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Sample records for modeling paris france

  1. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, M.; Nicolas, J.B.; Sciare, J.; Feron, A.; Nonnaire, N.; Petit, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated - larger urban zone - in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μgm -3 ) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites

  2. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France: Results from the ENFAMS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Martin-Fernandez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected. Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.

  3. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France): Results from the ENFAMS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid. PMID:29495563

  4. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France): Results from the ENFAMS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Chauvin, Pierre; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2018-02-28

    The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.

  5. Corrigendum to 'A novel model evaluation approach focusing on local and advected contributions to urban PM2.5 levels - application to Paris, France' published in Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1483-1505, 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Sciare, J.; Bressi, M.; Rosso, A.; Sanchez, O.; Ghersi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Due to an oversight in the production process, an essential word (overestimation) was left out of the abstract. The correct version of the abstract can be seen below. Aerosol simulations in chemistry transport models (CTMs) still suffer from numerous uncertainties, and diagnostic evaluations are required to point out major error sources. This paper presents an original approach to evaluate CTMs based on local and imported contributions in a large mega-city rather than urban background concentrations. The study is applied to the CHIMERE model in the Paris region (France) and considers the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its main chemical constituents (elemental and organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate and ammonium), for which daily measurements are available during a whole year at various stations (PARTICULES project). Back-trajectory data are used to locate the upwind station, from which the concentration is identified as the import, the local production being deduced from the urban concentration by subtraction. Uncertainties on these contributions are quantified. Small biases in urban background PM2.5 simulations (bias of +16 %) hide significant error compensations between local and advected contributions, as well as in PM2.5 chemical compounds. In particular, winter time organic matter (OM) imports appear strongly underestimated while local OM and elemental carbon (EC) production is overestimated all along the year. Erroneous continental wood burning emissions and missing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) pathways may explain errors on advected OM, while the carbonaceous compounds overestimation is likely to be related to errors in emissions and dynamics. A statistically significant local formation of nitrate is also highlighted from observations, but missed by the model. Together with the overestimation of nitrate imports, it leads to a bias of +51% on the local PM2.5 contribution. Such an evaluation finally gives more

  6. Load curve impact of large electric vehicles fleet in the Paris Ile-de-France region

    OpenAIRE

    Assoumou , Edi; Marmorat , Jean-Paul; Houel , Jérôme; Roy , Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The EV-STEP project was carried out within the ERANET+ Electromobility framework. Funding for the research work presented in this paper by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. Complementary support was provided by the Chair Modeling for sustainable development, driven by MINES ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and AgroParisTech; supported by ADEME, EDF, GRTgaz, Schneider Electric and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development...

  7. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieynaba S N'Diaye

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France.Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity.Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1% were primiparous, and 552 (67.1% had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: [53.6%-60.4%] were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%-47.9%] in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%-88.3%]. Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7-46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9-14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3-3.7]; and (ii gravidity (p = 0.019, (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1-2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7-1.4]. Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity.In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France.

  8. Climate champions? France, Germany and Europe in the negotiations about the Paris Agreement on climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    This report discusses the role and implications of France, Germany and Europe in the preparation of the Paris Agreement of December 2015. The author first discusses the historical aspiration of Europe to have a role of leadership in the negotiations. Then, he examines and comments the actual results of the COP21 and the content of the Paris Agreement. He analyses situational factors, the economic and political context, the role of the French diplomacy, of Germany and of the European Union. He analyses dynamics which, on the medium and the long terms, has shaped climate governance, notably the red lines defined by China and the USA, and the general framework of negotiations which tend to exclude some important issues which are considered as matters of conflict. The last part proposes a retrospective overview on room and options available for Europe to find a leadership again within the new climate regime implemented by the Paris Agreement

  9. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  10. Environmental magnetism and magnetic mapping of urban metallic pollution (Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, Aude; Franke, Christine; Macouin, Mélina; Rousse, Sonia; Philip, Aurélio; de Villeneuve, Sybille Henry

    2017-04-01

    Airborne pollution in dense urban areas is nowadays a subject of major concern. Fine particulate pollution events are ever more frequent and represent not only an environmental and health but also a real economic issue. In urban atmosphere, the so-called PM2.5 (particulate matter pollution and determine their sources (Sagnotti et al., 2012). In this study, we report on magnetic measurements of traffic-related airborne PM in the city of Paris, France. Two distinct environments were sampled and analyzed along the Seine River: the aquatic environment in studying fluvial bank and river bed sediments and the atmospheric environment by regarding magnetic particles trapped in adjacent tree barks (Platanus hispanica). About 50 sediment samples and 350 bark samples have been collected and analysed to determine their magnetic properties (susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, IRM, frequency-dependent susceptibility) and to estimate the presence and spatial concentration of superparamagnetic or multi-domain particles for each sample type. The bark results allow proposing a high spatial resolution mapping (pollution. In addition to that, the sampling of banks and riverbed sediments of the Seine allow a global estimation on the anthropogenic versus detrital and biologic input in the city of Paris. The first results presented here show a general increase of the concentration in magnetic particles from upstream to downstream Paris probably linked to urban pollutions as previously observed for suspended particulate matter (Franke et al. 2009; Kayvantash, 2016). Sagnotti, L., & Winkler, A. (2012). On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy. Atmospheric environment, 59, 131-140. Franke, C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P., & Lagroix, F. (2009). Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for the determination of natural versus anthropogenic input

  11. Feasibility of CO2 storage in geothermal reservoirs example of the Paris Basin - France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, J.; Robelin, C.; Kervevan, C.; Thiery, D.; Menjoz, A.; Matray, J.M.; Cotiche, C.; Herbrich, B.

    2003-01-01

    This study is realized in the framework of GESCO project, which aims to provide the first documentation that, for emission sources within selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available. Then the BRGM/ANTEA/CFG took care to provide: an inventory of the CO 2 emitters in France, an inventory of the main deep aquifers present in the Paris basin, an evaluation of the storage capacities of CO 2 in one of the four principal case-study, technical solutions for CO 2 injection in geothermal aquifers and an evaluation of the cost of CO 2 storage in such an aquifer. (A.L.B.)

  12. Greenlite™: a year of carbon dioxide monitoring over paris, france, and recent progress in monitoring methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Pernini, Timothy; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael

    2018-04-01

    GreenLITE™ is a ground-based laser absorption spectroscopy system capable of measuring and mapping CO2 concentrations over areas up to 25 km2. The system was deployed for COP21 as a demonstration and has now completed a year of CO2 measurements over the city of Paris, France. We will discuss lessons learned and relevant data from the year-long deployment. Recently, the system has demonstrated the same measurement capability for CH4, and results from preliminary testing are presented.

  13. Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. [Violence for educational purpose: Representations of general practitioners in the Paris area, France. A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brie, Claire; Piet, Emmanuelle; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners. We have performed semi-directed interviews of general practitioners in the Paris, France region (Île-de-France). Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed by two investigators. Interviews were conducted with 20 physicians (November 2015-January 2016). General practitioners considered that physical, verbal or psychological abuse had possible negative consequences on children. Uncertainty regarding the consequences of violence was a cause of tolerance towards violence for educational purpose, depending on the act committed and the context, as perceived by nearly all practitioners. General practitioners expressed interest in the field. They cited their own education and experience as the main obstacles to action. Most of them expressed a feeling of failure when they screened or took care of violence for educational purpose. This study suggests that doctors can participate in supporting the parents in the prevention of violence for educational purpose. Support to parents would need specific medical training as well as a societal change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  16. Characteristics and health of homeless families: the ENFAMS survey in the Paris region, France 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Le Méner, Erwan; Oppenchaim, Nicolas; Arnaud, Amandine; Jangal, Candy; Caum, Carme; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Roze, Mathilde; Le Strat, Yann; Guyavarch, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to estimate the size of homeless family population in Paris region, to describe their living conditions and health and to analyse the impact of homelessness on children's growth and development, which was never investigated in France. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in 2013. Families were interviewed in 17 languages and a nurse took anthropometric measures, blood samples and collected health data from child health reports. The population size was estimated at 10 280 families. Half were single-parent female families and 94% were born outside France. Most families had experienced housing instability and 94% were living below the poverty line (828 euros/month). Malnutrition was a major problem: the prevalence of food insecurity was high (77% of parents and 69% of children), as well as anaemia (50% of mothers and 38% of children), overweight (38% of mothers and 22% of children) and obesity (32% of mothers and 4% of children). High rates of depressive disorders were found in 30% of homeless mothers and 20% of children had signs of possible mental health disorders. These first results highlight the important number of families among the homeless population in Paris region. Families differed from other homeless people regarding social characteristics such as birthplace, single-parent status and residential instability that are likely to influence schooling, social ties, health and access to care. These results demonstrate the need for urgent actions targeting homeless families, in terms of reducing housing instability and providing adequate care, especially for children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems : 17th International Workshop, FMICS 2012, Paris, France, August 27-28, 2012. Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Mariëlle; Pinger, Ralf

    This volume contains the papers presented at FMICS 2012, the 17th International Workshop on Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems, taking place August 27–28, 2012, in Paris, France. The aim of the FMICS workshop series is to provide a forum for researchers who are interested in the

  18. Theoretical value of Newtonian constant G confirmed by the International Bureau of Weights & Measures in Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2015-01-01

    World oldest authority for scientific constants and the keeper of the original metre standard, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris, France has accomplished a historic confirmation of the Omerbashich's (first-ever) scientific prediction of value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G.

  19. THM large spatial-temporal model to simulate the past 2 Ma hydrogeological evolution of Paris Basin including natural tracer transport as part of site characterization for radwaste repository project Cigéo - France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization for deep geological high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository cover a large time scale needed for safety analysis and calculation. Hydrogeological performance of a site relies also on the effects of geodynamic evolution as tectonic uplift, erosion/sedimentation and climate including glaciation on the groundwater flow and solute and heat transfer. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical model of multilayered aquifer system of Paris Basin is developed to reproduce the present time flow and the natural tracer (Helium) concentration profiles based on the last 2 Ma of geodynamic evolution. Present time geological conceptual model consist of 27 layers at Paris Basin (Triassic-Tertiary) with refinement at project site scale (29 layers from Triassic to Portlandian). Target layers are the clay host formation of Callovo-Oxfrodian age (160 Ma) and the surrounding aquifer layers of Oxfordian and Dogger. Modelled processes are: groundwater flow, heat and solutes (natural tracers) transport, freezing and thawing of groundwater (expansion and retreat of permafrost), deformation of the multilayered aquifer system induced by differential tectonic uplift and the hydro-mechanical stress effect as caused by erosion of the outcropping layers. Numerical simulation considers a period from 2 Ma BP and up to the present. Transient boundary conditions are governed by geodynamic processes: (i) modification of the geometry of the basin and (ii) temperatures along the topography will change according to a series of 15 identical climate cycles with multiple permafrost (glaciation) periods. Numerical model contains 71 layers and 18 million cells. The solution procedure solves three coupled systems of equations, head, temperature and concentrations, by the use of a finite difference method, and by applying extensive parallel processing. The major modelling results related to the processes of importance for site characterization as hydraulic

  20. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2004-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  1. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  2. 7TH Annual Anesthesia and Critical Care Symposium (7th) Held in Paris (France) on 22-24 April 1994,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Amphitheatre Poincare DIMANCHE 24 AVRIL / SUNDAY APRIL 24th TRAUMATISME CRANIEN CHEZ L’ENFANT HEAD TRA UMA IN CHILDREN Mod6rateurs : J. BERMAN (Winston...Salem, Etats-Unis), Ph. MEYER (Paris, France) 08h30 Epid6miologie et physio-pathologie des traumatismes craniens chez 1’enfant Epidemiology and...pathophysiology of head injuries in children P. OAKLEY (Staffordshire, Royaume-Uni) 09h00 R6animation pr6-hospitali~re du traumatisme cranien grave

  3. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  4. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were studied. • Speleothems are

  5. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  6. Use of poppers and HIV risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Paris, France: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, H Rhodes; Park, Su Hyun; Palamar, Joseph J; Estreet, Anthony; Schneider, John A; Duncan, Dustin T

    2018-06-01

    The use of inhaled nitrites, or poppers, among men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent, yet has been associated with HIV seroconversion. We surveyed 580 MSM from a geosocial networking smartphone application in Paris, France, in 2016. Of the respondents, 46.7% reported popper use within the previous 3 months. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics found that the use of poppers was significantly (P<0.05) associated with the following during the prior 3 months: condomless anal intercourse (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.50), use of alcohol and/or drugs during sex once or twice (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), three to five times (aRRR 5.41, 95% CI 2.98-9.84) or six or more times (aRRR 4.09, 95% CI 2.22-7.56), participation in group sex (aRRR 3.70, 95% CI 2.33-5.90) and self-reported diagnosis with any sexually transmissible infection over the previous year (aRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.18-2.27), specifically chlamydia (aRR 2.75, 95% CI 1.29-4.29) and syphilis (aRR 2.27, 95% CI 1.29-4.29).

  7. Understanding the patient multidimensional experience: a qualitative study on coping in hospitals of Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach,1 Denis Fompeyrine,2 Carole Mularski21Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital APHP and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Bobigny, France; 2Direction des Patients, Usagers et Associations, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, FranceObjective: Time spent in hospitals is complex and entails a number of distinct phases that fluctuate depending on many variables. Attempts to understand patients’ experiences often involve focusing on their needs using self-evaluation, but this does not clearly highlight the complexity of coping. Questionnaires based on telephone surveys and emails do not facilitate a sufficient assessment of the coping effort. However, when patients express themselves through spontaneous narration, different dimensions may emerge in their experience at the hospital. This qualitative study explores the various forms of coping among patients with a hospital experience.Methods: Interviews were conducted with 75 patients in six hospital departments. Transcripts from interviews were thematically analyzed and a conceptual, multidimensional model was developed to explain the relationship between patient experience and coping complexity.Results: Patients used a set of about 50 different terms to describe their experiences in the hospital. They described with the greatest number of words the aspects that triggered their stress or distress and forced them to cope. Stress resulting from the experienced situation was classifiable into five dimensions: trauma, environment, medical, interpersonal affective, and social impact, which constitute invariants that may require individual complex coping strategies.Conclusion: Patient experience is hard to evaluate, and this represents a permanent challenge for medical teams. Considering the five coping dimensions delineated in this study may be helpful in improving the patient’s hospital experience.Keywords: patient experience

  8. IAEA specialist meeting on flow induced vibrations in fast breeder reactors, Paris, France, 22-24 October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Flow Induced Vibrations in FBRs for LMFBR Applications'' was held in Paris under the auspices of the French CEA on 21-24 October 1982. The meeting was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the 14th Meeting of the IWGFR and was attended by 31 participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America and one international organization (IAEA). The meeting was presided over by Pr. R.J. Gibert of France. After the first session on review of national positions in the subject field (7 papers), the meeting was divided into five technical sections as follows: fluid-structures interaction, calculation methods (3 papers); tubes bundles vibration and weir (4 papers); instability (6 papers); induced vibrations in the pumps (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  9. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  10. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  11. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unmet healthcare needs in homeless women with children in the Greater Paris area in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vuillermoz

    Full Text Available Despite their poor health status, homeless women encounter many barriers to care. The objectives of our study were to estimate the prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women and to analyse associated relationships with the following factors: financial and spatial access to care, housing history, migration status, healthcare utilisation, victimization history, caring for children, social network and self-perceived health status.We used data from 656 homeless women interviewed during the ENFAMS representative survey of sheltered homeless families, conducted in the Paris region in 2013. Structural equation models (SEM were used to estimate the impact of various factors on homeless women's unmet healthcare needs.Among those interviewed, 25.1% (95%CI[21.3-29.0] had at least one unmet healthcare need over the previous year. Most had given up on visiting general practitioners and medical specialists. No association with factors related to financial access or to health insurance status was found. However, food insecurity, poor spatial health access and poor self-perceived health were associated with unmet healthcare needs. Self-perceived health appeared to be affected by victimization and depression.The lower prevalence of unmet healthcare needs in homeless women compared with women in stable housing situations suggests that homeless women have lower needs perceptions and/or lower expectations of the healthcare system. This hypothesis is supported by the results from SEM. Strategies to provide better access to care for this population should not only focus on financial interventions but also more broadly on spatial healthcare access, cultural norms, and perceptions of health. Reducing their unmet needs and improving their access to healthcare and prevention must include an improvement in their living, financial and housing conditions.

  13. History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Baup, Nicolas; Peeters, Sophie; Turak, Baris; Krebs, Marie Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Gaillard, Raphael; Devaux, Bertrand

    2017-09-01

    Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France. Pierre Puech defined psychosurgery as the necessary cooperation between neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to treat the conditions causing psychiatric symptoms, from brain tumors to mental health disorders. He reported the results of his series of 369 cases and underlined the necessity for proper follow-up and postoperative re-education, illustrating the relative caution of French neurosurgeons concerning psychosurgery. Marcel David and his assistants tried to follow their patients closely postoperatively; this resulted in numerous publications with significant follow-up and conclusions. As early as 1955, David reported intellectual degradation 2 years after prefrontal leucotomies. Jean Talairach, a psychiatrist who eventually trained as a neurosurgeon, was the first to describe anterior capsulotomy in 1949. He operated in several hospitals outside of Paris, including the Sarthe Psychiatric Hospital and the Public Institution of Mental Health in the Lille region. He developed stereotactic surgery, notably stereo-electroencephalography, for epilepsy surgery but also to treat psychiatric patients using stereotactic lesioning with radiofrequency ablation or radioactive seeds of yttrium-90. The evolution of functional neurosurgery has been marked by the development of deep brain stimulation, in particular for obsessive-compulsive disorder, replacing the former lesional stereotactic procedures. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds

  14. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  15. The social aspects in the identification of children’s mental health problems in two health services in Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s mental health problems were analyzed from a sociological approach addressing two questions: what are the main children’s behaviors identified and considered to be mental health problems, and what are the consequences of this classification for the debate on children’s problems in contemporary societies. This quantitative and qualitative study analyzed 275 patients’ records from two child mental health services (CMHS in the northeast area of Paris, France. The majority of children were boys from six to 11 years old; requests were presented mainly by schools and parents; the main problems were behavioural problems, cognitive difficulties and relational problems (boys, and affective or emotional problems (girls. There is an interdependence of a great number of actors who worry about children’s behavior and a system of expectations seems to be collectively woven by them as social classifications.

