 2} as catalyst irradiated by UV lamps that provided a spatially uniform radiation field. The radiative transfer within the reactor was modeled through a superficial emission model for the lamps, the ray tracing method and the computation of view factors. The velocity and concentration fields were evaluated by means of a commercial CFD tool (Fluent 12) where the radiation model was introduced externally. The results of the model were compared experimentally in a corrugated wall, bench scale reactor constructed in the laboratory. The overall pollutant conversion showed good agreement between model predictions and experiments, with a root mean square error less than 4%.

  13. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

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    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  14. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  16. Treatment with intranasal iloprost reduces disease manifestations in a murine model of previously established COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew R; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Naura, Amarjit S; Ibba, Salome V; Davis, Christian J; Okpechi, Samuel C; Happel, Kyle I; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Shellito, Judd; Boulares, A Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary endothelial prostacyclin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of treatment with a prostacyclin analog in animal models of previously established COPD is unknown. We evaluated the short- and long-term effect of iloprost on inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of COPD. Nineteen mice were exposed to LPS/elastase, followed by either three doses of intranasal iloprost or saline. In the long-term treatment experiment, 18 mice were exposed to LPS/elastase and then received 6 wk of iloprost or were left untreated as controls. In the short-term experiment, iloprost did not change AHR but significantly reduced serum IL-5 and IFN-γ. Long-term treatment with iloprost for both 2 and 6 wk significantly improved AHR. After 6 wk of iloprost, there was a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) neutrophils, serum IL-1β (30.0 ± 9.2 vs. 64.8 ± 7.4 pg/ml, P = 0.045), IL-2 (36.5 ± 10.6 vs. 83.8 ± 0.4 pg/ml, P = 0.01), IL-10 (75.7 ± 9.3 vs. 96.5 ± 3.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02), and nitrite (15.1 ± 5.4 vs. 30.5 ± 10.7 μmol, P = 0.01). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the lung homogenate was also significantly reduced after iloprost treatment (P = 0.02), and SMA thickness was reduced in the small and medium blood vessels after iloprost (P iloprost significantly reduced systemic inflammation in an LPS/elastase COPD model. Long-term iloprost treatment also reduced AHR, serum nitrite, SMA, and BALF neutrophilia. These data encourage future investigations of prostanoid therapy as a novel treatment for COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  18. Modelling the Noise-Robustness of Infants' Word Representations: The Impact of Previous Experience.

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    Christina Bergmann

    Full Text Available During language acquisition, infants frequently encounter ambient noise. We present a computational model to address whether specific acoustic processing abilities are necessary to detect known words in moderate noise--an ability attested experimentally in infants. The model implements a general purpose speech encoding and word detection procedure. Importantly, the model contains no dedicated processes for removing or cancelling out ambient noise, and it can replicate the patterns of results obtained in several infant experiments. In addition to noise, we also addressed the role of previous experience with particular target words: does the frequency of a word matter, and does it play a role whether that word has been spoken by one or multiple speakers? The simulation results show that both factors affect noise robustness. We also investigated how robust word detection is to changes in speaker identity by comparing words spoken by known versus unknown speakers during the simulated test. This factor interacted with both noise level and past experience, showing that an increase in exposure is only helpful when a familiar speaker provides the test material. Added variability proved helpful only when encountering an unknown speaker. Finally, we addressed whether infants need to recognise specific words, or whether a more parsimonious explanation of infant behaviour, which we refer to as matching, is sufficient. Recognition involves a focus of attention on a specific target word, while matching only requires finding the best correspondence of acoustic input to a known pattern in the memory. Attending to a specific target word proves to be more noise robust, but a general word matching procedure can be sufficient to simulate experimental data stemming from young infants. A change from acoustic matching to targeted recognition provides an explanation of the improvements observed in infants around their first birthday. In summary, we present a

  19. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  20. Sourcing quality-of-life weights obtained from previous studies: theory and reality in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SeungJin; Bae, Eun Young; Lim, Sang Hee

    2014-01-01

    The quality-of-life weights obtained in previous studies are frequently used in cost-utility analyses. The purpose of this study is to describe how the values obtained in previous studies are incorporated into the industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI), focusing on the issues discussed in theoretical studies and national guidelines. The industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean NHI from January 2007 until December 2009 were evaluated by two independent researchers at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Specifically, we observed the methods that were used to pool, predict joint health state utilities, and retain consistency within submissions in terms of the issues discussed in methodological research papers and recommendations from national guidelines. More than half of the submissions used QALY as an outcome measure, and most of these submissions were sourced from prior studies. Heterogeneous methodologies were frequently used within a submission, with the inconsistent use of upper and lower anchors being prevalent. Assumptions behind measuring joint health state utilities or pooling multiple values for single health states were omitted in all submissions. Most national guidelines were rather vague regarding how to predict joint health states, how to select the best available value, how to maintain consistency within a submission, and how to generalize values obtained from prior studies. Previously-generated values were commonly sourced, but this practice was frequently related to inconsistencies within and among submissions. Attention should be paid to the consistency and transparency of the value, especially if the value is sourced from prior studies.

  1. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. STUDY OF OBSTETRIC AND FETAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous caesarean section sparks an area of controversy in Obstetrics. The management of women with previous caesarean section regarding the mode of delivery whether to opt for repeat caesarean section or vaginal delivery, is an area of debate. Very often the decision on management is not made on Principle of sound reasoning and many who choose the elective repeat caesarean section do so to circumvent the anxious moment that arise during conduct ion of labour. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and fetal outcome in relation to type of delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A 18 month prospective observational study was conducted where in 150 patients who had a term pregnancy with a history of prior LSCS were included after obtaining their consent for participation. The obstetric and fetal outcomes of these patients in the present pregnancy were analyzed by Z test. RESULTS: Out of the 150 subjects 78 ( 52% were in age group of 26 - 30 years, 106 ( 70.67% patients belonged to the urban population, 116 ( 77.33% were booked patie nts, 107 ( 71.33% were housewives, 122 ( 81.33% belonged to middle class and 22 ( 14.67% were from high socio economic status. 67 ( 44.67% were second gravid, 112 ( 74.67% were para 1. Out of total 134 patients 29 ( 21.64% had elective caesarean section and 5 ( 3 .73% patients came as emergency admission and underwent caesarean section. Out of 134 patients, with one previous caesarean section. 32 had spontaneous onset of labour. Out of which 20 ( 68.97% had vaginal delivery and 9 ( 31.03% had repeat caesarean section. 13 patients had augmentation, 11 ( 84.62% had vaginal delivery and 2 ( 15.38% had caesarean section. In 58 patients labour was induced 29 ( 50% had section. 14 patients out of 50 who had previous 2 caesarean section only 1 ( 7.69% patient had spontane ous onset of labour and had caesarean section. 3 ( 92.86% patients had elective caesarean section. There were only 2 patients with previous 3 caesarean

  3. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  4. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50......-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured during pregnancy, postpartum, and at follow-up 5-11 years later. At follow-up, the women were also examined with a 75-g OGTT or an intravenous glucagon test. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (30%) of the women with previous GDM had abnormal glucose tolerance...... response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive...

  5. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.

  6. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  7. Emotional Belief-Desire-Intention Agent Model: Previous Work And Proposed Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela- Alexandra Puica

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in affective computing shows that agents cannot be truly intelligent, nor believable or realistic without emotions. In this paper, we present a model of emotional agents that is based on a BDI architecture. We show how we can integrate emotions, resources and personality features into an artificial intelligent agent so as to obtain a human-like behavior of this agent. We place our work in the general context of existing research in emotional agents, with emphasis on BDI emotional models.

  8. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Singh; Dr. Kevin Lano

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM) broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. ...

  9. Regression modeling of the North East Atlantic Spring Bloom suggests previously unrecognized biological roles for V and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick J Klein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the biogeochemical parameters controlling pCO2, total chlorophyll a, and dimethylsulfide (DMS concentrations during the North East Atlantic Spring Bloom (NASB, we used previously unpublished particulate and dissolved elemental concentrations to construct several linear regression models; first by hypothesis-testing, and then with exhaustive stepwise linear regression followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. The field data was obtained along a latitudinal transect from the Azores Islands to the North Atlantic, and best-fit models (determined by lowest predictive error of up to three variables are presented. Total chlorophyll a is predicted best by biomass (POC, PON parameters and by pigments characteristic of picophytoplankton for the southern section of the sampling transect (from the Azores to the Rockhall-Hatton Plateau and coccolithophores in the northern portion (from the Rockhall-Hatton Plateau to the Denmark Strait. Both the pCO2 and DMS models included variables traditionally associated with the development of the NASB such as mixed-layer depth and with Fe, Si and P-deplete conditions (dissolved Fe, dissolved and biogenic silica, dissolved PO43-. However, the regressions for pCO2 and DMS also include intracellular V and Mo concentrations, respectively. Mo is involved in DMS production as a cofactor in dimethylsulfoxide reductase. No significant biological role for V has yet been determined, although intracellular V is significantly correlated (p-value < 0.05 with biogenic silica (R2 = 0.72 and total chlorophyll a (R2 = 0.49 while the same is not true for its biogeochemical analogue Mo, suggesting active uptake of V by phytoplankton. Our statistical analysis suggests these two lesser-studied metals may play more important roles in bloom dynamics than previously thought, and highlights a need for studies focused on determining their potential biological requirements and cell quotas.

  10. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    literature on identity, evidence suggests that the role of religion in shaping individuals' and group's identity is widely ignored. However, a growing number of studies have begun to take into consideration the key role of religion (Arweck & Nesbitt 2010, King and Boyatzis 2004, Peek 2005. This article has attempted to review systematically previous research and conceptualizations on the religious identity based on national studies and surveys and academic dissertations.     Materials and Methods   As mentioned, the purpose of this study was to review the results of some influential researches in the field of religious identity. To get this purpose, one of the best known methods for reviewing previous studies, a systematic review, was applied. Systematic review deals with establishing and synthesizing of researches and evidences with focus on a specific question. This occurs through the organized, transparent, formal, clear and flexible procedures and processes. A systematic review of research is not limited to review the history and this overview and review can be used in different levels, fields and goals. During the first phase of the study, terms of "religious identity", "Islamic identity", "Iranian identity" and "religious identity" was searched at libraries and research centers and in databases such as Center for Scientific Information Database (SID, a database of Iranian journals and magazines (Magiran, Noor specialized journals database, and Science and Information Technology Institute (IrnaDoc. After reviewing the gathered documents and specifying its relationship with the object and purpose of the study, a total of 47 documents were selected. Documents based on the five major parameter were summarized and reviewed: 1-general information, 2-goals and research questions, 3-research methodology, 4-variables, 5-findings     Discussion of Results and Conclusion   Findings show that in the highest percentage (38.2% of researches, religious identity has been

  11. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. This also means to create risk, quality, performance, and other management plans to monitor and manage the projects efficiently and effectively.

  12. Third metacarpal condylar fatigue fractures in equine athletes occur within previously modelled subchondral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, R Christopher; Trope, Gareth D; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Anderson, Garry A; Parkin, Timothy D H; Mackie, Eleanor J; Seeman, Ego

    2010-10-01

    Bone modelling and remodelling reduce the risk of fatigue fractures; the former by adapting bone to its loading circumstances, the latter by replacing fatigued bone. Remodelling transiently increases porosity because of the normal delay in onset of the formation phase of the remodelling sequence. Protracted intense loading suppresses remodelling leaving modelling as the only means of maintaining bone strength. We therefore hypothesized that race horses with fatigue fractures of the distal third metacarpal bone (MC3) will have reduced porosity associated with suppressed remodelling while continued adaptive modelling will result in higher volume fraction (BV/TV) at this site. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we measured the distal aspect of the MC3 obtained at postmortem from 13 thoroughbred race horses with condylar fractures of the MC3 (cases), 8 horses without fractures (training controls), 14 horses with a fracture at another site (fractured controls) and 9 horses resting from training (resting controls). Porosity of the subchondral bone of MC3 was lower in cases than resting controls (12±1.4% vs. 18±1.6%, P=0.017) although areas of focal porosity were observed adjacent to fractures in 6/13 horses. BV/TV of the distal metacarpal epiphysis tended to be higher in horses with condylar fractures (0.79±0.015) than training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.070), but also higher in controls with a fracture elsewhere (0.79±0.014) than the training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.040). BV/TV was higher in horses over three years of age than those aged two or three years (0.79±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01, P=0.016). All metacarpal condylar fractures occurred within focal areas of high BV/TV. We infer that intense training in equine athletes suppresses remodelling of third metacarpal subchondral bone limiting damage repair while modelling increases regional bone volume in an attempt to minimise local stresses but may fail to offset bone

  13. Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus vinorelbine in breast cancer with previous anthracycline exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; García-Donas, Jesus; Casado, Antonio; de la Gándara, Isabel; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; García-Saenz, Jose-Angel; Ibáñez, Gabriel; Loboff, Belen; García-Ledo, Gemma; Moreno, Fernando; Grande, Enrique; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) entered a phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 35 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1 plus vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 every 4 weeks. Patients were required to have measurable disease, previous chemotherapy with an anthracycline-containing regimen, and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirty-four patients were assessable for response and toxicity. The overall response rate (on an intent-to-treat basis) was 35% (12 of 34; 95% CI, 20%-54%). One complete response and 11 partial responses were noted. In addition, 14 patients (41%) had stable disease of > 4 months duration, and 7 patients (20.5%) had disease progression. The response rates to the combination when it was used as first- and second-line chemotherapy were 31% (4 of 13) and 38% (8 of 21), respectively. Median time to disease progression was 7 months (range, 1-35 months) and median overall survival was 13 months (range, 2 to > 62 months). Neutropenia was the most frequent toxicity (grade 4 in 44% of patients and 19% of cycles), but neutropenic fever was seen in only 3 cases. No septic deaths occurred. Nonhematologic grade 3 side effects included skin toxicity (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, 6%) and mucositis (15%). Late alopecia was seen in 53% of patients (grade 1 in 41%, and grade 2 in 12%). The median LVEFs were 64% (range, 50%-81%) at baseline and 62% (range, 37%-70%) after treatment. Three patients presented an LVEF decrease to < 50%; however, no clinical heart failure was noted, and 2 of these patients recovered normal values after cessation of therapy. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine can be safely administered to patients with anthracycline-pretreated MBC and is active in this population.

  14. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  15. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  16. Two new prediction rules for spontaneous pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples, based on the synthesis of three previous models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hunault; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A. Collins (John); J.L.H. Evers (Johannes); E.R. te Velde (Egbert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several models have been published for the prediction of spontaneous pregnancy among subfertile patients. The aim of this study was to broaden the empirical basis for these predictions by making a synthesis of three previously published models. METHODS: We u

  17. Two new prediction rules for spontaneous pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples, based on the synthesis of three previous models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hunault; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A. Collins (John); J.L.H. Evers (Johannes); E.R. te Velde (Egbert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several models have been published for the prediction of spontaneous pregnancy among subfertile patients. The aim of this study was to broaden the empirical basis for these predictions by making a synthesis of three previously published models. METHODS: We u

  18. Psychotic illness in first-time mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnur Valdimarsdóttir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596. Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7; high birth weight (> or = 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0; and diabetes (hazard ratio 0. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

  19. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one´s daily life? Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Senechal de Goffredo Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001 of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6, regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  20. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  1. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205.

  2. A STUDY OF THE OUTCOME OF SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCY FOLLOWING PREVIOUS C ESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the world - wide rising trend of caesarean delivery (CD, modern obstetric practice deals with a new group of mothers carrying reproductive performance upon a scarred uterus with obvious risk in feto - maternal outcome. AIMS: (1 To analyse the maternal & neonatal outcome in post - caesarean pregnancy. (2 To evaluate the factors influencing outcome in such cases. Design : Observational analytical study. MATERIALS & METHODS: The present study was carried out over two years (2010 - 11 taking consecutive 100 p ost - caesarean cases as admitted on my admission days & delivered in BR Singh Hospital. Data collection was done by interview technique along with hospital records. ANALYSIS USED: Percentage analysis was most often done. Categorical variables were compared with chi - square test; P value was calculated with 2012 Graphpad Software. Relative risk (RR & Odd ratio (OR were calculated with 1993 - 2012 Medcalc Software bvba (Version 12.3.0. All statistical tests were evaluated at the 0.05 significance level. RESULT S: Post - caesarean pregnancy rate was 26.02%. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC incidence was 22% whereas VBAC success on trial of labour was 55%. VBAC gave best morbidity outcome (18.18% & 27.27%. But failed VBAC cases result more significant maternal morbidity (RR=3.97, P=0.0037 & NICU admission was also found highest in failed VBAC cases (38.89%. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were significantly high when scar integrity was lost; also significantly co - related with elderly mothers (>35 yrs., un - boo ked cases & non - admitted cases undergone repeat CD. CONCLUSIONS: Post - caesarean cases need meticulous antenatal check - up & mandatory institutional delivery with proper selection of mode of confinement to have a better maternal & neonatal outcome

  3. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  4. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of previous vaccination: clinical and immunologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I

    1986-06-01

    Clinical and immunologic responses of sheep to vaccination and subsequent bluetongue virus (BTV) challenge exposure were studied and compared with those of non-vaccinated sheep. Sheep were vaccinated with inactivated BTV administered with aluminum hydroxide and cimetidine or levamisole. After sheep were vaccinated, precipitating group-specific antibodies to BTV were detected, but serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were not detected. Cellular immune responses (lymphocyte blastogenesis) to BTV were not detected. After virulent BTV challenge exposure, vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep developed acute clinical disease of similar severity. Clinical signs included hyperemia and petechiae of oral mucosa and coronary bands of the feet, excess salivation, nasal discharge with crusting, ulceration of the muzzle, and edema of lips and intermandibular space. Marked increases in serum creatine kinase activity were associated with stiff gait, reluctance to move, and vomiting. Fever and leukopenia were detected in most of the challenge-exposed sheep. Viremia and neutralizing antibodies were detected in vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep after challenge exposure. Bluetongue virus-specific reaginic antibodies were not detected in sera from any of the sheep when the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was used.

  5. Phase III Randomized Study of Bendamustine Compared With Chlorambucil in Previously Untreated Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfgang U. Knauf; Toshko Lissichkov; Ali Aldaoud; Anna Liberati; Javier Loscertales; Raoul Herbrecht; Gunnar Juliusson; Gerhard Postner; Liana Gercheva; Stefan Goranov; Martin Becker; Hans-Joerg Fricke; Francoise Huguet; Ilaria Del Giudice; Peter Klein; Lothar Tremmel; Karlheinz Merkle; Marco Montillo

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C...

  6. Modelling the response of stable water isotopes in Greenland precipitation to orbital configurations of the previous interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Sjolte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relation between δ 18O of precipitation and temperature has been used in numerous studies to reconstruct past temperatures at ice core sites in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past two decades, it has become clear that the slope between δ 18O and temperature varies in both space and time. Here, we use a general circulation model driven by changes in orbital parameters to investigate the Greenland δ 18O–temperature relation for the previous interglacial, the Eemian. In our analysis, we focus on changes in the moisture source regions, and the results underline the importance of taking the seasonality of climate change into account. The orbitally driven experiments show that continental evaporation over North America increases during summer in the warm parts of the Eemian, while marine evaporation decreases. This likely flattens the Greenland δ 18O response to temperature during summer. Since the main climate change in the experiments occurs during summer this adds to a limited response of δ 18O, which is more strongly tied to temperature during winter than during summer. A south–west to north–east gradient in the δ 18O–temperature slope is also evident for Greenland, with low slopes in the south–west and steeper slopes in the north–east. This probably reflects the proportion of continental moisture and Arctic moisture arriving in Greenland, with more continental moisture in the south–west and less in the north–east, and vice versa for the Arctic moisture.

  7. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  8. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  9. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...... with Hazard Ratios ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 for current use compared to never use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that it is possible to estimate the effect of never, current and previous use of HT on breast cancer using prescription data.......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  10. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

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    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis in a Drosophila model identifies previously implicated and novel pathways in the therapeutic mechanism in neuropsychiatric disorders

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    Priyanka eSingh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have taken advantage of a newly described Drosophila model to gain insights into the potential mechanism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, a group of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric conditions besides epilepsy. In the recently described Drosophila model that is inspired by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced kindling epileptogenesis in rodents, chronic PTZ treatment for seven days causes a decreased climbing speed and an altered CNS transcriptome, with the latter mimicking gene expression alterations reported in epileptogenesis. In the model, an increased climbing speed is further observed seven days after withdrawal from chronic PTZ. We used this post-PTZ withdrawal regime to identify potential AED mechanism. In this regime, treatment with each of the five AEDs tested, namely, ethosuximide (ETH, gabapentin (GBP, vigabatrin (VGB, sodium valproate (NaVP and levetiracetam (LEV, resulted in rescuing of the altered climbing behavior. The AEDs also normalized PTZ withdrawal induced transcriptomic perturbation in fly heads; whereas AED untreated flies showed a large number of up- and down-regulated genes which were enriched in several processes including gene expression and cell communication, the AED treated flies showed differential expression of only a small number of genes that did not enrich gene expression and cell communication processes. Gene expression and cell communication related upregulated genes in AED untreated flies overrepresented several pathways - spliceosome, RNA degradation, and ribosome in the former category, and inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling, endocytosis and hedgehog signaling in the latter. Transcriptome remodeling effect of AEDs was overall confirmed by microarray clustering that clearly separated the profiles of AED treated and untreated flies. Besides being consistent with previously implicated pathways, our results provide evidence for a role of

  12. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. Two new prediction rules for spontaneous pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples, based on the synthesis of three previous models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, C C; Habbema, J D F; Eijkemans, M J C; Collins, J A; Evers, J L H; te Velde, E R

    2004-09-01

    Several models have been published for the prediction of spontaneous pregnancy among subfertile patients. The aim of this study was to broaden the empirical basis for these predictions by making a synthesis of three previously published models. We used the original data from the studies of Eimers et al. (1994), Collins et al. (1995) and Snick et al. (1997) on couples consulting for various forms of subfertility. We developed a so-called three-sample synthesis model for predicting spontaneous conception leading to live birth within 1 year after intake based on the three data sets. The predictors used are duration of subfertility, women's age, primary or secondary infertility, percentage of motile sperm, and whether the couple was referred by a general practitioner or by a gynaecologist (referral status). The performance of this model was assessed according to a 'jack-knife' analysis. Because the post-coital test (PCT) was not assessed in one of the samples, a synthesis model including the PCT was based on two samples only. The ability of the synthesis models to distinguish between women who became pregnant and those who did not was comparable to the ability of the one-sample models when applied in the other samples. The reliability of the predictions by the three-sample synthesis model was somewhat better. Predictions improved considerably by including the PCT. The synthesis models performed better and had a broader empirical basis than the original models. They are therefore better suitable for application in other centres.

  14. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  15. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  16. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not...

  17. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús

    2003-11-01

    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  18. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00]. CONCLUSIONS: A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  19. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  20. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  1. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  2. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  3. Alemtuzumab as rescue therapy in a cohort of 16 aggressive multiple sclerosis patients previously treated by Mitoxantrone: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Emmanuelle; Deburghgraeve, Véronique; Lester, Marie-Antoinette; Cardiet, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Edan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1-10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26-49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26-35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (± 3) and 8.3 (± 4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2-30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1-7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1-4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave's disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.

  4. A phase I study of imatinib mesylate in combination with chlorambucil in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebb, Jonathan; Assouline, Sarit; Rousseau, Caroline; Desjardins, Pierre; Caplan, Stephen; Egorin, Merrill J; Amrein, Lilian; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence

    2011-09-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, has the potential to indirectly inhibit DNA repair. This mechanism of action has been shown to mediate sensitization to chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate this effect in vivo, we performed a phase I study of chlorambucil combined with imatinib in relapsed CLL patients. The three dose levels studied included imatinib at 300, 400, or 600 mg/day. Imatinib was given on days 1-10, and chlorambucil (8 mg/m(2) daily) was given on days 3-7 of a 28-day cycle (up to 6 cycles). Eleven patients participated in this study. Low-grade gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Forty-five percent of patients responded (two unconfirmed CRs and three PRs). Two responding patients were fludarabine refractory. The in vitro IC(50) of chlorambucil alone or in the presence of 5 μM imatinib in CLL lymphocytes correlated with the decrease in lymphocyte counts on day 15. Imatinib plasma concentrations achieved in patients were in the range of those effective in in vitro sensitization studies. The combination of chlorambucil and imatinib in patients with previously treated CLL was well tolerated and showed evidence of clinical efficacy. Based on our results, we recommend the 400 mg daily dose of imatinib on days 1-10 with 8 mg/m(3) chlorambucil on days 3-7 every 28 days as the phase II dose. This represents the first clinical trial examining the potential synergy between a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a conventional alkylating agent for the treatment of CLL.

  5. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  6. Phase III randomized study of bendamustine compared with chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Wolfgang U; Lissichkov, Toshko; Aldaoud, Ali; Liberati, Anna; Loscertales, Javier; Herbrecht, Raoul; Juliusson, Gunnar; Postner, Gerhard; Gercheva, Liana; Goranov, Stefan; Becker, Martin; Fricke, Hans-Joerg; Huguet, Francoise; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Klein, Peter; Tremmel, Lothar; Merkle, Karlheinz; Montillo, Marco

    2009-09-10

    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients (chlorambucil 0.8 mg/kg (Broca's normal weight) orally on days 1 and 15; treatment cycles were repeated every 4 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The response to treatment was assessed according to National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria, and the final determination of response was made by a blinded independent review committee. A total of 319 patients were randomly assigned (162 bendamustine, 157 chlorambucil). Complete or partial responses were achieved in 110 (68%) of 162 bendamustine-treated and 48 (31%) of 157 chlorambucil-treated patients (P chlorambucil (31% v 2%). Median progression-free survival was 21.6 months with bendamustine and 8.3 months with chlorambucil (P chlorambucil (median, 21.8 v 8.0 months). Hematologic National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more common with bendamustine than with chlorambucil (occurring in 40% v 19% of patients). Severe infections (grade 3 to 4) occurred in 8% of bendamustine-treated patients and 3% of chlorambucil-treated patients. Bendamustine offers significantly greater efficacy than chlorambucil, and a manageable toxicity profile, when used as first-line therapy in patients with advanced CLL.

  7. Integrating Sonography Training Into Undergraduate Medical Education: A Study of the Previous Exposure of One Institution's Incoming Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Davis, Joshua; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Heil, Daniel; Berg, Katherine; Davis, Robyn; Berg, Dale

    2015-07-01

    Sonography is a crucial and versatile tool within the field of medicine. Recent advancements in technology have led to increased use of point-of-care sonography. We designed a survey to assess prior point-of-care sonography training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed incoming interns (n = 154 and 145, respectively) regarding point-of-care sonography training received during medical school. The survey questions included formal didactic sessions, bedside instruction, and the use of simulation technology. One-fourth (26.3% in 2012 and 23.4% in 2013) of responding interns reported having never done an ultrasound scan at the bedside. In 2012 and 2013, 55.0% and 55.6% of respondents reported never having done an ultrasound scan in a simulation center, respectively. Interns agreed that sonography education should be provided during medical school. On average, interns disagreed with the statement that sonography should be taught in residency only. There was no significant difference in the sex or general previous experience with sonography across both intern classes. Point-of-care sonography is inconsistently taught in medical school. The interns in our study also thought that sonography education should begin in medical school, and sonography should be taught by using simulation and at the bedside. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  9. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  10. Missing osteoconductive effect of a resorbable PEO/PBT copolymer in human bone defects: a clinically relevant pilot study with contrary results to previous animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, M; Wilke, A; Griss, P; Kienapfel, H

    2000-01-01

    PEO/PBT 70/30 (POLYACTIVE(R) 70/30), a degradable porous copolymer with elastic properties, was found to be osteoconductive in many animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoconductive effect in a human paired control iliac defect model. In seven patients undergoing anterior spinal interbody fusion surgery, two bicortical iliac defects for autograft harvesting were created. The defect size was identical for both defects measuring about 40 x 15 mm (group I). One defect was filled with the degradable implants, whereas the remaining one was left untreated as a control. The defect site for treatment was chosen randomly. In three further patients, only one defect measuring about 40 x 35 mm was created (group II). All patients were examined clinically and radiologically by spiral-CT after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. Three-dimensional reconstructions as well as CT-volumetric measurements using 1 mm sections were used as evaluation methods. In group I, a two-tailed paired t-test showed that the treated defects had significantly less formation of new bone than the untreated ones (p < 0.05 after 12 weeks, p < 0.01 after 52 weeks). Also, in group II, not much bone ingrowth could be observed. The histological evaluation of one patient in group I revealed no bone within the pores, and a fibrous layer between bone and implant was always present. Therefore, PEO/PBT 70/30 cannot be recommended as a bone substitute for clinical use. Differences in bone regeneration between humans and certain animal species as well as inapplicable defect models in previous animal studies are discussed as possible reasons for the failure.

  11. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  12. A cross-sectional study of personality traits in women previously treated or untreated for alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundh Valter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to

  13. Central Arctic atmospheric summer conditions during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS: contrasting to previous expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tjernström

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as that described in this paper: the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as some key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean, the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of

  14. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

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    Festa Anna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2 study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7% among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures.

  15. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  16. Discussion on further studies to measure and evaluate fitness and motor performance for preschool children; summary and previous studies in Japan and future consideratin

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Tomohiko; Demura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses and summarizes previous studies dealing with fitness and motor performance in preschool children from the viewpoint of measurement and evaluation, and determines topics for further studies. The studies reviewed in this article were mainly published in the “Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences” (edited by the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences), and the “Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine” (edite...

  17. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shaji; Flinn, Ian; Richardson, Paul G; Hari, Parameswaran; Callander, Natalie; Noga, Stephen J; Stewart, A Keith; Turturro, Francesco; Rifkin, Robert; Wolf, Jeffrey; Estevam, Jose; Mulligan, George; Shi, Hongliang; Webb, Iain J; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2012-05-10

    Combinations of bortezomib (V) and dexamethasone (D) with either lenalidomide (R) or cyclophosphamide (C) have shown significant efficacy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated VDC, VDR, and VDCR in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM). Patients received V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11) and D 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15), with either C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8) and R 15 mg (days 1-14; VDCR), R 25 mg (days 1-14; VDR), C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8; VDC) or C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15; VDC-mod) in 3-week cycles (maximum 8 cycles), followed by maintenance with V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15, 22) for four 6-week cycles (all arms)≥very good partial response was seen in 58%, 51%, 41%, and 53% (complete response rate of 25%, 24%, 22%, and 47%) of patients (VDCR, VDR, VCD, and VCD-mod, respectively); the corresponding 1-year progression-free survival was 86%, 83%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Common adverse events included hematologic toxicities, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, and gastrointestinal disturbances. All regimens were highly active and well tolerated in previously untreated MM, and, based on this trial, VDR and VCD-mod are preferred for clinical practice and further comparative testing. No substantial advantage was noted with VDCR over the 3-drug combinations. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00507442).

  18. Patient acceptance and clinical impact of Bravo monitoring in patients with previous failed catheter-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, R; Fox, M; Anggiansah, R; Anggiansah, A; Basavaraju, K; Canavan, R; Wong, T

    2009-03-15

    Standard pH monitoring is performed over 24 h with a naso-oesophageal catheter (C-pH). Limitations include naso-pharyngeal discomfort, nausea and social embarrassment resulting in reduced reflux-provoking activities. Recently a catheter-free pH-monitoring technique has become available. The tolerability and diagnostic yield of this system in patients who failed standard monitoring remain unknown. To examine the tolerability and diagnostic outcome of catheter-free pH-monitoring technique in patients who failed standard monitoring. Patients referred for C-pH and catheter-free pH monitoring completed a tolerability questionnaire. Acid exposure in the distal oesophagus and symptom index (SI) were reviewed. Over 4 years, 883/1751 (50%) of patients with typical reflux symptoms referred for C-pH were diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on a pathological percentage time acid exposure (%time pH patients failed C-pH and, of these, 129 successfully completed 2-day catheter-free pH monitoring. Ninety-eight (76%) of these patients had a pathological percentage pH patients (P patients who had previously failed C-pH; catheter-free pH monitoring assists the definitive diagnosis of GERD in this group.

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  20. Marine fouling community in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt compared with four decades of previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH.E. RAMADAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the fouling communities between the years 1960 and 1999 in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt and to study the main factors that may be controlling these communities. This comparison is based on monthly durations of panel immersion. By using roughened white polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the harbour from October 1998 through September 1999. It is clear that a remarkable variation in number and diversity of fouling communities throughout the last four decades is evident. The minimum diversities were recorded during the studies of 1960 and 1970 (19 and 20 species respectively, while the maximum diversity (35 species was achieved during the 1991 study. Moreover, a small shift among the four dominant groups (Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Bryozoa and Amphipoda was noted during the four decades of the studies. The present comparison indicated that many factors may contribute to this variation, of which nutrient enrichment is the most important and the nature of the applied test panel is lees so.

  1. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  2. Treatment response for acute depression is not associated with number of previous episodes: lack of evidence for a clinical staging model for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Michael; Kelin, Katarina; Mancini, Michele; Schacht, Alexander

    2013-09-05

    Mental illness has been observed to follow a neuroprogressive course, commencing with prodrome, then onset, recurrence and finally chronic illness. In bipolar disorder and schizophrenia responsiveness to treatment mirrors these stages of illness progression, with greater response to treatment in the earlier stages of illness and greater treatment resistance in chronic late stage illness. Using data from 5627 participants in 15 controlled trials of duloxetine, comparator arm (paroxetine, venlafaxine, escitalopram) or placebo for the treatment of an acute depressive episode, the relationship between treatment response and number of previous depressive episodes was determined. Data was dichotomised for comparisons between participants who had >3 previous episodes (n=1697) or ≤3 previous episodes (n=3930), and additionally for no previous episodes (n=1381) or at least one previous episode (n=4246). Analyses were conducted by study arm for each clinical trial, and results were then pooled. There was no significant difference between treatment response and number of previous depressive episodes. This unexpected finding suggests that treatments to reduce symptoms of depression during acute illness do not lose efficacy for patients with a longer history of illness.

  3. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas.

  4. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  5. Warfarin dosing after bariatric surgery: a retrospective study of 10 patients previously stable on chronic warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullo-Feulner, A M; Stoecker, Z; Brown, G A; Schneider, J; Jones, T A; Burnett, B

    2014-04-01

    Many changes associated with bariatric surgery have the potential to affect warfarin dosing; yet current literature includes little data describing this phenomenon. Investigating this relationship may allow for determination of post-bariatric surgery warfarin dosing using stable pre-operative dosing levels. A retrospective chart review was completed for 10 patients stabilized on chronic warfarin therapy who underwent bariatric surgery. Data collection consisted of the following: warfarin requirement in mg/week, time in target range (TTR), creatinine, liver function, diarrhoea, medication changes, diet, and signs of bleeding and/or thrombosis. Three study patients underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures and seven patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The average (standard deviation) weekly warfarin dose required in the immediate post-operative interval was 64% (25%) of baseline dosing, corresponding to a TTR of 48%. At 6 months, patients required 85% (19%) of baseline weekly dosing, with TTR of 53.4%. At 1 year, dosing was 90% (16%) of baseline with TTR of 63.5%. Patients underwent medication changes as well as transient bouts of diarrhoea. Two patients suffered unspecified haemorrhages of the gastrointestinal tract (international normalized ratio [INR] = 2.3 and 9.8). This patient set demonstrated an initial drop in warfarin requirement, followed by escalating dosing trends that became more predictable as patients were farther out from procedure.

  6. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  7. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J

    2017-02-01

    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.

  8. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  9. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi21Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods: Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77 years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0 and the response rate (complete response and partial response was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment

  11. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  12. Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Andreas; Bretschneider, Kristin; Lautenschläger, Christine; Stang, Andreas; Herrmann, Markus; Haerting, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to p...

  13. Continous controversy about radiation oncologists' choice of treatment regimens for bone metatases: should we blame doctors, canser-related features, or design of previous clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nieder, Carsten; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies from Italy, Japan and Norway have confirmed previous reports, which found that a large variety of palliative radiotherapy regimens are used for painful bone metastases. Routine use of single fraction treatment might or might not be the preferred institutional approach. It is not entirely clear why inter-physician and inter-institution differences continue to persist despite numerous randomized trials, meta-analyses and guidelines, which recommend against more costly and inconve...

  14. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  15. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  16. Risk for High Depressive Symptoms in Diagnosed and Previously Undetected Diabetes: 5-Year Follow-Up Results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icks, Andrea; Albers, Bernd; Haastert, Burkhard; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pundt, Noreen; Slomiany, Uta; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kruse, Johannes; Kulzer, Bernd; Nowotny, Bettina; Herder, Christian; Giani, Guido; Moebus, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. Methods We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD) 59.1 (7.6) years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes) from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. Result Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI) of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2–10.9), 4.1 (1.8–8.0), and 6.5 (5.6–7.4), respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74–2.03) in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59–1.68) after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35–1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30–1.30. Conclusion We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  17. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  18. The impact of previous para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the localization of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; de Meneses e Silva, João Marcos; de Moura Torres-de-Melo, José Ricardo; Pinheiro, Karine Bessa Porto; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper discusses the influence of a para-areolar incision in the upper outer quadrant of the breast on the location of the sentinel lymph node in a canine model. METHODS: The sentinel lymph node was marked with technetium-99, which was injected into the subareolar skin of the cranial breast. After the marker had migrated to the axilla, an arcuate para-areolar incision was performed 2 cm from the nipple in the upper outer quadrant. Patent blue dye was then injected above the upper border of the incision. At the marked site, an axillary incision was made, and the sentinel lymph node was identified by gamma probe and/or by direct visualization of the dye. The agreement between the two injection sites and the two sentinel lymph node identification methods was determined. Our sample group consisted of 40 cranial breasts of 23 adult females of the species Canis familiaris. The data were analyzed by using the McNemar test and by determining the kappa agreement coefficient. RESULT: Our findings showed that in 95% of the breasts, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of technetium-99 m into the subareolar region, and in 82% of the cases, the sentinel lymph node was identified by the injection of patent blue dye above the upper border of the incision. The methods agreed 82% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: Previous para-areolar incisions in the upper outer quadrant did not interfere significantly with the biopsy when the dye was injected above the upper border of the incision. PMID:21915493

  19. Bispectrum speckle interferometry observations and radiative transfer modelling of the red supergiant NML Cyg. Multiple dust-shell structures evidencing previous superwind phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcker, T.; Balega, Y.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G.

    2001-04-01

    NML Cyg is a highly evolved OH/IR supergiant, one of the most prominent infrared objects due to its strong obscuration by dust, and supposed to be among the most luminous supergiants in the galaxy. We present the first diffraction-limited 2.13 mu m observations of NML Cyg with 73 mas resolution. The speckle interferograms were obtained with the 6 m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory, and the image reconstruction is based on the bispectrum speckle-interferometry method. The visibility function declines towards the diffraction limit to ~ 0.6. Radiative transfer calculations have been carried out to model the spectral energy distribution, given by ground-based photometry and ISO spectroscopy, and our 2.13 mu m visibility function. Additionally, mid-infrared visibility functions at 11 mu m were considered. The observed dust shell properties do not appear to be in accordance with standard single-shell (uniform outflow) models but seem to require multiple components. Considering previous periods of enhanced mass-loss, various density enhancements in the dust shell were taken into account. An extensive grid of models was calculated for different locations and strenghts of such superwind regions in the dust shell. To match the observations from the optical to the sub-mm domain requires at least two superwind regions embedded in the shell. The best model includes a dust shell with a temperature of 1000 K at its inner radius of 6.2 R*, a close embedded superwind shell extending from 15.5 R* to 21.7 R* with an amplitude (factor of density enhancement) of 10, and a far-out density enhancement at 186 R* with an amplitude of 5. The angular diameters of the central star and of the inner rim of the dust shell amount to 16.2 mas and 105 mas, resp. The diameter of the embedded close superwind region extends from 263 mas to 368 mas, and the inner boundary of the distant superwind region has a diameter of 3\\farcs 15. In the near-infrared the dust condensation zone is

  20. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  1. Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Dexamethasone (RCD) regimen induces cure in WSU-WM xenograft model and a partial remission in previously treated Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ramzi M; Aboukameel, Amro; Nabha, Sanaa; Ibrahim, Dina; Al-Katib, Ayad

    2002-08-01

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disease which remains incurable with current treatment protocols. We have previously established a permanent WM cell line, WSU-WM, which grows as a xenograft in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of Rituximab (RTX), Cyclophosphamide (CTX), Dexamethasone (DEX) [RCD]-Regimen in vivo WSU-WM SCID xenograft and in a patient with WM. For the pre-clinical efficacy study, WSU-WM-bearing SCID mice were randomly assigned to receive RTX (150 mg/kg/inj, i.v., QDX5), CTX (90 mg/kg/inj, s.c. QDX5) as single agents or diluent. The combination group received RTX at 150 mg/kg/inj, QDX5; CTX at 150 mg/kg/inj, QODX3 and DEX at 1.0 mg/kg/inj, i.v., QDX5. Tumor growth inhibition (T/C), tumor growth delay (T - C), and log10 kill (net) for RTX and CTX were 24.5%, 37 days, 5.52 and 88%, 0.0 days, 0.0log10 kill, respectively. No cures were observed with either agent; however, all mice (6/6, with bilateral tumors) were cured when treated with RCD-regimen. A 57-year-old patient with relapsed WM was treated with the RCD-regimen and showed an excellent partial remission for seven months. The patient tolerated the treatment very well, the hemoglobin improved dramatically, platelets remained stable, the IgM level normalized and there was only minimal involvement of bone marrow. Based on these results, the RCD regimen is effective against WM and its activity should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  2. Histones and nucleosomes in Cancer sperm (Decapod: Crustacea) previously described as lacking basic DNA-associated proteins: a new model of sperm chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Kathryn; Martínez-Soler, Fina; Ausió, Juan; Chiva, Manel

    2008-10-01

    To date several studies have been carried out which indicate that DNA of crustacean sperm is neither bound nor organized by basic proteins and, contrary to the rest of spermatozoa, do not contain highly packaged chromatin. Since this is the only known case of this type among metazoan cells, we have re-examined the composition, and partially the structure, of the mature sperm chromatin of Cancer pagurus, which has previously been described as lacking basic DNA-associated proteins. The results we present here show that: (a) sperm DNA of C. pagurus is bound by histones forming nucleosomes of 170 base pairs, (b) the ratio [histones/DNA] in sperm of two Cancer species is 0.5 and 0.6 (w/w). This ratio is quite lower than the proportion [proteins/DNA] that we found in other sperm nuclei with histones or protamines, whose value is from 1.0 to 1.2 (w/w), (c) histone H4 is highly acetylated in mature sperm chromatin of C. pagurus. Other histones (H3 and H2B) are also acetylated, though the level is much lower than that of histone H4. The low ratio of histones to DNA, along with the high level of acetylation of these proteins, explains the non-compact, decondensed state of the peculiar chromatin in the sperm studied here. In the final section we offer an explanation for the necessity of such decondensed chromatin during gamete fertilization of this species. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  5. Myocardial adaptation to high-intensity (interval) training in previously untrained men with a longitudinal cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study (Running Study and Heart Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate whether short-term high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) induces detectable morphological cardiac changes in previously untrained men in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Eighty-four untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T group (n=42; 44.1±4.7 years) or an inactive control group (n=42; 42.3±5.6 years). HI(I)T focused on interval runs (intensity: 95%-105% of individually calculated heart rate at the anaerobic threshold). Before and after 16 weeks, all subjects underwent physiological examination, stepwise treadmill test with blood lactate analysis, and contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cine, tagging, and delayed enhancement). Indexed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV, 77.1±8.5-83.9±8.6; RV, 80.5±8.5-86.6±8.1) and mass (LV, 58.2±6.4-63.4±8.1; RV, 14.8±1.7-16.1±2.1) significantly increased with HI(I)T. Changes in LV and RV morphological parameters with HI(I)T were highly correlated with an increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a decrease in blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold. Mean LV and RV remodeling index of HI(I)T group did not alter with training (0.76 ±0.09 and 0.24±0.10 g/mL, respectively [P=0.97 and P=0.72]), indicating balanced cardiac adaptation. Myocardial circumferential strain decreased after HI(I)T within all 6 basal segments (anteroseptal, P=0.01 and anterolateral, PHeart Association, Inc.

  6. Biomechanical jumping differences among elite female handball players with and without previous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a novel inertial sensor unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; Millor, Nora; González-Izal, Miriam; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Gómez, Marisol; Alfaro-Adrián, Jesús; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-09-01

    Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations have been observed among female athletes who have sustained anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if biomechanical jumping differences persist among a cohort of elite female handball players with previous ACL reconstruction several years after return to top-level competition. In order to achieve this goal, a direct mechanics simplified analysis by using a single Inertial Sensor Unit (IU) was used. Twenty-one elite female (6 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) handball players were recruited and evaluated 6.0 ± 3.5 years after surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps were performed to evaluate the functional performance and a single inertial sensor unit was employed in order to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data. Previously ACL-reconstructed analysed athletes demonstrated significant (p reconstruction. Identification of the encountered deficits through the use of an IU devise could provide clinicians with a new reliable tool for movement analysis in a clinical setting.

  7. Global history of the ancient monocot family Araceae inferred with models accounting for past continental positions and previous ranges based on fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauheimer, Lars; Metzler, Dirk; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-09-01

    The family Araceae (3790 species, 117 genera) has one of the oldest fossil records among angiosperms. Ecologically, members of this family range from free-floating aquatics (Pistia and Lemna) to tropical epiphytes. Here, we infer some of the macroevolutionary processes that have led to the worldwide range of this family and test how the inclusion of fossil (formerly occupied) geographical ranges affects biogeographical reconstructions. Using a complete genus-level phylogeny from plastid sequences and outgroups representing the 13 other Alismatales families, we estimate divergence times by applying different clock models and reconstruct range shifts under different models of past continental connectivity, with or without the incorporation of fossil locations. Araceae began to diversify in the Early Cretaceous (when the breakup of Pangea was in its final stages), and all eight subfamilies existed before the K/T boundary. Early lineages persist in Laurasia, with several relatively recent entries into Africa, South America, South-East Asia and Australia. Water-associated habitats appear to be ancestral in the family, and DNA substitution rates are especially high in free-floating Araceae. Past distributions inferred when fossils are included differ in nontrivial ways from those without fossils. Our complete genus-level time-scale for the Araceae may prove to be useful for ecological and physiological studies.

  8. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  9. Study on the Properties of TiN Coatings on Previously Ion-Implanted Pure Magnesium Surface by MEVVA Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; WANG Jian-ping

    2007-01-01

    A metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used in ion implantation for substrate preparation before the deposition process which would ensure the improvement of mechanical properties of the coating.Ti ion is implanted into pure magnesium surface by MEVVA implanter operated with a modified cathode.Implanting energy is kept at 45 keV and dose is set at 3×1017 cm-2.TiN coatings are deposited by magnetically filtered vacuum-arc plasma source on unimplanted and previously implanted substrates.Microstructure and phase composition are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The property of corrosion resistance of TiN coatings was studied by CS300P electrochemistry-corrosion workstation,and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analyzed.

  10. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl;

    2008-01-01

    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median.......3-7.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: Three-day topotecan with cisplatin on day 3 is active and safe in extensive disease SCLC. An ongoing phase III randomized trial compares this combination to standard treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  12. Clinical evaluation of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section: A retrospective study on 43 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Manru; Xie, Lan

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in cesarean section surgery for the patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section. The patients who had placenta previa and underwent cesarean section (CS) were evaluated. The patients treated with CS to terminate the pregnancy were used as control group (23 cases); the patients treated with the preset abdominal aorta balloon before CS was taken as study group (20 cases). The investigated indicators included the intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of red cell suspension (RCS), hospital stay, incidence rate of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), the asphyxia, premature delivery and the mortality of the newborns. The two groups are comparable. The intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of RCS and the percentage of uterus resection in the study group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. The percentage of uterine cavity filling with ribbon gauze in the study group was higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The balloon occlusion of lower abdominal aorta seems effective in reducing postpartum hemorrhage and the blood transfusion and decreasing the risk of hysterectomy without harming the newborns. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  14. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2016-05-01

    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing.

  15. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S; Cunningham, D; Hawkins, R E; Hill, M E; Smith, D; Daniel, F; Ross, P J; Oates, J; Norman, A R

    2005-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU (ECF) improves overall survival (OS) compared to 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) in patients with previously untreated advanced biliary cancer in a prospective randomised study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU ECF or bolus 5FU etoposide and leucovorin (FELV). The primary end point was OS with secondary end points of objective response rate (ORR), failure-free survival (FFS), quality of life (QOL) and toxicity. In all, 54 patients were recruited with 27 randomly assigned to each arm. The median OS for ECF was 9.02 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.46-11.51) and FELV 12.03 months (95% CI: 9.3-14.7), P=0.2059. Objective response rates were similar for both arms: ECF 19.2% (95% CI: 6.55-39.3); FELV 15% (95% CI: 3.2-37.9), P=0.72. There was significantly increased grade 3/4 neutropenia with FELV vs ECF (53.8 vs 29.5%, respectively, P=0.020). Symptom resolution was impressive for both regimens. This is the largest reported randomised study to date in this setting. ECF did not improve OS compared to FELV, but was associated with less acute toxicity. These data suggest that chemotherapy can prolong OS and achieve good symptomatic relief in advanced biliary cancer.

  16. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malindu Eranga Fernando

    Full Text Available AIMS: Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. METHODS: Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP and pressure time integral (PTI were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310. RESULTS: Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303-1.221, p = 0.001, respectively. Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181- 0.753, p = 0.001. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic

  17. The influence of previous infections and antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity on functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients: results from the IN2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Domenico; Vidale, Simone; Aguglia, Umberto; Bassi, Pietro; Cavallini, Anna; Consoli, Arturo; Galati, Franco; Guidetti, Donata; Micieli, Giuseppe; Neri, Giuseppe; Rasura, Maurizia; Sterzi, Roberto; Toni, Danilo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Although a growing attention is being paid to acute ischemic stroke patients, the correlation between clinical outcome and infectious events in this population has been poorly investigated. 749 ischemic stroke (mean age 71 years old, males 56%) patients were enrolled in this prospective case-control study by 11 Italian Stroke Units. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, previous infections and post-stroke infections (PSIs) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and the enzyme-linked immunoassay was chosen to measure Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgA plasma antibodies (antibody titers were classified with specific cut-off levels: IgA > 1:16 and IgG > 1:64). Early poor outcome was defined as mRS score >2 at discharge, while poor outcome at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median NIHSS was 7, IgA and IgG antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivities were observed in 308 (37.1%) and 207 (23.6%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed significant correlations between PSIs and NIHSS (RR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.09; p < 0.001) and PSIs and IgA antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity (RR: 3.84; 95% CI 2.53-5.84; p < 0.001). Significant disability was associated with baseline NIHSS (RR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.16-1.50; p < 0.001), IgA (RR: 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; p = 0.035) and IgG antichlamydia (RR: 5.75; 95% CI 1.83-18.03; p = 0.003) seropositivity and atrial fibrillation (RR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.81-3.67; p < 0.001). While previous infections were not associated with functional outcome, antichlamydia antibodies play a negative role in ischemic stroke patients. Preventive strategies may reduce the stroke burden and improve the clinical outcome.

  18. A Retrospective Case-Control Study Evaluating the Role of Mifepristone for Induction of Labor in Women with Previous Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Soni, Pawan K; Verma, Suresh; Verma, Ashok; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the role of "mifepristone" for induction of labor (IOL) in pregnant women with prior cesarean section (CS). In this retrospective study, all pregnant women with prior CS who received oral mifepristone (400 mg) for IOL (as per clear obstetric indications) [group 1] were compared with pregnant women with prior CS who had spontaneous onset of labor (SOL) [group 2], with respect to incidence of vaginal delivery, CS, duration of labor, and various maternal and fetal outcomes. During the study period, 72 women received mifepristone (group 1) for IOL and 346 had SOL (group 2). In group 1 after mifepristone administration, 40 (55.6 %) women had labor onset, and 24 (33.3 %) women had cervical ripening (Bishop Score ≥ 8) within 48 h. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to duration of labor (p value: 0.681), mode of delivery (i.e., normal delivery or CS-p value: 0.076 or 0.120, respectively), or maternal (blood loss or scar dehiscence/rupture uterus), or fetal outcomes (NICU admission) compared to women with previous CS with SOL (group 2). However, the need of oxytocin (p value 0.020) and dose of oxytocin requirement (p value 0.008) were more statistically significant in group 1. Mifepristone may be considered as an agent for IOL in women with prior CS.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  20. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Podzamczer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods: Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index, quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV, adherence (SMAQ, preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR through 48 weeks were performed. Results: Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80% were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4% had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6% patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF and 33 (26.4% from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%, CNS adverse events (40.8%, gastrointestinal (19.2% and metabolic disorders (19.2%. At the time of this analysis (week 16, four patients (3.2% discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2% were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL. The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55 to week 4 (10.89±12.36 & week 16 (10.81±12.62, p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1. Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ from

  1. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreinemachers Dina M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher level of spring wheat farming than in counties with lower levels of this crop. Spring wheat, one of the major field crops in these four states, was treated for 85% or more of its acreage with chlorophenoxy herbicides. In the current study NHANES III data were reviewed for associations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D exposure, one of the most frequently used chlorophenoxy herbicides, with risk factors that are linked to the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods To investigate the toxicity pattern of chlorophenoxy herbicides, effects of a previous 2,4-D exposure were assessed by comparing levels of lipids, glucose metabolism, and thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy adult NHANES III subjects with urinary 2,4-D above and below the level of detection, using linear regression analysis. The analyses were conducted for all available subjects and for two susceptible subpopulations characterized by high glycosylated hemoglobin (upper 50th percentile and low thyroxine (lower 50th percentile. Results Presence of urinary 2,4-D was associated with a decrease of HDL levels: 8.6% in the unadjusted data (p-value = 0.006, 4.8% in the adjusted data (p-value = 0.08, and 9% in the adjusted data for the susceptible subpopulation with low thyroxine (p-value = 0.02. An effect modification of the inverse triglycerides-HDL relation was observed in association with 2,4-D. Among subjects with low HDL, urinary 2,4-D was associated with increased levels of triglycerides, insulin, C-peptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone, especially in the susceptible subpopulations. In contrast, subjects with

  2. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidoli Ettore

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. Methods From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216. Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294, in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Results Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44 occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005. Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically

  3. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  4. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  5. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on nocturia and quality of life in men with hypogonadism: a subanalysis of a previous prospective randomized controlled study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nocturia and general health among men with hypogonadism and nocturia. From our previous EARTH study population, 64 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nocturia (two or more times per one night) and hypogonadism, comprising the TRT group (n = 31) and controls (n = 33), were included in this analysis. The TRT group was administered 250 mg of testosterone enanthate as an intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 6 months. All patients responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and Short Form-36 health survey at baseline and 6-month visit. These categories were compared based on changes from baseline to the 6-month visit between TRT and control groups. At the 6-month visit, the TRT group had a significant decrease in IPSS question no. 7 and AMS question no. 4, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Additionally, role limitation because of health program, vitality and mental health domains were significantly improved in the TRT group. Six-month TRT may improve nocturia, sleep conditions and quality of life among men with hypogonadism and nocturia.

  6. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibers Marcus JH

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group, health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1, and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2. Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A

  7. FOXL2 gene mutations and blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES): a novel mutation detected in a Chinese family and a statistic model for summarizing previous reported records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Lei, Huo; Dong, Hong; Zhang, Liping; Qin, Qionglian; Gao, Jianmei; Zou, Yunlian; Yan, Xinmin

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies found that the forkhead transcription factor 2 (FOXL2) gene mutations are responsible for both types of blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) but have not established any systematic statistic model for the complex and even contradictory results about genotype-phenotype correlations between them. This study is aimed to find possible mutations of FOXL2 gene in a Chinese family with type II BPES by using DNA sequencing and to further clarify genotype-phenotype correlations between FOXL2 mutations and BPES by using a systematic statistical method, namely Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR). A novel mutation (g.933_965dup) which could result in an expansion of the polyalanine (polyAla) tract was detected in all patients of this family. MDR analysis for intragenic mutations of FOXL2 gene reported in previous BPES studies indicated that the mutations which led to much stronger disturbance of amino acid sequence were responsible for more type I BPES, while other kinds of mutation were responsible for more type II BPES. In conclusion, the present study found a novel FOXL2 gene mutation in a Chinese BPES family and a new general genotype-phenotype correlation tendency between FOXL2 intragenic mutations and BPES, both of which expanded the knowledge about FOXL2 gene and BPES.

  8. A comparison of the updated very high resolution model RegCM3_10km with the previous version RegCM3_25km over the complex terrain of Greece: present and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The ability of a fine resolution regional climate model (10 × 10 km) in simulating efficiently the climate characteristics (temperature, precipitation, and wind) over Greece, in comparison to the previous version of the model with a 25 × 25 km resolution, is examined and analyzed in the present study. Overall, the results showed that the finer resolution model presented a better skill in generating low winter temperatures at high altitudinal areas, the temperature difference between the islands and the surrounding sea, high rainfall totals over the mountainous areas, the thermal storms during summer, and the wind maxima over the Aegean Sea. Regarding the future projections, even though the two models agree on the climatic signal, differences are found mainly to the magnitude of change of the selected parameters. Finally, it was found that at higher pressure levels, the present day projections of the two models do not show significant differences since the topography and terrain does not play such an important role as the general atmospheric circulation.

  9. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  10. Distribution of interferon lambda-3 gene polymorphisms in Australian patients with previously untreated genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: Analysis from the PREDICT and CHARIOT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stuart K; Mitchell, Joanne; Leung, Reynold; Booth, David; Bollipo, Steven; Ostapowicz, George; Sloss, Andrew; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Dore, Gregory J; Thompson, Alexander; Crawford, Darrell Hg; Sievert, William; Weltman, Martin; Cheng, Wendy; George, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of interferon lambda-3 (IFN-λ3) gene polymorphisms in previously untreated Australian patients with genotype 1 (Gt1) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and to compare the IFN-λ3 genotype frequency among the different ethnic populations. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study undertaken by the Australian Liver Association Clinical Research Network. Eligible subjects had Gt1 CHC and were being considered for and/or undergoing treatment. IFN-λ3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by the Applied Biosystems's Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay. Between May 2012 and June 2012, 1132 patients were recruited from 38 treatment clinics across Australia. Also, 561 subjects from the CHARIOT (collaborative group hepatitis C study using high dose Pegasys RBV Induction dose in genotype one) study of high-dose interferon who had baseline serum available were retrospectively tested. The overall frequency of IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC/CT/TT genotypes was 36%, 52%, and 12%, and that of rs8099917 TT/TG/GG genotypes was 54%, 41%, and 5%, respectively. The prevalence of the favorable IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC and rs8099917 TT genotypes in Causcasians, Asians, Aboriginals, Maori/Pacific Islanders, and Mediterraneans was 32% and 52%, 80% and 86%, 33% and 63%, 77% and 88%, and 19% and 29%, respectively. Compared with Caucasians, the frequency of IFN-λ3 CC was significantly higher among Asians (P < 0.0001) and Maori/Pacific Islander subjects (P < 0.0001). The distribution of IFN-λ3 polymorphisms among untreated patients with Gt1 CHC in Australia appears similar to that reported from North America. The frequency of the favorable response alleles varies considerably according to ethnicity, being more common in self-reported Asians and Maori/Pacific Islanders than Caucasians, Aboriginals, and Mediterraneans. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty

  11. The influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; a longitudinal observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flendrie, M.; Creemers, M.C.W.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare it to infliximab in combination with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. METHODS: RA patients starting infliximab the

  12. Erlotinib dosing-to-rash: A phase II intrapatient dose escalation and pharmacologic study of erlotinib in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. mita (Alain); K. Papadopoulos (K.); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); G. Schwartz (G.); J. Verweij (Jaap); A. Ricart (A.); Q.S.C. Chu (Q. S C); A.W. Tolcher (A. W.); L. Wood (Lori); S.W. McCarthy (Stanley); M. Hamilton; K.K. Iwata (Kenneth); B. Wacker; K. de Witte (Karel); E.K. Rowinsky (Eric Keith)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To evaluate the anticancer activity of erlotinib in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose dose is increased to that associated with a maximal level of tolerable skin toxicity (i.e., target rash (TR)); to characterise the pharmacok

  13. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  14. Impact of previous percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting revascularization on outcomes after surgical revascularization : insights from the imagine study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chocron, Sidney; Baillot, Richard; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; Warnica, Wayne J.; Block, Pierre; Johnstone, David; Myers, Martin G.; Calciu, Cristina Dana; Nozza, Anna; Martineau, Pierre; van Gilst, Wiek H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To determine the impact of previous coronary artery revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting (PCI) on outcome after subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results The ischaemia management with Accupril post-bypass Graft via Inhib

  15. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A

    2006-08-01

    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  16. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  17. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  18. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Ghinai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  19. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  20. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    % confidence intervals): 1.32 (1.24-1.40), glibenclamide: 1.19 (1.11-1.28), glipizide: 1.27 (1.17-1.38), and tolbutamide: 1.28 (1.17-1.39) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients without previous MI. The corresponding results for patients with previous MI were as follows: glimepiride: 1.......30 (1.11-1.44), glibenclamide: 1.47 (1.22-1.76), glipizide: 1.53 (1.23-1.89), and tolbutamide: 1.47 (1.17-1.84). Results for gliclazide [1.05 (0.94-1.16) and 0.90 (0.68-1.20)] and repaglinide and [0.97 (0.81-1.15) and 1.29 (0.86-1.94)] were not statistically different from metformin in both patients...... without and with previous MI, respectively. Results were similar for cardiovascular mortality and for the composite endpoint. Conclusion Monotherapy with the most used ISs, including glimepiride, glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide, seems to be associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in women who suffered from early-onset preeclampsia including HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy (the PreCare study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wit-Zuurendonk Laura D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome may have serious consequences for both mother and fetus. Women who have suffered from preeclampsia or the HELLP syndrome, have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy. However, most women will develop no or only minor complications. In this study, we intend to determine cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in pregnant women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Methods/design We developed a prediction model to estimate the individual risk of recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. In a before-after study, pregnant women with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy receiving care as usual (before introduction of the prediction model will be compared with women receiving recurrence risk guided care (after introduction of the prediction model. Eligible and pregnant women will be recruited at six university hospitals and seven large non-university tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is the recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in women allocated to the regular monitoring group. For the economic evaluation, a modelling approach will be used. Costs and effects of recurrence risk guided care with those of care as usual will be compared by means of a decision model. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated: 1 cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (mother unit of analysis and 2 cost per live born child (child unit of analysis. Discussion This is, to our knowledge, the first study that evaluates prospectively the efficacy of a multivariable prediction rule for recurrent hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Results of this study could either be integrated into the current guideline on Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy, or be used to develop a new guideline.