  16. Perceived Neighborhood Safety Is Associated with Poor Sleep Health among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Park, Su Hyun; Goedel, William C; Kreski, Noah T; Morganstein, Jace G; Hambrick, H Rhodes; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Chaix, Basile

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have examined sleep health among men who have sex with men (MSM), but no studies have examined associations of neighborhood characteristics and sleep health among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighborhood safety and sleep health among a sample of MSM in Paris, France. We placed broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM in October 2016 to recruit users in the Paris (France) metropolitan area (n = 580). Users were directed to complete a web-based survey, including previously used items measuring perceptions of neighborhood safety, validated measures of sleep health, and socio-demographics. Modified Poisson models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between perceived neighborhood safety and the following outcomes: (1) poor sleep quality, (2) short sleep duration, and (3) self-reported sleep problems. Poor sleep health was common in our sample; e.g., 30.1% reported poor sleep quality and 44.7% reported problems falling asleep. In multivariate regression models, perceived neighborhood safety was associated with poor sleep quality, short sleep duration, and having sleep problems. For example, reporting living in a neighborhood perceived as unsafe during the daytime (vs. safe) was associated with poor sleep quality (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.01, 2.52), short sleep duration (aRR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.26, 2.94), problems falling asleep (aRR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17, 2.11), and problems staying awake in the daytime (aRR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05, 4.43). Interventions to increase neighborhood safety may improve sleep health among MSM.

  17. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    concentrations and subsequent risks in soils of Paris and Paris region (Île-de-France). Our study aims at filling this knowledge gap, focusing on contamination and pollution by TMs in lawns and forests that constitute the main types of vegetation in urban areas of Paris region. Considering the rational described above, the aims of the present study were (i) to examine the concentration of eight selected TMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of two land-uses (public lawns and woods) along an urban pressure gradient in Paris region, (ii) to distinguish origins and sources of contamination or pollution, (iii) to evaluate the individual and overall TM contamination degree as well as the individual and overall TM pollution degree, (iiii) to use soil characteristics to better understand soil origins and histories along the urban pressure gradient and the relationship between these characteristics and TM concentrations. Ultimately, this study provides a baseline TM assessment for the long-term monitoring of the evolution of TM soil contents in urban area of the Paris region.

  18. Urban dew and rain in Paris, France: Occurrence and physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beysens, D.; Mongruel, A.; Acker, K.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes one year (April 2011 to March 2012) measurements on planar condensing surfaces of dew and rain events and related physico-chemical characteristics in the urban environment of Paris (city center). Yearly collected water was 3.48 mm for dew (63 events) and 593 mm for rain (146 events). The latter value compares well with rain data (547 mm and 107 events) collected within 12 km at Paris-Orly airport. An estimation of dew yield based on meteo data gives 2.35 mm and 74 events, to be compared with 17.11 mm and 196 events at Paris-Orly. These differences highlight the large reduction in dew events and dew yields in an urban area as compared to a close rural-like area. This reduction is not due to a sky view reduction but to heat island that increases air temperature and decreases relative humidity. Analysis of dew (34) and rain (77) samples were done concerning pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions and cations as well as selected trace metals and other minor ions. Mean pH values are found similar for both, dew (6.5) and rain (6.1), rain being slightly more acidic than dew. The mean dew total ionic content (TIC 1.8 meq/l) and EC value (124 μS/cm) are about four times that of rain (0.45 meq/l; 35 μS/cm), meaning that total dissolved solids in dew is nearly four times that in rain. Sulfate and nitrate are the most acidifying components, calcium the most neutralizing constituent with ratio of mean total acidity/total alkalinity comparable for dew and rain ( 0.9). Sulfate and nitrate have mainly anthropogenic sources, whereas chloride and magnesium are mostly connected with marine air masses. Dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition of pollutants; dew and rain ion concentrations, however, meet the WHO requirements for drinking water.

  19. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  1. Highlights from the WIN 2017 Symposium, 26-27 June 2017, Paris, France: 'Expediting Global Innovation in Precision Cancer Medicine'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Will

    2017-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) symposium brings together representatives from academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, technology companies and charitable organisations from across the globe for an annual summit, discussing ongoing research and the latest developments in precision medicine. Now, in its seventh year, the aims of the WIN consortium's annual meeting, to foster communication and collaboration between members and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients are presented in open dialogue to encourage debate and discussion. This year, the meeting was held in Paris, France from 26-27 June and consisted of six plenary sessions, two debates, and poster presentations from attendees. In keeping with the consortium's goals, presentations and posters focused on the development and integration of new therapies and updates in genome-based medicine. Among the presentations at this year's meeting, much of the focus fell on design and implementation of new designs of clinical trials, moving away from decades-long assessments of thousands of patients towards a nimble, adaptive design fitting the edicts of personalised medicine and delving into greater depths within genomic data, ranging beyond genome analysis to chart new targets in ligandomics, proteogenomics and more.

  2. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Viatte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscopy", installed in Créteil (France. The capacity of the technique to separate stratospheric and tropospheric ozone is demonstrated. Daily mean tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and from OASIS measurements are compared for summer 2009 and a good agreement of −5.6 (±16.1 % is observed. Also, a qualitative comparison between in-situ surface ozone measurements and OASIS data reveals OASIS's capacity to monitor seasonal tropospheric ozone variations, as well as ozone pollution episodes in summer 2009 around Paris. Two extreme pollution events are identified (on the 1 July and 6 August 2009 for which ozone partial columns from OASIS and predictions from a regional air-quality model (CHIMERE are compared following strict criteria of temporal and spatial coincidence. An average bias of 0.2%, a mean square error deviation of 7.6%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 is found between CHIMERE and OASIS, demonstrating the potential of a mid-resolution FTIR instrument in ground-based solar absorption geometry for tropospheric ozone monitoring.

  3. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  4. Multi-parameter observation of environmental asbestos pollution at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Jussieu Campus, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, P; Lalanne, F X; Wang, Y; Guyot, F

    1999-11-01

    An original multi-parameter system has been used to study the nature of dust in the ambient air, particularly the total fibers and asbestos fibers, in eight areas of the Institut de Physique de Globe de Paris (France). These analyses provide a detailed case study of environmental pollution by asbestos fibers at low levels. The levels of total fibers with a length greater than 3 microns, measured with a real time fiber analyser monitor (FAM), give a baseline of 2.5 fibers per l., throughout the duration of sampling. The same levels, calculated during periods of effective presence of staff, are smaller than 10 fb per l. During these periods, the instantaneous value can show high peaks, reaching a maximum of 60 fb per l., but more often of about 5 to 10 fb per l. A direct cause and effect relationship exists between fiber concentrations and the presence of people, and indirectly with the variation of the other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, air velocity). The baseline concentration of asbestos fibers, determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), is about 10(-1) fb per l., with a mean value during the presence of people always less than 1.5 fb per l. The low levels of asbestos fibers do not allow us to establish a precise correlation between the concentration of total fibers and the asbestos concentration, but a rough estimate suggests that asbestos could represent 10-20% of the airborne fibers monitored with the FAM. The statistical study of fiber sizes shows that 70 and 55% of analyzed chrysotile and amosite fibers respectively are smaller than 5 microns. These numbers are 40 and 35% for fibers smaller than 3 microns, which are undetected by the FAM. Amosite, which characterizes most of the asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in the analyzed areas, is detected in the ambient air in quantities ten times less important than chrysotile. The low asbestos levels and the difference between the nature of building asbestos and airborne

  5. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  6. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L; Vautard, R; Flamant, P H [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C; Beekmann, M; Megie, G; Sicard, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C; Lefebvre, M P; Lossec, B [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P; Martin, D [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P; Toupance, G [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  7. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  8. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  9. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  10. European and Americas Committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS/ACTRIMS) - 7th Joint Triennial Congress (October 25-28, 2017 - Paris, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, N

    2017-10-01

    The 7th Triennial Joint conference of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and Americas Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ACTRIMS) was held in Paris, France. The meeting brought together attendees from a wide range of disciplines involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) research to explore an extensive program of teaching courses, plenary lectures, oral and poster sessions from approximately 2,000 abstracts submitted, and hot topic and young investigator presentations. These presentations covered topics including diagnostics, therapeutics and biomarkers, as well as a special section for MS nurses. Industry-sponsored symposia were also held. The report from this conference covers the latest developments in MS treatments.

  11. Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, C; Rodriguez Redington, P; Lecarpentier, E; Bellaiche, G; Michel, D; Teiger, E; Morris, W; Le Bourgeois, J P; Barthout, M

    2004-11-01

    The positive effect of early defibrillation on survival from cardiac arrest has been demonstrated. We describe the use of AEDs over 1 year following the training of flight attendants. Air France and the University of Paris XII together designed a 1 year training programme for 14000 flight attendants. The university emergency departments (SAMU) provided 250 instructors. AEDs training and certification was conducted for crew members between November 2001 and November 2002. By January 2003, all aircraft were fully equipped with AEDs. All cases of cardiac arrest that occurred during the study were reviewed comprehensively. Comments from the crew were collected. Twelve cardiac arrests were reported between November 2002 and November 2003 out of 4194 cases of emergency care delivered to passengers. Shock treatment was advised initially in 5/12 cases. The survival rate after in-flight cardiac arrest was 3/12. The survival rate at discharge from hospital following in flight shock was 2/5. No complications arose from the use of AEDs. Training by professionals gave the flight attendants confidence and allowed for the survival of two young passengers. Our study highlights the ability of flight attendants to give better onboard care for the future. The next step is to consolidate the network between in-flight care and the medical dispatch centre in Paris.

  12. Protection et valorisation du patrimoine géomorphologique en Île- de-France (Bassin de Paris, France)État des lieux et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bétard, François

    2015-01-01

    Reconnu depuis une dizaine d’années seulement, le patrimoine géomorphologique fait l’objet d’une attention accrue de la part des scientifiques et des acteurs du territoire, en raison des menaces grandissantes qui pèsent sur la préservation des reliefs et des paysages, mais aussi compte tenu des potentialités qu’offre la valorisation culturelle et touristique des sites d’intérêt géomorphologique (ou géomorphosites) pour le développement local. En France métropolitaine, la région Île-de-France ...

  13. Sequence stratigraphy and tectonosedimentary history of the Upper Jurassic of the Eastern Paris Basin (Lower and Middle Oxfordian, Northeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Lathuilière, Bernard; Ferry, Serge; Sausse, Judith

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, the difficulty which lies in the identification of sea-level fall discontinuities in deep depositional environments led the authors to use the transgressive surfaces (i.e. the most noticeable surfaces in the present case) to determine depositional cycles. Four (3rd order?) Lower and Middle Oxfordian cycles were identified (S1, S2, S3, and S4) in the Eastern Paris Basin. These four cycles can be organised into two lower frequency cycles (So I and So II) which comprise the S1, S2 and the S3, S4 cycles respectively. During the time intervals of the S1, S2, and S3 cycles, sedimentation occurred along a southward dipping carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, prograding from the northern Ardennes area. The S4 cycle shows the development of a reefal distally steepened ramp which subsequently evolved into a flat-topped platform as a result of the compensation infill of the available accommodation space by the carbonate production during a climatic warming, in this case reef growth. Isopach and facies maps suggest synsedimentary activities of hercynian faults coevals with the floodings of the So I and So II cycles. One of these events generated a diachronism of the maximum flooding (Plicatilis Zone) during the So II cycle between the northwestern and southeastern parts of the studied area. The depositional patterns found in the Eastern Paris Basin and the Swiss Jura show great similarities for the Early-Middle Oxfordian. Both regions were probably connected and recorded the same tectonosedimentary evolution. In contrast a tectonic control certainly generated differences between the sequence-stratigraphic framework of the Eastern Paris Basin and the eustatic chart.

  14. Urbanization impact on sulfur content of groundwater revealed by the study of urban speleothem-like deposits: Case study in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, E; Roy-Barman, M; Jean-Soro, L; Guillerme, A; Branchu, P; Fernandez, M; Dumont, E; Douville, E; Michelot, J L; Phillips, A M

    2017-02-01

    Speleothem-like deposits that develop underground in urban areas are an archive of the environmental impact of anthropic activities that has been little studied so far. In this paper, the sulfate content in shallow groundwater from northern Paris (France) is compared with the sulfur content in two 300-year-old urban carbonate deposits that grew in a historical underground aqueduct. The present-day waters of the aqueduct have very high sulfur and calcium contents, suggesting pollution from gypsum dissolution. However, geological gypsum levels are located below the water table. Sulfur content was measured by micro-X-ray fluorescence in these very S-rich carbonate deposits (0.5 to 1% of S). A twofold S increase during the second half of the 1800s was found in both samples. These dates correspond to two major periods of urbanization above the site. We discus three possible S sources: anthropic sources (industries, fertilizers…), volcanic eruptions and input within the water through gypsum brought for urbanization above the studied site (backfill with quarry waste) since the middle of the 19th century. For the younger second half of the studied section, S input from gypsum brought during urbanization was confirmed by the study of isotopic sulfur composition (δ 34 S=+15.2‰ at the top). For the oldest part, several sulfur peaks could be related to early industrial activity in Paris, that caused high local air pollution, as reported in historical archives but also to historical gypsum extraction. This study provides information on the origin and timing of the very high SO 4 2- levels measured nowadays within the shallow groundwater, thus demonstrating the interest in using carbonate deposits in urban areas as a proxy for the history of urbanization or human activities and their impact on water bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term hydrodynamic response induced by past climatic and geo-morphologic forcing: The case of the Paris basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guyomard, Y.; Guillocheau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of safe underground storage of radioactive waste in low-permeability layers, it is essential to evaluate the mobility of deep groundwaters over timescales of several million years. On these timescales, the environmental evolution of a repository should depend upon a range of natural processes that are primarily driven by climate and geo-morphologic variations. In this paper, the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years is investigated. A three-dimensional transient modelling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Ecole des Mines de Paris, ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geo-morphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to estimate river-valley incision and alpine uplift. Climate forcing results from paleo-climate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and the Middle Pliocene Warmth (similar to 3 Ma). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (ENSMP). Results about the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions are presented, in particular in the vicinity of ANDRA's Bure potential repository site within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous layer. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid

  16. 3-D basin modelling of the Paris Basin: diagenetic and hydrogeologic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Jost, A.; Marsily, G. de

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D basin model of the Paris basin is presented in order to simulate through geological times fluid, heat and solute fluxes. This study emphasizes: i) the contribution of basin models to the quantitative hydrodynamic understanding of behaviour of the basin over geological times; ii) the additional use of Atmospheric General Circulation model (AGCM) to provide palaeo-climatic boundaries for a coupled flow and mass transfer modelling, constrained by geochemical and isotopic tracers and; iii) the integration of different types of data (qualitative and quantitative) to better constrain the simulations. Firstly, in a genetic way, basin model is used to reproduce geological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the course of the 248 My evolution of the Paris basin that ought to explain the present-day hydraulic properties at the regional scale. As basin codes try to reproduce some of these phenomena, they should be able to give a plausible idea of the regional-scale permeability distribution of the multi-layered system, of the pre-industrial hydrodynamic conditions within the aquifers and of the diagenesis timing and type of hydrodynamic processes involved. Secondly, climate records archived in the Paris basin groundwater suggest that climate and morphological features have an impact on the hydrogeological processes, particularly during the last 5 My. An Atmospheric General Circulation model is used with a refined spatial resolution centred on the Paris basin to reproduce the climate for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ky) and the middle Pliocene (3 My). These climates will be prescribed, through forcing functions to the hydrological code with the main objective of understanding the way aquifers and aquitards react under different climate conditions, the period and the duration of these effects. Finally, the Paris basin has been studied for a number of years by different scientific communities, thus a large amount of data has been collected. By

  17. Partitioning behaviour of perfluorinated alkyl contaminants between water, sediment and fish in the Orge River (nearby Paris, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Pierre; Chevreuil, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the partitioning behaviour of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including C 4 -C 10 sulfonates and C 5 -C 14 carboxylic acids, between water, sediment and fish (European chub, Leuciscus cephalus) in the Orge River (nearby Paris). Total PFC levels were 73.0 ± 3.0 ng L -1 in water and 8.4 ± 0.5 ng g -1 in sediment. They were in the range 43.1-4997.2 ng g -1 in fish, in which PFC tissue distribution followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log K d ) and bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) were in the range 0.8-4.3 and 0.9-6.7, respectively. Both distribution coefficients positively correlated with perfluoroalkyl chain length. Field-based biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are also reported, for the first time for PFCs other than perfluorooctane sulfonate. log BSAF ranged between -1.3 and 1.5 and was negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. - Research highlights: → PFC tissue distribution in European chub followed the order plasma > liver > gills > gonads > muscle. → K d and BAF correlated with PFC alkyl chain length. → BSAF negatively correlated with the perfluoroalkyl chain length in the case of carboxylic acids. → BSAF did not correlate with alkyl chain length of sulfonates. - Sediment-water, biota-water and biota-sediment partitioning coefficients were determined for perfluorinated acids and sulfonates and were generally correlated with alkyl chain length.

  18. Factors associated with excessively lengthy treatment of tuberculosis in the eastern Paris region of France in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valin Nadia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on prescriber adherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment guidelines. In particular, excessively long treatment carries a risk of avoidable adverse effects and represents a waste of healthcare resources. We examined factors potentially associated with excessively long treatment. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with TB in 2004 in the eastern Paris region. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with excessively long treatment were identified by logistic regression analyses. Based on contemporary guidelines, excessively long treatment was defined as more than 6 months of a four-drug regimen for thoracic TB with full sensitive strains, and more than 12 months for patients with extrathoracic TB. Results Analyses concerned 478 patients with a median age of 36.0 ± 13.5 years, of whom 48% were living in precarious conditions (i.e. poor living conditions and/or no health insurance, 80% were born abroad, and 17% were HIV-seropositive. TB was restricted to the chest in 279 patients (isolated pulmonary, pleuropulmonary, and isolated pleural TB in 245, 13, and 21 patients, respectively, exclusively extrathoracic in 115 patients, and mixed in the remaining 84 patients. Treatment was prescribed by a chest specialist in 211 cases (44.1% and 295 patients (61.7% were managed in a single institution. The treatment duration complied with contemporary guidelines in 316 cases (66.1% and was excessively long in 162 cases (33.9%. The median duration of excessively long treatment was 313 days (IQR: 272-412. In multivariate analysis, isolated thoracic TB, previous TB, HIV infection, a prescriber other than a chest specialist, and management in more than one healthcare center during treatment were independently associated with excessively lengthy treatment. Conclusion One-third of TB patients received excessively long treatment, reflecting inadequate awareness of management guidelines or

  19. Afflictions encountered in Paris by an army officer and writer: autobiographical works of Yasmina Khadra and their reception in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Pawlicki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes Yasmina Khadra’s autobiographical work composed of two books: "L’écrivain" and "L’imposture des mots" and its reception in France. The main purpose of this study was to establish the literary genre of these books, which implies determining whether Khandra’s work represents an autobiography or an autofiction with reference to P. Lejeune’s and V. Colonna’s theoretical studies. The dividing line between two genres in Khandra’s works refl ects his inner split between being either a solder or a writer. The presentation will also help to understand the controversy resulting from Khandra’s participation in Algerian civil war. Moreover the analysis is related to modern Algerian history.

  20. Communication dated 26 November 2004 received from the Permanent Representatives of France, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Kingdom concerning the agreement signed in Paris on 15 November 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 26 November 2004 from the Permanent Representatives of France, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United Kingdom, attaching the text of the agreement signed by the Governments of France, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with the support of the High Representative of the European Union, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, in Paris on 15 November 2004. The letter and, as requested therein, the text of the agreement, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  1. EdF competing in the European electricity market. Interview with Francois Ailleret, Electricite de France, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The French nuclear power program was pushed through in order to reduce the country's dependence on imported fossil sources of energy. Nuclear power and hydro power have achieved a level of self-sufficiency in the energy sector of more than 50%. It should be emphasized that the French nuclear power program was largely self-financed. Electricite de France (EdF) considers itself well prepared for the European market, provided the creation of the single market implies that electricity rates are taken as a yardstick of competitiveness. Negotiations about a European directive on deregulating the electricity market were for the government to hold. EdF pleaded in favor of preserving for each country a certain leeway for shaping its own policy. The road to deregulation was to be opened, but the specific situation of each country was to be taken electricity to be passed through imposes narrow constraints upon an expansion of exchanges of electricity, and public acceptance is not very likely to be achieved for the construction of new international high voltage transmission lines. (orig.) [de

  2. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  3. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  4. Modeling of petroleum products demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, A.; Jamin, F.; Cholet, G.

    1995-01-01

    This project was carried out under the responsibility of the Strategy-Economics-Program Division of the ''Institut Francais du Petrole''. The goal was the short-term (12 months) forecasting of the demand with regard to the four leading petroleum products in France - gas oil (GO), automotive (CA), home heating oil (FOD) and heavy fuel oil (FL). It was decided to test an original method (1) and to compare it with the widely used Box and Jenkins method (2), which gives good results for the GO and CA series but which proves disappointing for the FOD and FL series. This study is in two parts: (1) the first part describes the original method by breaking it down into trends and seasonality, with the model being additive or multiplicative. We improved its performances by using the theory of the Weiner filter; (2) the second part concerns Box an Jenkins modeling. This model was used on the unprocessed series and then on the series corrected for the influence of working days with the help of the ''Census-X11'' deseasonalization program. For each method, the principal phases are described for the modeling of gas oil on the French domestic market. For the other products, only the principal results are given, i.e. structure of the model retained, matching with reality, reliability of forecasts. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Effective Consideration of Human and Organisational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Workshop Proceedings, September 21-22, 2009, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear licensees must have effective processes for learning from operating experience in order to manage safety, secure continuous improvement and defend against the potential for repeat events. These processes include root cause analysis (RCA) to identify the underlying causes of events and mechanisms to learn from these analyses and to implement improvements. Correctly identifying and correcting the causes of events will allow lessons to be learned and shared with others in the industry. The treatment of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA is of special interest to WGHOF. It is estimated that approximately 60-80% of events in the nuclear industry can be attributed to human and organisational factors. Although the importance of correctly identifying the HOF causes is understood, there is still a tendency for the analysis to focus solely on the technical issues of the event. The history of prominent events across the major hazards sector shows that HOF lessons often fail to be learned. A NEA/CSNI special experts meeting entitled 'Identification of Barriers to Analyzing and Identifying Human and Organisational Factors in Root Cause Analysis' was held at the NEA Headquarters in Paris, France on September 21-22, 2009. A total of 17 participants from 10 countries representing licensee organisations, regulators, international organisations and an independent consultant attended the meeting. The meeting was structured to allow for small group discussions during which a number of themes were explored, followed by plenary discussion. There were also four papers presented which complemented the discussion themes. As set out in the objectives of this work, the participants identified barriers to the effective treatment of HOF in RCA and recommendations to mitigate the effects of these barriers. Many of the barriers and recommendations identified relate to the RCA process in general, not specifically to the treatment of HOF in the RCA process. This is logical, for

  6. Strontium distribution and origins in a natural clayey formation (Callovian-Oxfordian, Paris Basin, France): a new sequential extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C.; Negrel, P.; Crouzet, C.; Guerrot, C.; Gautier, A.; Michel, P.; Vinsot, A.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Strontium is a minor element in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (ANDRA Underground Research laboratory, France) and may be interesting as a natural analogue of cationic radionuclides. The objective of our study was to better understand the chemical behaviour of this element since the sediment deposition. Previous mineralogical work showed that main strontium-bearing minerals in the clay-stones, in addition to clay minerals, are celestite, carbonates and accessory micas and K-feldspars. In order to establish the strontium distribution and determine its origins across the clayey formation and establish a strontium diffusion profile, a four step sequential extraction procedure combined with strontium isotopes was developed and adapted to the mineralogy of the Bure clay-stones. The four-steps sequential extraction developed and applied to sixteen samples of Callovian-Oxfordian clay-stones showed that the exchangeable fraction (27 to 48% of the total strontium) and the carbonate fraction (38-47% of the total strontium) are the two main fractions carrying the strontium, the detrital fraction being secondary (< 15%). Celestite is the major strontium-carrier mineral that can perturb the results of the sequential extraction but not significantly modify the distribution of strontium at the scale of the formation. The celestite was studied on micronic to centi-metric crystals, separated by hand-picking on core samples. The development of this sequential extraction procedure for the Callovian-Oxfordian formation shows the importance of the first cobalt hexamine trichloride step to extract the exchangeable strontium adsorbed on clay minerals and block the exchangeable sites with cobalt for the following steps, allowing a good separation of exchangeable fraction and carbonates. However the reagent/solid ratio of 20 seems to be less adapted to carbonate-rich samples. The good separation between exchangeable

  7. From Penrith to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Clay

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Clay has written her first graphic novel, 'From Penrith to Paris', based on experiences of her first semester in France. It deals with the issues of student life, the loss of cultural identity through language and what it means to come from the cultural wasteland of Sydney to the cultural capital of the world - Paris. Through these funny and often life changing experiences, she realises the value of her hometown and that culture, no matter how it is perceived, plays an enormous role in the shaping of individuals.

  8. XXII EAACI congress, Paris (France)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    2017-04-13

    Apr 13, 2017 ... Please visit our website for details of ESPAI 2017 Congress and the WATS! I also encourage you all to hurry and register to participate in the World Allergy Organization Symposium. (Hot Topics in Allergy: Pediatric and Regulatory Aspects) that will be held in Rome/Vatican City, on April 27-29,. 2017. There.

  9. MDEP Conference on New Reactor Design Activities - Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) Conference Proceedings, Paris, France, 10-11 September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The MDEP is a unique ten-nation initiative being undertaken by national regulatory authorities from Canada, China, Finland, France, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the purposes of co-operating on safety design reviews of new reactors and identifying opportunities to harmonise and converge on safety licensing review practices and requirements. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been chosen to provide the technical secretariat support. The International Atomic Energy Agency participates in many of the MDEP activities. Started in 2007 with co-operation on various pilot project issues, the MDEP's expected outcomes are: (1) improved effectiveness and efficiency of regulatory safety design reviews, (2) increased quality of safety assessments, and (3) and identified areas for the convergence of regulatory requirements and practices. Making each regulator stronger in its ability to make sovereign safety decisions is a key objective that cuts across all MDEP activities. In 2008, the top regulators from each national authority met as the MDEP Policy Group and adopted the present structure and programme of work for the MDEP, including the pursuit of co-operation on specific safety design reviews and pursuing closer co-ordination on harmonisation and convergence issues such as digital instrumentation and control, mechanical codes and standards, and vendor inspections. The MDEP is currently a long-term programme that focuses in near term and interim results to share within MDEP and with other stakeholders. With effective communications in mind, the MDEP Policy Group directed the NEA to co-ordinate the Conference on New Reactor Design Activities with the purpose of communicating to a wide spectrum of stakeholders worldwide as to the program of work and accomplishments of the MDEP, and soliciting feedback and input from these stakeholders regarding recommendations on how to co-operate more efficiently

  10. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S.N.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; Weiden-Reinmüller, S.L. von der; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q.J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J.G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J.L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions.

  11. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere (Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968), Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains twenty recommendations put forth at the Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere under the direction of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The conference was held at the UNESCO House, Paris,…

  12. Modelling transport of storm-water pollutants using the distributed Multi-Hydro platform on an urban catchment near Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasingly use of vehicles causes expanding contaminated storm-water runoff from roads and the associated quarters. Besides, the current utilization of city's separated sewer systems underlines the needs for evaluating precisely the growing impact of these polluted effluents on receiving water bodies. Nevertheless, traditional means of water quality modelling had shown its limits (Kanso, 2004), more accurate modelling schemes are hence required. In this paper, we found that the application of physically based and fully distributed model coupled with detailed high-resolution data is a promising approach to reproduce the various dynamics and interactions of water quantity/quality processes in urban or peri-urban environment. Over recent years, the physically based and spatially distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This platform is particularly adapted for representing the hydrological processes for medium size watersheds, including the surface runoff, drainage water routing and the infiltrations on permeable zones. It is formed by the interactive coupling of several independent modules, which depend on generally used open-access models. In the framework of the ANR (French National Agency for Research) Trafipollu project, a new extension of MH, MH-quality, was set up for the water-quality modelling. MH-quality was used for the simulation of pollutant transport on a peri-urban and highly trafficked catchment located near Paris (Le Perreux-sur-Marne, 0.2 km2). The set-up of this model is based on the detailed description of urban land use features. For this purpose, 15 classes of urban land uses relevant to water quality modelling were defined in collaboration with the National Institute of Geography of France (IGN) using Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (5cm). The delimitation of the urban catchment was then performed

  13. Fog modelling during the ParisFog campaign: predictive approach and spatial heterogeneity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    In fog or low clouds modeling, the accurate comprehension of the interaction among the turbulence, the microphysics and the radiation is still an important issue in improvement of numerical prediction quality. The improvement of fog modeling is important both in forecasting in transportation and in industrial domain by reason of their discharges atmospheric (cooling tower, smog...). The 1D version of Code-Saturne has been used for the numerical simulation with the observational data from the ParisFog campaign, which took place at the SIRTA site during 2006-2007 winter. The comparison between the simulation and observation shows that the model is able to reproduce correctly the fog evolution from its formation to its dissipation. The sensitivity analysis of the behavior of the different parameterizations shows that the fog dynamic is sensible to the turbulence closure, the fog water content to the sedimentation processes and the fog droplet spectrum to the nucleation scheme. The performance of a long-period simulation in forecasting mode shows that the robustness of the model and the contribution of the coupling by nudging and a mesoscale model in 36 hours advance. The 3D version of Code-Saturne allows us to study the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the fog formation. Firstly, the simulations have been performed within a homogeneous horizontal domain with RANS mode. And then, the surface roughness in different type of surface and the building area will be taken into account. (author) [fr

  14. Water circulation control on carbonate-δ18O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavastre, Veronique; Ader, Magali; Buschaert, Stephane; Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. → Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. → Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. → Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. → Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate δ 13 C and δ 18 O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-δ 18 O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate δ 13 C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the δ 18 O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone δ 18 O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical δ 18 O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain δ 18 O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been effective since Jurassic/Cretaceous transition times. Inversely, the

  15. Water circulation control on carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavastre, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.lavastre@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [CNRS, UMR 6524, LMV, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Ader, Magali [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Buschaert, Stephane [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7-8 rue Jean Monnet, 92 298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. > Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. > Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. > Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. > Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the {delta}{sup 18}O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone {delta}{sup 18}O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical {delta}{sup 18}O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain {delta}{sup 18}O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been

  16. Formation of organic aerosol in the Paris region during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign: evaluation of the volatility-basis-set approach within the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    this behavior. Despite these uncertainties, the implementation of the VBS scheme into the CHIMERE model allowed for much more realistic organic aerosol simulations for Paris during summertime. The advection of SOA from outside Paris is mostly responsible for the highest OA concentration levels. During advection of polluted air masses from northeast (Benelux and Central Europe, simulations indicate high levels of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA fractions, while biogenic SOA dominates during periods with advection from Southern France and Spain.

  17. Novel ambler class A carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate from the Seine River, Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate (PF-1) resistant to carbapenems was recovered during an environmental survey performed with water from the Seine River (Paris). It expressed a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase, BIC-1, sharing 68 and 59% amino acid identities with beta-lactamases SFC-1 from Serratia fonticola and the plasmid-encoded KPC-2, respectively. beta-Lactamase BIC-1 hydrolyzed penicillins, carbapenems, and cephalosporins except ceftazidime and monobactams. The bla(BIC-1) gene was chromosomally located and was also identified in two other P. fluorescens strains isolated from the Seine River 3 months later.

  18. Social vulnerabilities and health conditions of arrestees in the Greater Paris area, France, in 2013: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Emilie; Denis, Céline; Bourokba, Nacer; Chauvin, Pierre; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the health and social conditions of arrestees, as compared to the general population. We studied a sample of 600 adult arrestees in three locations in the Greater Paris area, prospectively included (February-May 2013). A descriptive analysis has been performed, then prevalence was estimated using an indirect standardisation according to age, based on data from a population-based, representative survey in the same area. Arrestees had a median age of 31 years; 92% were males. As compared to the general population, arrestees had a lower level of education (8.6 vs. 7.6%, p analysis of male arrestees and males from the general population showed that the former had worse social and health conditions. These results argue for widespread medical interventions on all arrestees. Medical examination during detention could act as a gateway to health care and social support.

  19. Difficulties encountered at the beginning of professional life: results of a 2003 pilot survey among undergraduate students in Paris Rene Descartes University (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbelaïd, R; Dot, D; Levy, G; Eid, N

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dental hospital clinical activity, dental students at Paris Rene Descartes University have the opportunity in their final year of study to practise clinically in a dental office, as associates. This paper outlines a pilot, experimental study designed to assess student reaction to this Vocational Clinical Activity (VCA) in order to identify relevant weaknesses of the undergraduate programme. Using questionnaires, data were collected for each of the following clinical or management skills: clinical difficulty, therapeutic decision-making, patient/practitioner relationship, time management, administrative matters and technical problems. Students were asked to rank each item in order of difficulty (1, high level to 6, low level). A high response rate was observed (90%) among the 50 undergraduate VCA students. The results pointed out three main difficulties encountered by undergraduate students during the VCA: time management (90% of the students), administrative matters (85% of the students) and clinical decision-making (80% of the students). These preliminary results need further investigation. However, they give us the incentive to carry on with this type of assessment and to extend it to young, qualified colleagues' perceptions and to other French Universities.

  20. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Petetin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary inorganic compounds represent a major fraction of fine aerosol in the Paris megacity. The thermodynamics behind their formation is now relatively well constrained but, due to sparse direct measurements of their precursors (in particular NH3 and HNO3, uncertainties remain on their concentrations and variability as well as the formation regime of ammonium nitrate (in terms of limited species among NH3 and HNO3 in urban environments such as Paris. This study presents the first urban background measurements of both inorganic aerosol compounds and their gaseous precursors during several months within the city of Paris. Intense agriculture-related NH3 episodes are observed in spring/summer while HNO3 concentrations remain relatively low, even during summer, which leads to a NH3-rich regime in Paris. The local formation of ammonium nitrate within the city appears low, despite high NOx emissions. The data set also allows evaluating the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model (CTM. Interestingly, the rather good results obtained on ammonium nitrates hide significant errors on gaseous precursors (e.g., mean bias of −75 and +195 % for NH3 and HNO3, respectively. This leads to a misrepresentation of the nitrate formation regime through a highly underestimated gas ratio metric (introduced by Ansari and Pandis, 1998 and a much higher sensitivity of nitrate concentrations to ammonia changes. Several uncertainty sources are investigated, pointing out the importance of better assessing both NH3 agricultural emissions and OH concentrations in the future. These results remind us of the caution required when using of CTMs for emission scenario analysis, highlighting the importance of prior diagnostic and dynamic evaluations.

  1. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  2. The Callovo-Oxfordian of the Paris Basin: From its geological context to the modelling of its properties; Le Callovo-Oxfordien du bassin de Paris: du contexte geologique a la modelisation de ses proprietes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-10-15

    The French law from December 30, 1991 entrusted the French national agency for radioactive wastes (ANDRA) with the mission of assessing the feasibility of a deep geological repository in the clay-rich Callovo-Oxfordian formation of NE France (Meuse and Haute-Marne departements). A research program, coordinated by ANDRA and involving several university laboratories and other French organizations (CNRS, CEA, BRGM, INERIS, INPL, ENSMP) has permitted to gather a huge amount of information about the properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of the eastern part of the Paris basin. These properties are summarized in this introductive paper: paleo-geography, bio-stratigraphy of ammonites, clay mineralogy and other minerals content, anisotropy of argillite beds, permeability and porosity, osmosis and thermal diffusion, chemistry of interstitial waters, fracturing.. (J.S.)

  3. Analyse séquentielle de l'Eocène et de l'Oligocène du bassin Parisien (France Sequence Analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene Paris Basin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le Bassin parisien pendant l'Eocène et l'Oligocène, on dénombre vingt-deux discontinuités issues d'émersions correspondant aux périodes de bas-niveaux marins. La présence de fleuves est décelée dans les prismes de bordure de plate-forme et dans les prismes de haut niveau, remobilisant des stocks sableux anciens à partir des anticlinaux actifs et des bordures du bassin. Ainsi, indépendamment du volume disponible pour les sédiments, se succèdent des séquences dominées soit par des formations détritiques, soit par des formations carbonatées. La plate-forme parisienne a enregistré toutes les variations eustatiques connues, bien que les mouvements tectoniques syn-sédimentaires locaux puissent influencer fortement les conditions de sédimentation. Mieux encore, la plate-forme parisienne a subi des fluctuations marines d'ordre supérieur de très courte durée qui, si elles sont retrouvées dans d'autres domaines, pourront être attribuées à des phénomènes eustatiques. The Paris Basin (Map 1 is a classic example of a stable platform such as has been known throughout the World for a long time now. Aside from the Bartonian and Priabonian, all Eocene and Oligocene stages have been defined in the form of the following four international stratotypes : Sparnacian, Cuisian, Lutetian and Stampian. It should also be noted that the substages of the Bartonian (Auversian, marinesian and the Ludian, the equivalent of the Priabonian, are also Parisian. Even though gaps have recently been redefined (C. Pomerol, 1989, though the correlations between the different formations in the basin and those of the surrounding areas (D. Curry, 1967; et al. 1969, 1978; C. Pomerol, 1977; C. Cavelier, 1979; C. Cavelier and C. Pomerol, 1986 have now been determined, and though the worldwide eustatic sea level curve was partly plotted with the help of stratotype sections (B. U. Haq et al. , 1988, the Eocene and Oligocene sequence analysis of the paris Basin

  4. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodzic, A.