  2. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  3. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  4. Update of the pompe disease mutation database with 60 novel GAA sequence variants and additional studies on the functional effect of 34 previously reported variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Marian; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Michelakakis, Helen; Pomponio, Robert; Van der Ploeg, Ans; Halley, Dicky; Reuser, Arnold

    2012-08-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal glycogen storage disorder, characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (EC; 3.2.1.20/3) can be caused by numerous pathogenic variants in the GAA gene. The Pompe Disease Mutation Database at http://www.pompecenter.nl aims to list all variants and their effect. This update reports on 94 variants. We examined 35 novel and 34 known mutations by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in COS-7 cells or HEK293T cells. Each of these mutations was given a severity rating using a previously published system, based on the level of acid α-glucosidase activity in medium and transfected cells and on the quantity and quality of the different molecular mass species in the posttranslational modification and transport of acid α-glucosidase. This approach enabled to classify 55 missense mutations as pathogenic and 13 as likely nonpathogenic. Based on their nature and the use of in silico analysis (Alamut® software), 12 of the additional 25 novel mutations were predicted to be pathogenic including 4 splicing mutations, 6 mutations leading to frameshift, and 2 point mutations causing stop codons. Seven of the additional mutations were considered nonpathogenic (4 silent and 3 occurring in intron regions), and 6 are still under investigation.

  5. No Previous Public Services Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  6. Providing Visions of a Different Life: Self-study Narrative Inquiry as an Instrument for Seeing Ourselves in Previously-Unimagined Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Shields

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we share stories of coming to narrative self-study research in graduate studies, and the impact this choice has had on personal and professional directions in ways we could not have imagined when graduate studies were initially embarked upon. Central to self-study narrative inquiry is a focus on life experience as a tool for connection with our own storied pasts. There we find the roots of our present-day perspectives and actions that we can incorporate into our everyday meaning-making, using our emergent understanding to choose present and future possibilities in our relationships.

  7. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  8. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K

    2011-10-01

    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  9. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  10. The safety and effectiveness of once daily detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes previously failing oral agents:the Chinese cohort from SOL-VETM observational study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘长玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of initiating once-daily insulin detemir(Levemir) as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) who failed treatment of oral anti-diabetic drugs(OAD).Methods The present study was derived from the data of

  11. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  12. Role of micronized progesterone in prevention of preterm labour in women with previous history of one or more preterm births: a research study at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ahuja

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The study concluded that progesterone use was associated with 64.2% reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (p=0.029.Antenatal administration of progesterone reduces the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks and 34 weeks as well as the risk of a newborn being born with a birth weight of less than 2500 gms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1176-1180

  13. A Retrospective Study of Capecitabine/Temozolomide (CAPTEM Regimen in the Treatment of Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (pNETs after Failing Previous Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs are notoriously resistant to currently available chemotherapy agents.Preclinical data has suggested synergy between temozolomide and capecitabine. Objective To report a retrospective data on the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM regimen in patients with metastatic pancreaticneuroendocrine tumors (pNETs who have failed prior therapies. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 7 patientswith metastatic pNETs who had had progressive cancer prior to treatment despite therapy, including long-acting releaseoctreotide (60 mg/month, chemotherapy and hepatic chemoembolization. Capecitabine was administered at a flat dose of1,000 mg orally twice daily on days 1-14 and temozolomide 200 mg/m2 was given in two divided doses daily on days 10-14of a 28-day cycle. Tumor assessments were repeated every two cycles and serum tumor markers were measured every cycle. Response to treatment was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST parameters, and toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 3.0. Results Among 7 patients treated, three patients achieved a partial response, and two patients had stable disease. Totalresponse rate was 43%, and clinical benefit (responders and stable disease was 71%. Median duration of response was 8months (range: 4-12 months. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included grade 3 thrombocytopenia in one patient and grade 3 fatigue in one patient. The most common toxicities were grade 1 and 2 neutropenia, grade 1 fatigue, grade 1 and 2 hand-foot syndrome. Conclusions Our retrospective study showed that modified CAPTEM regimen was well-tolerated and produced comparable response to historical data in neuroendocrine tumors, including pNETs. Our study is unique as it only included patients with pNETs. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the combination of

  14. A gender-medicine post hoc analysis (MetaGeM project to test sex differences in previous observational studies in different diseases: methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo D

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Gilberto Bellia,1 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Emanuela Zagni,1 Simona Sgarbi,2 Sara Rizzoli21Novartis Farma, Origgio, 2MediData, Modena, ltaly Abstract: Only recently has medical research begun to understand the importance of taking sex into account, recognizing that symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between males and females. However, the analyses provided by the pharmaceutical industry to regulatory authorities often do not present safety and efficacy data by sex. Novartis has started a gender-medicine project called MetaGeM, which includes nine observational studies sponsored by Novartis Farma, Italy; conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2013 in a range of different clinical areas. The MetaGeM project aims to analyze and describe by means of post hoc analyses and meta-analyses, clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data of these studies, by sex: PSYCHAE; GENDER ATTENTION in psoriasis; Synergy in psoriatic arthritis; ICEBERG in HBsAg carriers; SURF and CETRA in liver- and renal transplanted patients, respectively; DEEP in Parkinson's disease; and EVOLUTION and AXEPT in Alzheimer's disease. The present paper describes the methodology of the MetaGeM project.Keywords: gender-medicine, MetaGeM project, methodology

  15. A study of the presence of B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma (previously Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, and Babesia in Ixodes ricinus collected within the territory of Belluno, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolin, G; Benedetti, G; Doglioni, C; Lorenzato, C; Mancuso, S; Papa, N; Pitton, L; Ramon, M C; Zasio, C; Bertiato, G

    2006-01-01

    In the years 2000 and 2001, we sampled ticks in order to establish the distribution of Ixodes ricinus in the province of Belluno; 5987 tick samples from 244 sites throughout the province were gathered, by dragging for a 5-min period. In 40 sites, seasonal variations and cycle stages of the parasites were studied at monthly intervals from March to September. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to identify the tick-infected sites. Of 1931 individual ticks, 8.23% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, 4.4% were positive for Ehrlichia, 1.6% were positive for Rickettsia, and 1.6% were positive for Babesia. The co-presence of Borrelia and Ehrlichia (1.2%) and Babesia (0.5%), Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia (0.1%) was also found.

  16. Performance of the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: comparison with the previous criteria in a single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Pazzola, Giulia; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    To compare the performance of published classification/diagnostic criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), including the new 2012 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, in a single-centre study. We studied all consecutive patients with new-onset PMR seen in our centre over 6 years, whose diagnosis was confirmed during a prospective 12-month follow-up period. Subjects were classified by each of the seven different criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared. Control population consisted of all consecutive patients aged ≥50 years seen in a 4-year period in our early arthritis clinic who had a 12-month confirmation of a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other inflammatory articular diseases. Data were collected from 136 cases and 149 controls, including 94 patients with RA. The most sensitive criteria were the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria (92.6%). Adding ultrasound (US) specificity increased from 81.5% to 91.3% in total cases and from 79.7% to 89.9% in RA. Bird criteria had a sensitivity of 89.2% but the lowest specificity (40.2% in total cases and 72.5% in RA). Jones and Nobunaga criteria were the most specific criteria (96.7% and 97.8% in total cases and 98.6% and 99.5% in RA) but the less sensitive (63.1% and 58.2%) ones. Overall, discriminatory ability, as reflected by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was better for the 2012 US EULAR/ACR criteria (0.920 in total cases and 0.910 in RA). The new EULAR/ACR criteria in new-onset PMR patients perform best in discriminating PMR from RA and other inflammatory articular diseases. Ultrasound further increases the specificity of the criteria.

  17. Phase II Study of Bortezomib as a Single Agent in Patients with Previously Untreated or Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia Ineligible for Intensive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sarlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the safety and efficacy of bortezomib given as single agent in patients with untreated or relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML, unfit for conventional chemotherapy. Fourteen patients were treated with bortezomib 1.5 mg/m2 administered twice weekly for two weeks, every 3 weeks. Median age was 70 years (range 60–81 and the median number of cycles delivered was 2 (range 1–4. Of 13 evaluable patients, in 8 (61%, the administration of bortezomib resulted in an antileukemic effect as demonstrated by peripheral blood and/or bone marrow blast reduction. In 4 (50% of these 8, a decrease by 37% of transfusion requirement was also observed . Overall median survival was 4 months (range 0.25–10. Neurotoxicity was the most frequent adverse event with 7 of 13 (54% patients experiencing grades 3-4 peripheral neuropathy. Neurotoxicity led to treatment discontinuation in 4 (57% of 7. In conclusion, the observed anti-leukemic activity of bortezomib indicates that there is room for designing additional studies in which combination with other chemotherapeutic agents should be considered. Clinical registration no.: EUDRACT 2006-006923-38.

  18. Can a Repeated Sprint Ability Test Help Clear a Previously Injured Soccer Player for Fully Functional Return to Activity? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Ardigò, Luca P; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dello Iacono, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effects of fatigue induced by a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the neuromuscular responses of soccer players with a recent history of lower limb injuries (CH) and a matched control group in good fitness condition (GH). This was a case-control study. Nine CH and 9 GH. Allocation to CH or GH. Each player was assessed for blood lactate concentration and jumping performance [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] before/after RSA. Post-RSA rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to calculate RSA sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between CH and GH. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. No baseline differences were found for any variable. ΔSJ before/after RSA was -14 ± 2% and -5 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P Repeated sprint ability is a simple, low-cost field test potentially able to assist in clinical decision making for return to sport.

  19. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    exposed to torture in their home country were interviewed at a Danish rehabilitation clinic on average 8 years after their final release from confinement and re-interviewed 10 years later. Interviews focused on history of exposure to physical and mental torture and on pain in the head, back and feet...... prevalent at study. RESULTS: The mean number of times imprisoned was 2.5 and the mean cumulative duration of imprisonment 19.4 months. The most frequent physical torture method reported was beating (95.0%) and the main mental torture method deprivation (88.5%). Pain reported at follow-up was strongly...... associated with pain reported at baseline, and the prevalence of pain increased considerably (pain in the head, 47.5% at baseline and 58.3% at follow-up; back, 48.2% and 75.5%; feet, 23.7% and 63.3%). Predictor patterns at baseline and at follow-up had common traits, so that pain in the head and pain...

  20. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-04-01

    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia.

  1. Comparative study of Hg xCd 1-xTe films grown on CdTe thin films previously deposited from two different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Abbas Shah, N.; Maqsood, A.

    2009-04-01

    High quality cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were grown on glass substrates with two different techniques, two evaporation source (TES) and closed space sublimation (CSS). Further to the above mercury telluride (HgTe) was then deposited by using single source on both CdTe thin films for obtaining Hg xCd 1-xTe samples. The crystalline structure of the Hg xCd 1-xTe sample grown from CSS-CdTe showed the preferential (1 1 1) orientation with smoother and larger grain size than those of TES-CdTe. The optical transmission for TES-CdTe sample was above 90% in the 1000-1500 nm range whereas it was significantly below 80% for CSS-CdTe sample. The optical transmission for TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe was ˜60%. The resistivity at room temperature of TES-CdTe and CSS-CdTe was ˜3.33×10 9 Ω cm and ˜2.20×10 8 Ω cm, respectively, while the resistivity of TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe samples was ˜1.73 Ω cm and ˜5.34×10 5 Ω cm, respectively. The comparative study of ternary compound prepared with the above techniques has been carried out for the first time.

  2. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intravenous C.E.R.A. maintains stable haemoglobin levels in patients on dialysis previously treated with darbepoetin alfa: results from STRIATA, a randomized phase III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Mingardi, Giulio; Braun, Johann; Aljama, Pedro; Kerr, Peter G.; Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Van Vlem, Bruno; McMahon, Alan W.; Kerloëguen, Cécile; Beyer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Background. Extending the administration interval of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) represents an opportunity to improve the efficiency of anaemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, effective haemoglobin (Hb) maintenance can be challenging with epoetin alfa and epoetin beta administered at extended intervals. C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, has a unique pharmacologic profile and long half-life (∼130 h), allowing administration at extended intervals. Phase III results have demonstrated that C.E.R.A. administered once every 4 weeks effectively maintains stable Hb levels in patients with CKD on dialysis. Methods. STRIATA (Stabilizing haemoglobin TaRgets in dialysis following IV C.E.R.A. Treatment for Anaemia) was a multicentre, open-label randomized phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous C.E.R.A. administered once every 2 weeks (Q2W) for Hb maintenance following direct conversion from darbepoetin alfa (DA). Adult patients on dialysis receiving stable intravenous DA once weekly (QW) or Q2W were randomized (1:1) to continue their current DA regimen (n = 156) or receive intravenous C.E.R.A. Q2W (n = 157) for 52 weeks. Doses were adjusted to maintain Hb levels within ± 1.0 g/dl of baseline and between 10.0 and 13.5 g/dl. The primary endpoint was the mean Hb change between baseline and the evaluation period (weeks 29–36). Results. Most patients (>80%) received DA QW before randomization. The mean (95% CI) difference between C.E.R.A. and DA in the primary endpoint was 0.18 g/dl (−0.05, 0.41), within a pre-defined non-inferiority limit. C.E.R.A. was clinically non-inferior to DA (P < 0.0001) in maintaining Hb levels. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions. Stable Hb levels were successfully maintained in patients on haemodialysis directly converted to Q2W intravenous C.E.R.A. from DA. PMID:18586762

  4. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratib Osman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT radiation therapy (RT for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was 90 parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%, when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%. The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5% and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%. The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3% and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%, when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%. CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk.

  5. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae) tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  6. Reporting guidelines for modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Carol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modelling studies are used widely to help inform decisions about health care and policy and their use is increasing. However, in order for modelling to gain strength as a tool for health policy, it is critical that key model factors are transparent so that users of models can have a clear understanding of the model and its limitations.Reporting guidelines are evidence-based tools that specify minimum criteria for authors to report their research such that readers can both critically appraise and interpret study findings. This study was conducted to determine whether there is an unmet need for population modelling reporting guidelines. Methods We conducted a review of the literature to identify: 1 guidance for reporting population modelling studies; and, 2 evidence on the quality of reporting of population modelling studies. Guidance for reporting was analysed using a thematic approach and the data was summarised as frequencies. Evidence on the quality of reporting was reviewed and summarized descriptively. Results There were no guidelines that specifically addressed the reporting of population modelling studies. We identified a number of reporting guidelines for economic evaluation studies, some of which had sections that were relevant population modelling studies. Amongst seven relevant records, we identified 69 quality criteria that have distinct reporting characteristics. We identified two papers that addressed reporting practices of modelling studies. Overall, with the exception of describing the data used for calibration, there was little consistency in reporting. Conclusions While numerous guidelines exist for developing and evaluating health technology assessment and economic evaluation models, which by extension could be applicable to population modelling studies, there is variation in their comprehensiveness and in the consistency of reporting these methods. Population modelling studies may be an area which would

  7. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D; Subrahmanyam, C; Murthy, K.S.R

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Simple model to study heterogeneous electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Junior, Edison; Lopes, Ana Carolina G.; Suffredini, Hugo B.; Homem-de-Mello, Paula

    2015-01-01

    New electrocatalyst materials have been proposed to increase the performance of fuel cells. Experimental studies show that Pt and Pb metallic and oxide materials are quite efficient in the oxidation of alcohols and small organic molecules such as formic acid in advanced fuel cells. This work proposes a model for studying morphologically heterogeneous catalysts through quantum chemistry methods such as density functional calculations. For testing the model, we have experimentally studied the adsorption of small organic molecules, namely formic acid and methanol, on Pt and Pb electrodes. All methodologies we have tested can be employed for this kind of study, but M06 functional results correlate best with previous simulations of homogeneous catalysts and with experimental data obtained for homogeneous and heterogeneous electrodes. Our model indicates that the presence of a Pt-Pb interface is responsible for higher adsorption energies of these molecules, most likely due to the orientation of the organic molecules that should facilitate the oxidation process.

  9. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-02-15

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  10. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  11. A Simple Model to Predict the Probability of a Peach (Prunus persicae) Tree Bud to Develop as a Long or Short Shoot as a Consequence of Winter Pruning Intensity and Previous Year Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots. PMID:23300609

  12. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  13. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    The overall topic of this thesis is within the field of catalysis, were model systems of different complexity have been studied utilizing a multipurpose Ultra High Vacuum chamber (UHV). The thesis falls in two different parts. First a simple model system in the form of a ruthenium single crystal...... is investigated. Second the development of a complex Cu/ZnO nanoparticle model system is described and gas-induced dynamical changes in the model system is investigated. The ruthenium crystal serves as an extremely simple model for studying CO dissociation which is the rate limiting step of the methanation...... process. The Ru(0 1 54) surface is studied by means of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Temperature Programmed Desoprtion (TPD), and Oxygen Titration (OT) experiments. Real space evidence of periodic features on every second monatomic step is observed via STM when the a clean ruthenium surface...

  14. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  15. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  16. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  17. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the EC initiative on model quality assessment and emphasizes some of the problems encountered in the selection of data from field tests used in the evaluation process. Further, it discusses the impact of model uncertainties in safety studies of industrial plants. The model...... that most of these have never been through a procedure of evaluation, but nonetheless are used to assist in making decisions that may directly affect the safety of the public and the environment. As a major funder of European research on major industrial hazards, DGXII is conscious of the importance......-tain model is appropriate for use in solving a given problem. Further, the findings from the REDIPHEM project related to dense gas dispersion will be highlighted. Finally, the paper will discuss the need for model quality assessment in safety studies....

  18. A study of mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tarciso Borges

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mental models is being used in several areas of knowledge in order to study the representations users have about physical systems and events, as well as the content of such representations. However, it cannot be considered a unitary concept. This paper discusses the assumptions envolved in different areas of knowledge and describes a study of the mental model of magnetism held by students and professionals such as electricians physics teachers, and engineers. The identified model stress two aspects: what is the origin of permanent magnets and what is the mechanism of the magnetic interaction.

  19. Study design in causal models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The causal assumptions, the study design and the data are the elements required for scientific inference in empirical research. The research is adequately communicated only if all of these elements and their relations are described precisely. Causal models with design describe the study design and the missing data mechanism together with the causal structure and allow the direct application of causal calculus in the estimation of the causal effects. The flow of the study is visualized by orde...

  20. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  1. Predicting successful intended vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section : external validation of two predictive models in a Dutch nationwide registration-based cohort with a high intended vaginal delivery rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorel, E. N. C.; Melman, S.; van Kuijk, S. M. J.; Grobman, W. A.; Kwee, A.; Mol, B. W. J.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Smits, L. J. M.; Aardenburg, R.; de Boer, K.; Delemarre, F. M. C.; van Dooren, I. M.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Kleiverda, G.; Kaplan, M.; Kuppens, S. M. I.; Lim, F. T. H.; Sikkema, J. M.; Smid-Koopman, E.; Visser, H.; Vrouenraets, F. P. J. M.; Woiski, M.; Hermens, R. P. M. G.; Scheepers, H. C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo externally validate two models from the USA (entry-to-care [ETC] and close-to-delivery [CTD]) that predict successful intended vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) for the Dutch population. DesignA nationwide registration-based cohort study. SettingSeventeen hospitals in the Netherlands.

  2. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  3. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  4. L^2-theoretical study of the relation between the LIBOR market model and the HJM model

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuoka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In previous works, the author introduced metric spaces of term structure models to study the relation between the LIBOR market model and the HJM model. However that framework is not comprehensive, nor does it admit an extendable structure. This paper introduces a new metric space to better develop the perspective argument. A metric space is naturally constructed on the set of bond price processes such that the space allows many types of term structure models. This metric presents a general vi...

  5. Patient preference with respect to QoL and reduction in opioid-induced constipation (OIC) after treatment with prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone compared with previous analgesic therapy [PREFER study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, V C P C; Vanelderen, P J L; Koopmans-Klein, G; van Megen, Y J B; Van Zundert, J; Huygen, F J P M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient preference in terms of quality of life (QoL), analgesia and bowel function for patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, when treated with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR compared with the previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesic treatment . This was a 3-week open-label phase 3b study conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, after 3 weeks patients could enter an extension phase. Patient preference with respect to QoL for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment compared with previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics was assessed. A patient was considered a responder with respect to QoL if this assessment was 'better' or 'much better' compared with previous WHO-step I or II analgesics at any time point. Response rate with respect to QoL was 59.2% (95% CI: 51.7-66.8%) for the Full Analysis (FA)-population, for the Per Protocol-population response rate was 71.7% (95% CI: 63.1-80.3%). Explorative analysis showed that response rate with respect to QoL was highest in constipated patients pretreated with WHO-step II analgesics (73.8%). Mean ± SD pain score in the FA-population at start was 74.7 ± 16.6 decreasing to 53.9 ± 24.3 after a median (range) treatment period of 173.5 (31-771) days. For constipated subjects the significant reduction in constipation [improvement of the Bowel Function Index (BFI)], was -24.8 points (95% CI: -17.1 to -32.5). BFI for non-constipated subjects remained well below 28.8. Adverse events with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment were well-known opioid-related adverse events. This study shows that the studied patients previously treated with WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics prefer treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR with respect to QoL. Moreover, the study shows that treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR significantly reduces OIC in constipated patients and that non-constipated patients do not develop OIC during treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR.

  6. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S., E-mail: s.zelzer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Wachter, M. F., E-mail: fredericwachter@googlemail.com; Bellemann, N., E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Gockner, T., E-mail: theresa.gockner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Mokry, T., E-mail: theresa.mokry@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmitz, A., E-mail: anne.schmitz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Aulmann, S., E-mail: sebastian.aulmann@mail.com [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Stampfl, U., E-mail: ulrike.stampfl@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.de [SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Kauczor, H. U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Radeleff, B. A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  8. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  9. Study on Alzheimer's disease model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the main brain lesion in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP). The amount of NFT is positively correlated with clinical degree of dementia in AD. It is also well studied that the major component of NFT is abnormally hyperphosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau that is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and protein phosphatase (PP). To reconstitute a specific AD model based on the above hypothesis, we have injected separately calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKKII) activator, bradykinin and PP-2B inhibitor, cyclosporin A into rat hippocampus in the present study. The results showed that the injection of bradykinin caused learning and memory deficient in rats as well as Alzheimer-like tau phosphorylation, including Ser-262/356, Thr-231/235 and Ser-396/404. On the other hand, the injection of cyclosporin A induced the same phosphorylation sites as above except Ser-262/356, however, it did not mimic rat behavior abnormality as bradykinin injection did. The data suggested that activating of CaMKII and the phosphorylation of Ser-262/356 at tau might responsible for the lesion of learning and memory in our model rats. We also incubated PP-2A and PP-1 inhibitor, okadaic acid with human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), and found that (1) inhibition of above PPs induced Alzheimer-like phosphorylation and accumulation of neurofilaments, and Alzheimer-like microtubule disruption, (2) melatonin showed certain protection of the cell from okadaic acid toxicity. The data obtained from this study is significant in AD specific model study.

  10. Cataract surgery in previously vitrectomized eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.

  11. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Martins Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  12. Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) (human-cl rhFVIII) in previously untreated patients with severe haemophilia A-Interim results from the NuProtect Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, R J; Abashidze, M; Aleinikova, O; Altisent, C; Belletrutti, M J; Borel-Derlon, A; Carcao, M; Chambost, H; Chan, A K C; Dubey, L; Ducore, J; Fouzia, N A; Gattens, M; Gruel, Y; Guillet, B; Kavardakova, N; El Khorassani, M; Klukowska, A; Lambert, T; Lohade, S; Sigaud, M; Turea, V; Wu, J K M; Vdovin, V; Pavlova, A; Jansen, M; Belyanskaya, L; Walter, O; Knaub, S; Neufeld, E J

    2017-08-16

    Nuwiq(®) (Human-cl rhFVIII) is a fourth generation recombinant FVIII, produced in a human cell line, without chemical modification or protein fusion. No inhibitors developed in studies with Nuwiq(®) in 201 previously treated patients with haemophilia A (HA). The immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe HA are being assessed in the ongoing NuProtect study. The study, conducted across 38 centres worldwide, is evaluating 110 true PUPs of all ages and ethnicities enrolled for study up to 100 exposure days (EDs) or 5 years maximum. The primary objective is to assess the immunogenicity of Nuwiq(®) (inhibitor activity ≥0.6 BU) using the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay at a central laboratory. Data for 66 PUPs with ≥20 EDs from a preplanned interim analysis were analysed. High-titre (HT) inhibitors developed in 8 of 66 patients after a median of 11.5 EDs (range 6-24). Five patients developed low-titre inhibitors (4 transient). The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) was 12.8% (4.5%, 21.2%) for HT inhibitors and 20.8% (10.7%, 31.0%) for all inhibitors. During inhibitor-free periods, median annualized bleeding rates during prophylaxis were 0 for spontaneous bleeds and 2.40 for all bleeds. Efficacy was rated as "excellent" or "good" in treating 91.8% of bleeds. Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was "excellent" or "good" for 8 (89%) procedures and "moderate" for 1 (11%). No tolerability concerns were evident. These interim data show a cumulative incidence of 12.8% for HT inhibitors and convincing efficacy and tolerability in PUPs treated with Nuwiq(®) . © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Can previous learning alter future plasticity mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Ana Paula; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The dynamic processes related to mnemonic plasticity have been extensively researched in the last decades. More recently, studies have attracted attention because they show an unusual plasticity mechanism that is independent of the receptor most usually related to first-time learning--that is, memory acquisition-the NMDA receptor. An interesting feature of this type of learning is that a previous experience may cause modifications in the plasticity mechanism of a subsequent learning, suggesting that prior experience in a very similar task triggers a memory acquisition process that does not depend on NMDARs. The intracellular molecular cascades necessary to assist the learning process seem to depend on the activation of hippocampal CP-AMPARs. Moreover, most of these studies were performed on hippocampus-dependent tasks, even though other brain areas, such as the basolateral amygdala, also display NMDAR-independent learning.

  14. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  15. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  16. Study on the Application of Previously Fermented Juice in the Forage Silage%绿汁发酵液在饲草青贮中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元迎

    2016-01-01

    绿汁发酵液作为一种天然、无毒的青贮添加剂加工简单,经济环保。本文根据近几年的研究,对绿汁发酵液的制作方法、作用机理以及应用进展等进行了综述。%This paper is about the previously fermented juice(PFJ) which has many advantages such as uncomplicated handing, economy and environmental protection as a natural and poisonless additive. Accord-ing to recent studies, this paper summarized the manufacturing methods, mechanism and application progress of PFJ.

  17. In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2015-12-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture.

  18. 中原地区某村既往有偿献血人群艾滋病发病和死亡规律%Study on AIDS incidence and death in previous paid blood-donated population, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新义; 崔兆麟; 黄祚军; 朱伯健; 汪宁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study incidence and death among previous paid blood-donated AIDS sufferers.Methods A retrospective cohort study was adopted to study incidence and death of 373 previous paid blood-donated HIV sufferers and its effect factors.Results Previous paid blood-donated HIV infection was serious and the infection rate in blood-donated crowd was 35.87%(373/1040);the mean incubation period of AIDS was 8.87 years(95%CI:8.76-8.99,Kaplan-Meier method):the cumulative incidence of AIDS(10 years)was 92.23%(344/373),and the incidence of total sufferers was 11.64/100 person-year;the cumulative probability of survival of one-year,three-year,five-year AIDS sufferers was separately 94.48% (325/344),85.76%(295/344)and 83.14%(286/344),median survival time was over 5 years;the anti-virotic treatment days(960.29±486.38),infection age(33.39±9.08)disease age(41.98±8.88)had significant effects on AIDS sufferers' survival time/survival rate(x2=61.355,P=0.000;x2=6.555,P=0.010;x2=3.969,P=0.046).Conclusion The survival time of previous paid blood-donated HIV cases was longer,and their survival rate was hisher,remarkably higher than the UNAIDS'research findings.%目的 研究既往有偿献血人群获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)发病和死亡规律.方法 采用回顾性队列研究方法,对373例既往有偿献血感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)者的发病、死亡规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果 既往有偿献血人群HIV感染率为35.87%(373/1040),AIDS平均潜伏期为8.87年(95%CI:8.76~8.99,Kaplan-Meier法);感染后10年累计发病率为92.23%(344/373),总人时发病率为11.64/100人年;艾滋病患者1年、3年、5年累计生存率分别为94.48%(325/344)、85.76%(295/344)和83.14%(286/344),中位生存时间超过5年;抗病毒治疗天数[(960.29±486.38)d]、感染年龄[(33.39±9.08)岁]和发病年龄[(41.98±8.88)岁]对艾滋病患者生存时间

  19. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  20. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, Sinjae [Mercer University, Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  1. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, Sinjae [Mercer University, Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  2. Phase I/II study of docetaxel combined with resminostat, an oral hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitor, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Yuichi; Hosomi, Yukio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nogami, Naoyuki; Atagi, Shinji; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Kato, Terufumi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Seto, Takashi; Maemondo, Makoto; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Koyama, Ryo; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Okamura, Yuta; Nakamura, Osamu; Nishio, Makoto; Tamura, Tomohide

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine the recommended dose and efficacy/safety of docetaxel combined with resminostat (DR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study was performed in Japanese patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC and prior platinum-based chemotherapy. The recommended phase II dose was determined using a standard 3 + 3 dose design in phase I part. Resminostat was escalated from 400 to 600 mg/day and docetaxel fixed at 75 mg/m(2). In phase II part, the patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel alone (75 mg/m(2)) or DR therapy. Docetaxel was administered on day 1 and resminostat on days 1-5 in the DR group. Treatment was repeated every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 117 patients (phase I part, 9; phase II part, 108) were enrolled. There was no dose-limiting toxicity in phase I part; the recommended dose for resminostat was 600 mg/day with 75 mg/m(2) of docetaxel. In phase II part, median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 4.2 (2.8-5.7) months with docetaxel group and 4.1 (1.5-5.4) months with DR group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.354, 95% CI: 0.835-2.195; p = 0.209). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events significantly more common with DR group than docetaxel group were leukopenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anorexia. Conclusion In Japanese NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, DR therapy did not improve PFS compared with docetaxel alone and increased toxicity.