    2005-10-01

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  5. Submicron aerosol source apportionment of wintertime pollution in Paris, France by double positive matrix factorization (PMF2) using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and a multi-wavelength Aethalometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.E.; Favez, O.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Sciare, J.

    2014-01-01

    Online non-refractory submicron aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements in urban areas have successfully allowed the apportionment of specific sources and/or physical and chemical properties of the organic fraction. However, in order to be fully representative of PM pollution, a comprehensive source apportionment analysis is needed by taking into account all major components of submicron aerosols, creating strengthened bonds between the organic components and pollution sources. We present here a novel two-step methodology to perform such an analysis, by taking advantage of high time resolution of monitoring instruments: the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and the multi-wavelength absorption measurements (Aethalometer AE31) in Paris, France. As a first step, organic aerosols (OA) were de-convolved to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) with positive matrix factorization (PMF), and black carbon was de-convolved into its wood burning and fossil fuel combustion fractions. A second PMF analysis was then carried out with organic factors, BC fractions and inorganic species (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride), leading to a four-factor solution allowing highly time-resolved characterization of the major sources of PM1. Outputs of this PMF2 include two dominant combustion sources (wood burning and traffic) as well as semi-volatile and low-volatile secondary aerosols. While HOA is found to be emitted by both wood burning and traffic, the latter sources occurred to significantly contribute also to OOA. (authors)

  6. Life cycle assessment of forecasting scenarios for urban water management: A first implementation of the WaLA model on Paris suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Guérin-Schneider, Laetitia; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    A framework and an associated modeling tool to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban water system, namely the WaLA model, has been recently developed. In this paper, the WaLA model is applied to a real case study: the urban water system of the Paris suburban area, in France. It aims to verify the capacity of the model to provide environmental insights to stakeholder's issues related to future trends influencing the system (e.g., evolution of water demand, increasing water scarcity) or policy responses (e.g., choices of water resources and technologies). This is achieved by evaluating a baseline scenario for 2012 and several forecasting scenarios for 2022 and 2050. The scenarios are designed through the modeling tool WaLA, which is implemented in Simulink/Matlab: it combines components representing the different technologies, users and resources of the UWS. The life cycle inventories of the technologies and users components include water quantity and quality changes, specific operation (electricity, chemicals) and infrastructures data (construction materials). The methods selected for the LCIA are midpoint ILCD, midpoint water deprivation impacts at the sub-river basin scale, and endpoint Impact 2002+. The results of the baseline scenario show that wastewater treatment plants have the highest impacts compared to drinking water production and distribution, as traditionally encountered in LCA of UWS. The results of the forecasting scenarios show important changes in water deprivation impacts due to water management choices or effects of climate change. They also enable to identify tradeoffs with other impact categories and to compare several scenarios. It suggests the capacity of the model to deliver information for decision making about future policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Opening Session [International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris, France, March 4-7, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    In Europe today, the energy supply relies on fossil fuels at over 75% of its primary energy consumption. Worldwide, it is over 82%. Such a massive use of fossil fuels is thus both a threat for the environment, climate and health, and also for our economies. In 2012, for France, fossil fuel imports represent an expense 3 times larger than in 2005, and over 90% of France’s trade deficit. If keeping this current energy mix, we will strongly contribute to a large increase of the risk of climate change, environmental and human health impacts, and their damaging effects. Tackling climate change, environmental and health issues will require the priority use of CO 2 emission free energy sources. Despite Kyoto protocol and many political international statements, the amount of CO 2 emission per year has known a +40% growth from 1990 to 2009, with the correlated increase of temperatures. To ensure a sustainable development, the world needs a sustainable energy supply, which makes a sufficient amount available for everybody at an acceptable price. For all these reasons, the substitution of fossil fuel consumption as soon as possible and as large as possible with CO 2 free energy sources must be our top priority. The corner stone of any sustainable European energy is the reduction of our consumption of fossil fuels with three axes of action relative to the technologies using these fuels: energy savings, improved efficiency, substitution by other technologies which do not use such fuels, as renewable and nuclear energies

  8. The COCCON Paris Experiment - Model-Data Comparison of XCO2 (and XCH4) in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Staufer, J.; Frey, M.; Broquet, G.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Sha, M. K.; Blumenstock, T.; Te, Y. V.; Janssen, C.; Jeseck, P.; Chelin, P.; Fratacci, T.; Tu, Q.; Gross, J.; Schäfer, K.; Orphal, J.; Ciais, P.; Hase, F.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas1 and the future population growth is also predicted to occur mostly in urban centers. While emissions of Greenhouse Gases and carbon-based air pollutants can be estimated quite precisely on national scale using fuel consumption statistics, typically to about 3%-40%2, higher uncertainties of 20%-50% are reported3 for urban GHG emissions. Atmospheric observations, when combined with inversion modelling can allow independently assessing such urban emission inventories4. This study investigates how well novel low-resolution FTS observations can be represented within atmospheric transport models used in such inversion systems, which would be the pre-requisite for a future system based on XCO2 observations. A network of five EM27sun instruments5,6was deployed across the Paris Metropolitan region (upwind, downwind and inside of Paris, diameter ca. 40km) for a three week period in spring 2015. Observed XCO2 significantly varies during this period ranging from 400.5ppm to 406ppm. A decrease in XCO2 throughout the day, likely driven by the biogenic CO2 uptake in the region, is recorded at all sites. Both observational and simulated XCO2 also clearly show that the emissions in the Paris region significantly increase XCO2 (0-2ppm), depending on meteorological conditions. The observational data is compared to three configurations of our XCO2 forward model to assess their performance. We find that all simulations and observations agree qualitatively and that the gradient of XCO2 over Paris can also be reproduced quantitatively for specific meteorological conditions and optimal model setup. 1United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision 2Anders et al. 2014, Tellus B 2014, 66, 23616, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616 3Wu et al. 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7743-7771, doi:10.5194/acp-16-7743-2016 4Staufer et al. 2016

  9. Does air-sea coupling influence model projections of the effects of the Paris Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Nicholas; Suckling, Emma; Sutton, Rowan; Dong, Buwen

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement includes the long-term goal to hold global-mean temperature to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels", with the further stated aim of limiting the global-mean warming to 1.5°C, in the belief that this would "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change". However, it is not clear which risks and impacts would be avoided, or reduced, by achieving a 1.5°C warming instead of a 2.0°C warming. Initial efforts to quantify changes in risk have focused on analysis of existing CMIP5 simulations at levels of global-mean warming close to 1.5°C or 2.0°C, by taking averages over ≈20 year periods. This framework suffers from several drawbacks, however, including the effect of model internal multi-decadal variability, the influence of coupled-model systematic errors on regional circulation patterns, and the presence of a warming trend across the averaging period (i.e., the model is not in steady state). To address these issues, the "Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts" (HAPPI) project is performing large ensembles of atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for present-day and 1.5°C and 2.0°C scenarios. While these experiments reduce the complications from a limited dataset and coupled-model systematic errors, the use of atmosphere-only models neglects feedbacks between the atmosphere and ocean, which may have substantial effects on the representation of local and regional extremes, and hence on the response of these extremes to global-mean warming. We introduce a set of atmosphere-ocean coupled simulations that incorporate much of the HAPPI experiment design, yet retain a representation of air-sea feedbacks. We use the Met Office Unified Model Global Ocean Mixed Layer (MetUM-GOML) model, which comprises the MetUM atmospheric model coupled to many columns of the one-dimensional K Profile Parameterization mixed-layer ocean. Critically, the MetUM-GOML ocean mean

  10. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  11. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in situ measurements during short intensive and longer-term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE chemistry transport models. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions constituted less than 20 % in winter and 40 % in summer of carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly small for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e., from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only being partially responsible for its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  12. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  13. Influence of an urban canopy model and PBL schemes on vertical mixing for air quality modeling over Greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Chazette, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of meteorological modeling in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and urban canopy model (UCM) on the vertical mixing of pollutants are studied. Concentrations of gaseous chemical species, including ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter over Paris and the near suburbs are simulated using the 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model Polair3D of the Polyphemus platform. Simulated concentrations of O3, NO2 and PM10/PM2.5 (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm/2.5 μm, respectively) are first evaluated using ground measurements. Higher surface concentrations are obtained for PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 with the MYNN PBL scheme than the YSU PBL scheme because of lower PBL heights in the MYNN scheme. Differences between simulations using different PBL schemes are lower than differences between simulations with and without the UCM and the Corine land-use over urban areas. Regarding the root mean square error, the simulations using the UCM and the Corine land-use tend to perform better than the simulations without it. At urban stations, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are over-estimated and the over-estimation is reduced using the UCM and the Corine land-use. The ability of the model to reproduce vertical mixing is evaluated using NO2 measurement data at the upper air observation station of the Eiffel Tower, and measurement data at a ground station near the Eiffel Tower. Although NO2 is under-estimated in all simulations, vertical mixing is greatly improved when using the UCM and the Corine land-use. Comparisons of the modeled PM10 vertical distributions to distributions deduced from surface and mobile lidar measurements are performed. The use of the UCM and the Corine land-use is crucial to accurately model PM10 concentrations during nighttime in the center of Paris. In the nocturnal stable boundary layer, PM10 is relatively well modeled, although it is over-estimated on 24 May and under-estimated on 25 May. However, PM10 is

  14. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain with CFD wakes: Paper presented at EWEA 2015, Europe's Premier Wind Energy Event, 17 - 20 November 2015, Paris, France

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, J.; Stoevesandt, B.

    2015-01-01

    For a complex terrain site in Bahia, Brazil, 28 CFDRANS simulations were carried out, representing the relevant states of a wind rose with three degrees resolution. The resulting wind fields provide the background wind for the layout optimization of a wind farm with 64 wind turbines based on the AEP. The underlying wake model was deduced from CFD-RANS simulation results of an isolated actuator disk. We find that a hybrid optimization algorithm that combines genetic and gradient-based optimize...

  15. In-situ, satellite measurement and model evidence for a~dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-03-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns and from additional one year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in-situ measurements during short intensive and longer term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only controlling part of its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  16. Petrophysical Properties of the Middle Jurassic Carbonates in the PICOREF Sector (South Champagne, Paris Basin, France Propriétés pétrophysiques du Dogger carbonaté dans le Secteur PICOREF (Sud Champagne, bassin de Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmas J.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, carried out as part of the PICOREF Project for the CO2 storage in the aquifers of the Paris Basin, presents an important petrophysical database from the numerous petroleum wells drilled in the PICOREF Sector (south-eastern part of the Paris Basin between 1953 and 2001. These core data concern the three saline carbonated aquifers of the Middle Jurassic: the Oolithe Blanche and the Comblanchien formations, Upper Bathonian age, and the Dalle Nacrée formation, Lower Callovian age, that would be used for the CO2 sequestration. Located at –1230 to –1750 m sub sea in the studied sector, these carbonate reservoirs which cumulative thickness is about 150 m, outcrop in the Burgundy region, at about 80 km south-eastern the Sector where they are exploited in several quarries. The analysis of the 6800 routine measurements (porosity and permeability gathered for this study allowed to improve the knowledge of the petrophysical properties. Special measurements (mercury injection tests allowed to characterize the porous medium. Cet article, réalisé dans le cadre du Projet PICOREF(1 pour le stockage de CO2 dans les aquifères du bassin parisien, présente une importante base de données pétrophysiques issues des nombreux puits pétroliers forés dans le Secteur PICOREF (sud-est du bassin parisien entre 1953 et 2001. Ces données concernent les trois aquifères salins du Dogger carbonaté susceptibles d’être utilisés pour séquestrer du CO2 : l’Oolithe Blanche et le Comblanchien, d’âge Bathonien supérieur, ainsi que la Dalle Nacrée d’âge Callovien inférieur. Recoupés à des altitudes de – 1230 à – 1750 m/mer dans le secteur étudié, ces réservoirs carbonatés, dont l’épaisseur cumulée est de 150 m environ, affleurent en Bourgogne, à 80 km au sud-est du « Secteur », où ils sont exploités dans plusieurs carrières. L’analyse des 6800 mesures classiques (porosité et perméabilité rassemblées ici a permis d

  17. Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Pourtau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.

  18. Economic models of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents: some lessons for the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative systems of compensation for damages caused by nuclear accidents have been proposed. In respect, the question merits attention to whether these alternative models of compensation discussed in the economic literature could be implemented when discussing the revision of the Paris and Vienna Conventions. 55 refs., 1 tab

  19. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  20. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  1. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  2. Organic Matter in the Early Toarcian Shales, Paris Basin, France: a Response to Environmental Changes La matière organique dans les argiles du Toarcien inférieur du bassin de Paris, France : un enregistrement des changements d'environnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollander D. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A freshly drilled core from the Paris Basin contains a 16 m section of Early Toarcian Shale deposition. The organic matter and carbonates in these black-shale sediments were investigated using isotopic, petrologic and molecular organic geochemical methods. Throughout the studied section, molecular organic geochemical and organic petrographic characteristics remain remarkably uniform and suggest that the organic matter is overwhelmingly of marine origin (bacterial and algal with only minor contributions of terrigenous organic matter. In contrast, TOC content of the sediments, hydrogen indices of the kerogens, isotopic composition of co-existing kerogens and carbonates, and isotopic fractionation between the organic and inorganic carbon vary greatly and follow systematic trends. In general, higher values of hydrogen indices and TOC content are associated with the significantly depleted 13C values in both kerogens and carbonates and greater values of carbon isotopic fractionation. The integration of carbon isotopic fractionation between carbonates and kerogens (a proxy for surface water [CO2(aq] and hydrogen indices (a reflection of organic matter preservation suggests that the greatest accumulation of hydrocarbon-rich organic matter occurred at a time when surface water [CO2(aq] was extremely high. This implies that intermediate waters enriched in 12C-CO2 and [CO2(aq] were recycled into the photic zone of the surface water masses and provided the waters necessary to produce the observed negative isotopic excursions and maximum carbon isotopic fractionations. The settling of organic matter through a primarily anoxic water column with deposition in a highly reducing and quiescent bottom water mass was ideal for the extraordinary preservation of the organic matter. In turn, these results suggest that the depositional environment prevailing during the early Toarcian in the Paris Basin was a stratified-silled basin type environment. Si le cadre pal

  3. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution.

  4. The Paris Agreement to Ignore Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2016-01-01

    At the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015, an Agreement was reached by the international community including 195 countries. The Agreement has been hailed, by participants and the media, as a major turning point for policy in the struggle to address human induced climate change. The following is a short critical commentary in which I briefly explain why ...

  5. Characterising an intense PM pollution episode in March 2015 in France from multi-site approach and near real time data: Climatology, variabilities, geographical origins and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J.-E.; Amodeo, T.; Meleux, F.; Bessagnet, B.; Menut, L.; Grenier, D.; Pellan, Y.; Ockler, A.; Rocq, B.; Gros, V.; Sciare, J.; Favez, O.

    2017-04-01

    During March 2015, a severe and large-scale particulate matter (PM) pollution episode occurred in France. Measurements in near real-time of the major chemical composition at four different urban background sites across the country (Paris, Creil, Metz and Lyon) allowed the investigation of spatiotemporal variabilities during this episode. A climatology approach showed that all sites experienced clear unusual rain shortage, a pattern that is also found on a longer timescale, highlighting the role of synoptic conditions over Wester-Europe. This episode is characterized by a strong predominance of secondary pollution, and more particularly of ammonium nitrate, which accounted for more than 50% of submicron aerosols at all sites during the most intense period of the episode. Pollution advection is illustrated by similar variabilities in Paris and Creil (distant of around 100 km), as well as trajectory analyses applied on nitrate and sulphate. Local sources, especially wood burning, are however found to contribute to local/regional sub-episodes, notably in Metz. Finally, simulated concentrations from Chemistry-Transport model CHIMERE were compared to observed ones. Results highlighted different patterns depending on the chemical components and the measuring site, reinforcing the need of such exercises over other pollution episodes and sites.

  6. Paris Offscreen: Chinese Tourists in Cinematic Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.-A. O. Dung (Yun-An Olivia); S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article examines from a European-Asian perspective the relationship between media representations and the tourist’s imagination. We use the case of Chinese tourists in Paris to investigate how these non-European tourists imagine Europe, and how these imaginations

  7. Health co-benefits from air pollution and mitigation costs of the Paris Agreement: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandya, Anil; Sampedro, Jon; Smith, Steven J; Van Dingenen, Rita; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina; Arto, Iñaki; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2018-03-01

    Although the co-benefits from addressing problems related to both climate change and air pollution have been recognised, there is not much evidence comparing the mitigation costs and economic benefits of air pollution reduction for alternative approaches to meeting greenhouse gas targets. We analysed the extent to which health co-benefits would compensate the mitigation cost of achieving the targets of the Paris climate agreement (2°C and 1·5°C) under different scenarios in which the emissions abatement effort is shared between countries in accordance with three established equity criteria. Our study had three stages. First, we used an integrated assessment model, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), to investigate the emission (greenhouse gases and air pollutants) pathways and abatement costs of a set of scenarios with varying temperature objectives (nationally determined contributions, 2°C, or 1·5°C) and approaches to the distribution of climate change methods (capability, constant emission ratios, and equal per capita). The resulting emissions pathways were transferred to an air quality model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the concentrations of particulate matter and ozone in the atmosphere and the resulting associated premature deaths and morbidity. We then applied a monetary value to these health impacts by use of a term called the value of statistical life and compared these values with those of the mitigation costs calculated from GCAM, both globally and regionally. Our analysis looked forward to 2050 in accordance with the socioeconomic narrative Shared Socioeconomic Pathways 2. The health co-benefits substantially outweighed the policy cost of achieving the target for all of the scenarios that we analysed. In some of the mitigation strategies, the median co-benefits were double the median costs at a global level. The ratio of health co-benefit to mitigation cost ranged from 1·4 to 2·45, depending on the scenario. At the regional level, the costs of

  8. GlobalSoilMap France: High-resolution spatial modelling the soils of France up to two meter depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V L; Lacoste, M; Richer-de-Forges, A C; Arrouays, D

    2016-12-15

    This work presents the first GlobalSoilMap (GSM) products for France. We developed an automatic procedure for mapping the primary soil properties (clay, silt, sand, coarse elements, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil depth). The procedure employed a data-mining technique and a straightforward method for estimating the 90% confidence intervals (CIs). The most accurate models were obtained for pH, sand and silt. Next, CEC, clay and SOC were found reasonably accurate predicted. Coarse elements and soil depth were the least accurate of all models. Overall, all models were considered robust; important indicators for this were 1) the small difference in model diagnostics between the calibration and cross-validation set, 2) the unbiased mean predictions, 3) the smaller spatial structure of the prediction residuals in comparison to the observations and 4) the similar performance compared to other developed GlobalSoilMap products. Nevertheless, the confidence intervals (CIs) were rather wide for all soil properties. The median predictions became less reliable with increasing depth, as indicated by the increase of CIs with depth. In addition, model accuracy and the corresponding CIs varied depending on the soil variable of interest, soil depth and geographic location. These findings indicated that the CIs are as informative as the model diagnostics. In conclusion, the presented method resulted in reasonably accurate predictions for the majority of the soil properties. End users can employ the products for different purposes, as was demonstrated with some practical examples. The mapping routine is flexible for cloud-computing and provides ample opportunity to be further developed when desired by its users. This allows regional and international GSM partners with fewer resources to develop their own products or, otherwise, to improve the current routine and work together towards a robust high-resolution digital soil map of the world

  9. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    Energy is critical to economic development and poverty reduction. The provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services, especially for the poorest, contributes decisively to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Without energy, economies cannot grow and poverty cannot be reduced. Insufficient electricity supply affects many developing countries. Productivity, competitiveness, employment, and economic and social development are therefore limited. Low income countries are uppermost victims of climate change, though being the least responsible and the least armed to tackle and mitigate it. To meet the energy needs of Africa and other countries vulnerable to climate change and engage them on a sustainable development path, a priority for all countries, a concerted common global action is needed. This action shall be connected with existing initiatives in order to complement and enhance their efficiency. 2012 has been declared the international year for energy access by the United-Nations and during its presidency of the G8/G20, France wishes to foreground this issue. Therefore, France and Kenya want to contribute to this overall action, launching a global partnership for universal access to clean energy. In this context, the ministerial meeting launched this partnership on April 21, 2011 in Paris, France. This first meeting discussed ways to mobilize financing to achieve universal access to energy and to develop cleaner energies. Several obstacles have to be addressed and the following challenges shall be overcome: strengthening national and regional legal framework, improving capacity building and project management (source localization, technological options) and risk management. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - white paper presentation (A. Mohamed, P. Lorec); 2 - Establishment of ECREEE as a regional

  10. Analysis of the accelerometric data applied to seismic hazard assessment in France; Anisotropies magnetique et de porosite des argilites du callovo-oxfordien du laboratoire souterrain de l'Andra (Meuse/Haute-Marne, Bassin de Paris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L

    2006-09-15

    In order to test the feasibility of nuclear waste storage, ANDRA, the French Agency in charge of radioactive waste management, gave us the opportunity to study preserved specimens of Jurassic clay-rich rocks from eastern Paris Basin. These rocks, deposited during the Callovian and beginning of the Oxfordian, are dark- to light-grey marls that consist mainly in a mixture of clay, calcite and silt. Core-specimens regularly collected along the Callovo-Oxfordian formation from several vertical and oblique boreholes, were subjected to a magnetic mineralogy study, and to a petro-fabric study with respect to the geographical frame, itself related to a study of the pore network. The mineralogy study helps to characterize the nature of the para- and -ferrimagnetic fractions at the origin of the magnetic susceptibility and remanence which vary according to the clay/calcite/silt ratios, the latter being mostly made of detrital grains of magnetite. In the clay-rich rocks (illite and smectites), the ferrimagnetic fraction is also made of authigenic sulfides, possibly greigite, which accompany the ubiquitous framboids of pyrite. This fraction seems to equate with the soft coercive fraction which was used to re-orient the vertical borehole cores with respect to the present magnetic north. The hard fraction equates with the iron-oxides, in agreement with the random nature of the natural remanence. Hence, the coexistence in the same sediment of iron-sulfides and iron-oxides is related to distinct origins rather than to variable conditions during sedimentation or diagenesis. Preservation of these species is attributed to the very low permeability that the sediment reached after its compaction. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) reflects the zone-axis organization of the clay minerals, and eventually the shape fabric of the ferromagnetic fraction. Expectingly, the short axis of the AMS (K3) is vertical (perpendicular to bedding) with an anisotropy degree on the order of

  11. Postcard from Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this week I was in Paris to join particle physicists from around the world at the International Conference on High-Energy Physics, ICHEP 2010. This conference series began in 1950 as the ‘Rochester series’, named for the original venue in the US, and its meetings rapidly became the place to present the latest results and discoveries.   Particle physics has certainly come a long way since those early days. In 60 years, the meetings have witnessed the birth and growth of CERN, the development of the current Standard Model of particles and their interactions - and now the first results from a truly international project, the LHC. I’d had the opportunity to be present at some of the previous meetings where important discoveries were announced, but this was the first time I had the privilege to attend as the Director-General of the laboratory that was the focus of much of the attention. It is clear from many of the people with whom I talked that the high quality ...

  12. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  13. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  14. Health co-benefits from air pollution and mitigation costs of the Paris Agreement: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Prof Anil Markandya, PhD; Jon Sampedro, MSc; Steven J Smith, PhD; Rita Van Dingenen, PhD; Cristina Pizarro-Irizar, PhD; Prof Iñaki Arto, PhD; Prof Mikel González-Eguino, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although the co-benefits from addressing problems related to both climate change and air pollution have been recognised, there is not much evidence comparing the mitigation costs and economic benefits of air pollution reduction for alternative approaches to meeting greenhouse gas targets. We analysed the extent to which health co-benefits would compensate the mitigation cost of achieving the targets of the Paris climate agreement (2°C and 1·5°C) under different scenarios in which ...

  15. Act of 9 December 1983 approving an Agreement between the Governments of Belgium and France on mutual assistance in the event of catastrophes and serious accidents, signed in Paris on 21 April 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Agreement between Belgium and France lays down a comprehensive legal framework for mutual emergency assistance. It provides that rescue teams will be sent by the Parties in all cases of catastrophe and serious accidents, including nuclear incidents. The Agreement also contains provisions on administrative competences, on quick border crossings by the rescue teams as well as on their supervision. Finally, other provisions settle the question of the costs incurred by assistance, compensation of damage and exchange of information. (NEA) [fr

  16. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  17. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  18. How will climate change affect the vegetation cycle over France? A generic modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laanaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of adaptation strategies of agriculture and forestry to climate change is conditioned by the knowledge of the impacts of climate change on the vegetation cycle and of the associated uncertainties. Using the same generic Land Surface Model (LSM to simulate the response of various vegetation types is more straightforward than using several specialized crop and forestry models, as model implementation differences are difficult to assess. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a LSM to address this issue. Using the SURFEX (“Surface Externalisée” modeling platform, we produced and analyzed 150-yr (1950–2100 simulations of the biomass of four vegetation types (rainfed straw cereals, rainfed grasslands, broadleaf and needleleaf forests and of the soil water content associated to each of these vegetation types over France. Statistical methods were used to quantify the impact of climate change on simulated phenological dates. The duration of soil moisture stress periods increases everywhere in France, especially for grasslands with, on average, an increase of 9 days per year in near-future (NF conditions and 36 days per year in distant-future (DF conditions. For all the vegetation types, leaf onset and the annual maximum LAI occur earlier. For straw cereals in the Languedoc-Provence-Corsica area, NF leaf onset occurs 18 days earlier and 37 days earlier in DF conditions, on average. On the other hand, local discrepancies are simulated for the senescence period (e.g. earlier in western and southern France for broadleaf forests, slightly later in mountainous areas of eastern France for both NF and DF. Changes in phenological dates are more uncertain in DF than in NF conditions in relation to differences in climate models, especially for forests. Finally, it is shown that while changes in leaf onset are mainly driven by air temperature, longer soil moisture stress periods trigger earlier leaf senescence

  19. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  20. Estimation of the Paris NOx emissions from mobile MAX-DOAS observations and CHIMERE model simulations during the MEGAPOLI campaign using the closed integral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiganfar, Reza; Beirle, Steffen; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Jonkers, Sander; Kuenen, Jeroen; Petetin, Herve; Zhang, Qijie; Beekmann, Matthias; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We determined NOx emissions from Paris in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010 by applying the closed integral method (CIM) to a large set of car multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements performed within the framework of the MEGAPOLI project (dk/" target="_blank">http://megapoli.dmi.dk/). MAX-DOAS measurements of the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) were performed in large circles around Paris. From the combination of the observed NO2 VCDs with wind fields, the NO2 influx into and the outflux from the encircled area was determined. The difference between the influx and outflux represents the total emission. Compared to previous applications of the CIM, the large number of measurements during the MEGAPOLI campaign allowed the investigation of important aspects of the CIM. In particular, the applicability of the CIM under various atmospheric conditions could be tested. Another important advantage of the measurements during MEGAPOLI is that simultaneous atmospheric model simulations with a high spatial resolution (3 × 3 km2) are available for all days. Based on these model data, it was possible to test the consistency of the CIM and to derive information about favourable or non-favourable conditions for the application of the CIM. We found that in most situations the uncertainties and the variability in the wind data dominate the total error budget, which typically ranges between 30 and 50 %. Also, measurement gaps and uncertainties in the partitioning ratio between NO and NO2 are important error sources. Based on a consistency check, we deduced a set of criteria on whether measurement conditions are suitable or not for the application of the CIM. We also developed a method for the calculation of the total error budget of the derived NOx emissions. Typical errors are between ±30 and ±50 % for individual days (with one full circle around Paris). From the application of the CIM to car MAX-DOAS observations we derive

  1. Paris Conference (Further report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    From 26-31 July, the international particle physics community met for its traditional biennial 'Rochester' jamboree, held this time in Paris. While there were no major physics surprises, there was still plenty of interest for all and the ground that was covered amply demonstrated the progress which has been made since the previous round of international meetings. The emphasis is very much on improving the already considerable level of agreement between different experiments and between experimental results and theoretical predictions

  2. [Economic impact of lung cancer screening in France: A modeling study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendarme, S; Perrot, É; Reskot, F; Bhoowabul, V; Fourre, G; Souquet, P-J; Milleron, B; Couraud, S

    2017-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial found that, in a selected population with a high risk of lung cancer, an annual low-dose CT-scan decreased lung cancer mortality by 20% and overall mortality by 7% compared to annual chest X-Ray. In France, a work group stated that individual screening should be considered in this setting. However, the economic impact of an organized and generalized (to all eligible individuals) screening in France was never reported. This is a modeling study using French population demographic data and published data from randomized screening trials. We used the same selection criteria as NLST: 55-74-year-old smokers for at least 30 pack-years, current smoker or quit less than 15 years. We computed a second model including also 50-54-year-old individuals. Then, we used different participation rates: 65%, 45%, and 32%. According to the considered model, there would be 1,650,588 to 2,283,993 subjects eligible to screening in France. According to the model and participation rate, lung cancer screening would diagnose 3600 to 10,118 stages 1/2 lung cancer each year. There would be 5991 to 16,839 false-positives, of whom 1416 to 3981 would undergo unnecessary surgery. Screening policy would cost 105 to 215 € million per year. However, increasing the price of a cigarette pack by 0.05 to 0.10 € would fully cover the screening costs. Participation rate is a key point for screening impact. Screening could be easily funded by a small increase in cigarette prices. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Abundance and recruitment data for Undaria pinnatifida in Brest harbour, France: Model versus field results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Murphy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe” [1]. This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.

  4. Misunderstanding in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vintges, K.; Hengehold, L.; Bauer, N.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the mistaken ways in which Beauvoir's work is interpreted by some of France's leading feminists. It counterposes their reception by arguing that Beauvoir's concept of the free ethical way of life is Hegelian rather than Kantian in character. In The Ethics of Ambiguity she

  5. Challenges and Enhancements to Defence-in-Depth (DiD) in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident. Proceedings of a Joint CNRA/CSNI Workshop, Paris, France, 5 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe; Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN; ); Echavarri, Luis; ); Schneider, Thierry; ); Borchardt, Bill; Wanner, Hans; Park, Youn Won; Glenn, Tracy; Regaldo, Jacques; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Repussard, Jacques; Bolshov, Leonid; Chevet, Pierre Frank

    2014-01-01

    An international Workshop on Challenges and Enhancements to Defence in Depth (DiD) in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident was jointly organised by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and the NEA Committee on the Safety on Nuclear Installations (CSNI), with input from the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), on 5 June 2013 in Paris. About 100 participants from NEA member countries, India, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and Eurelectric held in-depth discussions on the defence-in-depth concept and its implementation in the post-Fukushima context. They also considered additional steps to be taken at the national and international levels to address the challenges identified and to make further enhancements to nuclear safety, along with future NEA activities in support of these processes. The concept of DiD - of multiple levels of protection - has been developed and refined by the nuclear safety community over many years. The concept is based on the experience and practice of high hazard industry in general as well as developments within the nuclear industry. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan on the 11 March 2011 demonstrated the importance of the concept of DiD, how these multiple levels of protection can operate and how some can be challenged. Just as with the nuclear accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl and accidents from other industries (e.g. chemical, aerospace, oil and gas), the NEA felt it important that lessons learned are used to further develop the concept and implementation of Defence-in-Depth to help ensure and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world. The NEA has therefore looked at the concept and implementation of Defence-in-Depth and possible challenges and enhancements. It was noted that a great deal of interest has been shown in this area, particularly in the

  6. Geç Ortaçağ Avrupası’nın Meşhur ve Gizemli Şehri Paris (Paris That Was Famous and Mysterious City of the Late Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalik BAKIR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Paris is one of the most important capitals of the middle age. Actually, this city is universecity. Namely, Paris was remembered as a univercity, education center and art and architecture center. Paris appeared differently from the other cities. Here was an important city that East culture and West culture mixed with each other. In its environment, there were cities that have a traditional structure. It carries all the facilities of the city structure in the later middle ages. Namely, Paris is remembered firstly, while city structure is described. Like Chretien de Troyes described, Paris had the culture that made France as the first heritage of Roma and Greek. Paris is a colourful city. Perhaps, France had the most crowd population because of these facilities of Paris. Generally, undoubtedly, these facilities had a big role about the development of France civilization in the 13th century. So, in this study, we will study to introduce Paris with social-economic and culturel angles and give its appearance in the later middle ages.

  7. Physics buzz in Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    Katie Yurkewicz

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) took place from 22 to 28 July in Paris, and first results from the Large Hadron Collider experiments received top billing.   More than 1,100 physicists gathered in the Palais des Congrès conference centre to attend ICHEP, the world’s premier particle physics conference, where scientists presented and discussed the latest and most intriguing results from experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology, innovative theoretical approaches and predictions, and concepts for future accelerators and particle detectors. The buzz about the LHC experiments caught the eye of French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who addressed the conference on Monday 26 July. President Sarkozy exhorted the particle physics community to continue its quest to understand the nature of the Universe, and stated his belief that investment in fundamental research is critical for the progress of mankind. Steve Myers started off the mo...

  8. 2011 spring drought in France : Evaluation of the SURFEX land surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, S.; Barbu, A.; Szczypta, C.; Carrer, D.; Delire, C.; Calvet, J.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The spring of the year 2011 has been exceptionally dry in Western Europe. Over France, May 2011 has been one of the driest over the last 50 years. This event had a marked impact on vegetation development leading to very low value of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) during the growing season . In contrast, July 2011 has been in general wet and cold allowing a new vegetation development. This extreme event, followed by higher than normal rainfall is an excellent case-study to evaluate the capacity of a land surface model to simulate the drought impact on vegetation, and vegetation recovery after a drought. In this study, we used the SURFEX land surface model, in its ISBA-CC (CC stands for Carbon Cycle) configuration. The ISBA-CC version simulates the vegetation carbon cycle, interactive LAI and the carbon accumulation in wood and in the soil organic matter. This model is used by the GEOLAND2 Land Carbon Core Information Service. We performed 20-years simulations of SURFEX at high resolution (8 km) with atmospheric forcing from the SAFRAN dataset, an operational product over France. The vegetation map is provided by the ECOCLIMAP2 database. Following previous work that have confirmed a good simulation of the LAI inter-annual variability, this study investigates the ability of the model of reproducing the observed anomalies of LAI in 2011, in terms of timing and spatial patterns. We compare the simulated LAI with long time series (10 yr) of LAI derived from Earth Observation product within GEOLAND2 BIOPAR project. We quantify the anomalies of energy, water and carbon fluxes. We investigate the robustness of these results and the impact of modifying several important sub-modules of the model: soil texture, photosynthesis, and rainfall interception.

  9. Improvement, calibration and validation of a distributed hydrological model over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Quintana Seguí

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrometeorological model SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM computes water and energy budgets on the land surface and riverflows and the level of several aquifers at the scale of France. SIM is composed of a meteorological analysis system (SAFRAN, a land surface model (ISBA, and a hydrogeological model (MODCOU. In this study, an exponential profile of hydraulic conductivity at saturation is introduced to the model and its impact analysed. It is also studied how calibration modifies the performance of the model. A very simple method of calibration is implemented and applied to the parameters of hydraulic conductivity and subgrid runoff. The study shows that a better description of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil is important to simulate more realistic discharges. It also shows that the calibrated model is more robust than the original SIM. In fact, the calibration mainly affects the processes related to the dynamics of the flow (drainage and runoff, and the rest of relevant processes (like evaporation remain stable. It is also proven that it is only worth introducing the new empirical parameterization of hydraulic conductivity if it is accompanied by a calibration of its parameters, otherwise the simulations can be degraded. In conclusion, it is shown that the new parameterization is necessary to obtain good simulations. Calibration is a tool that must be used to improve the performance of distributed models like SIM that have some empirical parameters.

  10. Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model: a recent assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Mahfouf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of assimilating GPS zenith total delays (ZTD in the convective scale model AROME is assessed over a 1-month period in summer 2013. The experimental set-up is similar to the current operational usage at Météo-France where the observing system has been expanded in July 2013 in a three-dimensional variational (3D-Var data assimilation scheme with a 3-hour cycling. Three experiments are performed. In a baseline experiment the GPS ZTD provided through the E-GVAP programme are withdrawn from the observing system (NOGPS. In a second experiment, GPS ZTD from E-GVAP are included in the observing system, representing the operational configuration at Météo-France (EGVAP. The last experiment is similar to EGVAP but new ZTD observations processed by the University of Luxembourg are also assimilated on top of all other observations (UL01. In the first stage, it has been verified through a systematic comparison with model counterparts that the quality of ZTD data processed by the University of Luxembourg is similar to the one provided by other analysis centres from the E-GVAP programme. After a number of quality controls, it has been possible to assimilate around 90 additional observations on top of around 600 stations from E-GVAP every 3 hours. Despite the small fraction of observations assimilated in AROME that ZTD represent (<2%, it is shown that they systematically improve the atmospheric humidity short-range forecasts by a comparison with other observing systems informative about water vapour (radiosoundings, satellite radiances, surface networks even though it is by small amounts. When examining objective precipitation scores over France, the improvement brought by the UL01 stations on top of E-GVAP is systematic for all daily precipitation thresholds. Examination of several case studies reveals the ability of the ZTD observations to modify the intensity and location of precipitating areas in accordance with previous studies. The addition

  11. Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Randriamiarisoa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of relative humidity (RH and aerosol parameters (scattering cross section, size distributions and chemical composition, performed in ambient atmospheric conditions, have been used to study the influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties. The data were acquired in a suburban area south of Paris, between 18 and 24 July 2000, in the framework of the 'Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile-de-France' (ESQUIF program. According to the origin of the air masses arriving over the Paris area, the aerosol hygroscopicity is more or less pronounced. The aerosol chemical composition data were used as input of a thermodynamic model to simulate the variation of the aerosol water mass content with ambient RH and to determine the main inorganic salt compounds. The coupling of observations and modelling reveals the presence of deliquescence processes with hysteresis phenomenon in the hygroscopic growth cycle. Based on the Hänel model, parameterisations of the scattering cross section, the modal radius of the accumulation mode of the size distribution and the aerosol water mass content, as a function of increasing RH, have been assessed. For the first time, a crosscheck of these parameterisations has been performed and shows that the hygroscopic behaviour of the accumulation mode can be coherently characterized by combined optical, size distribution and chemical measurements.