  3. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  4. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  5. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  7. Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2007-11-01

    To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.

  8. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  9. Evaluating EML Modeling Tools for Insurance Purposes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Gustavsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As with any situation that involves economical risk refineries may share their risk with insurers. The decision process generally includes modelling to determine to which extent the process area can be damaged. On the extreme end of modelling the so-called Estimated Maximum Loss (EML scenarios are found. These scenarios predict the maximum loss a particular installation can sustain. Unfortunately no standard model for this exists. Thus the insurers reach different results due to applying different models and different assumptions. Therefore, a study has been conducted on a case in a Swedish refinery where several scenarios previously had been modelled by two different insurance brokers using two different softwares, ExTool and SLAM. This study reviews the concept of EML and analyses the used models to see which parameters are most uncertain. Also a third model, EFFECTS, was employed in an attempt to reach a conclusion with higher reliability.

  10. 机采血小板检测前过程质量控制的研究%A study on quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨图深; 朱业华; 陈亦明

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制。方法留取机采单份血小板、机采双份血小板样本各100份,以1∶1、1∶3及1∶7稀释度进行稀释,采用全自动血液细胞计数仪检测血小板计数。另采集机采血小板样本100份,室温下静置0、30、60、90、120 min ,以1∶3稀释后,检测其血小板计数。结果机采单份或双份血小板样本以1∶1与1∶3稀释后检测血小板计数的差异及1∶3与1∶7稀释后检测的差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。静置0、30 min检测的血小板计数与静置60、90、120 min的检测值的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制对采集后的血小板计数十分重要。%Objective To study the quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection .Methods Single and double apheresis platelets each of 100 samples were collected and were diluted 1∶1 ,1∶3 and 1∶7 .Aautomatic Blood Cell Count-er was employed to detect the platelet count .Another 100 samples of apheresis platelets were collected and stand at room tempera-ture for 0 ,30 ,60 ,90 ,120 min ,After 1∶3 dilution ,the platelet counts were detected .Results Differences of platelet counts be-tween 1∶1 and 1∶3 dilution ,1∶3 and 1∶7 dilution of single or double apheresis platelets showed statistically significant differ-ences(P<0 .05) .Differences of platelet counts between standing for 0 ,30 min and standing for 60 ,90 ,120 min were found statis-tically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection is very important for platelet count after collection .

  11. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kevin D; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-03-28

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [(14)C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA-G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively.

  12. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  13. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E

    2014-01-01

    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  15. Efficacy and safety of the combination paclitaxel/carboplatin in patients with previously treated advanced ovarian carcinoma: a multicenter French Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujade-Lauraine, E; Guastalla, J P; Weber, B; Curé, H; Orfeuvre, H; Mousseau, M; Vincent, P; Diéras, V; Tubiana-Mathieu, N; Jacquin, J P; Mignot, L; Leduc, B; Paraïso, D; Viens, P

    1997-10-01

    The French Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens (GINECO) conducted a multicenter phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of this combination in pretreated advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with progressive ovarian carcinoma during or after platinum-based chemotherapy received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 intravenously over 3 hours followed by intravenous carboplatin over 30 minutes every 4 weeks. The dose of carboplatin was calculated using a projected area under the concentration-time curve of 5 mg/mL x min. Of the 50 patients entered, 50 were evaluable for toxicity and 42 for response. There were eight complete and 10 partial responses, for an overall response rate of 43% (95% confidence interval, 28% to 56%). Overall response rates in platinum refractory patients and in those with early (> or = 3 and or = 12 months) relapse was 28%, 33%, and 71%, respectively. Median response duration, progression-free survival, and overall survivals were 8, 6, and 14 months, respectively. The most frequent and severe toxicity was myelosuppression. Grades 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in 30% and 23% of cycles, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered in 6%. Only one case of neutropenic fever was observed. Grades 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 3% and 1% of cycles, respectively. Alopecia and moderate nausea or vomiting were frequent. Transitory peripheral neuropathy was present in 45% of patients but was severe in only one patient. One early death was observed due to progressive disease and possibly to therapy. The combination of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 as a 3-hour infusion and carboplatin dosed to an area under the concentration-time curve of 5 is an effective therapy in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and may be administered safely to outpatients who relapse after one or two lines of chemotherapy.

  16. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Part II: overview of the results at the CENICA supersite and comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2005-06-01

    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study from 31 March-4 May 2003. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. Measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer, and estimated soil concentrations from Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates are also presented and combined with the AMS in order to include refractory material and estimate the total PM2.5 mass concentration at CENICA during this campaign. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents 54.6% of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5; BC mass concentration is about 11%; while soil represents about 6.9%. The NR species and BC have diurnal cycles that can be qualitatively interpreted as the interplay of direct emissions, photochemical production in the atmosphere followed by condensation and gas-to-particle partitioning, boundary layer dynamics, and/or advection. Bi- and trimodal size distributions are observed for the AMS species, with a small combustion (likely traffic) organic particle mode and an accumulation mode that contains mainly organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The AMS and BC mass concentrations, size distributions, and diurnal cycles are found to be qualitatively similar to those from most previous field measurements in Mexico City.

  17. Conference Proceedings. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Information/Data Base (I/DB) Task Group Meetings Held February 14-18, 1994, and Notes from the Previous Two I/DB Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    E-172 Shows thatTM is for Elecuronic Navigation Equipment 7he techicel inuual.I AO- Serial Nume designating Stewar Warne Models technical cider, or...using structured Epglish or predicate calculus . 3. Analogous to the improvment in program readability brought about by muctured pro standard templates

  18. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  19. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  20. Study on Macro-traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangGe; GuowuZhang; BaojunYuan; KepingLi

    2004-01-01

    Macro-traffic model is an effective tool for supporting traffic programmer to This article is based on the software products VISEM (demand model) and VISUM (supply model) from PTV Company of Germany, and studies macro-traffic model on the basis of considering that traffic system is an interactive system of between a supply system and a demand system.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB282 and TB284, a Widespread and a Unique Strain, Respectively, Identified in a Previous Study of Tuberculosis Transmission in Central Los Angeles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequences of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates previously identified in central Los Angeles, CA, in the 1990s using a PacBio platform. Isolate TB282 represents a large-cluster strain that caused 27% of the tuberculosis cases, while TB284 represents a strain that caused disease in only one patient. PMID:28082486

  2. Modelling isolated deep convection: A case study from COPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph R. Burton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the important physical processes which need to be well represented in a model simulation of the deep convective cloud which occurred on the 15th July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS. During the afternoon of 15th July 2007, an isolated, deep convective cloud developed, reaching heights of 12 km above ground level. Previous studies have shown that numerical weather prediction models struggle to simulate realistically this particular cloud. In the present study, it is found that a reservoir of moist air developed, providing necessary energy ready to be released via a suitable trigger (the arrival of a convergence line. A series of tests of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is employed to find the modelled sensitivities to boundary-layer and land-surface specification, and the combinations of these necessary to provide the reservoir of moist air.

  3. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  4. A first study of Hidden Valley models at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Seth, Morgan Svensson

    2011-01-01

    New stable particles with fairly low masses could exist if the coupling to the Standard Model is weak, and with suitable parameters they might be possible to produce at the LHC. Here we study a selection of models with the new particles being charged under a new gauge group, either U(1) or SU(N). In the Abelian case there will be radiation of gammavs, which decay back into the SM. In the non-Abelian case the particles will undergo hadronization into mesons like states piv/rhov that subsequently decays. We consider three different scenarios for interaction between the new sector and the SM sector and perform simulations using a Hidden Valley model previously implemented in PYTHIA. In this study we illustrate how one can distinguish the different models and measure different parameters of the models under conditions like those at the LHC.

  5. Wildland Fire Behaviour Case Studies and Fuel Models for Landscape-Scale Fire Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Antoine Santoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the extension of a physical model for the spreading of surface fire at landscape scale. In previous work, the model was validated at laboratory scale for fire spreading across litters. The model was then modified to consider the structure of actual vegetation and was included in the wildland fire calculation system Forefire that allows converting the two-dimensional model of fire spread to three dimensions, taking into account spatial information. Two wildland fire behavior case studies were elaborated and used as a basis to test the simulator. Both fires were reconstructed, paying attention to the vegetation mapping, fire history, and meteorological data. The local calibration of the simulator required the development of appropriate fuel models for shrubland vegetation (maquis for use with the model of fire spread. This study showed the capabilities of the simulator during the typical drought season characterizing the Mediterranean climate when most wildfires occur.

  6. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  7. Statistical models for stability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Uwimpuhwe, Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Stability studies are conducted at all phases of the drug development cycle, with the main objective of having a stable product on market. In this project we aimed at evaluating if the shelf life could be extended from 24 (current shelf life) to 36 months, quantifying pharmaceutical stability such as shelf life, release limit, degradation rate ( annually and at the end of both shelf lives) and consumer/producer risk. The assay data are longitudinal from 50 different batches, whi...

  8. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  9. Study of LPG Release & Dispersion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Shanjun; Peng Xiangwei

    2003-01-01

    The current applicable release & dispersion models are reviewed. A typical model is developed on the basis of LPG storage conditions in China and the authors' research. The study is focused on the relationship between LPG composition and release rate, and on the influence of buildings or structures located in the surrounding area on the dispersion of gas plume. The established model is compared with existing models by the use of published field test data.

  10. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  11. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  12. Obinutuzumab for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

  13. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  14. Mouse Models for Studying Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bryna S M; Allen, Terri J

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a term used to describe kidney damage cause by diabetes. With DN as one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide, there is a strong need for appropriate animal models to study DN pathogenesis and develop therapeutic strategies. To date, most experiments are carried out in mouse models as opposed to other species for several reasons including lower cost, ease of handling, and easy manipulation of the mouse genome to generate transgenic and knockout animals. This unit provides detailed insights and technical knowledge in setting up one of the most widely used models of DN, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model. This model has been extensively exploited to study the mechanism of diabetic renal injury. The advantages and limitations of the STZ model and the availability of other genetic models of DN are also discussed.

  15. 77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200...

  16. 77 FR 66411 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech Aircraft Corporation... (Type Certificate previously held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech Aircraft Corporation) Model 400A... directive (AD): Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft...

  17. 76 FR 6533 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech Aircraft Corporation) Model... (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech Aircraft Corporation): Amendment... Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate previously held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech...

  18. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  19. A reproducible nonlethal animal model for studying cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, J; Marino, M T; von Bredow, J D; Kaminskis, A; Brewer, T

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies using bolus intravenous injections of sodium cyanide have been used to model the sudden exposure to high concentrations of cyanide that could occur on the battlefield. This study was designed to develop a model that would simulate the type of exposure to cyanide gas that could happen during actual low-level continuous types of exposure and then compare it with the bolus model. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings taken from anesthetized dogs have been used previously to characterize the lethal effects of cyanide. The intravenous, bolus injection of 2.5 mg/kg sodium cyanide provides a model in which a greater than lethal concentration is attained. In contrast, our model uses a slow, intravenous infusion of cyanide to titrate each animal to its own inherent end point, which coincides with the amount of cyanide needed to induce death through respiratory arrest. In this model, therapeutic intervention can be used to restore respiration and allow for the complete recovery of the animals. After recovery, the same animal can be given a second infusion of cyanide, followed again by treatment and recovery, providing a reproducible end point. This end point can then be expressed as the total amount of cyanide per body weight (mg/kg) required to kill. In this study, the average dose of sodium cyanide among 12 animals was 1.21 mg/kg, which is approximately half the cyanide used in the bolus model. Thus, titration to respiratory arrest followed by resuscitation provides a repetitive-use animal model that can be used to test the efficacy of various forms of pretreatment and/or therapy without the loss of a single animal.

  20. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.

  1. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  2. Reactive puff model SCICHEM: Model enhancements and performance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, B.; Karamchandani, P. K.; Sykes, R. I.; Henn, D. S.; Knipping, E.

    2015-09-01

    The SCICHEM model incorporates complete gas phase, aqueous and aerosol phase chemistry within a state-of-the-science Gaussian puff model SCIPUFF (Second-order Closure Integrated Puff). The model is a valuable tool that can be used to calculate the impacts of a single source or a small number of sources on downwind ozone and PM2.5. The model has flexible data requirements: it can be run with routine surface and upper air observations or with prognostic meteorological model outputs and source emissions are specified in a simple text format. This paper describes significant advances to the dispersion and chemistry components of the model in the latest release, SCICHEM 3.0. Some of the major advancements include modeling of skewed turbulence for convective boundary layer and updated chemistry schemes (CB05 gas phase chemical mechanism; AERO5 aerosol and aqueous modules). The results from SCICHEM 3.0 are compared with observations from a tracer study as well as aircraft measurements of reactive species in power plant plumes from two field studies. The results with the tracer experiment (Copenhagen study) show that the incorporation of skewed turbulence improves the calculation of tracer dispersion and transport. The comparisons with the Cumberland and Dolet Hills power plume measurements show good correlation between the observed and predicted concentrations of reactive gaseous species at most downwind distances from the source.

  3. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  4. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (Bax326) in previously treated patients with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B undergoing surgical or other invasive procedures: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, multicentre, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Ghandehari, H; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Wong, W-Y; Pavlova, B G; Abbuehl, B E

    2014-09-01

    Haemostatic management of haemophilia B patients undergoing surgery is critical to patient safety. The aim of this ongoing prospective trial was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (rFIX) (Bax326) in previously treated subjects (12-65 years, without history of FIX inhibitors) with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B, undergoing surgical, dental or other invasive procedures. Haemostatic efficacy was assessed according to a predefined scale. Blood loss was compared to the average and maximum blood loss predicted preoperatively. Haemostatic FIX levels were achieved peri- and postoperatively in 100% of subjects (n = 14). Haemostasis was 'excellent' intraoperatively in all patients and postoperatively in those without a drain, and 'excellent' or 'good' at the time of drain removal and day of discharge in those with a drain employed. Following the initial dose, the mean FIX activity level rose from 6.55% to 107.58% for major surgeries and from 3.60% to 81.4% for minor surgeries. Actual vs. predicted blood loss matched predicted intraoperative blood loss but was equal to or higher than (but less than 150%) the maximum predicted postoperative blood loss reflecting the severity of procedure and FIX requirements. There were no related adverse events, severe allergic reactions or thrombotic events. There was no evidence that BAX326 increased the risk of inhibitor or binding antibody development to FIX. BAX326 was safe and effective for peri-operative management of 14 subjects with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B.

  5. Monte Carlo studies of model Langmuir monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opps, S B; Yang, B; Gray, C G; Sullivan, D E

    2001-04-01

    This paper examines some of the basic properties of a model Langmuir monolayer, consisting of surfactant molecules deposited onto a water subphase. The surfactants are modeled as rigid rods composed of a head and tail segment of diameters sigma(hh) and sigma(tt), respectively. The tails consist of n(t) approximately 4-7 effective monomers representing methylene groups. These rigid rods interact via site-site Lennard-Jones potentials with different interaction parameters for the tail-tail, head-tail, and head-head interactions. In a previous paper, we studied the ground-state properties of this system using a Landau approach. In the present paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble to elucidate the finite-temperature behavior of this system. Simulation techniques, incorporating a system of dynamic filters, allow us to decrease CPU time with negligible statistical error. This paper focuses on several of the key parameters, such as density, head-tail diameter mismatch, and chain length, responsible for driving transitions from uniformly tilted to untilted phases and between different tilt-ordered phases. Upon varying the density of the system, with sigma(hh)=sigma(tt), we observe a transition from a tilted (NNN)-condensed phase to an untilted-liquid phase and, upon comparison with recent experiments with fatty acid-alcohol and fatty acid-ester mixtures [M. C. Shih, M. K. Durbin, A. Malik, P. Zschack, and P. Dutta, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9132 (1994); E. Teer, C. M. Knobler, C. Lautz, S. Wurlitzer, J. Kildae, and T. M. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1913 (1997)], we identify this as the L'(2)/Ov-L1 phase boundary. By varying the head-tail diameter ratio, we observe a decrease in T(c) with increasing mismatch. However, as the chain length was increased we observed that the transition temperatures increased and differences in T(c) due to head-tail diameter mismatch were diminished. In most of the present research, the water was treated as a hard

  6. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy K C Janssen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. METHODS: Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE. Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs reported in the recently published meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%, SL(-2.3%, SS(0.6%. In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%, SL(-18.5% and SS(21.8% with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. CONCLUSIONS: In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  7. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Zhu, Huibiao; Huang, Heqing

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues that require novel methods and applications. In this context, an important issue is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this technical report, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker.

  8. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  9. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    A literature study, including an internet-based search, and empirical ... provided and educational policy implications highlighted for implementation of empowerment ... of educational managers themselves; empowerment of teachers and staff, ...

  10. A pharmacological study in the kindling model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, T E; Joy, R M; Stark, L G

    1984-10-01

    The anticonvulsant properties of carbamazepine were evaluated in the kindled amygdaloid seizure model in rats. Carbamazepine significantly raised the threshold for seizures, reduced the duration of elicited afterdischarges and attenuated the severity of seizures in previously-kindled rats, at doses that did not cause sedation or ataxia. A similar reduction in the duration of elicited afterdischarges and severity of seizures was seen after suprathreshold stimulation (400 mu A) with doses of carbamazepine that were without obvious sedative or ataxic effects. After acute intraperitoneal injections (solvent = 2% Tween-80 and 70% propylene glycol), the maximum anticonvulsant effectiveness against suprathreshold stimulation was seen at 30 min. When administered daily (13 days) during acquisition or development of kindling, carbamazepine (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) had variable effects on kindling. Neither dose consistently reduced the duration of elicited afterdischarges during the acquisition phase. Both groups tended to reduce the developing seizure, with the smaller dose of carbamazepine (25 mg/kg) resulting in a more consistent and significant reduction in severity of seizures. No significant differences in number of daily stimulations needed to reach fully kindled seizures were found. Previous studies have reported variable results with carbamazepine and the kindled amygdaloid seizure in rats. The present study provides a comprehensive evaluation of carbamazepine in this model of epilepsy and discusses the results with regard to the finding reported previously.

  11. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  12. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin;

    2010-01-01

    A significant unmet medical need exists in patients with uncontrolled asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg administered twice-daily (b.i.d.) via metered-dose inhaler in patients...

  13. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  14. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...

  15. The OptiMUM-study: EMDR therapy in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder after previous childbirth and pregnant women with fear of childbirth: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, M. A. M.; Stramrood, C. A. I.; Dijksman, L. M.; de Jongh, A.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the protocol of the OptiMUM-study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with childbirth-related PTSD or FoC. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of this approach will be analysed. Method: The single-blind OptiMUM-study consists of two two-armed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overlapping design. In several hospitals and community midwifery practices in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, all eligible pregnant women with a gestational age between eight and 20 weeks will be administered the Wijma delivery expectations questionnaire (WDEQ) to asses FoC. Multiparous women will also receive the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to screen for possible PTSD. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS-5) will be used for assessing PTSD according to DSM-5 in women scoring above the PCL-5 cut-off value. Fifty women with childbirth-related PTSD and 120 women with FoC will be randomly allocated to either EMDR therapy carried out by a psychologist or care-as-usual. Women currently undergoing psychological treatment or women younger than 18 years will not be included. Primary outcome measures are severity of childbirth-related PTSD or FoC symptoms. Secondary outcomes are percentage of PTSD diagnoses, percentage caesarean sections, subjective childbirth experience, obstetrical and neonatal complications

  16. Time to pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Cox; J.W. van der Steeg; P. Steures; P.G.A. Hompes; F. van der Veen; M.J.C. Eijkemans; J.H. Schagen van Leeuwen; C. Renckens; P.M.M. Bossuyt; B.W.J. Mol

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the time to spontaneous ongoing pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted in 38 fertility centers in the Netherlands. Patient(s): Subfertile couples who miscarried after completing their bas

  17. Analysis of Previous Studies on African Nobel Prize Winner Wole Soyinka in China%非裔诺贝尔文学奖得主沃勒·索因卡在中国的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江玉娇; 盛钰

    2015-01-01

    作为首位黑人诺贝尔文学奖得主,沃勒·索因卡(1934-)在其作品中融入了古老的神话、悠久的传统以及欧洲文化的文学遗产。为了深入考察和分析索因卡在中国的研究现状,文章首先梳理索因卡作品在中国的译介和引入,然后将其文学作品按照诗歌、小说、戏剧3个题材在中国的研究现状进行综述,以期探讨国内在接受非洲异质文化时的规律与特征;最后,反思目前对该作家的研究中尚存的缺失与不足,并指出今后发展的研究方向和设想,希望以此为推进国内非洲本土文学和文化研究提供借鉴。%As the first Nobel Prize winner in Africa,Wole Soyinka integrates his works with ancient Afri-can myths,a long tradition and the literary heritages of European cultures. In order to make an in-depth re-view and analysis of studies of Wole Soyinka in China,this paper,firstly,analyzes the introduction and trans-lations of his works,and then,makes a review of the present researches of his poems,novels and dramas re-spectively so as to find out the rules of how Chinese scholars have accepted the heterogeneous African cultures. At last,this paper analyzes the problems in the study of Soyinka and points out new directions and perspectives of further studies in the hope of providing reference for promoting the domestic studies on African literature and culture.

  18. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm;

    2009-01-01

    Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development...... and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...

  19. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  20. Experimental studies and modeling on concentration polarization in forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Jun; Chen, Sijie; Oo, Maung Htun; Kekre, Kiran A; Cornelissen, Emile R; Ruiken, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    Concentration polarization (CP) is an important issue in forward osmosis (FO) processes and it is believed that the coupled effect of dilutive internal CP (DICP) and concentrative external CP (CECP) limits FO flux. The objective of this study was to distinguish individual contribution of different types of DICP and CECP via modeling and to validate it by pilot studies. The influence of DICP/CECP on FO flux has been investigated in this study. The CP model presented in this work was derived from a previous study and evaluated by bench-scale FO experiments. Experiments were conducted with drinking water as the feed and NaCl/MgSO(4) as draw solutions at different concentrations and velocities. Modeling results indicated that DICP contributed to a flux reduction by 99.9% for 0.5 M NaCl as a draw solution although the flow pattern of both feed and draw solutions was turbulent. DICP could be improved via selection of the draw solution. The modeling results were well fit with the experimental data. It was concluded that the model could be used for selection of the draw solution and prediction of water flux under similar situation. A draw solution with greater diffusion coefficient or a thinner substrate of an asymmetric FO membrane resulted in a higher flux.

  1. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    .3/100,000 deliveries. Multiparity (RR 8.99 (95% CI 1.86-43.29)), induction of labour (RR 3.26 (95% CI 1.24-8.57)), epidural analgesia (RR 10.78 (95% CI 4.25-27.39)), and augmentation by oxytocin (RR 9.50 (95% CI 3.15-28.63)) were associated with uterine rupture. Induction of labour was not significantly related...... to uterine rupture when adjusted for parity, epidural analgesia and augmentation by oxytocin. CONCLUSION: Although uterine rupture is rare, its association with epidural analgesia and augmentation of labour with oxytocin in multipara should be considered. Thus, vigilance should be exercised when labour...... is obstructed and there is need for epidural analgesia and/or augmentation by oxytocin in multiparous women. Due to the rare occurrence of uterine rupture caution should be exerted when interpreting the findings of this study....

  2. OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellad Girija

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Carefully selected cases of Vaginal Birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC is safe and successful. Even though options of elective caesarean section or a trial of labour are given to women with prior caesarean section, the risk is always present. In successful VBACs, morbidity is less compared to repeat caesarean section. That is why this study is conducted to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with previous CS. OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the clinical course of labour in cases with previous caesarean section. 2. To study the perinatal outcome in cases with previous caesarean section either by vaginal delivery or repeat Caesarean section. 3. To study maternal morbidity in these cases. METHOD A retrospective analysis of medical records of 250 women with a previous caesarean section, who delivered in BIMS Hospital between May 2015 and July 2015 was carried out. Women with recurrent indications for caesarean section and those having nonrecurrent indications with any complicating factors in present pregnancy and women with previous two caesarean sections were not given trial for vaginal delivery. Those women with previous section for the non-recurrent indications were given trial for vaginal delivery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done by Chi-square test. RESULT In 250 cases, 132 cases were given trial for vaginal delivery. In these, vaginal delivery was 61.3% and repeat section was 38%. There is an association between maternal morbidity and type of delivery. Birth weight was associated with the type of delivery. There is no association between neonatal outcome and type of delivery. CONCLUSION In carefully selected patients, appropriate timing and close supervision, trial of vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section is safe and successful. Individual approach seems to be the best.

  3. Effectiveness and tolerability of treatment intensification to basal–bolus therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes on previous basal insulin-supported oral therapy with insulin glargine or supplementary insulin therapy with insulin glulisine: the PARTNER observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfohl M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Martin Pfohl,1 Thorsten Siegmund,2 Stefan Pscherer,3 Katrin Pegelow,4 Jochen Seufert5 1Medizinische Klinik I, Evangelisches Bethesda-Klinikum GmbH, Duisburg, Germany; 2Städtisches Klinikum München GmbH, Klinikum Bogenhausen, III. Medizinische Abteilung, München, Germany; 3Klinisches Diabeteszentrum Südostbayern, Innere Medizin – Diabetologie, Traunstein, Germany; 4Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 5Medizinische Universitätsklinik, Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Abteilung für Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Freiburg, Germany Background: Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, antidiabetic treatment needs to be continuously intensified to avoid long-term complications. In T2DM patients on either basal insulin-supported oral therapy (BOT or supplementary insulin therapy (SIT presenting with HbA1c values above individual targets for 3–6 months, therapy should be intensified. This study investigated effectiveness and tolerability of an intensification of BOT or SIT to a basal–bolus therapy (BBT regimen in T2DM patients in daily clinical practice. Methods: This noninterventional, 8-month, prospective, multicenter study evaluated parameters of glucose control, occurrence of adverse events (eg, hypoglycemia, and acceptance of devices in daily clinical practice routine after 12 and 24 weeks of intensifying insulin therapy to a BBT regimen starting from either preexisting BOT with insulin glargine (pre-BOT or preexisting SIT with ≥3 daily injections of insulin glulisine (pre-SIT. Results: A total of 1,530 patients were documented in 258 German medical practices. A total of 1,301 patients were included in the full analysis set (55% male, 45% female; age median 64 years; body mass index median 30.8 kg/m2; pre-BOT: n=1,072; pre-SIT: n=229, and 1,515 patients were evaluated for safety. After 12 weeks, HbA1c decreased versus baseline (pre-BOT 8.67%; pre-SIT 8.46% to 7.73% and 7.66%, respectively (Δ mean

  4. Two-stage replication of previous genome-wide association studies of AS3MT-CNNM2-NT5C2 gene cluster region in a large schizophrenia case-control sample from Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fanglin; Zhang, Tianxiao; Li, Lu; Fu, Dongke; Lin, Huali; Chen, Gang; Chen, Teng

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric condition with high heritability. Replicating the specific genetic variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia in different populations is critical to better understand schizophrenia. CNNM2 and NT5C2 are genes recently identified as susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in Europeans, but the exact mechanism by which these genes confer risk for schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we examined the potential for genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia of a three-gene cluster region, AS3MT-CNNM2-NT5C2. We implemented a two-stage strategy to conduct association analyses of the targeted regions with schizophrenia. A total of 8218 individuals were recruited, and 45 pre-selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. Both single-marker and haplotype-based analyses were conducted in addition to imputation analysis to increase the coverage of our genetic markers. Two SNPs, rs11191419 (OR=1.24, P=7.28×10(-5)) and rs11191514 (OR=1.24, P=0.0003), with significant independent effects were identified. These results were supported by the data from both the discovery and validation stages. Further haplotype and imputation analyses also validated these results, and bioinformatics analyses indicated that CALHM1, which is located approximately 630kb away from CNNM2, might be a susceptible gene for schizophrenia. Our results provide further support that AS3MT, CNNM2 and CALHM1 are involved with the etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia, suggesting these genes are potential targets of interest for the improvement of disease management and the development of novel pharmacological strategies.

  5. A multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled study of rh-endostatin (Endostar) in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Li, Lu; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Shuliang; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Xiangqun; Yu, Yongfeng; Zhou, Caicun; Li, Wei; Liao, Meilin; Li, Baolan; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Ping; Hu, Chunhong; Hu, Chengping

    2015-01-01

    Based on promising efficacy in a single-arm study, a randomized phase II trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of adding rh-endostatin (Endostar) to first-line standard etoposide and carboplatin (EC) chemotherapy for treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. One hundred forty Chinese patients with pathologically confirmed, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to EC alone or rh-endostatin + EC for 4-6 cycles, followed by single-agent rh-endostatin until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival, Objective response rate (ORR), and quality of life. Median PFS was 6.4 months with rh-endostatin + EC (n = 69) and 5.9 months with EC (n = 69) (hazard ratio 0.8 [95% confidence interval 0.6-1.1]). PFS was significantly higher with rh-endostatin + EC than with EC (hazard ratio 0.4 [0.2-0.9; p = 0.020]) in female. Median overall survival was similar in both groups (12.1 versus 12.4 months, respectively [p = 0.82]). ORR was higher in the rh-endostatin + EC group (75.4%) than in the EC group (66.7%) (p = 0.348). The efficacy of rh-endostatin + EC relative to that of EC was reflected by greater improvements in patient-assessed quality of life scores after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. There was no difference between each regimen in the incidence of nonhematological or Grade III-IV hematological toxicities. Addition of rh-endostatin to EC for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer had an acceptable toxicity profile, but did not improve overall survival, PFS, and ORR.

  6. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  7. Job performance over time is a function of latent trajectories and previous performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyphur, Michael J; Chaturvedi, Sankalp; Arvey, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Previous literature addressing job performance over time notes that past performance can affect future performance and that individuals often have distinct latent performance trajectories. However, no research to date has modeled these 2 aspects of job performance in tandem. Drawing on previous literature, the authors note that current performance may act as performance feedback, influencing future performance directly (i.e., autoregression), and that individuals differ in their performance trajectories due to individual-difference factors (i.e., latent trajectories). The authors demonstrate an autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model to show how both autoregressive and latent trajectory parameters may be incorporated in modeling job performance over time. Also discussed are the implications of the ALT model for future studies examining job performance longitudinally.