  12. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  13. Soil erosion and sediment connectivity modelling in Burgundy vineyards: case study of Mercurey, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, Mathieu; Cossart, Étienne; Lejot, Jêrome; Michel, Kristell; Perret, Franck; Christol, Aurélien; Mathian, Hélène; Navratil, Oldrich

    2017-04-01

    This research aims at assessing the impact of agricultural landscape structure on soil erosion and sediment connectivity at the catchment scale. The investigations were conducted the vineyards of Mercurey (Burgundy, France), characterized by important issues related to soil loss, flash floods and associated management infrastructures maintenance. The methodology is based on two main steps that include (1) field investigations and (2) modelling. The field investigations consists in DEM acquisition by LiDAR imaging from a drone, soil mapping and human infrastructures impacting runoff classification and mapping (such as crop rows, storm water-basins, drainage network, roads, etc.). These data aims at supplying the models with field observations. The modelling strategy is based on two main steps: First, the modelling of soil sensitivity to erosion, using the spatial application of the RUSLE equation. Secondly, to assess the sediment connectivity in this area, a model based on graph theory developed by Cossart and Fressard (2017) is tested. The results allow defining the influence of different anthropogenic structures on the sediment connectivity and soil erosion at the basin scale. A set of sub-basins influenced by various anthropogenic infrastructures have been identified and show contrasted sensitivities to erosion. The modelling of sediment connectivity show that the runoff pattern is strongly influenced by the vine rows orientation and the drainage network. I has also permitted to identify non collected (by storm water-basins) areas that strongly contribute to the turbid floods sediment supply and to soil loss during high intensity precipitations events.

  14. Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumax, Virginie; Philip, Jean-Marc; Sarasa, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs

  15. Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC). Presentations and documents submitted to the 28. meeting, OECD Headquarters, Conference Centre, Paris, France, 9-13 May 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. The 28. Meeting of the WPEC was the occasion to review the experimental activities, the evaluation projects and the Status of subgroups. This document brings together the available documents of the meeting: 1 - The Reports on experimental activities: Europe (NEA DB), Japan, USA, China; 2 - Some Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects: ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, BROND/ROSFOND, CENDL, IAEA, TENDL; 3 - The Status of subgroups: Subgroup 37 (Improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies); Subgroup 38 (A modern nuclear database structure beyond the ENDF format); Subgroup 39 (Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files); Subgroup 40 (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation (CIELO) Pilot Project); Subgroup 41 (Improving nuclear data accuracy of 241 Am and 237 Np capture cross-sections); Subgroup 42 (Thermal Scattering Kernel S(a,b): Measurement, Evaluation and Application); Subgroup C (High Priority Request List - HPRL); New Subgroups were proposed and presented: 43 - Code infrastructure to support a general nuclear database structure; WPEC long-term sub-group proposal: International standard for a general nuclear database structure

  16. A 3 D regional scale photochemical air quality model application to a 3 day summertime episode over Paris; Un modele photochimique 3D de qualite de l`air a l`echelle regionale. Application a un episode de 3 jours a Paris en ete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaecker-Voirol, A.; Lipphardt, M.; Martin, B.; Quandalle, Ph.; Salles, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Carissimo, B.; Dupont, P.M.; Musson-Genon, L.; Riboud, P.M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Aumont, B.; Bergametti, G.; Bey, I.; Toupanse, G. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire interuniversitaire des systemes atmospheriques]|[Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents AZUR, a 3D Eulerian photochemical air quality model for the simulation of air pollution in urban and semi-urban areas. The model tracks gas pollutant species emitted into the atmosphere by transportation and industrial sources, it computes the chemical reactions of these species under varying meteorological conditions (photolysis, pressure, temperature, humidity), their transport by wind and their turbulent diffusion as a function of air stability. It has a modular software structure which includes several components dedicated to specific processes: MERCURE, a meso-scale meteorological model to compute the wind field, turbulent diffusion coefficients, and other meteorological parameters; MIEL, an emission inventory model describing the pollutant fluxes from automotive transportation, domestic and industrial activities; MoCA a photochemical gas phase model describing the chemistry of ozone, NO{sub x}, an hydrocarbon compounds; AIRQUAL, a 3D Eulerian model describing the transport by mean wind flux and air turbulent diffusion of species in the atmosphere, associated with a Gear type chemical equation solver. The model has been applied to a 3-day summertime episode over Paris area. Simulation results are compared to ground level concentration measurements performed by the local monitoring network (Airparif). (authors) 22 refs.

  17. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  18. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  19. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 13063 - Airworthiness Directives; EUROCOPTER FRANCE Model SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EUROCOPTER FRANCE Model SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... system and the pedals rocking forward. After investigation, it was determined that the Loctite bond on the ``tall pilot'' stop nut was damaged, most likely due to aging of the adhesive. The nut came loose...

  1. An Intercomparison of ERS-Scat, AMSR-E Soil Moisture Observations with Model Simulations over France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudiger, C.; Calvet, J.C.; Gruhier, C.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study undertaken in preparation of the work leading up to the assimilation of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations into the land surface model (LSM) Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) at Météo-France. This study consists of an intercomparison

  2. Symposium on Continuum Models and Discrete Systems (6th) Held in Dijon, France on June 26 - 29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    France), the Symposium is organized with the financial aid of. CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE, (Odpartement des Sciences Physiques pour...University of :-oznaa, instituite of Building Structures, Iroznan, ioland Phenomenological models of the creep damage and creep rupture of solids are

  3. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  4. Results of a feasibility study: barriers and facilitators in implementing the Sherbrooke model in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Marie-José; Caillard, Jean-François; Roquelaure, Yves; Loisel, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Return-to-work interventions associated with the workplace environment are often more effective than conventional care. The Sherbrooke model is an integrated intervention that has proved successful in preventing work disability due to low-back pain. Implementation, however, runs up against many obstacles, and failure has been reported in many countries. The present study sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of the implementation of the Sherbrooke model within the French health system. A multiple case study with nested levels of analysis was performed in two regions of France. A conceptual framework was designed and refined to identify barriers and facilitators at the individual, organizational and contextual levels. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interview (N=22), focus groups (N=7), and observation and from the gray literature. Participants (N=61) belonged to three fields: healthcare, social insurance, and the workplace. Numerous barriers and facilitators were identified in each field and at each level, some specific and others common to workers in all fields. Individual and organizational barriers comprised lack of time and resources, discordant professional values, and perceived risk. Legal barriers comprised medical confidentiality, legal complexity, and priority given to primary prevention. Individual-level facilitators comprised needs and perceived benefits. Some organizations had concordant values and practices. Legal facilitators comprised possibilities of collaboration and gradual return to work. The present feasibility analysis of implementing the Sherbrooke model revealed numerous barriers and facilitators suggesting a new implementation strategy be drawn up if failure is to be avoided.

  5. Assimilation of ASCAT near-surface soil moisture into the SIM hydrological model over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Wagner, W.

    2011-12-01

    This study examines whether the assimilation of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture observations might benefit an operational hydrological model, specifically Météo-France's SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) model. Soil moisture data derived from ASCAT backscatter observations are assimilated into SIM using a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter (SEKF) over 3.5 years. The benefit of the assimilation is tested by comparison to a delayed cut-off version of SIM, in which the land surface is forced with more accurate atmospheric analyses, due to the availability of additional atmospheric observations after the near-real time data cut-off. However, comparing the near-real time and delayed cut-off SIM models revealed that the main difference between them is a dry bias in the near-real time precipitation forcing, which resulted in a dry bias in the root-zone soil moisture and associated surface moisture flux forecasts. While assimilating the ASCAT data did reduce the root-zone soil moisture dry bias (by nearly 50%), this was more likely due to a bias within the SEKF, than due to the assimilation having accurately responded to the precipitation errors. Several improvements to the assimilation are identified to address this, and a bias-aware strategy is suggested for explicitly correcting the model bias. However, in this experiment the moisture added by the SEKF was quickly lost from the model surface due to the enhanced surface fluxes (particularly drainage) induced by the wetter soil moisture states. Consequently, by the end of each winter, during which frozen conditions prevent the ASCAT data from being assimilated, the model land surface had returned to its original (dry-biased) climate. This highlights that it would be more effective to address the precipitation bias directly, than to correct it by constraining the model soil moisture through data assimilation.

  6. Les mauvais rêves. Une prison à Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Genetelli, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Situé à 35 km de Paris, dans la nouvelle ville de Marne-La-Vallée, Disneyland Paris représente la première destination de loisirs d'Europe. L'implantation du “rongeur aux grande oreilles” ne s'est pas contentée d'établir un simple parc à thème, mais elle a cherché à imposer un cadre de vie sur toute une partie du territoire français, à travers un partenariat public-privé unique en France. De ce fait, nous nous retrouvons dans un “territoire-bulle” contrôlé par Disney. Tout y est propre, sécur...

  7. Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2014-01-01

    The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France, founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783 and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his prior work on Messier's catalogue.

  8. Faults architecture and growth in clay-limestone alternation. Examples in the S-E Basin alternations (France) and numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The following work has been carried out in the framework of the studies conducted by IRSN in support of its safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme of high and intermediate level, long-lived radioactive waste. Such a disposal is planned to be hosted by the Callovian-Oxfordian indurate clay formation between two limestone formations in eastern Paris basin, France. Hypothetical faults may cross-cut this layered section, decreasing the clay containment ability by creating preferential pathways for radioactive solute towards limestones. This study aims at characterising the fault architecture and the normal fault growth in clay/limestone layered sections. Structural analysis and displacement profiles have been carried out in normal faults crossing several decimetres to metre thick sedimentary alternations in the South-Eastern Basin (France) and petrophysical properties have been determined for each layer. The studied faults are simple fault planes or complex fault zones showing are significantly controlled by the layering. The analysis of the fault characteristics and the results obtained on numerical models enlighten several processes such as fault nucleation, fault restriction, and fault growth through layered section. Some studied faults nucleated in the limestone layers, without using pre-existing fractures such as joints, and according to our numerical analysis, a strong stiffness, a low strength contrast between the limestone and the clay layer, and/or s a greater thickness of the clay layer are conditions which favour nucleation of faults in limestone. The range of mechanical properties leading to the fault nucleation in one layer type or another was investigated using a 3D modelling approach. After its nucleation, the fault propagates within a homogeneous medium with a constant displacement gradient until its vertical propagation is stopped by a restrictor. The evidenced restrictors are limestone-clay interfaces or faults in clays, sub

  9. Report of visiting Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The activities carried out by identification mission to the Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) of Paris-Sud University are related. The mission is part of the project of Study on Plasma wave and Plasma turbulence which is part of international agreement between CAPES and COFECUB in France. (M.C.K.)

  10. Outreach in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  11. Carmes Polytechnique, Housing in the Heart of Paris Energy renovation of a social housing estate in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture offices Atelier de la Seine and Rethink have been commissioned with the engineers Pouget Consultants by the social landlord Paris Habitat for the extensive renovation of a social housing estate in the historic centre of Paris. The estate has been built in 1930 and integrates a part of the former college of the Lombard build in the 17th century. It belongs to the social housing typology 'Habitations à Bon Marché (HBM' constructed between1894 and 1949. This typology is generally characterized by its integration in its urban context and an apparent brick facade. The renovation project includes a focus on the reduction of the energy consumption. An important subject, as of the total number of 4.6 millions of social housing in France more than 50 % have been build before 1975 (before the first thermal regulation and many are still considered energy-intensive.

  12. 76 FR 27952 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model EC 120B Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... aviation authority for France, has issued French AD No. F-2005-175, dated October 26, 2005, on behalf of... .Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on April 27, 2011. Scott A. Horn, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate...

  13. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  14. A two-states Markov-switching model of inflation in France and the USA: credible target VS inflation spiral

    OpenAIRE

    B. HEITZ

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to apply the general framework of Markov-switching models to inflation in France and in the USA. We propose a model where inflation can, alternatively, follow two regimes: the first one, where inflation is stationary, is interpreted as a situation where there exists a credible inflation target, even if it is not explicit; the second one where inflation is integrated. Moreover, observing that the two oil shocks were followed by accelerating inflation periods, we allow dependen...

  15. Incorporation of diet information derived from Bayesian stable isotope mixing models into mass-balanced marine ecosystem models: A case study from the Marennes-Oleron Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the use of output from Bayesian stable isotope mixing models as constraints for a linear inverse food web model of a temperate intertidal seagrass system in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, France. Linear inverse modeling (LIM) is a technique that estimates a complete net...

  16. Implementation and Evaluation of an Economic Model for Telestroke: Experience from Virtuall, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolwenn Riou-Comte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTelestroke is recognized as a safe and time-efficient way of treating stroke patients. However, admission centers (spokes are subject to financial charges which can make them reluctant to join the system. We implemented and assessed an economic model supporting our telestroke system, Virtuall, France, which includes one expert center (hub and six spokes.MethodsThe model is based on payment for the expertise provided by the hub, distribution of charges related to telemedicine according to the fees perceived by the spokes, and transfer of patients between the spokes and the hub. We performed a cost–benefit analysis for all patients included in Virtuall from January 2014 to December 2015 to assess the economic balance in each center.Results321 patients were prospectively included in the study. Application of the economic model resulted in overall financial balance with funding of a dedicated medical service in the hub, and reduced costs directly related to telestroke by an average of 10% in the spokes. The conditions generating the highest costs for the spokes were: a patient returning from the hub for re-hospitalization (mean cost of $1,995/patient; management of patients treated by intravenous thrombolysis without transfer to the hub (mean cost of $2,075/patient. The most favorable financial condition for the spokes remained simple transfer of patients to the hub and no return (mean cost of $329/patient.ConclusionWe describe an economic model which can be applied to any telestroke system to ensure the optimal balance between hub and spoke centers.

  17. Sustainable management of transboundary water resources (Belgium/France): Characterization and modelling of the Carboniferous aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, J.; Picot-Colbeaux, G.; Crastes de Paulet, F.; Rorive, A.; Bouvet, A.; Goderniaux, P.; Thiery, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Carboniferous Limestone groundwater extends from East to West across Belgium and the North of France (1420 km²). In a high population density and industrial activity region, it represents huge volumes of abstracted groundwater (98 Mm³). The aquifer thus constitutes a critical reserve for public distribution and industrial uses. This water reservoir is intensively exploited from both sides of the border since the end of the 19th century. Historically, this transboundary aquifer was overexploited, due to the massive requirements of the industry. As a consequence, a substantial piezometric level decrease was observed (up to 50 m). Due to the karstic nature of the aquifer, many sinkhole collapses were induced in the studied area. A reduction of the abstracted volumes was implemented in the 90s, which contributed to the relative stabilization of the piezometric levels, but the equilibrium remains uncertain. Due to complex political, urbanistic and industrial developments across this region, a reasonable and long-term management model was needed, involving all concerned countries and regions. Within the framework of the Interreg ScaldWIN Project, a belgo-french collaboration allowed the acquisition of new sets of geological and hydrogeological data. A new piezometric map was established and correlated with chemical and isotopic analyses. It enabled a more accurate knowledge on the main flow directions within the aquifer, and the relation between recharge area and the confined area, where groundwater is aged up to 10000 years. A new numerical model of the aquifer was implemented and calibrated by using the MARTHE code. This 4 layer-model includes a part of the French chalk aquifer and integrates all abstracted groundwater volumes (wells and quarries) from 1900 to 2010. Atmospheric and surface waters and potential evapotranspiration are included in relation to the groundwater. This model is used by the different partners to consider globally and locally the impact of

  18. Combining empirical approaches and error modelling to enhance predictive uncertainty estimation in extrapolation for operational flood forecasting. Tests on flood events on the Loire basin, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Lionel; Marty, Renaud; Bourgin, François; Viatgé, Julie; Piotte, Olivier; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    France (major spring floods in June 2016 on the Loire river tributaries and flash floods in fall 2016) will be shown and discussed. References Bourgin, F. (2014). How to assess the predictive uncertainty in hydrological modelling? An exploratory work on a large sample of watersheds, AgroParisTech Wang, Q. J., Shrestha, D. L., Robertson, D. E. and Pokhrel, P (2012). A log-sinh transformation for data normalization and variance stabilization. Water Resources Research, , W05514, doi:10.1029/2011WR010973

  19. Micro-economic modelling of biofuel system in France to determine tax exemption policy under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Liquid biofuel support program launched in 1993 in France is implemented through tax exemptions to biofuels produced by agro-industrial chains. Activity levels are fixed by decree and allocated by the government to the different chains. Based on earmarked budget increase voted in parliament, total quantity of biofuels will be increased by 50% in the horizon 2002-2003. A micro-economic biofuel activity model containing a detailed agricultural sector component, that is represented by 700 farms, is used to estimate costs and surpluses generated by the activity at the national level as well as tax exemption levels. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to search for efficient tax exemptions policies in an uncertain environment, where biofuel profitability is significantly affected by petroleum price and soja cake prices. Results suggest that, for the most efficient units both at the industry level (large size biomass conversion units) and at the agricultural sector level (most productive farms), unitary tax exemptions could be decreased by 10-20% for both biofuels, ethyl ether and methyl ester, with no risk for the viability of any existing chain. (author)