  8. Mechanisms of virologic failure in previously untreated HIV-infected patients from a trial of induction-maintenance therapy. Trilège (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA 072) Study Team).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, D; Flandre, P; Calvez, V; Peytavin, G; Meiffredy, V; Collin, G; Delaugerre, C; Robert-Delmas, S; Bazin, B; Aboulker, J P; Pialoux, G; Raffi, F; Brun-Vézinet, F

    2000-01-12

    In the Trilège trial, following induction with a zidovudine, lamivudine, and indinavir regimen, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication was less suppressed by 2-drug maintenance therapy than by triple-drug therapy. To identify mechanisms of virologic failure in the 3 arms of the Trilège trial. Case-control study conducted from February to October 1998. Three urban hospitals in Paris, France. Fifty-eight case patients with virologic failure (HIV RNA rebound to >500 copies/mL in 2 consecutive samples) randomized to 3 therapy groups: triple drug (zidovudine, lamivudine, and indinavir), 8; zidovudine-lamivudine, 29; and zidovudine-indinavir, 21; the case patients were randomly matched with 58 control patients with sustained viral suppression. At virologic failure (S1 sample) and 6 weeks later (S2 sample), assessment of protease and reverse transcriptase gene mutations, plasma indinavir level, and degree of viral load rebound; pill count during induction and maintenance periods. Only 1 primary resistance mutation, M184V, was detected in S1 plasma samples from 4 of 6 patients in the triple-drug and in all 22 in the zidovudine-lamivudine therapy groups and in S2 plasma samples from 3 of 6 in the triple-drug and 20 of 21 in the zidovudine-lamivudine groups. Of controls, M184V was detected in 11 of 13 S1 plasma samples and in 10 of 11 S2 plasma samples. Indinavir levels were undetectable in all S1 samples but 2 in 7 triple-drug cases tested and in the expected range in 11 of 18 S1 and 5 of 12 S2 zidovudine-indinavir case plasma samples tested. Maintenance adherence rates were lower for cases vs controls for zidovudine (P = .05) and indinavir (P = .05). Low indinavir levels, lower adherence rates for zidovudine (P = .04) and lamivudine (P = .03), and rebound to near-baseline values suggested adherence as cause of early failure for 4 of 8 triple-drug cases. In the zidovudine-lamivudine arm, for which case and control adherence rates did not differ significantly (P

  9. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S. (Ed.); Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  10. Dynamic inventory models: an illustrative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adendorff, Kris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study revisits the subject matter of inventory control, a continual part of the activities of wide-ranging organisations internationally. The mathematical model is presented of a particular situation that deals with the regular acquisition of a material required for a production process in a volatile environment of varying demand and fluctuating price. The usual process dynamics are demonstrated against a background of diverse choices of probability density function. The model makes use of Normal and Weibull distributions.

  11. Studying a Chaotic Spiking Neural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a chaotic spiking neuron model are being studied mathematically and experimentally. The Nonlinear Dynamic State neuron (NDS is analysed to further understand the model and improve it.Chaos has many interesting properties such as sensitivity to initial conditions, space filling, control and synchronization. As suggested by biologists, these properties may be exploited and play vital role in carrying out computational tasks in human brain. The NDS model has some limitations; in thus paper the model is investigated to overcomesome of these limitations in order to enhance the model. Therefore,the model’s parameters are tuned and the resulted dynamics are studied. Also, the discretization method of the model is considered. Moreover, a mathematical analysis is carried out to reveal the underlying dynamics of the model after tuning of its parameters. The results of the aforementioned methods revealedsome facts regarding the NDS attractor and suggest the stabilization of a large number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs which might correspond to memories in phase space

  12. STUDYING A CHAOTIC SPIKING NEURAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a chaotic spiking neuron model are being studied mathematically and experimentally. The Nonlinear Dynamic State neuron (NDS is analysed to further understand the model and improve it. Chaos has many interesting properties such as sensitivity to initial conditions, space filling, control and synchronization. As suggested by biologists, these properties may be exploited and play vital role in carrying out computational tasks in human brain. The NDS model has some limitations; in thus paper the model is investigated to overcome some of these limitations in order to enhance the model. Therefore, the model’s parameters are tuned and the resulted dynamics are studied. Also, the discretization method of the model is considered. Moreover, a mathematical analysis is carried out to reveal the underlying dynamics of the model after tuning of its parameters. The results of the aforementioned methods revealed some facts regarding the NDS attractor and suggest the stabilization of a large number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs which might correspond to memories in phase space.

  13. Computational Study of a Primitive Life Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, Mircea

    We present a computational study of a primitive life model. The calculation involves a discrete treatment of a partial differential equation and some details of that problems are explained. We show that the investigated model is equivalent to a diffusively coupled logistic lattice. The bifurcation diagrams were calculated for different values of the control parameters. The obtained diagrams have shown that the time dependence of the population of the investigated model exhibits transitions between ordered and chaotic behavior. We have investigated also the patterns formation in this system.

  14. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  15. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  16. In Vivo Models to Study Chemokine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, F A; Boff, D; Teixeira, M M

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are essential mediators of leukocyte movement in vivo. In vitro assays of leukocyte migration cannot mimic the complex interactions with other cell types and matrix needed for cells to extravasate and migrate into tissues. Therefore, in vivo strategies to study the effects and potential relevance of chemokines for the migration of particular leukocyte subsets are necessary. Here, we describe methods to study the effects and endogenous role of chemokine in mice. Advantages and pitfalls of particular models are discussed and we focus on description in model's joint and pleural cavity inflammation and the effects and relevance of CXCR2 and CCR2 ligands on cell migration.

  17. [Study on simplification of extraction kinetics model and adaptability of total flavonoids model of Scutellariae radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Jin; Ni, Jian; Dong, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Meng-Jie; Dou, Hao-Ran; Shen, Ming-Rui; Yang, Bo-Di; Fu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Because of irregular shapes of Chinese herbal pieces, we simplified the previously deduced general extraction kinetic model for TCMs, and integrated particle diameters of Chinese herbs that had been hard to be determined in the final parameter "a". The reduction of the direct determination of particle diameters of Chinese herbs was conducive to increase the accuracy of the model, expand the application scope of the model, and get closer to the actual production conditions. Finally, a simplified model was established, with its corresponding experimental methods and data processing methods determined. With total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix as the determination index, we conducted a study on the adaptability of total flavonoids extracted from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method in the model. The results showed a good linear correlation among the natural logarithm value of the mass concentration of total flavonoids in Scutellariae Radix, the time and the changes in the natural logarithm of solvent multiple. Through calculating and fitting, efforts were made to establish the kinetic model of extracting total flavonoids from Scutellariae Radix with the water decoction method, and verify the model, with a good degree of fitting and deviation within the range of the industrial production requirements. This indicated that the model established by the method has a good adaptability.

  18. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Bono, J. De; Molina, A.; Logothetis, C.J.; Souza, P. de; Fizazi, K.; Mainwaring, P.; Piulats, J.M.; Ng, S.; Carles, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Basch, E.; Small, E.J.; Saad, F.; Schrijvers, D.; Poppel, H. van; Mukherjee, S.D.; Suttmann, H.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Flaig, T.W.; George, D.J.; Yu, E.Y.; Efstathiou, E.; Pantuck, A.; Winquist, E.; Higano, C.S.; Taplin, M.E.; Park, Y.; Kheoh, T.; Griffin, T.; Scher, H.I.; Rathkopf, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  1. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  2. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J

    2007-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity‐related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated. PMID:17127722

  3. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J

    2007-04-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated.

  4. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. T.; Sommerville, S. M. M.; Grimer, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1) patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%); (2) patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%); (3) patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%). The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality. PMID:18414590

  5. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Grimer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1 patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%; (2 patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%; (3 patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality.

  6. Morphogenesis of Vertisols:A Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIURONG-LIANG; HUANGRUI-CAI; 等

    1994-01-01

    Studies on Vertisols of Southwes China show that the distribution of organic matter,mechanical compositon,carbonates and spore-pollen in their profiles exhibits a definite differentiation and the radiocarbon age has a functional variation with soil depth,which sugests that pedoturbation model is a kind of incomplete model for genetic study and that the distubance and inversion of solums of Vertisol are not as rapid and absolute as expected.In further consideration of the characters of swelling pressure and shear strength of Vertisol,vertic soil and other zonal soils.it is speculated that soil mechanics model is more adaptable for interpreting the morphogenesis of vertisols without any contradiction with soil properties.

  7. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  8. 75 FR 9753 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Models B300 and B300C Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... previously held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Models B300 and B300C airplanes. This AD requires you to... Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company): Amendment...

  9. 77 FR 44113 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This emergency AD was... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. These conditions...

  10. 78 FR 47546 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream 100 airplanes, and Model...: 2013-14-10 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries,...

  11. Studying and Modeling Vibration Transducers and Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Ágoston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents types and operating mode of vibration sensors. Piezoelectric sensing elements are often used in accelerometers. It will be investigate the structure and transfer function of the seismic mass type sensing element. The article presents how the piezoelectric sensing element works and how can be modeled with an electronic circuit. The transfer functions of the electronic circuit models are studied in Matlab and the results are presented. It will be presented the influence of the seismic mass on the accelerometer’s working frequency domain.

  12. Animal models for studying penile hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyaMizusawa; OsamuIshizuka

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for the study of erectile function monitoring the changes in intracavernous pressure(ICP)during penile erection was reviewed.The development of new modwls using small commercially-available experimen-tal animals,rats and mice,in the last edcade facilitated in vivo investigation of erectile physiology.The technique enabled to evaluate even subtle erectile responses by analyzing ICPand systemic blood pressure,Moreover,the method has been well improved and studies using conscious animal models without the influence of any drug or anesthesia are more appropriate in exploring the precise physiological and pharmacological mechanisms in erection.Also,more natural and physiological sexual arousal instead of electrical or pharmacological stimulation is desirable in most of the studies.This article reviewed the development of ICPstudies in rats and mice.

  13. A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Louis D; Nash, Martyn P; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM) model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD) processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

  14. Hearing characteristics of cephalopods: modeling and environmental impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Shi, Feng; Song, Jiakun; Zhang, Xugang; Yu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are some of the most intriguing molluscs, and they represent economically important commercial marine species for fisheries. Previous studies have shown that cephalopods are sensitive to underwater particle motion, especially at low frequencies in the order of 10 Hz. The present paper deals with quantitative modeling of the statocyst system in three cephalopod species: Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Loligo vulgaris. The octopus's macula/statolith organ was modeled as a 2nd-order dynamic oscillator using parameter values estimated from scanning electron micrograph images. The modeling results agree reasonably well with experimental data (acceleration threshold) in the three cephalopod species. Insights made from quantitative modeling and simulating the particle motion sensing mechanism of cephalopods elucidated their underwater particle motion detection capabilities. Sensitivity to emerging environmental issues, such as low frequency noise caused by near-shore wind farms and increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the ocean, and sensitivity to sounds produced by impending landslides were investigated in octopus using the model.

  15. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, F; Lo, C; Berry, R; Xing, J

    2009-03-19

    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  16. A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

  17. Characterization of a Novel Murine Model to Study Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Shannan L.; Tesh, Robert B.; Azar, Sasha R.; Muruato, Antonio E.; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Auguste, Albert J.; Langsjoen, Rose M.; Paessler, Slobodan; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for an explosive ongoing outbreak of febrile illness across the Americas. ZIKV was previously thought to cause only a mild, flu-like illness, but during the current outbreak, an association with Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly in neonates has been detected. A previous study showed that ZIKV requires murine adaptation to generate reproducible murine disease. In our study, a low-passage Cambodian isolate caused disease and mortality in mice lacking the interferon (IFN) alpha receptor (A129 mice) in an age-dependent manner, but not in similarly aged immunocompetent mice. In A129 mice, viremia peaked at ∼107 plaque-forming units/mL by day 2 postinfection (PI) and reached high titers in the spleen by day 1. ZIKV was detected in the brain on day 3 PI and caused signs of neurologic disease, including tremors, by day 6. Robust replication was also noted in the testis. In this model, all mice infected at the youngest age (3 weeks) succumbed to illness by day 7 PI. Older mice (11 weeks) showed signs of illness, viremia, and weight loss but recovered starting on day 8. In addition, AG129 mice, which lack both type I and II IFN responses, supported similar infection kinetics to A129 mice, but with exaggerated disease signs. This characterization of an Asian lineage ZIKV strain in a murine model, and one of the few studies reporting a model of Zika disease and demonstrating age-dependent morbidity and mortality, could provide a platform for testing the efficacy of antivirals and vaccines. PMID:27022155

  18. Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Cahill, Alison G; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-08-01

    An estimated 40% of the 1.3 million cesarean deliveries performed each year in the United States are repeat procedures. The appropriate clinical management approach for women with previous cesarean delivery remains challenging because options are limited. The risks and benefits of clinical management choices in the woman's health need to be quantified. Thus, we discuss the available published scientific data on (1) the short-term maternal outcomes of trial of labor after cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery, (2) the differences between outcomes for both, (3) the important factors that influence these outcomes, and (4) successful vs. unsuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean. For women with a previous cesarean delivery, a successful trial of labor offers several distinct, consistently reproducible advantages compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, including fewer hysterectomies, fewer thromboembolic events, lower blood transfusion rates, and shorter hospital stay. However, when trial of labor after cesarean fails, emergency cesarean is associated with increased uterine rupture, hysterectomy, operative injury, blood transfusion, endometritis, and longer hospital stay. Care of women with a history of previous cesarean delivery involves a confluence of interactions between medical and nonmedical factors; however, the most important determinants of the short-term outcomes among these women are likely individualized counseling, accurate clinical diagnoses, and careful management during a trial of labor. We recommend a randomized controlled trial among women undergoing a TOLAC and a longitudinal cohort study among women with previous cesarean to evaluate adverse outcomes, with focused attention on both mother and the infant.

  19. Previous violent events and mental health outcomes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D; Lopez-Soto, Victor A; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S; Branas, Charles C

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P PTSD (P civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery.

  20. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  1. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  2. Laser surface processing and model studies

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies associated with laser surface processing such as conduction limited heating, surface re-melting, Marangoni flow and its effects on the temperature field, re-melting of multi-layered surfaces, laser shock processing, and practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser surface heating and phase change in laser irradiated region. It is written for engineers and researchers working on laser surface engineering.

  3. A Study of Oil Viscosity Mental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiti; Liliasari; Sumarna, Omay; Abdulkadir Martoprawiro, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    There is no study regarding on how to learn viscosity of the liquid (e.g. oil) by interconnecting macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the mental model of the oil viscosity. Intermolecular attractive force of oil constituent on the sub-microscopic level is depicted in the form of mental models. In this research, the viscosity data for some types of oil was measured by using Hoppler method. Viscosity of mineral oil SAE 20W-50, mineral oil SAE 15W-40 and synthetic oil SAE 10W-40 were 1.75, 1.31, and 1.03 Pa s, and the densities of these oils were 908.64, 885.04, and 877.02 kg/m3, respectively. The results showed that the greater density of the mineral oil that is assumed to be composed of linear chains of hydrocarbons, the longer the chain of hydrocarbon linear. Consequently, there are stronger the London force and greater the oil viscosity. The density and viscosity of synthetic oil are lower than that of both mineral oils. Synthetic oil structurally forms polymers with large branching. This structure affects a lower synthetic oil viscosity. This study contributes to construct a mental model of pre-service chemistry teachers.

  4. Preliminary Study of Jerome Model and Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 蒋秀丽

    2013-01-01

    Translation always plays the crucial role in the cross-culture communication and the development of human being’s history of civilization. The author of this papertries to make an analysis and contrast of the two translation models: the Jerome model and the Horace model, pointing out that it is because of different circumstances that different translation models are used in the translation.

  5. Subtalar Fusion Rate in Patients With Previous Ipsilateral Ankle Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Diego H; Nunley, James A; Easley, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Isolated subtalar arthrodesis is generally successful, with reported fusion rates of 84% to 100%. However, alteration of subtalar joint mechanics and talar body vasculature after ankle fusion may negatively influence subsequent ipsilateral subtalar joint fusion. Because there is very limited information on the subtalar fusion rate in patients with previous ipsilateral ankle fusion, the purpose of this study was to describe fusion rates in subtalar joint arthrodesis with and without preexisting ankle fusion in a large consecutive series of primary subtalar arthrodesis cases. All primary subtalar fusions performed between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Thirteen of 151 consecutive cases were in patients with existing ipsilateral ankle fusions. All patients were evaluated for clinical and radiographic evidence of nonunion at follow-up, and fusion rates in the groups with and without previous ipsilateral ankle fusion were compared. Five nonunions occurred in the 13 cases with prior ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis, a 61.5% fusion rate. Twelve nonunions were identified in the 138 cases without prior ankle arthrodesis, a significantly higher fusion rate of 91.3% (P = .007). In our series, the subtalar fusion rate in patients with previous ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis was significantly lower than that for subtalar arthrodesis in the absence of ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Flow regulation in coronary vascular tree: a model study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhou Xie

    Full Text Available Coronary blood flow can always be matched to the metabolic demand of the myocardium due to the regulation of vasoactive segments. Myocardial compressive forces play an important role in determining coronary blood flow but its impact on flow regulation is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a coronary specified flow regulation model, which can integrate myocardial compressive forces and other identified regulation factors, to further investigate the coronary blood flow regulation behavior.A theoretical coronary flow regulation model including the myogenic, shear-dependent and metabolic responses was developed. Myocardial compressive forces were included in the modified wall tension model. Shear-dependent response was estimated by using the experimental data from coronary circulation. Capillary density and basal oxygen consumption were specified to corresponding to those in coronary circulation. Zero flow pressure was also modeled by using a simplified capillary model.Pressure-flow relations predicted by the proposed model are consistent with previous experimental data. The predicted diameter changes in small arteries are in good agreement with experiment observations in adenosine infusion and inhibition of NO synthesis conditions. Results demonstrate that the myocardial compressive forces acting on the vessel wall would extend the auto-regulatory range by decreasing the myogenic tone at the given perfusion pressure.Myocardial compressive forces had great impact on coronary auto-regulation effect. The proposed model was proved to be consistent with experiment observations and can be employed to investigate the coronary blood flow regulation effect in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  7. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  8. Modelling Study of Interstellar Ethanimine Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Corby, Joanna F.; Durr, Allison; Hassel, George

    2016-06-01

    Ethanimine (CH3CHNH) , including both the E- and Z- isomers, were detected towards the star-forming region Sgr B2(N) using the GBT PRIMOS data (Loomis et al 2013), and were recently imaged by the ACTA (Corby et al. 2015). These aldimines can serve as precursors of biological molecules such as amino acids thus are considered prebiotic molecules in interstellar medium. In this study, we present chemical simulations of ethanimine with various physical conditions. From models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, calculated ethanimine abundances show reasonable agreement with observed values, while the translucent cloud models yield much lower abundances. These results agree with locations suggested by observations that ethanimine isomers were detected in the foreground of the shells of the hot core.

  9. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  10. Detailed kinetic modeling study of n-pentanol oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Heufer, Karl Alexander

    2012-10-18

    To help overcome the world\\'s dependence upon fossil fuels, suitable biofuels are promising alternatives that can be used in the transportation sector. Recent research on internal combustion engines shows that short alcoholic fuels (e.g., ethanol or n-butanol) have reduced pollutant emissions and increased knock resistance compared to fossil fuels. Although higher molecular weight alcohols (e.g., n-pentanol and n-hexanol) exhibit higher reactivity that lowers their knock resistance, they are suitable for diesel engines or advanced engine concepts, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), where higher reactivity at lower temperatures is necessary for engine operation. The present study presents a detailed kinetic model for n-pentanol based on modeling rules previously presented for n-butanol. This approach was initially validated using quantum chemistry calculations to verify the most stable n-pentanol conformation and to obtain C-H and C-C bond dissociation energies. The proposed model has been validated against ignition delay time data, speciation data from a jet-stirred reactor, and laminar flame velocity measurements. Overall, the model shows good agreement with the experiments and permits a detailed discussion of the differences between alcohols and alkanes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Model Organisms Fact Sheet: Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Tagline (Optional) ... and treating disease in humans. What is a model? The word model has many meanings, but in ...

  12. Transvesical NOTES: Survival Study in Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhas, Gokulakkrishna; Gupta, Aditya; Jacobs, Michael J.; Decker, Melissa; Silberberg, Boris; Mittal, Vijay K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The optimal access route and method for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has not been established. A transvesical approach, with its low rate of peritoneal contamination, is an effective clean portal of entry, but a safe urinary bladder closure has been a challenge. We developed a new technique for a safe, pure transvesical NOTES approach. Methods: Four female piglets were used in the study. With the pigs under anesthesia, a flexible cystoscope (15Fr) was used to make an endoscopic cystotomy; diagnostic peritoneoscopy of the abdominal quadrants was done with biopsies and hemostasis. At the end, a Vicryl loop was pushed to close the bladder incision while the incision edges were pulled inwards. The pigs were euthanized after 2 wk, and necropsies were performed. Results: No bowel injury was noted in any of the 4 pigs. Satisfactory bladder closure was done in 2 pigs, while a partial closure was achieved in 1 case. In the postoperative period, the pigs showed no signs of pain or distress, voided normally, and had a good appetite. On necropsy, we noted healed cystotomy incisions, no intraabdominal adhesions, and no adhesions at the site. Conclusion: Our new technique for endoscopic cystotomy overcomes previously reported risks for bowel injuries. Using this route gives good spatial orientation and access to all quadrants, including the pelvis. Biopsies with good hemostasis can be easily achieved. Lack of intraperitoneal changes postoperatively indicate that this procedure may be safe for humans. PMID:23484572

  13. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  14. Models for the study of whole systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2006-12-01

    This article summarizes a network and complex systems science model for research on whole systems of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such as homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine. The holistic concepts of networks and nonlinear dynamical complex systems are well matched to the global and interactive perspectives of whole systems of CAM, whereas the reductionistic science model is well matched to the isolated local organ, cell, and molecular mechanistic perspectives of pharmaceutically based biomedicine. Whole systems of CAM are not drugs with specific actions. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of whole systems of CAM produce effects that involve global and patterned shifts across multiple subsystems of the person as a whole. For homeopathy, several characteristics of complex systems, including the probabilistic nature of attractor patterns, variable sensitivity of complex systems to initial conditions, and emergent behaviors in the evolution of a system in its full environmental context over time, could help account for the mixed basic science and controlled clinical trial research findings, in contrast with the consistently positive outcomes of observational studies in the literature. Application of theories and methods from complex systems and network science can open a new era of advances in understanding factors that lead to good versus poor individual global outcome patterns and to rational triage of patients to one type of care over another. The growing reliance on complex systems thinking and systems biology for cancer research affords a unique opportunity to bridge between the CAM and conventional medical worlds with some common language and conceptual models.

  15. A Study on Jerome Translation Model and Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坚; 石美

    2013-01-01

    The two translation models, namely the Jerome and Horace can be thought to be the forerunner of the translation theory nowadays. They share one common concept, 0faithfulness. But the Jerome and Horace model hold different views to faithfulness. In Jerome model, the translator is faithful to a text, but in the Horace model he should be faithful to his customers. Besides, the faithfulness, equivalence, domesticating and foreignizing principles in the two translation models are all related to the three factors, the author, the text and the reader which are necessary in translation.

  16. Study of gap conductance model for thermo mechanical fully coupled finite element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cha; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod consists of zirconium alloy cladding and uranium dioxide pellets, with a slight gap between them. Therefore, the mechanical integrity of zirconium alloy cladding is the most critical issue, as it is an important barrier for fission products released into the environment. To evaluate the stress and strain of the cladding during operation, fuel performance codes with a one-dimensional (1D) approach have been reported since the 1970s. However, it is difficult for a 1D model to simulate the stress and strain of the cladding accurately owing to a lack of degree of freedom. A LWR fuel performance code should include thermo-mechanical coupled model owing to the existence of the fuel-cladding gap. Generally, the gap that is filled with helium gas results in temperature drop along radius direction. The gap conductance that determines temperature gradient within the gap is very sensitive to gap thickness. For instance, once the gap size increases up to several microns in certain region, difference of surface temperatures increases up to 100 Kelvin. Therefore, iterative thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is required to solve temperature distribution throughout pellet and cladding. Consequently, the Finite Element (FE) module, which can simulate a higher degree of freedom numerically, is an indispensable requirement to understand the thermomechanical behavior of cladding. FRAPCON-3, which is reliable performance code, has iterative loop for thermo-mechanical coupled calculation to solve 1D gap conductance model. In FEMAXI-III, 1D thermal analysis module and FE module for stress-strain analysis were separated. 1D thermal module includes iterative analysis between them. DIONISIO code focused on thermal contact model as function of surface roughness and contact pressure when the gap is closed. In previous works, gap conductance model has been developed only for 1D model or hybrid model (1D and FE). To simulate temperature, stress and strain

  17. 76 FR 65995 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones... EADS CASA (Type Certificate previously held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A.) Model CN-235-100,...

  18. 75 FR 28485 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream 100... adding the following new AD: 2010-11-02 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.)...

  19. 78 FR 76050 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron uticas, S.A.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by... previously held by Construcciones Aeron uticas, S.A.) Model C-212-CF airplanes, which were included in...

  20. 77 FR 32069 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes. This proposed.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held...

  1. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    .... (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and PA- 31T1 airplanes. The existing AD... the Federal Register for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The...

  2. 77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This proposed AD was... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft ] Industries, Ltd.): Docket No. FAA-2012-0986; Directorate Identifier...

  3. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This AD was prompted by...: 2013-03-23 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries,...

  4. 76 FR 70040 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream G150 airplanes; and...: 2011-23-07 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries,...

  5. 78 FR 9779 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech Aircraft Corporation... previously held by Raytheon Aircraft Company; Beech Aircraft Corporation) Model 400A airplanes. This AD was... airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-03-07 Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held...

  6. 77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Astra SPX, 1125 Westwind Astra, and Gulfstream 100... new AD: 2012-15-06 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

  7. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  8. Block renormalization study on the nonequilibrium chiral Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina; Park, Su-Chan; Noh, Jae Dong

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study on the ordering dynamics of a one-dimensional nonequilibrium Ising spin system with chirality. This system is characterized by a direction-dependent spin update rule. Pairs of +- spins can flip to ++ or -- with probability (1-u) or to -+ with probability u while -+ pairs are frozen. The system was found to evolve into the ferromagnetic ordered state at any urenormalization analysis proposed by Basu and Hinrichsen [U. Basu and H. Hinrichsen, J. Stat. Mech.: Theor. Exp. (2011)]. The block renormalization method predicts, under the assumption of dynamic scale invariance, a scaling relation that can be used to estimate the scaling exponent numerically. We find the condition under which the scaling relation is justified. We then apply the method to our model and obtain the critical exponent zδ at several values of u. The numerical result is in perfect agreement with that of the previous study. This study serves as additional evidence for the claim that the nonequilibrium chiral Ising model displays power-law scaling behavior with continuously varying exponents.

  9. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  10. Model Checking Software Systems: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-10

    gained. We suggest a radically different tack: model checking. The two formal objects compared are a finite state machine model of the software...simply terminates. 3.1.1. State Machine Model Let’s consider a simplified model with just one client, one server, and one file. The top graph

  11. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of 2-methylbutanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-05-01

    2-Methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) is one of several next-generation biofuels that can be used as an alternative fuel or blending component for combustion engines. This paper presents new experimental data for 2-methylbutanol, including ignition delay times in a high-pressure shock tube and premixed laminar flame speeds in a constant volume combustion vessel. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured for 2-methylbutanol/air mixtures at three equivalence ratios, temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250. K, and at nominal pressures near 20 and 40. bar. Laminar flame speed data were obtained using the spherically propagating premixed flame configuration at pressures of 1, 2, and 5. bar. A detailed chemical kinetic model for 2-methylbutanol oxidation was developed including high- and low-temperature chemistry based on previous modeling studies on butanol and pentanol isomers. The proposed model was tested against new and existing experimental data at pressures of 1-40. atm, temperatures of 740-1636. K, equivalence ratios of 0.25-2.0. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were conducted for identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions, and to obtain better understanding of the combustion characteristics of larger alcohols.

  12. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  13. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  14. Preliminary study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan: case study (GeoJordan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications.The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of a Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for the geodetic applications in the country. This work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for «The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan». The model is created using gravimetric data and the GRAVSOFT program. The model is validated using GPS and precise level measurements in the Amman area. Moreover, we present a comparison using the Global Geopotential Model OSU91A and the EGM96 Model and the results showed great discrepancies. We also present the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. We found that the error margin obtained in this work of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurements is about (10 cm in the tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40 cm.

  15. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Autoradiographic studies in a rabbit osteoarthrosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengler, H.; Franz, R. (Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-02-01

    To study the onset of the osteoarthrotic process, an osteoarthrosis model was used on the knee joint in adult rabbits by a valgus deformity of the proximal tibia of 30/sup 0/ in conformity with Reimann 1973. The synthesis capacity of the chondrocytes was investigated by using /sup 35/S-sulfate autoradiographies. Already prior to the affection of the superficial integrity of the cartilage it was possible to observe an enhanced glycosaminoglycan synthesis, but with progressing fibrillation the sulfate incorporation was found to be diminished. Thanks to autoradiography with /sup 3/H-thymidine the replication of the chondrocytes was already found at very early stages of osteoarthrosis that is likely to occur mitotically. The osteotomy itself induces mitoses and an enhanced glycosaminoglycan synthesis.

  18. A transgenic Xenopus laevis reporter model to study lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelii Ny

    2013-07-01

    The importance of the blood- and lymph vessels in the transport of essential fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells in vertebrates warrants optimal insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying their development. Mouse and zebrafish models of lymphatic development are instrumental for gene discovery and gene characterization but are challenging for certain aspects, e.g. no direct accessibility of embryonic stages, or non-straightforward visualization of early lymphatic sprouting, respectively. We previously demonstrated that the Xenopus tadpole is a valuable model to study the processes of lymphatic development. However, a fluorescent Xenopus reporter directly visualizing the lymph vessels was lacking. Here, we created transgenic Tg(Flk1:eGFP Xenopus laevis reporter lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in blood- and lymph vessels driven by the Flk1 (VEGFR-2 promoter. We also established a high-resolution fluorescent dye labeling technique selectively and persistently visualizing lymphatic endothelial cells, even in conditions of impaired lymph vessel formation or drainage function upon silencing of lymphangiogenic factors. Next, we applied the model to dynamically document blood and lymphatic sprouting and patterning of the initially avascular tadpole fin. Furthermore, quantifiable models of spontaneous or induced lymphatic sprouting into the tadpole fin were developed for dynamic analysis of loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes using pharmacologic or genetic manipulation. Together with angiography and lymphangiography to assess functionality, Tg(Flk1:eGFP reporter tadpoles readily allowed detailed lymphatic phenotyping of live tadpoles by fluorescence microscopy. The Tg(Flk1:eGFP tadpoles represent a versatile model for functional lymph/angiogenomics and drug screening.

  19. 75 FR 57844 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and... Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39-16438. Docket No. FAA-2010-0555; Directorate... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200...

  20. FETOMATERNAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY WITH PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigamananda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to see the fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with previous cesarean section. METHODS: This study was conducted in the department of OBGYN, BARC Hospital, Mumbai from October 2011 to September 2012, a period of one year. All the pregnant women with previous one cesarean section attending ANC clinic for confinement were included in the study group after giving consent. RESULTS: Out of total75 cases, a total of 23 patients (30.67% were given trial of labor. Out of 23 patients given trial of labor, 12 patients (52.17% had successful VBAC. Commonest indication for unsuccessful trial of labor undergoing repeat cesarean section was non-progress of labor (54.55% and failed IOL (36.67%. Out of 12 patients who had successful VBAC, 3 patients (25% had complication like episiotomy hematoma, perineal tear and cervical tear. No patients had major complications. In present study no baby had apgar score <7 at 1min and 5 min in VBAC group and elective LSCS group. CONCLUSION: The current study concludes that women with a prior cesarean are at increased risk for repeat cesarean section. Vigilance with respect to indication at primary cesarean delivery, proper counseling for trial of labor and proper antepartum and intrapartum monitoring of patients, are key to reducing the cesarean section rates. The antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications are more in repeat cesarean section cases. There is no doubt that a trial of labor is a relatively safe procedure, but it is not risk free. Therefore, patient evaluation prior to TOLAC, careful observation throughout labor in a well-equipped unit with around the clock services for emergency surgery and availability of expertise is the backbone for successful VBAC.

  1. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of a CUBIPOD Armoured Roundhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Aldama, J. M. Urrutia

    The present report presents results from a three‐dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period September 2008 - December 2008. The model tests were carried out to study the stability of a CUBIPOD armoured roundhead under short‐crested wave attack. Few long......‐crested wave tests were performed as well. One objective of the tests was to compare the stability of CUBIPOD armoured roundheads to the stability of cube armoured roundheads. This could be done by choosing a model test setup identical to that previous used in a study of the stability of a cube armoured...

  2. Evaluation of a target region capture sequencing platform using monogenic diabetes as a study-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, R.; Liu, Y. X.; Gjesing, A. P.;

    2014-01-01

    diabetes as a study-model. Results: The performance of the assay was evaluated in 70 patients carrying known disease causing mutations previously identified in HNF4A, GCK, HNF1A, HNF1B, INS, or KCNJ11. Target regions with a less than 20-fold sequencing depth were either introns or UTRs. When only...

  3. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  4. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  5. Mathematical modelling with case studies using Maple and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Mathematical ModelingMathematical models An overview of the book Some modeling approaches Modeling for decision makingCompartmental Models Introduction Exponential decay and radioactivity Case study: detecting art forgeries Case study: Pacific rats colonize New Zealand Lake pollution models Case study: Lake Burley Griffin Drug assimilation into the blood Case study: dull, dizzy, or dead? Cascades of compartments First-order linear DEs Equilibrium points and stability Case study: money, money, money makes the world go aroundModels of Single PopulationsExponential growth Density-

  6. Genetic network models: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, Eugene P.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2001-06-01

    Currently, the need arises for tools capable of unraveling the functionality of genes based on the analysis of microarray measurements. Modeling genetic interactions by means of genetic network models provides a methodology to infer functional relationships between genes. Although a wide variety of different models have been introduced so far, it remains, in general, unclear what the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches are and where these models overlap and differ. This paper compares different genetic modeling approaches that attempt to extract the gene regulation matrix from expression data. A taxonomy of continuous genetic network models is proposed and the following important characteristics are suggested and employed to compare the models: inferential power; predictive power; robustness; consistency; stability and computational cost. Where possible, synthetic time series data are employed to investigate some of these properties. The comparison shows that although genetic network modeling might provide valuable information regarding genetic interactions, current models show disappointing results on simple artificial problems. For now, the simplest models are favored because they generalize better, but more complex models will probably prevail once their bias is more thoroughly understood and their variance is better controlled.

  7. Models for the study of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, R C; Warden, S J

    2011-06-01

    Tendinopathy refers to the clinical presentation of activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness, and intratendinous imaging changes. The underlying pathology was once thought to be due to inflammation ('tendinitis'), but is now considered to predominantly result from degeneration ('tendinosis'). While some progress has been made in understanding tendinosis, the condition remains poorly understood and a need exists for suitable exploratory preclinical models. It is unlikely that one suitable model exists because of the complexity of the underlying pathology and myriad of possible causes. This paper provides an overview of current models utilized in tendinopathy research. It progresses hierarchically from in vitro and ex vivo models to in vivo models. For each model, rationale for use, pertinent findings, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. By improving on these models, new methods for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy may be explored with the ultimate outcome being a reduction in the occurrence and effects of the condition in humans.

  8. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  9. Examining Neurocognitive Function in Previously Concussed Interscholastic Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cameron R; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of sport-related concussions in soccer has gained recent attention in the medical community. Interestingly, purposeful heading-a unique yet strategic and inherent part of soccer-involves repeated subconcussive blows to the head. We divided 210 female interscholastic soccer players into control (CON [never concussed]) and experimental (EXP [previously concussed]) groups. We assessed neurocognitive performance using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics computer program before and after the players' competitive season. Headers were recorded at all sanctioned matches. Data were analyzed using a series of one-way analyses of covariance and t tests. Both groups essentially played in the same number of games (EXP = 16.1 vs. CON = 16.1) and had an equal number of total headers (EXP = 24.9 vs. CON = 24.3). Additionally, headers per game were surprisingly low in both groups (1.4 in EXP vs. 1.3 in CON). Unexpectedly, there were no significant differences between the EXP and CON groups across all dependent variables measured (p > .05). This study suggests that although previously concussed players involve themselves in purposeful heading (i.e., subconcussive insults) throughout a competitive season, there appear to be no negative consequences on neuropsychological test performance or concussion-related symptoms. Additional research is needed to determine what may result during the course of a playing career.

  10. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  11. Single antiplatelet therapy for patients with previous gastrointestinal bleeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Rochelle M; Ackman, Margaret L

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether aspirin plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is preferable, from a gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) risk perspective, to clopidogrel in patients who have experienced a GIB while on aspirin and who require single antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A literature search was conducted using EMBASE (1980-January 2008), PubMed (1966-January 2008), Google, and a manual search of the reference lists using the search terms gastrointestinal bleed, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, peptic ulcer hemorrhage, ASA, aspirin, Plavix, clopidogrel, and PPI. The search, limited to human and English studies, yielded 110 returns. Randomized trials that compared aspirin with clopidogrel, involved patients who had previously experienced a GIB, and provided detailed information on the type and dose of drugs used were included. Studies were required to provide information on the recurrence of GIB. Two randomized trials were reviewed to assess the safety of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with respect to previous GIB. These noninferiority trials compared aspirin plus a PPI with clopidogrel over 12 months following confirmed healing of an aspirin-induced ulcer. In both trials, the majority of the GIB recurrences were in the clopidogrel group (8.6% vs 0.7%; difference 7.9%; 95% CI 3.4 to 12.4; p = 0.001 and 13.6% vs 0%; difference 13.6%; 95% CI 6.3 to 20.9; p = 0.0019) and the difference in recurrence rates exceeded the a priori selected upper boundary. Findings reported in the limited literature available support that clopidogrel is not equivalent to the combination of aspirin plus a PPI in the patient population studied. Aspirin plus a PPI would be considered clinically superior and should be used in medically managed patients who require single antiplatelet therapy but have had a prior GIB while on aspirin. Further research regarding dual antiplatelet therapy and a PPI is required.

  12. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of a CUBIPOD Armoured Roundhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Aldama, J. M. Urrutia

    The present report presents results from a three‐dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period September 2008 - December 2008. The model tests were carried out to study the stability of a CUBIPOD armoured roundhead under short‐crested wave attack. Few long‐crested w......The present report presents results from a three‐dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period September 2008 - December 2008. The model tests were carried out to study the stability of a CUBIPOD armoured roundhead under short‐crested wave attack. Few long......‐crested wave tests were performed as well. One objective of the tests was to compare the stability of CUBIPOD armoured roundheads to the stability of cube armoured roundheads. This could be done by choosing a model test setup identical to that previous used in a study of the stability of a cube armoured...

  13. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  14. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  15. Perfil das características do treinamento e associação com lesões musculoesqueléticas prévias em corredores recreacionais: um estudo transversal A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Hespanhol Junior

    2012-02-01

    the routines, training characteristics and history of injury in recreational runners and to evaluate possible associations between the routines and training characteristics with previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries. METHODS: A total of 200 runners participated in this study. The participants completed an electronic form containing questions about personal characteristics, running experience, training characteristics, type of running shoes, foot type and previous injuries history over the last 12 months. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The majority of the runners was male, aged 43.0 (SD=10.5 years-old, have a body mass index of 24.2 (IQR=4.3 kg/m², and had training volume of 35.0 (IQR=28.0 kilometers per week. Fifty-five percent of runners had injuries over the last 12 months. The most prevalent injuries observed were tendinopathies and muscle injuries. The variable that showed an association with previous running-related injuries was running experience from 5 to 15 years (Odds Ratio (OR=0.2; 95%CI=0.1 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of running-related injuries over the last 12 months was 55%. The variable running experience was associated with the absence of previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries.

  16. The circulation of Icelandic waters – a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow, temperature and salinity fields of the North Atlantic including the Arctic Ocean covering the time period 1992 to 2006 are simulated with the numerical ocean model CODE. The model reveals several new insights and previously unknown structures which help us to clarify open questions on the regional oceanography of Icelandic waters. These relate to the structure and geographical distribution of the coastal current, the primary forcing of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC, the path of the Atlantic Water south-east of Iceland and the structure of the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ. The model's adaptively refined computational mesh has a maximum resolution of 1 km horizontal and 2.5 m vertical in Icelandic waters. CTD profiles from this region and the river discharge of 46 Icelandic watersheds, computed by the hydrological model WaSiM, are assimilated into the simulation. The model realistically reproduces the established elements of the circulation around Iceland. However, analysis of the simulated mean flow field also provides further insights. It suggests a distinct freshwater-induced coastal current that only exists along the south-west and west coasts which is accompanied by a counter-directed undercurrent. The simulated transport of Atlantic Water over the Icelandic shelf takes place in a symmetrical system of two currents, with the established NIIC over the north-western and northern shelf, and a current over the southern and south-eastern shelf herein called the South Icelandic Current (SIC. Both currents are driven by topographically induced distortions of the Arctic Front's barotropic pressure field. The SIC is simulated to be an upstream precursor of the Faroe Current (FC. The recently discovered North Icelandic Jet (NIJ also features in the model predictions and is found to be forced by the baroclinic pressure field of the Arctic Front, to originate east of the Kolbeinsey Ridge and to have a volume transport

  17. Prediction of Body Mass Index Using Concurrently Self-Reported or Previously Measured Height and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaohui; Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Zeng, Donglin; French, Simone; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare alternative models for the imputation of BMIM (measured weight in kilograms/measured height in meters squared) in a longitudinal study. Methods We used data from 11,008 adults examined at wave III (2001–2002) and wave IV (2007–2008) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants were asked their height and weight before being measured. Equations to predict wave IV BMIM were developed in an 80% random subsample and evaluated in the remaining participants. The validity of models that included BMI constructed from previously measured height and weight (BMIPM) was compared to the validity of models that used BMI calculated from concurrently self-reported height and weight (BMISR). The usefulness of including demographics and perceived weight category in those models was also examined. Results The model that used BMISR, compared to BMIPM, as the only variable produced a larger R2 (0.913 vs. 0.693), a smaller root mean square error (2.07 vs. 3.90 kg/m2) and a lower bias between normal-weight participants and those with obesity (0.98 vs. 4.24 kg/m2). The performance of the model containing BMISR alone was not substantially improved by the addition of demographics, perceived weight category or BMIPM. Conclusions Our work is the first to show that concurrent self-reports of height and weight may be more useful than previously measured height and weight for imputation of missing BMIM when the time interval between measures is relatively long. Other time frames and alternatives to in-person collection of self-reported data need to be examined. PMID:27898706

  18. A computational study of pyrolysis reactions of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder

    2010-01-01

    Enthalpies of reaction for the initial steps in the pyrolysis of lignin have been evaluated at the CBS-4m level of theory using fully substituted b-O-4 dilignols. Values for competing unimolecular decomposition reactions are consistent with results previously published for phenethyl phenyl ether models, but with lowered selectivity. Chain propagating reactions of free...

  19. Comparative Studies of Clustering Techniques for Real-Time Dynamic Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Emilie; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Huang, Zhenyu; Lin, Guang; Lu, Shuai; Wang, Shaobu

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic model reduction in power systems is necessary for improving computational efficiency. Traditional model reduction using linearized models or offline analysis would not be adequate to capture power system dynamic behaviors, especially the new mix of intermittent generation and intelligent consumption makes the power system more dynamic and non-linear. Real-time dynamic model reduction emerges as an important need. This paper explores the use of clustering techniques to analyze real-time phasor measurements to determine generator groups and representative generators for dynamic model reduction. Two clustering techniques -- graph clustering and evolutionary clustering -- are studied in this paper. Various implementations of these techniques are compared and also compared with a previously developed Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)-based dynamic model reduction approach. Various methods exhibit different levels of accuracy when comparing the reduced model simulation against the original model. But some ...

  20. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  1. Study on Dielectric Function Models for Surface Plasmon Resonance Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Jahanshahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common permittivity function models are compared and identifying the best model for further studies is desired. For this study, simulations using several different models and an analytical analysis on a practical surface Plasmon structure were done with an accuracy of ∼94.4% with respect to experimental data. Finite element method, combined with dielectric properties extracted from the Brendel-Bormann function model, was utilized, the latter being chosen from a comparative study on four available models.

  2. Cost Models: A Study in Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauley, Franz E.

    1975-01-01

    The article defines the major elements (fundamental questions, basic assumptions, anticipated costs, projected savings, and return on investment) of a cost model, discusses the function and importance of each of these elements, and illustrates the development and construction of a cost model through an analysis of a hypothetical speed reading…

  3. Case studies in archaeological predictive modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Jacobus Wilhelmus Hermanus Philippus

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a collection of papers is put together dealing with various quantitative aspects of predictive modelling and archaeological prospection. Among the issues covered are the effects of survey bias on the archaeological data used for predictive modelling, and the complexities of testing p

  4. Amorphous track models: a numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Hahn, Ute;

    Amorphous track models such as Katz' Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach [1, 2] or the Local Effect Model (LEM) [3, 4] had reasonable success in predicting the response of solid state dosimeters and radiobiological systems. LEM is currently applied in radiotherapy for biological dose optimization in ca...

  5. Amorphous track models: A numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, L.; Bassler, N.;

    2010-01-01

    We present an open-source code library for amorphous track modelling which is suppose to faciliate the application and numerical comparability as well as serve as a frame-work for the implementation of new models. We show an example of using the library indicating the choice of submodels has a si...

  6. Recurrent arthralgias in a patient with previous Mayaro fever infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn F; Patel, Paresh R; Herold, Thomas J S

    2005-04-01

    Mayaro fever is an acute, self-limited, febrile, mosquito-borne viral disease manifested by fever, chills, headache, myalgias, and arthralgias. The virus belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus. Five other mosquito-borne viruses have been described as causing a similar dengue-like illness. The virus was first isolated in 1954, and the first epidemics were described in 1955 in Brazil and Bolivia. Other cases have been reported in Suriname, Brazil, Peru, French Guiana, and Trinidad. Up to 10 to 15% of febrile illnesses in endemic areas have been attributed to Mayaro virus. The exact pathogenesis and pathophysiology among humans is unknown. Animal models have demonstrated necrosis of skeletal muscle, periosteum, perichondrial tissues, and evidence of meningitis and encephalitis. All previous cases of Mayaro fever describe a self-limited illness. No reports of recurrent symptoms exist in the literature. This report describes a case of recurrent arthralgias in a military service member presenting to the emergency department.

  7. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  8. Comparison of five bacteriophages as models for viral aerosol studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Toulouse, Marie-Josée; Martel, Bruno; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    Bacteriophages are perceived to be good models for the study of airborne viruses because they are safe to use, some of them display structural features similar to those of human and animal viruses, and they are relatively easy to produce in large quantities. Yet, only a few studies have investigated them as models. It has previously been demonstrated that aerosolization, environmental conditions, and sampling conditions affect viral infectivity, but viral infectivity is virus dependent. Thus, several virus models are likely needed to study their general behavior in aerosols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerosolization and sampling on the infectivity of five tail-less bacteriophages and two pathogenic viruses: MS2 (a single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] phage of the Leviviridae family), Φ6 (a segmented double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] phage of the Cystoviridae family), ΦX174 (a single-stranded DNA [ssDNA] phage of the Microviridae family), PM2 (a double-stranded DNA [dsDNA] phage of the Corticoviridae family), PR772 (a dsDNA phage of the Tectiviridae family), human influenza A virus H1N1 (an ssRNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family), and the poultry virus Newcastle disease virus (NDV; an ssRNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family). Three nebulizers and two nebulization salt buffers (with or without organic fluid) were tested, as were two aerosol sampling devices, a liquid cyclone (SKC BioSampler) and a dry cyclone (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health two-stage cyclone bioaerosol sampler). The presence of viruses in collected air samples was detected by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our results showed that these selected five phages behave differently when aerosolized and sampled. RNA phage MS2 and ssDNA phage ΦX174 were the most resistant to aerosolization and sampling. The presence of organic fluid in the nebulization buffer protected phages PR772 and Φ6 throughout the aerosolization and sampling with dry cyclones. In this

  9. A Detailed Modeling Study of Propane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Jayaweera, T M; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2004-03-19

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been used to simulate ignition delay times recorded by a number of experimental shock tube studies over the temperature range 900 {le} T {le} 1800 K, in the pressure range 0.75-40 atm and in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 2.0. Flame speed measurements at 1 atm in the equivalence ratio range 0.4 {le} {phi} {le} 1.8 have also been simulated. Both of these data sets, particularly those recorded at high pressure, are of particular importance in validating a kinetic mechanism, as internal combustion engines operate at elevated pressures and temperatures and rates of fuel oxidation are critical to efficient system operation. Experiments in which reactant, intermediate and product species were quantitatively recorded, versus temperature in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) and versus time in a flow reactor are also simulated. This data provide a stringent test of the kinetic mechanism as it must reproduce accurate quantitative profiles for all reactant, intermediate and product species. The JSR experiments were performed in the temperature range 1000-1110 K, in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 4.0, at a pressure of 5 atm. These experiments are complemented by those carried out in a flow reactor in the temperature range 660-820 K, at 10 atm and at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. In addition, burner stabilized flames were simulated, where chemical species profiles were measured at atmospheric pressure for two propane-air flat flames. Overall, reasonably good agreement is observed between the model simulations and the experimental results.

  10. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed.

  11. Study of Photovoltaic Cells Engineering Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yu, Zhengping; Lu, Zhengyi; Li, Chenhui; Zhang, Ruilan

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells is the theoretical basis of PV Power, which simplifies the existing mathematical model, eventually, obtains a mathematical model used in engineering. The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells contains both exponential and logarithmic calculation. The exponential and logarithmic spread out through Taylor series, which includes only four arithmetic and use single chip microcontroller as the control center. The result shows that: the use of single chip microcontroller for calculating exponential and logarithmic functions, simplifies mathematical model of PV curve, also can meet the specific conditions’ requirement for engineering applications.

  12. The circulation of Icelandic waters – a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow, temperature and salinity fields of the North Atlantic, including the Arctic Ocean, covering the time period 1992 to 2006 are simulated with the numerical ocean model CODE. The simulation reveals several new insights and previously unknown structures which help us to clarify open questions on the regional oceanography of Icelandic waters. These relate to the structure and geographical distribution of the coastal current, the primary forcing of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC and the path of the Atlantic Water south-east of Iceland. The model's adaptively refined computational mesh has a maximum resolution of 1 km horizontal and 2.5 m vertical in Icelandic waters. CTD profiles from this region and the river discharge of 46 Icelandic watersheds, computed by the hydrological model WaSiM, are assimilated into the simulation. The model realistically reproduces the established elements of the circulation around Iceland. However, analysis of the simulated mean flow field also provides further insights. It suggests a distinct freshwater-induced coastal current that only exists along the south-west and west coasts, which is accompanied by a counter-directed undercurrent. The simulated transport of Atlantic Water over the Icelandic shelf takes place in a symmetrical system of two currents, with the established NIIC over the north-western and northern shelf, and a hitherto unnamed current over the southern and south-eastern shelf, which is simulated to be an upstream precursor of the Faroe Current (FC. Both currents are driven by barotropic pressure gradients induced by a sea level slope across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. The recently discovered North Icelandic Jet (NIJ also features in the model predictions and is found to be forced by the baroclinic pressure field of the Arctic Front, to originate east of the Kolbeinsey Ridge and to have a volume transport of around 1.5 Sv within northern Denmark Strait. The

  13. Modelling catchment areas for secondary care providers: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Wardlaw, Jessica; Crouch, Susan; Carolan, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Hospitals need to understand patient flows in an increasingly competitive health economy. New initiatives like Patient Choice and the Darzi Review further increase this demand. Essential to understanding patient flows are demographic and geographic profiles of health care service providers, known as 'catchment areas' and 'catchment populations'. This information helps Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to review how their populations are accessing services, measure inequalities and commission services; likewise it assists Secondary Care Providers (SCPs) to measure and assess potential gains in market share, redesign services, evaluate admission thresholds and plan financial budgets. Unlike PCTs, SCPs do not operate within fixed geographic boundaries. Traditionally, SCPs have used administrative boundaries or arbitrary drive times to model catchment areas. Neither approach satisfactorily represents current patient flows. Furthermore, these techniques are time-consuming and can be challenging for healthcare managers to exploit. This paper presents three different approaches to define catchment areas, each more detailed than the previous method. The first approach 'First Past the Post' defines catchment areas by allocating a dominant SCP to each Census Output Area (OA). The SCP with the highest proportion of activity within each OA is considered the dominant SCP. The second approach 'Proportional Flow' allocates activity proportionally to each OA. This approach allows for cross-boundary flows to be captured in a catchment area. The third and final approach uses a gravity model to define a catchment area, which incorporates drive or travel time into the analysis. Comparing approaches helps healthcare providers to understand whether using more traditional and simplistic approaches to define catchment areas and populations achieves the same or similar results as complex mathematical modelling. This paper has demonstrated, using a case study of Manchester, that when estimating

  14. Model Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matt; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74% of total), but a reported 10% uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9%of total) is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17%of total) has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years). With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year(exp -1), the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay) over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year(exp -1). Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by systematic biases between

  15. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  16. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  17. A comparative study of generalized linear mixed modelling and artificial neural network approach for the joint modelling of survival and incidence of Dengue patients in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapugoda, J. C.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Survival time of patients with a disease and the incidence of that particular disease (count) is frequently observed in medical studies with the data of a clustered nature. In many cases, though, the survival times and the count can be correlated in a way that, diseases that occur rarely could have shorter survival times or vice versa. Due to this fact, joint modelling of these two variables will provide interesting and certainly improved results than modelling these separately. Authors have previously proposed a methodology using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) by joining the Discrete Time Hazard model with the Poisson Regression model to jointly model survival and count model. As Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) has become a most powerful computational tool to model complex non-linear systems, it was proposed to develop a new joint model of survival and count of Dengue patients of Sri Lanka by using that approach. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a model using ANN approach and compare the results with the previously developed GLMM model. As the response variables are continuous in nature, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) approach was adopted to model the data. To compare the model fit, measures such as root mean square error (RMSE), absolute mean error (AME) and correlation coefficient (R) were used. The measures indicate the GRNN model fits the data better than the GLMM model.

  18. STUDY OF NEUROSES: III AN EMPIRICAL MODEL*

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Ranbir S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY The empirical model presented in this paper is based on observations made on 60 neurotics and 60 normals matched at the individual level. Efforts are made to use the systems approach to present this paradigm synthesising both individual and environmental resources. We are of the opinion that this model is not only useful in understanding the genesis of neuroses rather has utility at the intervention level as well.

  19. What influences the association between previous and future crashes among cyclists? A propensity score analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandar Tin Tin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that experience of a previous crash is related to incidence of future crashes in a cohort of New Zealand cyclists. This paper investigated if the strength of such association differed by crash involvement propensity and by the need for medical care in the previous crash. METHODS: The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited in 2006 and followed over a median period of 4.6 years through linkage to four national databases. The crash involvement propensity was estimated using propensity scores based on the participants' demographic, cycling and residential characteristics. Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed with multivariate and propensity score adjustments. Analyses were then stratified by quintiles of the propensity score. RESULTS: A total of 801 (31.0% participants reported having experienced at least one bicycle crash in the twelve months prior to the baseline survey. They had a higher risk of experiencing crash events during follow-up (hazard ratio (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.60 but in the stratified analysis, this association was significant only in the highest two quintiles of the propensity score where the likelihood of having experienced a crash was more than 33%. The association was stronger for previous crashes that had received medical care (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.41, 1.88 compared to those that had not (HR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.49. CONCLUSIONS: Previous crash experience increased the risk of future crash involvement in high-risk cyclists and the association was stronger for previous crashes attended medically. What distinguishes the high risk group warrants closer investigation, and the findings indicate also that health service providers could play an important role in prevention of bicycle crash injuries.

  20. Hollow cathode modeling: II. Physical analysis and parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sary, Gaétan; Garrigues, Laurent; Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-05-01

    A numerical emissive hollow cathode model which couples plasma and thermal aspects of the NASA NSTAR cathode has been presented in a companion paper and simulation results obtained using the plasma model were compared to experimental data. We now compare simulation results with measurements using the full coupled model. Inside the cathode, the simulated plasma density profile agrees with the experimental data up to the ±50% experimental uncertainty while the simulated emitter temperature differs from measurements by at most 5 K. We then proceed to an analysis of the cathode discharge both inside the cathode where electron emission is dominant and outside in the near plume where electron transport instabilities are important. As observed previously in the literature, the total emitted electron current is much larger (34 {{A}}) than the set discharge current collected at the anode (13 {{A}}) while ionization plays a negligible role. Extracted electrons are emitted from a region much shorter than the full emitter (0.9 {{cm}} versus 2.5 {{cm}}). The influence of an applied axial magnetic field in the plume is also assessed and we observe that it leads to a 10-fold increase of the plasma density 1 cm downstream of the orifice entrance while the simulated discharge potential at the anode is increased from 10 {{V}} up to 35.5 {{V}}. Lastly, we perform a parametric study on both the operating point (discharge current, mass flow rate) and design (inner radius) of the cathode. The simulated useful operating envelope is shown to be limited at low discharge current mostly because of the probable ion sputtering of the emitter and at high discharge current because of emitter evaporation, plasma oscillations and sputtering of the keeper electrode. The behavior of the cathode is also analyzed w.r.t. its internal radius and simulation results show that the useful emitter length scales linearly with the cathode radius.

  1. OCT-aided anastomosis platform study in the rodent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Tong, Dedi; Zhu, Shan; Wu, Lehao; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Lee, WP Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-02-01

    Anastomosis is one of the most commonly performed procedure in the clinical environment that involves tubular structures, such as blood vessel, lymphatic vessel, seminal duct and ureter. Suture based anastomosis is still the foundation for most basic surgical training and clinical operation, although alternate techniques have been developed and under development. For those tubular-structure-anastomosis, immediate real-time post-operative evaluation of the surgical outcome is critical to the success of surgery. Previously evaluation is mostly based on surgeons' experience. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is high-speed, high-resolution noninvasive 3D imaging modality that has been widely used in the biomedical research and clinical study. In this study we used Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography as an evaluation tool for anastomosis of lymphatic vessels, ureter and seminal duct in rodent model. Immediate post-operative and long term surgical site data were collected and analyzed. Critical clinical parameters such as lumen patency, anastomosed site narrowing and suture error detection are provided to surgeons.

  2. Study of chaos based on a hierarchical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2001-12-01

    Study of chaos based on a hierarchical model is briefly reviewed. Here we categorize hierarchical model equations, i.e., (1) a model with a few degrees of freedom, e.g., the Lorenz model, (2) a model with intermediate degrees of freedom like a shell model, and (3) a model with many degrees of freedom such as a Navier-Stokes equation. We discuss the nature of chaos and turbulence described by these models via Lyapunov exponents. The interpretation of results observed in fundamental plasma experiments is also shown based on a shell model. (author)

  3. A Comparative Study of Theoretical Graph Models for Characterizing Structural Networks of Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD, that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Jerome Model and the Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子英

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the two important translation styles, the Jerome model and the Horace model, are widely studied. Consisting of four parts, this paper will focus on making a comparison between the two translation models.

  5. Multidimensional Big Spatial Data Modeling Through A Case Study: Lte Rf Subsystem Power Consumption Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Musiige, Deogratius; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study for comparing different multidimensional mathematical modeling methodologies used in multidimensional spatial big data modeling and proposing a new technique. An analysis of multidimensional modeling approaches (neural networks, polynomial interpolation and homotopy...

  6. Premorbid adjustment and previous personality in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Rodríguez Solano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial adjustment and premorbid personality are two factors that are frequently studied in order to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Premorbid adjustment alterations and personality disorders (principally those of the schizophrenia spectrum have been considered vulnerability elements or have been linked with the early manifestations of a disease that is still underdeveloped (hypothesis of neurodevelopment. In this paper we review the literature. We also studied the relationship between premorbid adjustment (PAS scale and previous personality disorders (SCID-II in a sample of 40 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, CIE-10, and statistically correlated them. The results show that premorbid adjustment correlates with avoidant, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders: the more personality pathology found, the poorer is the premorbid psychosocial adjustment. Premorbid adjustment positively correlates with histrionic personality traits. The pathological traits of schizotypal and schizoid personalities account for up to 77% of the variance of the total premorbid adjustment in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The degrees of premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia are related to the different premorbid personality disorders of schizophrenic patients, which are mainly those most genetically related with schizophrenia, that is, the spectrum of the schizophrenia.

  7. Over 400 previously undocumented Svalbard surge-type glaciers identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Wesley R.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Retelle, Michael; Schomacker, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Identifying glaciers that exhibit surge-type behavior is important when using evidence of ice front fluctuations as a proxy for reconstructing past climate oscillations. This study identifies previously undocumented surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, based on the presence of crevasse squeeze ridges in glacier forelands. Crevasse squeeze ridges are landforms suggested to be unique to surging glacier land systems. Estimates vary greatly as to the actual percentage of surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, and consequently their distribution pattern is poorly understood. A detailed survey of recent (2008-2012), high-resolution aerial imagery from TopoSvalbard, provided by the Norwegian Polar Institute, allowed for a survey of all the glacier forelands in Svalbard. Before our study, 277 individual glaciers in Svalbard have been documented to exhibit surge behavior. By using crevasse squeeze ridges as indicators of surge behavior, we have identified 431 additional glaciers that have surged. We suggest that this is a modest value as the unique surge landforms were not visible in approximately one-third of the forelands with documented surge histories. Limits to the crevasse squeeze ridge technique are presented and potential controlling factors for crevasse squeeze ridge formation/preservation are discussed.