  20. Micro-economic modelling of biofuel system in France to determine tax exemption policy under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Liquid biofuel support program launched in 1993 in France is implemented through tax exemptions to biofuels produced by agro-industrial chains. Activity levels are fixed by decree and allocated by the government to the different chains. Based on earmarked budget increase voted in the parliament, total quantity of biofuels will be increased by 50% in the horizon 2002-2003. A micro-economic biofuel activity model containing a detailed agricultural sector component, that is represented by 700 farms, is used to estimate costs and surpluses generated by the activity at the national level as well as tax exemption levels. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to search for efficient tax exemptions policies in an uncertain environment, where biofuel profitability is significantly affected by petroleum price and soja cake prices. Results suggest that, for the most efficient units both at the industry level (large size biomass conversion units) and at the agricultural sector level (most productive farms), unitary tax exemptions could be decreased by 10-20% for both biofuels, ethyl ether and methyl ester, with no risk for the viability of any existing chain

  1. The performance evaluation of WinOSPM model for urban street canyons of Nantes in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sharad B; Rebours, Arnaud; Pavageau, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Air quality modelling is primarily the quantative approach. It is more difficult as it demands input data accuracy, uncertainties and the efficient methodologies to judge the extent of models accuracy. As a result, model validation has to be regarded as an integral part of the modelling process. Furthermore, models are often validated on a limited number of testcases therefore, appropriate evaluation procedure must be implemented to ensure these models will be applicable for various conditions. The study presented here was carried out to evaluate the WinOSPM (Preliminary version of windows based Operational Street Pollution Model) for air pollutants viz. CO, NO, NO2, NOx and C6H6 for three street canyons of Nantes (France) and for the three base years 1999, 2000, and 2001. Each street canyon selected for this study has typical and unidentical features. The rue de Strasbourg and Boulevard Victor Hugo have many building exceptions whereas rue Crébillon has not any. Application of the model above to the three street canyons revealed that WinOSPM could be used in the case when measurements are not available. This was justified from the results at rue Crébillon. The special interest was in the benzene modelled values as its content in fuel has been targeted to reduce to 1% for the years 2000 and onwards (from its 5% until the year 1999). The 50 to 70% reduction in the benzene concentrations is found for both the years i.e. in 2000 and 2001. This has further justified that air quality models are useful and interesting tools in optimising emission reduction strategies. Moreover, it is also the new pollutant added to the measurement campaign of Air Pays de la Loire (APL) for the city of Nantes. For benzene weekly averages are estimated from the hourly-modelled values for all the streets and compared with that of measurements. They are found in excellent agreement with each other's. For other pollutants annual means and percentiles were compared. The statistical analysis

  2. Cross-evaluation of modelled and remotely sensed surface soil moisture with in situ data in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The SMOSMANIA soil moisture network in Southwestern France is used to evaluate modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture products. The surface soil moisture (SSM measured in situ at 5 cm permits to evaluate SSM from the SIM operational hydrometeorological model of Météo-France and to perform a cross-evaluation of the normalised SSM estimates derived from coarse-resolution (25 km active microwave observations from the ASCAT scatterometer instrument (C-band, onboard METOP, issued by EUMETSAT and resampled to the Discrete Global Grid (DGG, 12.5 km gridspacing by TU-Wien (Vienna University of Technology over a two year period (2007–2008. A downscaled ASCAT product at one kilometre scale is evaluated as well, together with operational soil moisture products of two meteorological services, namely the ALADIN numerical weather prediction model (NWP and the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS analysis of Météo-France and ECMWF, respectively. In addition to the operational SSM analysis of ECMWF, a second analysis using a simplified extended Kalman filter and assimilating the ASCAT SSM estimates is tested. The ECMWF SSM estimates correlate better with the in situ observations than the Météo-France products. This may be due to the higher ability of the multi-layer land surface model used at ECMWF to represent the soil moisture profile. However, the SSM derived from SIM corresponds to a thin soil surface layer and presents good correlations with ASCAT SSM estimates for the very first centimetres of soil. At ECMWF, the use of a new data assimilation technique, which is able to use the ASCAT SSM, improves the SSM and the root-zone soil moisture analyses.

  3. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez.

  4. 2006 annual results: Gaz de France announces record-high results and exceeds its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 13 March 2007 - In fiscal year 2006, Gaz de France had the best operational performance in its history. The Group confirms the strength of its business model, with sound Infrastructure business and sharp growth in Exploration - Production, Trading and Sales: - Net income, Group share: 2.3 billion euros; - EBITDA: 5.15 billion euros; - Dynamic dividend policy: 1.1 euro per share (+62%); - Investments at stepped-up pace: 4 billion euros (+38%); - Contribution of Group's international activities doubled in two years (39% of sales); - Many operational advances: strengthened operations, Exploration-Production, LNG Infrastructures and Electricity; - Major steps completed in merger project with Suez

  5. Predictive Models of Procedural Human Supervisory Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    821708, Brest , France. Page 139 of 150 Boussemart, Y. and M. L. Cummings (2010). "Predicting Supervisory Control Behavior with Hidden Markov Models...Strategies for Strike Planning. COGIS 2006 - Cognitive Systems with Interactive Sensors, Paris . Burges, C. (1998). "A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines

  6. Characterization and modeling of natural tracers' transfers through the argillites of Tournemire (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, D.

    2001-01-01

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is investigating the argillaceous formation of Tournemire (France) as a methodological underground laboratory for conducting research on the feasibility of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in argilites. Because of the very low water content and hydraulic conductivity of the argilites, the migration through this media should be very low. The fluid flow regime and transport have been studied using natural tracers from the interstitial water. The deuterium and chloride of interstitial water have been chosen for their conservative behavior. After the development of a protocol for the chloride extraction from the water, and tests on the vacuum distillation method for the water extraction from the rock, systematic data acquisition has been performed on the argillaceous sequence of the massif and near the fracture areas. Both chloride and deuterium profiles suggest that transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale. But the profiles show an enrichment in delta D and delta 18 O of the interstitial solution in the area of one meter adjacent to a fracture compared to pore water of samples located at further distance. Therefore, these observations are suggesting that a second process could generate specific transfers, at the vicinity of faults. The hypothesis of the molecular diffusion as a dominant process for transport was successfully tested using a transport model, over periods of several tenth of millions years, taking into account geodynamical features of the region (such as tectonic and induced faults), and assuming that some variations of the tracer concentrations at the system boundaries occurred during the major climate-change periods. Even if tracers' transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale, they are or should have been affected by a second process causing heterogeneity of concentrations at the vicinity of faults. This process involves either, intrusion of salted

  7. Robustness of Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (ROBELSYS). Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 1-4 April 2014 - Robustness of Electrical Systems of NPP's in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. ROBELSYS Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi triggered discussions about the significance of electrical power hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the Robustness in Electrical Systems (ROBELSYS) Technical Working Group was established in 2012 under the leadership of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) of France. The purpose of the ROBELSYS Technical Working Group was to organize an international workshop to identify and discuss the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The workshop was focused on the provisions taken by various countries concerning national requirements and modifications to the plant designs in order to enhance the robustness of electrical systems, especially the protection against extreme external hazards. The ROBELSYS workshop was held at the OECD Conference Centre in Paris in April 1-4, 2014. A total of 105 participants attended the workshop representing industry and government organisations from 25 countries, as well as international organisations. A total of 34 technical presentations were given in seven sessions as follows: - 1: National Programmes on Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Electric Power Systems; - 2: Role of Electric Power in Severe Accident Management; - 3: Requirements for Robustness of Onsite Electric Power Systems; - 4: Simulation of Transients within NPP Plant Distribution Systems; - 5: Requirements for Equipment Used for Emergency Response; - 6: Margin Assessments for Modern Power Electronics; - 7: Digital Components in Power Systems. Items addressed in the workshop included: - Review of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident concerning the robustness of electrical systems; - Review of the provisions already taken or planned after the Fukushima accident, regarding the sources, the distribution systems and the loads, and documenting the technical basis for these

  8. Robustness of Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (ROBELSYS). Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 1-4 April 2014. Appendix 2 (Cont'd) and Appendix 3 - Robustness of Electrical Systems of NPP's in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. ROBELSYS Workshop Proceedings. Appendices 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi triggered discussions about the significance of electrical power hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the Robustness in Electrical Systems (ROBELSYS) Technical Working Group was established in 2012 under the leadership of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) of France. The purpose of the ROBELSYS Technical Working Group was to organize an international workshop to identify and discuss the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The workshop was focused on the provisions taken by various countries concerning national requirements and modifications to the plant designs in order to enhance the robustness of electrical systems, especially the protection against extreme external hazards. The ROBELSYS workshop was held at the OECD Conference Centre in Paris in April 1-4, 2014. A total of 105 participants attended the workshop representing industry and government organisations from 25 countries, as well as international organisations. A total of 34 technical presentations were given in seven sessions as follows: - 1: National Programmes on Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Electric Power Systems; - 2: Role of Electric Power in Severe Accident Management; - 3: Requirements for Robustness of Onsite Electric Power Systems; - 4: Simulation of Transients within NPP Plant Distribution Systems; - 5: Requirements for Equipment Used for Emergency Response; - 6: Margin Assessments for Modern Power Electronics; - 7: Digital Components in Power Systems. Items addressed in the workshop included: - Review of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident concerning the robustness of electrical systems; - Review of the provisions already taken or planned after the Fukushima accident, regarding the sources, the distribution systems and the loads, and documenting the technical basis for these

  9. Smoke Inhalation and Cyanide Poisoning: 20 Years of Paris Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxocobalamin has been used as a cyanide poisoning antidote for many years in France. It has recently been approved by the US FDA. In Paris, hydroxocobalamin is carried by the Brigade de Sapeurs Pompiers (Paris Fire Brigade) in mobile intensive care vehicles and has been administered empirically to victims of enclosed-space fire smoke inhalation who meet the criteria of having soot in the nose, mouth, or throat, any alteration in mental status or disturbance in consciousness, and especially if any degree of hypotension is present (BP less than or equal to 100 mmHg systolic). The administration of hydroxocobalamin at the scene was shown to be safe. Hydroxocobalamin has also been efficacious and safe in 'pure' cyanide poisoning, as long as brain death has not already occurred. A 'toxidrome' of cyanide poisoning has been developed in our institution in Paris, and its application can assist in making the diagnosis of this life-threatening poisoning which cannot be emergent diagnosed by currently-available laboratory methods.(author)

  10. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  11. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  12. The political debates on the veil in France and the Netherlands: reflecting national integration models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saharso, Sawitri; Lettinga, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we compare the politicization and framing of the Islamic veil in parliamentary debates in France and the Netherlands between 1989 and 2007. If stark national differences in the framing of the issue can be found in the 1990, later years show more convergence, when the debate shifted

  13. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  14. Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Yong Wan

    2007-07-01

    In celebration of the 120th anniversary on Korea-France diplomatic relations, both Korea and France agreed that the New-generation Energy Forum on a VHTR-assisted nuclear hydrogen production, renewable energy, and bio-fuel should be held in Paries, France. In accordance with the agreement, the Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy organized by KAERI and CEA was held at the Mercure Hotel Conference Hall in Paries for a couple of days, November 6 and 7 and a facility visit to the CEA-Saclay was arranged on November 8 by the French side. 19 scientists from both countries presented their R and D status and plans in 4 technical sessions of 'VHTR Nuclear System', 'VHTR-assited Hydrogen Production', 'Renewable Energy', and 'Fuel Cell and Energy Storage'. A contact point in each field was established for the exchange of technological information and dispatch of experts if necessary

  15. Modeling the impact of oyster culture on a mudflat food web in Marennes-Oleron Bay (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Leguerrier, D; Niquil, Nathalie; Petiau, A; Bodoy, Alain

    2004-01-01

    We used a carbon-based food web model to investigate the effects of oyster cultivation on the ecosystem of an intertidal mudflat. A previously published food web model of a mudflat in Marennes-Oleron Bay, France, was updated with revised parameters, and a realistic surface area and density of existing oyster cultures on the mudflat. We developed 2 hypothetical scenarios to estimate the impact of oyster cultivation on the food web structure of the ecosystem: one with no oysters, the other with...

  16. Maio de 1968 em Paris: testemunho de um estudante Paris, May 1968: witness of a student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Thiollent

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar informações sobre os acontecimentos de maio de 1968 na França e seus desdobramentos na vida universitária e intelectual. Os temas abordados são o contexto da crise universitária, as formas de contestação estudantil do ensino de ciências sociais e economia e as fontes intelectuais do movimento. Com base em documentos inéditos, são descritas diversas experiências de comunicação alternativa, de relacionamento entre estudantes e trabalhadores no decorrer dos acontecimentos, assim como uma tentativa de Universidade Popular no 13° distrito de Paris, de julho a outubro de 1968. São analisados alguns aspectos dos debates e da evolução das ciências sociais e da filosofia pós-68, período marcado pela crise do ideário socialista e pelo crescimento do individualismo.This article aims to present the happenigs occured in France in May 1968 and its consequences in the intelectual and university world. The topics are the context of the university crises, the forms of studants complaint against the teaching of Social Sciences and Economy and the intelectual sources of the movement. Based on unpublished documents, many experiences of alternative communication are described and the relationship between students and employees during the happenning and even an attempt to make a Popular University in the 13rd district of Paris, from July to October 1968, as well. Some aspects of the debates and the evolution of the Social Sciences and the Philosophy post 68 are analised. This period was remarked by the crises of the socialist set of ideas and the growth of the individualism.

  17. Modeling Rare Species Distribution at the Edge: The Case for the Vulnerable Endemic Pyrenean Desman in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Williams-Tripp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Pyrenean Desman (Galemys pyrenaicus is an elusive, rare, and vulnerable species declining over its entire and narrow range (Spain, Portugal, France, and Andorra. The principal set of conservation measures in France is a 5-years National Action Plan based on 25 conservation actions. Priority is given to update its present distribution and develop tools for predictive distribution models. We aim at building the first species distribution model and map for the northern edge of the range of the Desman and confronting the outputs of the model to target conservation efforts in the context of environmental change. Contrasting to former comparable studies, we derive a simpler model emphasizing the importance of factors linked to precipitation and not to the temperature. If temperature is one of the climate change key factors, depicted shrinkage in Desman distribution could be lower or null at the northern (French edge suggesting thus a major role for this northern population in terms of conservation of the species. Finally, we question the applied issue of temporal and spatial transferability for such environmental favourability models when it is made at the edge of the distribution range.

  18. The pioneers of radioactivity. From the Museum to the College de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative guidebook is built like a touristic itinerary threw Paris (France) which follows the footpaths of the French pioneers of radioactivity from the Museum, dominated by the 'Becquerel dynasty', to the College de France. This scientific route is a good way to familiarize oneself with science and its actors. (J.S.)

  19. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  20. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  1. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  2. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  3. Modeled dietary impact of industry-wide food and beverage reformulations in the United States and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Mathias, Kevin Clark; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Vieux, Florent; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Background: Food reformulation has been identified as a strategy to improve nutritional intakes; however, little is known about the potential impact of industry-wide reformulations. Objective: The aim of the study was to model the dietary impact of food and beverage reformulation following the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) standards for children, adolescents, and adults in the United States and France. Design: Dietary intakes of individuals aged ≥4 y were retrieved from nationally representative surveys: the US NHANES 2011-2012 ( n = 7456) and the French Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption ( n = 3330). The composition of all foods and beverages consumed were compared with the NNPS standards for energy, total and saturated fats, sodium, added sugars, protein, fiber, and calcium. Two scenarios were modeled. In the first, the nutrient content of foods and beverages was adjusted to the NNPS standards if they were not met. In the second, products not meeting the standards were replaced by the most nutritionally similar alternative meeting the standards from the same category. Dietary intakes were assessed against local nutrient recommendations, and analyses were stratified by body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results: Scenarios 1 and 2 showed reductions in US adults' mean daily energy (-88 and -225 kcal, respectively), saturated fats (-4.2, -6.9 g), sodium (-406, -324 mg), and added sugars (-29.4, -35.8 g). Similar trends were observed for US youth and in France. The effects on fiber and calcium were limited. In the United States, the social gradient of added sugars intake was attenuated in both scenarios compared with the baseline values. Conclusions: Potential industry-wide reformulation of the food supply could lead to higher compliance with recommendations in both the United States and France, and across all socioeconomic groups. NNPS standards seemed to be especially effective for nutrients consumed in excess. © 2017 American

  4. Experimental and modeling studies of fire in compartments at Electricite de France, Research and Development Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, B.

    1997-12-01

    Since 1985, The Research and Development Division at Electricite de France has been in charge, through the development of the software MAGIC, to simulate the fire propagation in Nuclear Plants. The research program has included, since its beginning, an experimental activity dedicated to the combustion of fluids and electrical cables. This paper gives an overview of the works in progress and presents the latest results obtained, in particular in cable combustion. In this field, a three scale approach has been carried on, based on micro-thermo-gravimetry, calorimetry and real scale experiments. (author)

  5. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  6. Efficacy and cost effectiveness of telemedicine for improving access to care in the Paris region: study protocols for eight trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Nathanael; Zarca, Kevin; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Calinaud, Christine

    2016-02-08

    With the development of information and communication technologies, telemedicine has been proposed as a way to improve patient management by facilitating access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. The Paris Ile de France Regional Health Agency is currently funding a comprehensive program of telemedicine experiments. This article describes the protocols for the evaluation of the implementation of telemedicine in the Paris region. Over 2,500 patients have been included in eight studies addressing the use of telemedicine in the context of specific diseases or settings. Two projects are randomized controlled trials, while the six other projects are based on before-after designs (differences in differences studies). Based on the MAST model and the French national framework, we identified endpoints to assess the impact of telemedicine on five dimensions: clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, security of the application, patient satisfaction and quality of life and perception of professionals. Telemedicine encompasses a wide range of services and stakeholders, and thus study protocols must be tailored to the specific constraints and interests of the users. NCT02110433 (03/07/2014), NCT02157740 (05/27/2014), NCT02374697 (02/05/2015), NCT02157727 (05/27/2014), NCT02229279 (08/28/2014), NCT02368769 (02/05/2015), NCT02164747 (NCT02164747), NCT02309905 (11/27/2014).

  7. Numerical modelling of fire propagation: principles and applications at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rongere, F.X.; Gibault, J.