  8. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  9. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  10. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section... Train Control Systems § 236.1031 Previously approved PTC systems. (a) Any PTC system fully implemented and operational prior to March 16, 2010, may receive PTC System Certification if the applicable PTC...

  11. Atmospheric distribution of methane on Mars: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardy, Sébastien; Daerden, Frank; Neary, Lori

    2016-10-01

    In the past decade, the detection of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars has been reported several times. These observations have strongly drawn the attention of the scientific community and triggered a renewed interest in Mars as their implications for the geochemical or biological activities are remarkable. However, given that methane is expected to have a photochemical lifetime of several centuries, the relatively fast loss rates of methane estimated from Earth-based measurements remain unexplained. Although this gave rise to objections against the validity of those observations, recent in situ measurements confirmed that methane is being occasionally released into the atmosphere from an unknown source (possibly from the ground). Additionally, ExoMars/TGO was launched to Mars in March 2016. NOMAD, one of the instruments onboard TGO, will provide the first global detailed observations of methane on Mars. It is in this context that we present a model study of the behavior of methane plumes.A general circulation model for the atmosphere of Mars is applied to simulate surface emission of methane and to investigate its vertical distribution during the first weeks after the release. Such surface emissions were suggested to explain observations of methane. Previous GCM simulations focused on the horizontal evolution of the methane, but the present study focuses on the three-dimensional dispersion of methane throughout the atmosphere after the surface release. It is found that a highly nonuniform vertical distribution, including distinct vertical layers, can appear throughout the atmosphere during the first weeks after the emission. This is explained by the global circulation patterns in the atmosphere at the time of the emission. Large Hadley cells transport the methane rapidly to other locations over the planet, and methane will be stretched out in layers along the general circulation streamlines at heights corresponding to strong zonal jets.This result changes

  12. Air pollution modeling at road sides using the operational street pollution model--a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-11-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and benzene (BNZ) that were available from previous studies. Hourly measurements and passive sample measurements collected over 3-week periods were compared with model outputs, applying emission factors from previous studies. In addition, so-called "backward calculations" were performed to adapt the emission factors for Hanoi conditions. The average fleet emission factors estimated can be used for emission calculations at other streets in Hanoi and in other locations in Southeast Asia with similar vehicle types. This study also emphasizes the need to further eliminate uncertainties in input data for the street-scale air pollution modeling in Vietnam, namely by providing reliable emission factors and hourly air pollution measurements of high quality.

  13. Application of Time Study Model in Rice Milling Firm: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Time Study Model in Rice Milling Firm: A Case Study. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a rice milling firm.

  14. Web Resources for Model Organism Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Tang; Yanqing Wang; Junwei Zhu; Wenming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    An ever-growing number of resources on model organisms have emerged with the continued development of sequencing technologies. In this paper, we review 13 databases of model organisms, most of which are reported by the National Institutes of Health of the United States (NIH; http://www.nih.gov/science/models/). We provide a brief description for each database, as well as detail its data source and types, functions, tools, and availability of access. In addition, we also provide a quality assessment about these databases. Significantly, the organism databases instituted in the early 1990s––such as the Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), and FlyBase––have developed into what are now comprehensive, core authority resources. Furthermore, all of the databases mentioned here update continually according to user feedback and with advancing technologies.

  15. Hemispherical sky simulator for daylighting model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, S.

    1981-07-01

    The design of a 24-foot-diameter hemispherical sky simulator recently completed at LBL is described. The goal was to produce a facility in which large models could be tested; which was suitable for research, teaching, and design; which could provide a uniform sky, an overcast sky, and several clear-sky luminance distributions, as well as accommodating an artificial sun. Initial operating experience with the facility is described, the sky simulator capabilities are reviewed, and its strengths and weaknesses relative to outdoor modeling tests are discussed.

  16. BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Chris Lindsey; Vitali Lissianski

    2000-01-28

    This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the ninth reporting period (September 27--December 31, 1999), EER prepared a paper Kinetic Model of Biomass Reburning and submitted it for publication and presentation at the 28th Symposium (International) on Combustion, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, July 30--August 4, 2000. Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. A preliminary report is included in this quarterly report.

  17. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  18. 76 FR 41432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy, Gulfstream... AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has...: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Docket No...

  19. 77 FR 64053 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron uticas, S.A.) Airplanes... Held by Construcciones Aeron uticas, S.A.) Model CN-235, CN-235-100, CN-235-200, and CN-235-300... CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron uticas, S.A.): Docket No....

  20. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  1. An experimental study of human birth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Alexa; Gossmann, Roseanna; Fauci, Lisa J.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The laboring uterus is a complex and dynamic fluid system. Relatively little is known about the fluid properties in this system. However, the two primary fluids of interest, amniotic fluid and vernix caseosa, likely play integral roles in the force transferred to the fetus during the final stages of parturition. This investigation probes the role of fluid in the force transfer during delivery by considering physical models that determine the role of various components of the full system. The first experimental model represents the fetus passing through the birth canal as concentric cylinders with a fluid filled gap. The rigid, inner cylinder moves through the highly flexible outer cylinder at a prescribed velocity. The geometry of the inner cylinder is varied by aspect ratio and length. A total of five different inner geometries are used to fully investigate the parameter space. As the inner cylinder moves through the outer cylinder, strain measurements are taken. These measurements are converted to force measurements as a function of time and position in the outer cylinder. The results of these experiments are compared with numerical results to form a more complete picture of force transfer. This model can be used as the foundation for predicting the force needed to deliver a fetus in the final stages of parturition. Additionally, more complex models, that incorporate uterine contraction forces, are being developed.

  2. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Three different models for calculating edge diffraction are examined. The methods of Vanderkooy, Terai and Biot & Tolstoy are compared with measurements. Although a good agreement is obtained, the measurements also show that none of the methods work completely satisfactorily. The desired properties...

  3. Study on Strand Space Model Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI QingGuang(季庆光); QING SiHan(卿斯汉); ZHOU YongBin(周永彬); FENG DengGuo(冯登国)

    2003-01-01

    The growing interest in the application of formal methods of cryptographic pro-tocol analysis has led to the development of a number of different ways for analyzing protocol. Inthis paper, it is strictly proved that if for any strand, there exists at least one bundle containingit, then an entity authentication protocol is secure in strand space model (SSM) with some smallextensions. Unfortunately, the results of attack scenario demonstrate that this protocol and the Yahalom protocol and its modification are de facto insecure. By analyzing the reasons of failure offormal inference in strand space model, some deficiencies in original SSM are pointed out. In orderto break through these limitations of analytic capability of SSM, the generalized strand space model(GSSM) induced by some protocol is proposed. In this model, some new classes of strands, oraclestrands, high order oracle strands etc., are developed, and some notions are formalized strictly in GSSM, such as protocol attacks, valid protocol run and successful protocol run. GSSM can thenbe used to further analyze the entity authentication protocol. This analysis sheds light on why thisprotocol would be vulnerable while it illustrates that GSSM not only can prove security protocolcorrect, but also can be efficiently used to construct protocol attacks. It is also pointed out thatusing other protocol to attack some given protocol is essentially the same as the case of using themost of protocol itself.

  4. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  5. Previous Heart Disease Complications And Hypertension In Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Pishnamaz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sHypertensive disorders in pregnancy with incidence of 3/7% are one of the most severe complications. Cardiovascular diseases are apparent in 2% of the pregnancies. Physiologic changes during pregnancy intensify the underlying disorders and the severity of this problem. Researches indicate that pregnant women with heart disease greatly confront unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes with increased risk of abortion, intra uterine fetal death, preterm labor and intra uterine growth retardation. This study aim was to magnify the outcomes of pregnancy accompaniment with cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study in which patient records of 2500 pregnant women referring to Alzahra hospital from 2006 to 2008 were assessed. Data was gatherated by medical files and analyzed by SPSS soft ware.Results: In this study incidence of moderate Aorta Stenosis (AS was about 45.5 % (10cases, Mitral valvuloplasty (MVP was about 22/73% (5cases and Mitral stenosis (MS was 18/18% (4 cases; two patient with MR(mitral regurgitation+MS had underwent valvuloplasty. 72/7% (16 of the mothers were hospitalized due to hypertension, 9/1% due to tachycardia and dyspnea and 18/2% showed mixed form of theses complains. They were using hydralazine and methyldopa as anti hypertensive drugs. Only 10% of the patients had history of anticoagulant using during pregnancy. We found only one patient with pulmonary stenosis (PS in these patients.Conclusion: Women with hypertension and previous heart disease showed many serious complications and high fetal mortality during pregnancy. Proper and on time care giving and support during pregnancy is dependent on the accurate diagnosis of the heart disease; any health problem should be seriously noted.

  6. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  7. Effectiveness of sound therapy in patients with tinnitus resistant to previous treatments: importance of adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Alencar de Barros Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The difficulty in choosing the appropriate therapy for chronic tinnitus relates to the variable impact on the quality of life of affected patients and, thus, requires individualization of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of using sound generators with individual adjustments to relieve tinnitus in patients unresponsive to previous treatments. METHODS: A prospective study of 10 patients with chronic tinnitus who were unresponsive to previous drug treatments, five males and five females, with ages ranging from 41 to 78 years. Bilateral sound generators (Reach 62 or Mind 9 models were used daily for at least 6 h during 18 months. The patients were evaluated at the beginning, after 1 month and at each 3 months until 18 months through acuphenometry, minimum masking level, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, visual analog scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The sound generators were adjusted at each visit. RESULTS: There was a reduction of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in nine patients using a protocol with a customized approach, independent of psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus. The best response to treatment occurred in those with whistle-type tinnitus. A correlation among the adjustments and tinnitus loudness and minimum masking level was found. Only one patient, who had indication of depression by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, did not respond to sound therapy. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in quality of life (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, with good response to sound therapy using customized settings in patients who did not respond to previous treatments for tinnitus.

  8. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  9. Milankovitch rhythms in the Cretaceous: A GCM modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeffrey; Oglesby, Robert J.

    1991-10-01

    A major feature of the Cretaceous sedimentary record is the presence of cyclical bedding in carbonate sequences, many of which have periodicities similar to those of the Milankovitch rhythms of the earth-sun orbit. We used an atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR CCM1, to investigate changes in the modeled Cretaceous atmospheric climate resulting from imposed Milankovitch orbital insolation changes. We extend a previous study using a 100 Ma mid-Cretaceous reconstruction to include perpetual-season (January and July) effects due to changes in obliquity as well as changes in precession. A total of eighteen pairs of insolation states have been examined. We perform a regression for linear sensitivity coefficients appropriate to precession and obliquity insolation changes, as well as compute a jackknife estimate of the coefficient uncertainty. Comparison of the regression residual to inherent model variability allows an estimate of any systematic but nonlinear model response to orbital insolation changes. Of particular importance is the response of the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. Changes in this cycle are consistent with at least three examples of Cretaceous bedding cycles: (1) The South Atlantic, where cyclical changes in the E- P balance with precession and, to a lesser extent, obliquity may account for regional oxic versus anoxic cycles observed in Cretaceous marine sediments cored from this region. (2) Regional changes in E- P over the east Tethys and adjacent continents with changes in insolation, which could induce changes in the production of oceanic deep water, possibly accounting for global occurrences of cyclic anoxic conditions. (3) Our simulations show a significant response of the hydrologic cycle to obliquity in July over western North America. This response, however, is smaller and more localized than those observed in low-latitude regions, and may not be robust to small changes in model boundary conditions. For most regions and modeled

  10. Pilot Study of a Patient-Centered Radiology Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J Shannon; Furtado, Vanessa F; Keller, Lisa A; Lotti, Judith Borsody; Saltalamacchia, Catherine A; Lennes, Inga T; Salazar, Gloria M

    2017-02-01

    The Radiology Process Model (RPM) was previously described in terms of its conceptual basis and proposed survey items. The current study describes the first pilot application of the RPM in the field and the results of initial psychometric analysis. We used an Institutional Review Board-approved pilot RPM survey in 100 patients having outpatient interventional radiology procedures. The 24 survey items had 4 or 5 levels of severity. We assessed for missing data, items that patients found confusing, any suggestions by patients for additional items and clarity of items from patient feedback. Factor analysis was performed and internal consistency measured. Construct validity was assessed by correlation of patient responses to the items as a summated scale with a visual analog scale (VAS) they completed indicating their interventional radiology experience. The visual analog scale and the RPM summated scale were strongly correlated (r = 0.7). Factor analysis showed four factors: interactions with facility and doctors/staff, time-sensitive aspects, pain, and anxiety. The items showed high internal consistency (alpha: 0.86) as a group and approximately 0.7 to 0.9 by the factors. Analysis shows that two items could be deleted (cost and communication between radiologist and referrers). Revision of two items and potential addition of others are discussed. The RPM shows initial evidence of psychometric validity and internal consistency reliability. Minor changes are anticipated before wider use. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitivity Study of Stochastic Walking Load Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    On flexible structures such as footbridges and long-span floors, walking loads may generate excessive structural vibrations and serviceability problems. The problem is increasing because of the growing tendency to employ long spans in structural design. In many design codes, the vibration...... serviceability limit state is assessed using a walking load model in which the walking parameters are modelled deterministically. However, the walking parameters are stochastic (for instance the weight of the pedestrian is not likely to be the same for every footbridge crossing), and a natural way forward...... investigates whether statistical distributions of bridge response are sensitive to some of the decisions made by the engineer doing the analyses. For the paper a selected part of potential influences are examined and footbridge responses are extracted using Monte-Carlo simulations and focus is on estimating...

  12. The WAMME regional model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew [Columbia University and NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies, CCSR, New York (United States); Feng, Jinming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cook, Kerry H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States); Xue, Yongkang [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hagos, Samson M. [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, FL (United States); Konare, Abdourahamane [University of Cocody, Laboratoire de Physique Atmospherique, Abidjan (Ivory Coast); Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Rowell, David P. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Vizy, Edward K. [The University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Geophysics, Austin, TX (United States); Ibrah, Seidou Sanda [Universite Abdou Moumouni, Department of Physics, Niamey (Niger)

    2010-07-15

    Results from five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation (WAMME) initiative are analyzed. The RCMs were driven by boundary conditions from National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis II data sets and observed sea-surface temperatures (SST) over four May-October seasons, (2000 and 2003-2005). In addition, the simulations were repeated with two of the RCMs, except that lateral boundary conditions were derived from a continuous global climate model (GCM) simulation forced with observed SST data. RCM and GCM simulations of precipitation, surface air temperature and circulation are compared to each other and to observational evidence. Results demonstrate a range of RCM skill in representing the mean summer climate and the timing of monsoon onset. Four of the five models generate positive precipitation biases and all simulate negative surface air temperature biases over broad areas. RCM spatial patterns of June-September mean precipitation over the Sahel achieve spatial correlations with observational analyses of about 0.90, but within two areas south of 10 N the correlations average only about 0.44. The mean spatial correlation coefficient between RCM and observed surface air temperature over West Africa is 0.88. RCMs show a range of skill in simulating seasonal mean zonal wind and meridional moisture advection and two RCMs overestimate moisture convergence over West Africa. The 0.5 computing grid enables three RCMs to detect local minima related to high topography in seasonal mean meridional moisture advection. Sensitivity to lateral boundary conditions differs between the two RCMs for which this was assessed. The benefits of dynamic downscaling the GCM seasonal climate prediction are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  13. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  14. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  15. Estudios previos cursados y género de los maestros de primaria en formación: efectos sobre la resolución de problemas / Pre-service primary teachers' gender and studies previously undertaken: effects on problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Caballer Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo analiza la influencia del género y los estudios previos cursados en la resolución de problemas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental con dos variables independientes (género y estudios previos y una variable dependiente (puntuación en los problemas. Se administró un cuadernillo con dos problemas de diferente estructura a 66 estudiantes de tercer curso del Grado de Maestro en Educacion Primaria de la misma Facultad (Facultad de Magisterio de la Universidad de Valencia, España. Los resultados de los análisis de varianza simple muestran que: a los estudiantes de sexo masculino resuelven el problema difícil con más éxito que las estudiantes, b los estudiantes que han cursado bachillerato no resuelven los problemas significativamente mejor que los que no lo han cursado y, c los estudiantes que siguieron un itinerario en 4º de la ESO con Física y Química resuelven significativamente mejor los problemas que los restantes. Abstract: This study analyses the influence of gender and studies previously undertaken on problem-solving. An experimental design was used with two independent variables (gender and studies previously undertaken and one dependent variable (scores in the problems. A booklet containing two word problems that differ from each other in structure was administered to 66 third-year pre-service primary teachers from the same Faculty (Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Valencia, Spain. The results of the analyses of variance simple showed that: a men undergraduate students solve the difficult problem more successfully than women undergraduate students, b students who had completed post-compulsory secondary education do not solve the problems significantly better than the others, and c students who had studied physics and chemistry in the tenth grade at high school solve the problems significantly better than the others.

  16. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  17. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlak, Ali; Mentes, Oner; Kilic, Selim; Coskun, Kagan; Duman, Kazim; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001). With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001), body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible. PMID:20186294

  18. Uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery after previous severe postpartum cerebral angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémi, Jan; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Fesl, Gunther; Rogenhofer, Nina; Straube, Andreas; Klein, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome developing shortly after delivery, without signs of preceding eclampsia. The risk for recurrence of PCA is unknown. Here, we report on a closely monitored, uneventful pregnancy of a woman with a previous severe episode of PCA. In summary, this case report demonstrates that PCA does not necessarily recur in following pregnancies, even after previous severe episodes.

  19. Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Delivery after Previous Severe Postpartum Cerebral Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rémi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA is a cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome developing shortly after delivery, without signs of preceding eclampsia. The risk for recurrence of PCA is unknown. Here, we report on a closely monitored, uneventful pregnancy of a woman with a previous severe episode of PCA. In summary, this case report demonstrates that PCA does not necessarily recur in following pregnancies, even after previous severe episodes.

  20. A comparative study of the modeled effects of atrazine on aquatic plant communities in midwestern streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shyam K; Bartell, Steven M; Brain, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    Potential effects of atrazine on the nontarget aquatic plants characteristic of lower-order streams in the Midwestern United States were previously assessed using the Comprehensive Aquatic System Model (CASMATZ ). Another similar bioenergetics-based, mechanistic model, AQUATOX, was examined in the present study, with 3 objectives: 1) to develop an AQUATOX model simulation similar to the CASMATZ model reference simulation in describing temporal patterns of biomass production by modeled plant populations, 2) to examine the implications of the different approaches used by the models in deriving plant community-based levels of concern (LOCs) for atrazine, and 3) to determine the feasibility of implementing alternative ecological models to assess ecological impacts of atrazine on lower-order Midwestern streams. The results of the present comparative modeling study demonstrated that a similar reference simulation to that from the CASMATZ model could be developed using the AQUATOX model. It was also determined that development of LOCs and identification of streams with exposures in excess of the LOCs were feasible with the AQUATOX model. Compared with the CASMATZ model results, however, the AQUATOX model consistently produced higher estimates of LOCs and generated non-monotonic variations of atrazine effects with increasing exposures. The results of the present study suggest an opportunity for harmonizing the treatments of toxicity and toxicity parameter estimation in the CASMATZ and the AQUATOX models. Both models appear useful in characterizing the potential impacts of atrazine on nontarget aquatic plant populations in lower-order Midwestern streams. The present model comparison also suggests that, with appropriate parameterization, these process-based models can be used to assess the potential effects of other xenobiotics on stream ecosystems.

  1. Measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution based on land-use regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Foraster, Maria; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-10-15

    Land-use regression (LUR) models are increasingly used to estimate air pollution exposure in epidemiologic studies. These models use air pollution measurements taken at a small set of locations and modeling based on geographical covariates for which data are available at all study participant locations. The process of LUR model development commonly includes a variable selection procedure. When LUR model predictions are used as explanatory variables in a model for a health outcome, measurement error can lead to bias of the regression coefficients and to inflation of their variance. In previous studies dealing with spatial predictions of air pollution, bias was shown to be small while most of the effect of measurement error was on the variance. In this study, we show that in realistic cases where LUR models are applied to health data, bias in health-effect estimates can be substantial. This bias depends on the number of air pollution measurement sites, the number of available predictors for model selection, and the amount of explainable variability in the true exposure. These results should be taken into account when interpreting health effects from studies that used LUR models.

  2. Comparison of conventional study model measurements and 3D digital study model measurements from laser scanned dental impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahani, F.; Jazaldi, F.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    The field of orthodontics is always evolving,and this includes the use of innovative technology. One type of orthodontic technology is the development of three-dimensional (3D) digital study models that replace conventional study models made by stone. This study aims to compare the mesio-distal teeth width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurements between a 3D digital study model and a conventional study model. Twelve sets of upper arch dental impressions were taken from subjects with non-crowding teeth. The impressions were taken twice, once with alginate and once with polivinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions used in the conventional study model and the polivinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to obtain the 3D digital study model. Scanning was performed using a laser triangulation scanner device assembled by the School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics at the Institut Teknologi Bandung and David Laser Scan software. For the conventional model, themesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width were measured using digital calipers; in the 3D digital study model they were measured using software. There were no significant differences between the mesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurments between the conventional and 3D digital study models (p>0.05). Thus, measurements using 3D digital study models are as accurate as those obtained from conventional study models

  3. LEXICAL APPROACH IN TEACHING TURKISH: A COLLOCATIONAL STUDY MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eser ÖRDEM

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study intends to propose Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1998, 2002; Harwood, 2002) and a model for teaching Turkish as a foreign language so that this model can be used in classroom settings...

  4. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  5. Commentary: Assessing the Health Effects of Medicare Coverage for Previously Uninsured Adults: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Meara, Ellen; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ayanian, John Z

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to a previous study we conducted and other evidence, a recent study found no significant effects of Medicare coverage after age 65 on overall health for previously uninsured adults and significant adverse effects on survival for some of these adults. We discuss explanations for these inconsistent findings, particularly the different ways in which deaths were handled, a key methodological challenge in longitudinal analyses of health. We demonstrate that analytic approaches suitable for examining effects of coverage on health measures may not be suitable for effects on mortality. Thus, estimates may be misleading when these different outcomes are jointly modeled. We also present new survival analyses that suggest Medicare coverage significantly attenuated the rising risk of death for previously uninsured adults. PMID:20337735

  6. A Study On Distributed Model Predictive Consensus

    CERN Document Server

    Keviczky, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate convergence properties of a proposed distributed model predictive control (DMPC) scheme, where agents negotiate to compute an optimal consensus point using an incremental subgradient method based on primal decomposition as described in Johansson et al. [2006, 2007]. The objective of the distributed control strategy is to agree upon and achieve an optimal common output value for a group of agents in the presence of constraints on the agent dynamics using local predictive controllers. Stability analysis using a receding horizon implementation of the distributed optimal consensus scheme is performed. Conditions are given under which convergence can be obtained even if the negotiations do not reach full consensus.

  7. Bariatric Outcomes and Obesity Modeling: Study Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    from Picot et al ( HTA , 2009) BMI LOSS IS NON-LINEAR Source: Picot et al ( HTA , 2009) NATURAL HISTORY MODEL OVERVIEW Source: BOOM Research ANNUAL ESTIMATES...those above 30 BMI Source: BOOM Research ONE-WAY SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Variables Reference values Minimum Maximum Early Mortality rate (%) 0.23 0 0.5... Early complication rate (%) 2.5 0 5 Sex F M F Age 45 18 70 BMI change at 5 years (%) 20% AGB or 30% GB -10% +10% Discount rate (%) 3 0 5 BMI at

  8. A Space Radiation Test Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-17

    approxiniationis fi iso - the course of the ssork. tit, other criterion was applied to the latirig the dominant contributions to the right-hand side of...these Iso end gics (t 17, ; .i rli rlc population ire assUrnd sufficietitv issues, at discussion oif eachi is necessary at the outset high rhir i7...Lopez, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 13485 , 1987. B-16 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 14, NO. 11, PACES 1166-1169, NDVEM13ER 1981 A NONLINEAR MODEL OF WAVE

  9. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  10. Modelling study of dimerization in mammalian defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Chandra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defensins are antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity functioning by non-specific binding to anionic phospholipids in bacterial membranes. Their cationicity, amphipathicity and ability to oligomerize are considered key factors for their action. Based on structural information on human β-defensin 2, we examine homologous defensins from various mammalian species for conserved functional physico-chemical characteristics. Results Based on homology greater than 40%, structural models of 8 homologs of HBD-2 were constructed. A conserved pattern of electrostatics and dynamics was observed across 6 of the examined defensins; models backed by energetics suggest that the defensins in these 6 organisms are characterized by dimerization-linked enhanced functional potentials. In contrast, dimerization is not energetically favoured in the sheep, goat and mouse defensins, suggesting that they function efficiently as monomers. Conclusion β-defensin 2 from some mammals may work as monomers while those in others, including humans, work as oligomers. This could potentially be used to design human defensins that may be effective at lower concentrations and hence have therapeutic benefits.

  11. Assisted ventilation in COPD – association between previous hospitalizations and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft-Petersen, Anne Pernille; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, previous studies have shown an association between prior exacerbations and mortality in COPD, but this association has not been demonstrated in the subpopulation of patients in need of assisted ventilation. We examined whether previous hospitalizations were independently associated with mortality among patients with COPD ventilated for the first time. Patients and methods In the Danish National Patient Registry, we established a cohort of patients with COPD ventilated for the first time from 2003 to 2011 and previously medicated for obstructive airway diseases. We assessed the number of hospitalizations for COPD in the preceding year, age, sex, comorbidity, mode of ventilation, survival to discharge, and days to death beyond discharge. Results The cohort consisted of 6,656 patients of whom 66% had not been hospitalized for COPD in the previous year, 18% once, 8% twice, and 9% thrice or more. In-hospital mortality was 45%, and of the patients alive at discharge, 11% died within a month and 39% within a year. In multivariate models, adjusted for age, sex, mode of ventilation, and comorbidity, odds ratios for in-hospital death were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.44), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.19–1.72), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.30–1.87) with one, two, and three or more hospitalizations, respectively. Hazard ratios for death after discharge from hospital were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19–1.46), 1.76 (95% CI: 1.52–2.02), and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.80–2.38) with one, two, and three or more hospitalizations, respectively. Conclusion Preceding hospitalizations for COPD are associated with in-hospital mortality and after discharge in the subpopulation of patients with COPD with acute exacerbation treated with assisted ventilation for the first time. PMID:27217743

  12. Comments and corrections on 3D modeling studies of locomotor muscle moment arms in archosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bates

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs. These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bipedal and quadrupedal posture in various independent archosaur lineages, and in doing so further our understanding of changes in anatomy, locomotion and ecology during the group’s >250 million year evolutionary history. Subsequent work by others has led us to re-evaluate our models, which revealed a methodological error that impacted on the results obtained from the abduction–adduction and long-axis rotation moment arms in our published studies. In this paper we present corrected abduction–adduction and long axis rotation moment arms for all our models, and evaluate the impact of this new data on the conclusions of our previous studies. We find that, in general, our newly corrected data differed only slightly from that previously published, with very few qualitative changes in muscle moments (e.g., muscles originally identified as abductors remained abductors. As a result the majority of our previous conclusions regarding the functional evolution of key muscles in these archosaur groups are upheld.

  13. The importance of previous fracture site on osteoporosis diagnosis and incident fractures in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Suzanne N; Lix, Lisa M; Leslie, William D

    2014-07-01

    Previous fracture increases the risk of subsequent fractures regardless of the site of the initial fracture. Fracture risk assessment tools have been developed to guide clinical management; however, no discrimination is made as to the site of the prior fracture. Our objective was to determine which sites of previous nontraumatic fractures are most strongly associated with a diagnosis of osteoporosis, defined by a bone mineral density (BMD) T-score of ≤ -2.5 at the femoral neck, and an incident major osteoporotic fracture. Using administrative health databases, we conducted a retrospective historical cohort study of 39,991 women age 45 years and older who had BMD testing with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Logistic regression and Cox proportional multivariate models were used to test the association of previous fracture site with risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Clinical fractures at the following sites were strongly and independently associated with higher risk of an osteoporotic femoral neck T-score after adjustment for age: hip (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-4.21), pelvis (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.66-3.0), spine (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.77-2.62), and humerus (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.49-2.02). Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age and femoral neck BMD, showed the greatest increase in risk for a major osteoporotic fracture for women who had sustained previous fractures of the spine (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.72-2.53), humerus (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44-2.01), patella (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.18), and pelvis (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.02). In summary, our results confirm that nontraumatic fractures in women are associated with osteoporosis at the femoral neck and that the site of previous fracture impacts on future osteoporotic fracture risk, independent of BMD.

  14. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2010-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses.

  15. A double-blind study of SB-220453 (Tonerbasat) in the glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Jesper Filtenborg; Iversen, H K; Olesen, J

    2004-01-01

    The need for experimental migraine models increases as therapeutic options widen. In the present study, we investigated SB-220453 for efficacy in the glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) human experimental migraine model. SB-220453 is a novel benzopyran compound, which in animal models inhibits neurogenic...... inflammation, blocks propagation of spreading depression and inhibits trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced carotid vasodilatation. We included 15 patients with migraine without aura in a randomized double-blind crossover study. SB-220453 40 mg or placebo was followed by a 20-min GTN infusion. Headache......, scored 0-10, was registered for 12 h, and fulfillment of International Headache Society (IHS) criteria was recorded until 24 h. Four subjects had a hypotensive episode after SB-220453 plus GTN but none after GTN alone. The reaction was unexpected, since animal models and previous human studies had shown...

  16. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H. Coskun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  17. Critical Exponents of the Classical 3D Heisenberg Model A Single-Cluster Monte Carlo Study

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, C; Holm, Christian; Janke, Wolfhard

    1993-01-01

    We have simulated the three-dimensional Heisenberg model on simple cubic lattices, using the single-cluster Monte Carlo update algorithm. The expected pronounced reduction of critical slowing down at the phase transition is verified. This allows simulations on significantly larger lattices than in previous studies and consequently a better control over systematic errors. In one set of simulations we employ the usual finite-size scaling methods to compute the critical exponents $\

  18. Comparative study on mode split discrete choice models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianlong Chen; Xiaoqian Liu; Fazhi Li

    2013-01-01

    Discrete choice model acts as one of the most important tools for studies involving mode split in the context of transport demand forecast. As different types of discrete choice models display their merits and restrictions diversely, how to properly select the specific type among discrete choice models for realistic application still remains to be a tough problem. In this article, five typical discrete choice models for transport mode split are, respectively, discussed, which includes multinomial logit model, nested logit model (NL), heteroscedastic extreme value model, multinominal probit model and mixed multinomial logit model (MMNL). The theoretical basis and application attributes of these five models are especially analysed with great attention, and they are also applied to a realistic intercity case of mode split forecast, which results indi-cating that NL model does well in accommodating simi-larity and heterogeneity across alternatives, while MMNL model serves as the most effective method for mode choice prediction since it shows the highest reliability with the least significant prediction errors and even outperforms the other four models in solving the heterogeneity and similarity problems. This study indicates that conclusions derived from a single discrete choice model are not reli-able, and it is better to choose the proper model based on its characteristics.

  19. The Use of L-sIDOL Transgenic Mice as a Murine Model to Study Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerenturk, Eser J; Calkin, Anna C

    2017-01-01

    There are many advantages to the use of mice as a model to study the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Common models of hypercholesterolemia include low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR -/-) mice and apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE) -/- mice. Herein, we describe the recently generated mouse model, L-sIDOL Tg mice, which express a dominant active form of Inducible Degrader Of the Low-density lipoprotein receptor (IDOL) in a liver-specific manner. This murine model offers significant advantages over previously established models for the study of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  20. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A. [Radiotherapeutisch Instituut Stedendriehoek en Omstreken (RISO), Deventer (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Koster, Mariska E.Y. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Lung Diseases; Houwing, Ronald H. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2011-08-15

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  1. 76 FR 72436 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Reinstatement with Change of a Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Previously Approved Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey: Pilot Study AGENCY: U.S. Department of the...' willingness to pay for improvements in environmental quality. A stated preference survey will be required for...: Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study. Type of Request: This is a reinstatement of a previously...

  2. Laboratory and Modeling Studies of Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Yale University Office of Sponsored Projects 25 Science Park - 3rd Floor New Haven...Center for the Study of Ecological Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut (October, 2014) (invited seminar

  3. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  4. Computational state space models for activity and intention recognition. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Frank; Nyolt, Martin; Yordanova, Kristina; Hein, Albert; Kirste, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Computational state space models (CSSMs) enable the knowledge-based construction of Bayesian filters for recognizing intentions and reconstructing activities of human protagonists in application domains such as smart environments, assisted living, or security. Computational, i. e., algorithmic, representations allow the construction of increasingly complex human behaviour models. However, the symbolic models used in CSSMs potentially suffer from combinatorial explosion, rendering inference intractable outside of the limited experimental settings investigated in present research. The objective of this study was to obtain data on the feasibility of CSSM-based inference in domains of realistic complexity. A typical instrumental activity of daily living was used as a trial scenario. As primary sensor modality, wearable inertial measurement units were employed. The results achievable by CSSM methods were evaluated by comparison with those obtained from established training-based methods (hidden Markov models, HMMs) using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The influence of modeling factors on CSSM performance was analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. The symbolic domain model was found to have more than 10(8) states, exceeding the complexity of models considered in previous research by at least three orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, if factors and procedures governing the inference process were suitably chosen, CSSMs outperformed HMMs. Specifically, inference methods used in previous studies (particle filters) were found to perform substantially inferior in comparison to a marginal filtering procedure. Our results suggest that the combinatorial explosion caused by rich CSSM models does not inevitably lead to intractable inference or inferior performance. This means that the potential benefits of CSSM models (knowledge-based model construction, model reusability, reduced need for training data) are available without performance penalty. However, our results also

  5. Computational state space models for activity and intention recognition. A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krüger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Computational state space models (CSSMs enable the knowledge-based construction of Bayesian filters for recognizing intentions and reconstructing activities of human protagonists in application domains such as smart environments, assisted living, or security. Computational, i. e., algorithmic, representations allow the construction of increasingly complex human behaviour models. However, the symbolic models used in CSSMs potentially suffer from combinatorial explosion, rendering inference intractable outside of the limited experimental settings investigated in present research. The objective of this study was to obtain data on the feasibility of CSSM-based inference in domains of realistic complexity. METHODS: A typical instrumental activity of daily living was used as a trial scenario. As primary sensor modality, wearable inertial measurement units were employed. The results achievable by CSSM methods were evaluated by comparison with those obtained from established training-based methods (hidden Markov models, HMMs using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The influence of modeling factors on CSSM performance was analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The symbolic domain model was found to have more than 10(8 states, exceeding the complexity of models considered in previous research by at least three orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, if factors and procedures governing the inference process were suitably chosen, CSSMs outperformed HMMs. Specifically, inference methods used in previous studies (particle filters were found to perform substantially inferior in comparison to a marginal filtering procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the combinatorial explosion caused by rich CSSM models does not inevitably lead to intractable inference or inferior performance. This means that the potential benefits of CSSM models (knowledge-based model construction, model reusability, reduced need for training data are

  6. The gradual onset brain death model : a relevant model to study organ donation and its consequences on the outcome after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L. P.; van Dijk, Antony; Ottens, Petra J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; 't Hart, Nils

    2007-01-01

    Organs used for transplantation are usually derived from heart-beating brain dead donors. However, brain death is known to have negative effects on donor organ quality, previously studied using a difficult to control sudden onset experimental model. We have now developed a reproducible gradual onset

  7. Transvesical NOTES: Survival Study in Porcine Model

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The optimal access route and method for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has not been established. A transvesical approach, with its low rate of peritoneal contamination, is an effective clean portal of entry, but a safe urinary bladder closure has been a challenge. We developed a new technique for a safe, pure transvesical NOTES approach. Methods: Four female piglets were used in the study. With the pigs under anesthesia, a flexible cystoscop...

  8. A model study for tardigrade identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolani, Roberto; Lorena REBECCHI; Cesari, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Using tardigrades from a single moss sample as a case study, we propose a new method for tardigrade species identification, which is often problematic, due to the low number of morphological characters. Identification at generic level was carried out on adults, while morphological analyses were performed on animals (LM) and eggs (LM and SEM), including hologenophores, vouchers used also for molecular analysis of COI mtDNA. This multi-approach method revealed the presence of ...

  9. Some previous ABL measurements in the Duero and Ebro valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuxart, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration in semi-arid regimes needs improved understanding and representation in numerical models. Most of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) upper soil in summer becomes dry which makes of it a good area for field campaigning and numerical modeling. The two large basins at the northern IP, Duero (essentially non-irrigated cereals) and Ebro (large irrigated areas surrounded by typical mediterranean vegetation), have already seen some ABL research efforts in the last decades. The CIBA site is located over a plateau in the centre of the Duero basin. The plateau has shallow soil over karstic rock, contrarily to the lower areas that are essentially sedimentary. There radiation and fluxes of biogenic gases have been measured during decades by the University of Valladolid. Since 1998 the renovated 100m tower has been used to study the ABL, focusing essentially in the nocturnal stably stratified regime, the mesoscale low-level jets, the effet of surface heterogeneities and fog events. Studies have been supplemented with use of satellital information and high-resolution mesoscale simulations. The center of the Ebro basin was the site of ABL measurements between 2008 and 2011, when a surface energy budget (SEB) station and a WindRASS were operating in the middle of a large vineyard, occasionally irrigated during the summer season, keeping the soil always with enough water content to sustain the needs of the vines. Similar topics as for the Duero basin were inspected, here supplemented by the effect of the surrounding topography and the wet-dry terrain heterogeneities, both contributing to intensify the strength of low-level circulations. The SEB imbalance was quantified and the terms compared to the ones from the ECMWF model, finding very significant differences. The SEB and WindRASS were installed in 2015 in the large Pyrenean valley of La Cerdanya, through which the Segre river (a main tributary of the Ebro) flows. The soil in this area usually retains enough water

  10. Mechanical krill models for studying coordinated swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alice; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    The global biomass of Homo sapiens is about a third of the biomass of Euphausia superba, commonly known as the Antarctic krill. Krill participate in organized social behavior. Propulsive jets generated by individual krill in a school have been suggested to be important in providing hydrodynamic sensory cues. The importance of body positions and body angles on the wakes generated is challenging to study in free swimming krill. Our solution to study the flow fields of multiple krill was to develop mechanical krill robots. We designed krillbots using mostly 3D printed parts that are actuated by stepper motors. The krillbot limb lengths, angles, inter-limb spacing and pleopod stroke frequency were dynamically scaled using published data on free-swimming krill kinematics. The vertical and horizontal spacing between krillbots, as well as the body angle, are adjustable. In this study, we conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements with two tethered krillbots in a flow tank with no background flow. One krillbot was placed above and behind the other. Both krillbots were at a zero-degree body angle. Wake-body interactions visualized from PIV data will be presented.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  12. Animal models to study gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    The initial development and maintenance of tolerance to dietary antigens is a complex process that, when prevented or interrupted, can lead to human disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance to specific dietary antigens is attained and maintained is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases related to intolerance of specific dietary antigens. Two diseases that are the result of intolerance to a dietary antigen are celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Both of these diseases are dependent upon the ingestion of gluten (the protein fraction of wheat, rye, and barley) and manifest in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, respectively. These gluten-sensitive diseases are two examples of how devastating abnormal immune responses to a ubiquitous food can be. The well-recognized risk genotype for both is conferred by either of the HLA class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8. However, only a minority of individuals who carry these molecules will develop either disease. Also of interest is that the age at diagnosis can range from infancy to 70-80 years of age. This would indicate that intolerance to gluten may potentially be the result of two different phenomena. The first would be that, for various reasons, tolerance to gluten never developed in certain individuals, but that for other individuals, prior tolerance to gluten was lost at some point after childhood. Of recent interest is the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which manifests as chronic digestive or neurologic symptoms due to gluten, but through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. This review will address how animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease.

  13. Animal Models to Study Gluten Sensitivity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric V.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The initial development and maintenance of tolerance to dietary antigens is a complex process that, when prevented or interrupted, can lead to human disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which tolerance to specific dietary antigens is attained and maintained is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases related to intolerance of specific dietary antigens. Two diseases that are the result of intolerance to a dietary antigen are celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Both of these diseases are dependent upon the ingestion of gluten (the protein fraction of wheat, rye, and barley) and manifest in the gastrointestinal tract and skin, respectively. These gluten-sensitive diseases are two examples of how devastating abnormal immune responses to a ubiquitous food can be. The well-recognized risk genotype for both is conferred by either of the HLA class II molecules DQ2 or DQ8. However, only a minority of individuals who carry these molecules will develop either disease. Also of interest is that the age at diagnosis can range from infancy to 70–80 years of age. This would indicate that intolerance to gluten may potentially be the result of two different phenomena. The first would be that, for various reasons, tolerance to gluten never developed in certain individuals, but that for other individuals, prior tolerance to gluten was lost at some point after childhood. Of recent interest is the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which manifests as chronic digestive or neurologic symptoms due to gluten, but through mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. This review will address how animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease. PMID:22572887

  14. Mathematical Modeling of the Release of Active Ingredients from a Contraceptive Patch: Ortho Evra® as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Patricio Sáenz-Collins, Carlos; García-Arellano, Lizette; Moisés Álvarez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive patches have become a frequently used contraceptive method. We present a mathematical model that describes the serum concentration profiles of Norelgestromin (NGMN) and Ethinylestradiol (EE) released from the contraceptive patch Ortho Evra®. We propose a simple one-compartment model based on pharmacokinetics data reported in previous studies. The model assumes a time-dependent release rate and a first order elimination rate for each of the active ingredients contained in the pat...

  15. A Tower Model for Lightning Overvoltage Studies Based on the Result of an FDTD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Taku

    This paper describes a method for deriving a transmission tower model for EMTP lightning overvoltage studies from a numerical electromagnetic simulation result obtained by the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method. The FDTD simulation carried out in this paper takes into account the following items which have been ignored or over-simplified in previously-presented simulations: (i) resistivity of the ground soil; (ii) arms, major slant elements, and foundations of the tower; (iii) development speed of the lightning return stroke. For validation purpose a pulse test of a 500-kV transmission tower is simulated, and a comparison with the measured result shows that the present FDTD simulation gives a sufficiently accurate result. Using this validated FDTD-based simulation method the insulator-string voltages of a tower for a lightning stroke are calculated, and based on the simulation result the parameter values of the proposed tower model for EMTP studies are determined in a systematic way. Since previously-presented models include trial-and-error process in the parameter determination, it can be said that the proposed model is more general in this regard. As an illustrative example, the 500-kV transmission tower mentioned above is modeled, and it is shown that the derived model closely reproduces the FDTD simulation result.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Preservice Music Teacher Development: Application and Advancement of the Fuller and Bown Teacher-Concerns Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksza, Peter; Berg, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of preservice music teachers' concerns using Fuller and Bown's model. Participants were 8 instrumental teachers who participated in the previous Berg and Miksza (2010) study. Data sources included goals essays, journals, a midterm growth plan, and teaching observation reports with…

  17. System Dynamic Modelling for a Balanced Scorecard: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    Purpose - The purpose of this research is to make an analytical model of the BSC foundation by using a dynamic simulation approach for a 'hypothetical case' model, based on only part of an actual case study of BSC. Design/methodology/approach - The model includes five perspectives and a number...... variables: skills, customer base and work in process. We are able to show that only minimal changes may create large effects on profit. Research limitations/implications - Our analytical model is based on both assumed but also on case documented assumptions of a concrete model. In every such kind of model...... and the number of measures. Originality/value - A large number of case studies and surveys are now present in the literature of BSC. However, there is a lack of more theoretical and analytical modelling of the BSC. Our paper just throws a little light to this modelling approach....

  18. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P, and... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with a Lewis...

  19. Comparative Study of Various SDLC Models on Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of a software development project greatly depends upon which process model is used. This paper emphasizes on the need of using appropriate model as per the application to be developed. In this paper we have done the comparative study of the following software models namely Waterfall, Prototype, RAD (Rapid Application Development Incremental, Spiral, Build and Fix and V-shaped. Our aim is to create reliable and cost effective software and these models provide us a way to develop them. The main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features of each model.

  20. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  1. Recovery of Previously Uncultured Bacterial Genera from Three Mediterranean Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis; McPherson, Kyle; Passel, van Mark W.J.; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2017-01-01

    Sponges often harbour a dense and diverse microbial community. Presently, a large discrepancy exists between the cultivable bacterial fraction from sponges and the community in its natural environment. Here, we aimed to acquire additional insights into cultivability of (previously uncultured)

  2. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permit. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 173.23, see the List of CFR Sections... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation §...

  3. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  4. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a... contains the information that was in Attachment C (non-profit organizations not subject to the Circular) to... agencies for non-profit organizations....

  5. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  6. A previously functional tetracycline-regulated transactivator fails to target gene expression to the bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Eva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetracycline-controlled transactivator system is a powerful tool to control gene expression in vitro and to generate consistent and conditional transgenic in vivo model organisms. It has been widely used to study gene function and to explore pathological mechanisms involved in human diseases. The system permits the regulation of the expression of a target gene, both temporally and quantitatively, by the application of tetracycline or its derivative, doxycycline. In addition, it offers the possibility to restrict gene expression in a spatial fashion by utilizing tissue-specific promoters to drive the transactivator. Findings In this study, we report our problems using a reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA in a transgenic mouse model system for the bone-specific expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation. Even though prior studies have been successful utilizing the same rtTA, expression analysis of the transactivator revealed insufficient activity for regulating the transgene expression in our system. The absence of transactivator could not be ascribed to differences in genetic background because mice in a mixed genetic background and in congenic mouse lines showed similar results. Conclusions The purpose of this study is to report our negative experience with previously functional transactivator mice, to raise caution in the use of tet-based transgenic mouse lines and to reinforce the need for controls to ensure the stable functionality of generated tetracycline-controlled transactivators over time.

  7. Human vascular model with defined stimulation medium - a characterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttala, Outi; Vuorenpää, Hanna; Toimela, Tarja; Uotila, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Ylikomi, Timo; Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Heinonen, Tuula

    2015-01-01

    The formation of blood vessels is a vital process in embryonic development and in normal physiology. Current vascular modelling is mainly based on animal biology leading to species-to-species variation when extrapolating the results to humans. Although there are a few human cell based vascular models available these assays are insufficiently characterized in terms of culture conditions and developmental stage of vascular structures. Therefore, well characterized vascular models with human relevance are needed for basic research, embryotoxicity testing, development of therapeutic strategies and for tissue engineering. We have previously shown that the in vitro vascular model based on co-culture of human adipose stromal cells (hASC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) is able to induce an extensive vascular-like network with high reproducibility. In this work we developed a defined serum-free vascular stimulation medium (VSM) and performed further characterization in terms of cell identity, maturation and structure to obtain a thoroughly characterized in vitro vascular model to replace or reduce corresponding animal experiments. The results showed that the novel vascular stimulation medium induced intact and evenly distributed vascular-like network with morphology of mature vessels. Electron microscopic analysis assured the three-dimensional microstructure of the network containing lumen. Additionally, elevated expressions of the main human angiogenesis-related genes were detected. In conclusion, with the new defined medium the vascular model can be utilized as a characterized test system for chemical testing as well as in creating vascularized tissue models.

  8. Carotid surgery following previous carotid endarterectomy is safe and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Moneta, Gregory L; Landry, Gregory J; Yeager, Richard A; Edwards, James M; McConnell, Donald B; Taylor, Lloyd M; Porter, John M

    2002-01-01

    With the perceived high risk of repeat carotid surgery, carotid angioplasty and stenting have been advocated recently as the preferred treatment of recurrent carotid disease following carotid endarterectomy. An experience with the operative treatment of recurrent carotid disease to document the risks and benefits of this procedure is presented. A review of a prospectively acquired vascular registry over a 10-year period (Jan. 1990-Jan. 2000) was undertaken to identify patients undergoing repeat carotid surgery following previous carotid endarterectomy. All patients were treated with repeat carotid endarterectomy, carotid interposition graft, or subclavian-carotid bypass. The perioperative stroke and death rate, operative complications, life-table freedom from stroke, and rates of recurrent stenosis were documented. During the study period 56 patients underwent repeat carotid surgery, comprising 6% of all carotid operations during this period. The indication for operation was symptomatic disease recurrence in 41 cases (73%) and asymptomatic recurrent stenosis >/=80% in 15 cases (27%). The average interval from the prior carotid endarterectomy to the repeat operation was 78 months (range 3 weeks-297 months). The operations performed included repeat carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty in 31 cases (55%), interposition grafts in 19 cases (34%), and subclavian-carotid bypass in 6 cases (11%). There were three perioperative strokes with one resulting in death for a perioperative stroke and death rate of 5.4%. One minor transient cranial nerve (CN IX) injury occurred. Mean follow-up was 29 months (range, 1-116 months). Life-table freedom from stroke was 95% at 1 year and 90% at 5 years. Recurrent stenosis (>/=80%) developed in three patients (5.4%) during follow-up, including one internal carotid artery occlusion. Two patients (3.6%) underwent repeat surgery. Repeat surgery for recurrent cerebrovascular disease following carotid endarterectomy is safe and

  9. Improvement in Geoid Models for Ocean Circulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, Byron D.; Chambers, Don P.; Poole, Steve; Ries, John c.

    2003-01-01

    At wavelengths of 500 km and longer, the GRACE GGM01 Model produces a significantly better marine geoid than any previous model. This conclusion follows from evaluating the geostrophic currents determined by combining the model with a mean sea surface from altimetry. The agreement with currents computed from a traditional hydrographic map is very close, which suggests that one of the primary missions of the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission, to determine the absolute dynamic ocean topography, may soon be met. This solution has been made available to the public at http://www.csr.utexs.edu/grace/gravity. The results reported in this paper have been presented at the 2003 EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly. Two articles are currently being prepared for Geophysical Research Letters to summarize these results.

  10. Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.

  11. Numerical modelling of transdermal delivery from matrix systems: parametric study and experimental validation with silicone matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Bergthóra S; Jónsdóttir, Fjóla; Sigurdsson, Sven Th; Másson, Már

    2014-08-01

    A model is presented for transdermal drug delivery from single-layered silicone matrix systems. The work is based on our previous results that, in particular, extend the well-known Higuchi model. Recently, we have introduced a numerical transient model describing matrix systems where the drug dissolution can be non-instantaneous. Furthermore, our model can describe complex interactions within a multi-layered matrix and the matrix to skin boundary. The power of the modelling approach presented here is further illustrated by allowing the possibility of a donor solution. The model is validated by a comparison with experimental data, as well as validating the parameter values against each other, using various configurations with donor solution, silicone matrix and skin. Our results show that the model is a good approximation to real multi-layered delivery systems. The model offers the ability of comparing drug release for ibuprofen and diclofenac, which cannot be analysed by the Higuchi model because the dissolution in the latter case turns out to be limited. The experiments and numerical model outlined in this study could also be adjusted to more general formulations, which enhances the utility of the numerical model as a design tool for the development of drug-loaded matrices for trans-membrane and transdermal delivery.

  12. Evidence of no protection for a recurrent case of pathogen specific clinical mastitis from a previous case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Elva; Hertl, Julia; Schukken, Ynte; Tauer, Loren; Welcome, Frank; Gröhn, Yrjö

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the occurrence of a previous case of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) protects Holstein dairy cows against a recurrent case. Pathogens studied were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trueperella pyogenes. A total of 40 864 lactations (17,265 primiparous and 23,599 multiparous) from 19 835 cows from 5 large, high milk producing New York State dairy herds were analysed. We estimated the effects of parity, calving diseases, milk yield, current season and number of CM cases in the previous lactation on the risk of a first CM case using generalised linear mixed models with a log link and Poisson error distribution. The aforementioned risk factors and the occurrence of previous cases of pathogen-specific CM within the current lactation were evaluated as risks for second and third cases of pathogen-specific CM. Cows with more CM cases in the previous lactation were at greater risk of pathogen-specific CM in the current lactation. Multiparous cows were at greater risk of a second CM case if they had suffered from a first CM case that was caused by the same pathogen as the second case. In contrast, a second CM case generally put cows at greater risk of a third case, irrespective of whether the third case was caused by the same or a different pathogen. Our results showed that a previous case of pathogen specific CM does not generally protect against a recurrent case.

  13. Selecting global climate models for regional climate change studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Gleckler, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Regional or local climate change modeling studies currently require starting with a global climate model, then downscaling to the region of interest. How should global models be chosen for such studies, and what effect do such choices have? This question is addressed in the context of a regional climate detection and attribution (D&A) study of January-February-March (JFM) temperature over the western U.S. Models are often selected for a regional D&A analysis based on the quality of the simula...

  14. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of Drainage Flow and ... of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on ... The study was carried out on a conceptual uniform homogenous irrigated ...

  15. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  16. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  17. Student Models of Learning and Their Impact on Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Johan; Valcke, Martin; Schuyten, Gilberte

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify student models of learning (sets of "intra-student" cognitions about learning) and to investigate their effect on study strategies. A two-step cluster analysis identified four student models of learning, representing students' self-efficacy beliefs, learning conceptions, attributions for academic performance…

  18. Lithium-ion battery models: a comparative study and a model-based powerline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidani, Fida; Hutter, Franz X.; Scurtu, Rares-George; Braunwarth, Wolfgang; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, various Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery models are evaluated according to their accuracy, complexity and physical interpretability. An initial classification into physical, empirical and abstract models is introduced. Also known as white, black and grey boxes, respectively, the nature and characteristics of these model types are compared. Since the Li-ion battery cell is a thermo-electro-chemical system, the models are either in the thermal or in the electrochemical state-space. Physical models attempt to capture key features of the physical process inside the cell. Empirical models describe the system with empirical parameters offering poor analytical, whereas abstract models provide an alternative representation. In addition, a model selection guideline is proposed based on applications and design requirements. A complex model with a detailed analytical insight is of use for battery designers but impractical for real-time applications and in situ diagnosis. In automotive applications, an abstract model reproducing the battery behavior in an equivalent but more practical form, mainly as an equivalent circuit diagram, is recommended for the purpose of battery management. As a general rule, a trade-off should be reached between the high fidelity and the computational feasibility. Especially if the model is embedded in a real-time monitoring unit such as a microprocessor or a FPGA, the calculation time and memory requirements rise dramatically with a higher number of parameters. Moreover, examples of equivalent circuit models of Lithium-ion batteries are covered. Equivalent circuit topologies are introduced and compared according to the previously introduced criteria. An experimental sequence to model a 20 Ah cell is presented and the results are used for the purposes of powerline communication.

  19. Lithium-ion battery models: a comparative study and a model-based powerline communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saidani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various Lithium-ion (Li-ion battery models are evaluated according to their accuracy, complexity and physical interpretability. An initial classification into physical, empirical and abstract models is introduced. Also known as white, black and grey boxes, respectively, the nature and characteristics of these model types are compared. Since the Li-ion battery cell is a thermo-electro-chemical system, the models are either in the thermal or in the electrochemical state-space. Physical models attempt to capture key features of the physical process inside the cell. Empirical models describe the system with empirical parameters offering poor analytical, whereas abstract models provide an alternative representation. In addition, a model selection guideline is proposed based on applications and design requirements. A complex model with a detailed analytical insight is of use for battery designers but impractical for real-time applications and in situ diagnosis. In automotive applications, an abstract model reproducing the battery behavior in an equivalent but more practical form, mainly as an equivalent circuit diagram, is recommended for the purpose of battery management. As a general rule, a trade-off should be reached between the high fidelity and the computational feasibility. Especially if the model is embedded in a real-time monitoring unit such as a microprocessor or a FPGA, the calculation time and memory requirements rise dramatically with a higher number of parameters. Moreover, examples of equivalent circuit models of Lithium-ion batteries are covered. Equivalent circuit topologies are introduced and compared according to the previously introduced criteria. An experimental sequence to model a 20 Ah cell is presented and the results are used for the purposes of powerline communication.

  20. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therapy: a model comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A C Hontelez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART using universal test and treat (UTT has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized widely, and other modeling studies did not always confirm the study's finding. The objective of our study is to better understand the implications of different model structures and assumptions, so as to arrive at the best possible predictions of the long-term impact of UTT and the possibility of elimination of HIV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed nine structurally different mathematical models of the South African HIV epidemic in a stepwise approach of increasing complexity and realism. The simplest model resembles the initial deterministic model, while the most comprehensive model is the stochastic microsimulation model STDSIM, which includes sexual networks and HIV stages with different degrees of infectiousness. We defined UTT as annual screening and immediate ART for all HIV-infected adults, starting at 13% in January 2012 and scaled up to 90% coverage by January 2019. All models predict elimination, yet those that capture more processes underlying the HIV transmission dynamics predict elimination at a later point in time, after 20 to 25 y. Importantly, the most comprehensive model predicts that the current strategy of ART at CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl will also lead to elimination, albeit 10 y later compared to UTT. Still, UTT remains cost-effective, as many additional life-years would be saved. The study's major limitations are that elimination was defined as incidence below 1/1,000 person-years rather than 0% prevalence, and drug resistance was not modeled. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous predictions that the HIV epidemic in South Africa can be eliminated through universal testing and immediate treatment at 90% coverage. However, more realistic

  1. The performance effect of the Lean package – a survey study using a structural equation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    practices. Furthermore, the paper provides evidence that supports the view that actions of middle management enhance performance in the system-wide approach to Lean. Originality/value - In contrast to previous surveys, our results support case studies describing the multiple interdependencies of Lean......Purpose - Our aim is to test and validate a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model in order to understand how the practices of Lean affect performance. Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional survey with 200 responding companies indicating...... that they use Lean. This is analyzed in a structural quation model setting. Findings - Previous quantitative research has shown mixed results for the performance of Lean because they have not addressed the system-wide mediating relations between Lean practices. We find that Companies using a system...

  2. A low-order model for flow control studies in cylinder wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Ganapathi; Olinger, David J.; Demetriou, Michael

    1998-11-01

    Control of three-dimensional wake structures behind circular cylinders is investigated using a previously developed coupled map lattice. The map consists of circle map oscillators along the cylinder span coupled by a diffusion model. Our goal is to develop an efficient model for flow control studies in cylinder wakes. Complex vortex shedding patterns, such as vortex dislocations and frequency cells, are observed behind vibrating cables in uniform freestream flows and stationary cylinders in sheared flows. These structures are controlled by the addition of periodic control signals to the forcing term in the map. Discontinuous nonlinear control theory is used to derive the control laws. Parallel shedding is realized for the case of uniform flow and oblique shedding is achieved for sheared inflows. The effectiveness of the discontinuous nonlinear control theory is compared with the previous application of chaos control theory to the coupled map lattice.

  3. Agent-Based vs. Equation-based Epidemiological Models:A Model Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to design model validation strategies for epidemiological disease-spread models. We consider both agent-based and equation-based models of pandemic disease spread and study the nuances and complexities one has to consider from the perspective of model validation. For this purpose, we instantiate an equation based model and an agent based model of the 1918 Spanish flu and we leverage data published in the literature for our case- study. We present our observations from the perspective of each implementation and discuss the application of model-selection criteria to compare the risk in choosing one modeling paradigm to another. We conclude with a discussion of our experience and document future ideas for a model validation framework.

  4. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  5. Cutaneous responses to vaccinia in individuals with previous smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Eric L; Hercher, Michelle; Hammarlund, Erika K; Lewis, Matthew W; Slifka, Mark K; Hanifin, Jon M

    2007-09-01

    The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate. We compared cutaneous vaccinia responses in patients vaccinated in the distant past with vaccine-naïve individuals using serial close-up photographs. The previously vaccinated group had a significantly reduced time course and milder cutaneous reactions. Vaccinated individuals appear to maintain clinically detectable immunity against vaccinia for at least 20 years after smallpox vaccination.

  6. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Johnson F.; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:27882057

  7. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  8. Fontan completion in a patient with previous liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haida, Hirofumi; Aeba, Ryo; Hoshino, Ken; Morikawa, Yasuhide

    2014-10-01

    We present the first case of a successful Fontan completion in a patient with previous liver transplantation. An infant with polysplenia syndrome with a functional single ventricle and biliary atresia had been surgically managed by pulmonary artery banding, Kasai operation and living donor liver transplantation. Subsequently, the patient successfully underwent bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and total cavopulmonary connection with extracardiac conduit at 3 and 5 years of age, respectively.

  9. Pleuritis due to Brevundimonas diminuta in a previously healthy man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Binghuai; Shi, Yanli; Zhu, Fengxia; Xu, Xiaolin

    2013-03-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is rarely associated with invasive infections. We report the case of a previously healthy young man with pleural effusion, in which B. diminuta was recovered but incorrectly identified as Kingella kingae when it was freshly isolated. Consequently, the misidentification resulted in initial treatment failure. The correct identification was achieved through further incubation, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and MS.

  10. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  11. An Electromyographic-driven Musculoskeletal Torque Model using Neuro-Fuzzy System Identification: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zohreh; Edrisi, Mehdi; Marateb, Hamid Reza

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the torque from high-density surface electromyography signals of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and the medial and lateral heads of triceps brachii muscles during moderate-to-high isometric elbow flexion-extension. The elbow torque was estimated in two following steps: First, surface electromyography (EMG) amplitudes were estimated using principal component analysis, and then a fuzzy model was proposed to illustrate the relationship between the EMG amplitudes and the measured torque signal. A neuro-fuzzy method, with which the optimum number of rules