    1994-05-01

    Electricite de France, wishing to limit the accidental unavailability of its nuclear plants and to ensure their safety rigorously takes particular care to reduce the risk of fire. In this context, the Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics Branch of the Research and Development Division has been in charge of the design of numerical tools to simulate the fire propagation in buildings since 1985. Its program is articulated towards three axes which include : the development of the MAGIC software program, the characterization of the combustibles present in power plants, the development of methods for the use of the computer codes in the design of plants. This paper gives on overview of the activity in progress in this research fields. It illustrates also the applications performed and anticipated at Electricite de France of the numerical simulation in fire safety design. We discuss at the end of it the limitations and the development factors of these tool use. One of the later is the association of MAGIC software and the FIVE method. (authors). 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  8. 18O and 34S in the Upper Bartonium gypsum deposits of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.C.; Letolle, R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotopic analyses ( 18 O and 34 S) of the Eocene gypsum from the Paris basin show a range beyond the normal Tertiary marine values. The possibility of a reduction process during diagenesis is discussed. A hypothesis of continental origin by leaching of Permotriassic deposits is proposed for this formation on the basis of a comparison of the isotopic contents recorded from Germany and eastern France

  9. The redefinition of the familialist home care model in France: the complex formalization of care through cash payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Blanche

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the impact of policy measures on the organisation of home-based care for older people in France, by examining the balance between formal and informal care and the redefinition of the initial familialist model. It focuses on the specific cash for care scheme (the Allocation personnalisée d'autonomie - Personalised allowance for autonomy) which is at the core of the French home-based care policy. The author argues that in a redefined context of 'welfare mix', the French public strategy for supporting home-based care in France is articulated around two major objectives, which can appear contradictory. It aims to formalise a professional care sector, with respect to the employment policy while allowing the development of new forms of informal care, which cannot be considered to be formal employment. The data collection is two-fold. Firstly, a detailed analysis was made of different policy documents and public reports, together with a systematic review of existing studies. Secondly, statistical analysis on home-based care resources were collected, which was not easy, as home-care services for older people in France are part of a larger sector of activity, 'personal services' (services à la personne). The article exposes three main findings. First, it highlights the complexity of the formalisation process related to the introduction of the French care allowance and demonstrates that formalisation, which facilitates the recognition of care as work, does not necessarily mean professionalisation. Second, it outlines the diversity of the resources available: heterogeneous professional care, semi-formal forms of care work with the possibility to employ a relative and informal family care. Finally, the analysis outlines the importance of the regulation of cash payments on the reshaping of formal and informal care and comments on its impact on the redefinition of informal caring activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Staime, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  11. Gambling in revolutionary Paris - The Palais Royal: 1789-1838.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, R T

    1992-06-01

    By the revolution of 1789, the four-story, quadrangular Palais Royal in Paris had become the most glittering tourist center of Europe, with 180 shops and cafes in its ground floor arcades. By 1791, its basement and secondary story contained over 100 separate, illicit gambling operations featuring the most popular dice and card games. The mania for gambling had been transferred from defunct, monarchical Versailles to the thriving, bourgeois Palais Royal, where the five main gaming clubs throbbed from noon till midnight. During the Revolution, Prince Talleyrand won 30,000 francs at one club, and after Waterloo in 1815, Marshal Blucher lost 1,500,000 francs in one night at another. To bring the situation under control and raise taxes for the state, in 1806 Napoleon legalized the main clubs, which from 1819 to 1837 grossed an enormous 137 million francs. When the anti-gambling forces triumphed in 1837 and the clubs were closed down, the National Guard had to be called out to evict the mobs of gamblers who refused to leave the tables. Dramatic reports from Revolutionary police raids, and quotations from the memoirs of humorous French gamblers and shocked foreign visitors, provide anecdotal illustrations of the 49 years during which the Palais Royal was the most intriguing and picturesque gambling mecca of Europe-and probably of the world.

  12. France in the front line for geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles illustrates that France is among the European leaders in heat networks fed by deep aquifers in sedimentary basins, and will soon possess new types of plants to valorise this hot water. A first article describes the operation principle and the distinction between the different geothermal energy levels (very low, low and medium, high). The still slow but actual development of geothermal energy is commented. It notably concerns local communities and industries, but not yet individuals. A brief focus is proposed on the case of the Aquitaine basin and of Bordeaux, and on the use of geothermal energy to cool the wine. The case of Ferney-Voltaire is then discussed: a whole district will be supplied with probe-based tempered water loops. The interest of the ADEME in geo-cooling is evoked. An article comments the development of a new model of deep geothermal energy developed by France and Germany: a dozen of plants are planned to be built by 2020, and the Ecogi plant in Rittershoffen is a showcase of a first application of fractured rock geothermal technology (the operation is described). A map indicates locations of geothermal search permits which have been awarded for 16 sites in France. An overview is given of various initiatives in Ile-de-France. The case of Geothermie Bouillante plant in Guadeloupe is evoked: it has been purchased by an American group and will multiply its electricity production by a factor 4 by 2025. The two last articles respectively address the need to boost the very low geothermal energy sector, and the use of geothermal energy in cities near Paris (Grigny and Viry-Chatillon) which aim at supplying energy at lower prices, and thus struggle against energy poverty

  13. Assessing the effects of management on forest growth across France: insights from a new functional-structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Joannès; Delpierre, Nicolas; Vallet, Patrick; François, Christophe; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Soudani, Kamel; Nicolas, Manuel; Badeau, Vincent; Dufrêne, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The structure of a forest stand, i.e. the distribution of tree size features, has strong effects on its functioning. The management of the structure is therefore an important tool in mitigating the impact of predicted changes in climate on forests, especially with respect to drought. Here, a new functional-structural model is presented and is used to assess the effects of management on forest functioning at a national scale. The stand process-based model (PBM) CASTANEA was coupled to a stand structure module (SSM) based on empirical tree-to-tree competition rules. The calibration of the SSM was based on a thorough analysis of intersite and interannual variability of competition asymmetry. The coupled CASTANEA-SSM model was evaluated across France using forest inventory data, and used to compare the effect of contrasted silvicultural practices on simulated stand carbon fluxes and growth. The asymmetry of competition varied consistently with stand productivity at both spatial and temporal scales. The modelling of the competition rules enabled efficient prediction of changes in stand structure within the CASTANEA PBM. The coupled model predicted an increase in net primary productivity (NPP) with management intensity, resulting in higher growth. This positive effect of management was found to vary at a national scale across France: the highest increases in NPP were attained in forests facing moderate to high water stress; however, the absolute effect of management on simulated stand growth remained moderate to low because stand thinning involved changes in carbon allocation at the tree scale. This modelling approach helps to identify the areas where management efforts should be concentrated in order to mitigate near-future drought impact on national forest productivity. Around a quarter of the French temperate oak and beech forests are currently in zones of high vulnerability, where management could thus mitigate the influence of climate change on forest yield.

  14. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  15. What agreement in Paris in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Warsaw, countries agreed to a process whereby each will unilaterally design and communicate its contribution toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. This process is to be ratified in late 2015 in Paris. Will the Paris agreement mark a turning point in climate policy? Will it measure up to the ambitions proclaimed by the international community at the Durban meeting?

  16. Numerical modelling of fire propagation: principles and applications at Electricite de France; La simulation numerique d`incendie: principe et applications a Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rongere, F X; Gibault, J

    1994-05-01

    Electricite de France, wishing to limit the accidental unavailability of its nuclear plants and to ensure their safety rigorously takes particular care to reduce the risk of fire. In this context, the Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics Branch of the Research and Development Division has been in charge of the design of numerical tools to simulate the fire propagation in buildings since 1985. Its program is articulated towards three axes which include : the development of the MAGIC software program, the characterization of the combustibles present in power plants, the development of methods for the use of the computer codes in the design of plants. This paper gives on overview of the activity in progress in this research fields. It illustrates also the applications performed and anticipated at Electricite de France of the numerical simulation in fire safety design. We discuss at the end of it the limitations and the development factors of these tool use. One of the later is the association of MAGIC software and the FIVE method. (authors). 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cost analysis of adverse events associated with non-small cell lung cancer management in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaid C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Christos Chouaid,1 Delphine Loirat,2 Emilie Clay,3 Aurélie Millier,3 Chloé Godard,4 Amira Fannan,4 Laurie Lévy-Bachelot,4 Eric Angevin5 1Chest Department, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France; 2Institut Curie, Paris, France; 3Creativ-Ceutical, Paris, France; 4MSD France, Courbevoie, France; 5Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France Background: Adverse events (AEs related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs.Objective: To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France.Methods: Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified. When no cost evaluation was reported in literature, estimates on standard treatments and medical resource use for each AE were obtained thanks to an expert panel. Total cost per AE was calculated from a French national health insurance perspective and updated in 2017 Euros. Hospital stay costs were estimated based on public and private weighted tariffs and data from the French Medical Information System (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information. Costs of tests, consultations and treatments were calculated based on national reimbursement tariffs.Results: Overall, costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment ranged from €46 per event to €7,742 per year. Fourteen out of 24 AEs identified had a mean estimated cost over €2,000. The highest mean costs were related to type 1 diabetes (€7,742 per year followed by pneumonitis (€5,786 per event

  18. Une herboristerie ethnique à Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaïdi , Maurad

    2012-01-01

    Place de la Chapelle à Paris, dans le 18e arrondissement. L'enseigne de ce magasin est peu explicite, mais la vitrine laisse deviner le type de produits vendus. L'information est un peu plus développée dans la langue arabe car il y est précisé que la vente concerne tous types d'encens, ainsi que des plantes arabes : il s'agit d'une herboristerie. Il est également écrit que le magasin exporte vers le Maroc : le mot en arabe est ambigu puisqu'il s'agit de "Maghreb", mais en général, utilisé seu...

  19. Faults architecture and growth in clay-limestone alternation. Examples in the S-E Basin alternations (France) and numerical modeling; Architecture et croissance des failles dans les alternances argilo-calcaires. Exemples dans les alternances du Bassin du Sud-Est (France) et modelisation numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Vincent

    2011-10-28

    The following work has been carried out in the framework of the studies conducted by IRSN in support of its safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme of high and intermediate level, long-lived radioactive waste. Such a disposal is planned to be hosted by the Callovian-Oxfordian indurate clay formation between two limestone formations in eastern Paris basin, France. Hypothetical faults may cross-cut this layered section, decreasing the clay containment ability by creating preferential pathways for radioactive solute towards limestones. This study aims at characterising the fault architecture and the normal fault growth in clay/limestone layered sections. Structural analysis and displacement profiles have been carried out in normal faults crossing several decimetres to metre thick sedimentary alternations in the South-Eastern Basin (France) and petrophysical properties have been determined for each layer. The studied faults are simple fault planes or complex fault zones showing are significantly controlled by the layering. The analysis of the fault characteristics and the results obtained on numerical models enlighten several processes such as fault nucleation, fault restriction, and fault growth through layered section. Some studied faults nucleated in the limestone layers, without using pre-existing fractures such as joints, and according to our numerical analysis, a strong stiffness, a low strength contrast between the limestone and the clay layer, and/or s a greater thickness of the clay layer are conditions which favour nucleation of faults in limestone. The range of mechanical properties leading to the fault nucleation in one layer type or another was investigated using a 3D modelling approach. After its nucleation, the fault propagates within a homogeneous medium with a constant displacement gradient until its vertical propagation is stopped by a restrictor. The evidenced restrictors are limestone-clay interfaces or faults in clays, sub

  20. Between the German Model and Liberal Medicine : The Negotiating Process of the State Health Care System in France and Spain (1919–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porras-Gallo, María-Isabel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work draws on legal and medical sources, and data from the general and workers’ press to study the negotiating process of the State Health Care System in France and Spain between 1919 and 1944. It shows how, given the internal and external circumstances of both countries, the first phase of this negotiation happened at the end of the First World War; and, how France and Spain’s own systems were initially modelled on the German social insurance, but the final result was different due to the doctors’ opposition. In France, the offensive of medical syndicalism led to the establishment in 1930 of a model of compulsory health insurance, which respected the principles of liberal medicine. Meanwhile in Spain, the doctors’ opposition prevented it from being realised until the new circumstances after the Civil War acted as the driving force for the establishment of a model similar to the German system.

  1. Assimilation of Leaf Area Index and Soil Wetness Index into the ISBA-A-gs land surface model over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, A. L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.

    2012-04-01

    The development of a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) dedicated to carbon and water cycles is considered as a key aspect for monitoring activities of terrestrial carbon fluxes. It allows the assimilation of biophysical products in order to reduce the bias between the model simulations and the observations and have a positive impact on carbon and water fluxes. This work shows the benefits of data assimilation of Earth observations for the monitoring of vegetation status and carbon fluxes, in the framework of the GEOLAND2 project, co-funded by the European Commission within the GMES initiative in FP7. In this study, the SURFEX modelling platform developed at Meteo-France is used for describing the continental vegetation state, surface fluxes and soil moisture. It consists of the land surface model ISBA-A-gs that simulates photosynthesis and plant growth. The vegetation biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) evolve dynamically in response to weather and climate conditions. The ECOCLIMAP database provides detailed information about the land cover at a resolution of 1 km. Over the France domain, the most present ecosystem types are grasslands (32%), C3 crop lands (24%), deciduous forest (20%), bare soil (11%), and C4 crop lands (8%).The model also includes a representation of the soil moisture stress with two different types of drought responses for herbaceous vegetation and forests. A version of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme is developed for the joint assimilation of satellite-derived surface soil moisture from ASCAT-25 km product, namely Soil Wetness Index (SWI-01) developed by TU-Wien, and remote sensing LAI product provided by GEOLAND2. The GEOLAND2 LAI product is derived from CYCLOPES V3.1 and MODIS collection 5 data. It is more consistent with an effective LAI for low LAI and close to the actual LAI for high values. The assimilation experiment was conducted across France at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The study period ranges from July 2007 to December

  2. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Brigitte

    1993-01-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  3. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, Brigitte [Electricite de France (France)

    1993-07-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  4. Research aspects in the Paris-Sud University, in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Some of the research works developed in the Paris-Sud University, in 1988, are reported. In this second volume, the following research papers are presented: the antiprogesterone; the English Channel Tunnel; the individual will concerning filiation; the glycannic variations of the α 1; the molecular phylogenies; the adrenergetical transmission and the β receptors; the organical phases and crystallogenesis in the carbonaceous biomineralizations; the quarks electric charge determination; the X-imagery; the regulation of the enzymatic activities by light in the superior vegetals; the chemical reaction dynamical analysis; the experiment report concerning heavy ions - high density plasma interactions; the 13 C/ 12 C isotopic splitting during photosynthesis; the articular prothesis methodology; and the public authorities and commerce in France [fr

  5. Two months of disdrometer data in the Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The Hydrology, Meteorology, and Complexity laboratory of École des Ponts ParisTech (hmco.enpc.fr) has made a data set of optical disdrometer measurements available that come from a campaign involving three collocated devices from two different manufacturers, relying on different underlying technologies (one Campbell Scientific PWS100 and two OTT Parsivel2 instruments). The campaign took place in January-February 2016 in the Paris area (France). Disdrometers provide access to information on the size and velocity of drops falling through the sampling area of the devices of roughly a few tens of cm2. It enables the drop size distribution to be estimated and rainfall microphysics, kinetic energy, or radar quantities, for example, to be studied further. Raw data, i.e. basically a matrix containing a number of drops according to classes of size and velocity, along with more aggregated ones, such as the rain rate or drop size distribution with filtering, are available. Link to the data set: https://zenodo.org/record/1240168" target="_blank">https://zenodo.org/record/1240168 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1240168" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1240168).

  6. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  7. Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France using different risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelinois, O.C.; Laurier, D.L.; Rogel, A.R.; Billon, S.B.; Tirmarche, M.T.; Hemon, Dh.; Verger, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon exposure is omnipresent for the general public, but at variable levels, because radon mainly comes from granitic and volcanic subs oils as well as from certain construction materials. Inhalation of radon is the main source of exposure to radioactivity in the general population of most countries. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer): radon is classed in the group 1. The exposure of the overall general population to a carcinogenic component led scientists to assess the lung cancer risk associated to indoor radon. The aim of this work is to provide the first lung cancer risk assessment associated with indoor radon exposure in France, using all available epidemiological results and performing an uncertainty analysis. The number of lung cancer deaths potentially associated with radon in houses is estimated for the year 1999 according to several dose-response relationships which come from either cohorts of miners or joint analysis of residential case-controls studies. The variability of indoor radon exposure in France and uncertainties related to each of the dose-response relationships are considered. The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miners cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the INSERM. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions and b y 96 departments for the year 1999

  8. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  9. [Reflection on the psychiatric financial allocation in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Fond, G; Devictor, B; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C; Rouillon, F; Gaillard, R; Zendjidjian, X; Llorca, P-M

    2016-08-01

    For 25years work has been underway in France for the implementation of an alternative to public financing of health care. In the absence of progress, some regional health agencies are engaged in work related to the reallocation of public finances between psychiatric institutions. We propose a reflection with suggestion on the method proposed by the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Regional Health Agency. Without questioning the need for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions, the method proposed here needs to evolve further to be applied in a legitimate and appropriate manner. There is a kind of urgency for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions in France, but it implies a collective thinking and especially the definition of evaluation procedures for the selected models. These conditions are necessary to guarantee the quality of French psychiatry and equity in access to psychiatric care. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Model study of meteorology and photochemical air pollution over un urban area in south-eastern France (ESCOMPTE campaign).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, M.; Cautenet, S.

    2003-04-01

    The ESCOMPTE Campaign has been conducted over Southern France (Provence region including the Marseille, Aix and Toulon cities and the Fos-Berre industrial center) in June and July of 2001. In order to study the redistribution of the pollutants emitted by anthropic and biogenic emissions and their impact on the atmospheric chemistry, we used meso-scale modeling (RAMS model, paralleled version 4.3, coupled on line with chemical modules : MOCA2.2 (Poulet et al, 2002) including 29 gaseous species). The hourly high resolution emissions were obtained from ESCOMPTE database (Ponche et al, 2002). The model was coupled with the dry deposition scheme (Walmsley and Weseley,1996). In this particular case of complex circulation (sea breeze associated with topography), the processes involving peaks of pollution were strongly non linear, and the meso scale modeling coupled on line with chemistry module was an essential step for a realistic redistribution of chemical species. Two nested grids satisfactorily describe the synoptic dynamics and the sea breeze circulations. The ECMWF meteorological fields provide the initial and boundary conditions. Different events characterized by various meteorological situations were simulated. Meteorological fields retrieved by modeling, also Modeled ozone, NOx, CO and SO2 concentrations, were compared with balloons, lidars, aircrafts and surface stations measurements. The chemistry regimes were explained according to the distribution of plumes. The stratified layers were examined.

  11. An adaptive two-stage analog/regression model for probabilistic prediction of small-scale precipitation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jérémy; Hingray, Benoit; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Statistical downscaling models (SDMs) are often used to produce local weather scenarios from large-scale atmospheric information. SDMs include transfer functions which are based on a statistical link identified from observations between local weather and a set of large-scale predictors. As physical processes driving surface weather vary in time, the most relevant predictors and the regression link are likely to vary in time too. This is well known for precipitation for instance and the link is thus often estimated after some seasonal stratification of the data. In this study, we present a two-stage analog/regression model where the regression link is estimated from atmospheric analogs of the current prediction day. Atmospheric analogs are identified from fields of geopotential heights at 1000 and 500 hPa. For the regression stage, two generalized linear models are further used to model the probability of precipitation occurrence and the distribution of non-zero precipitation amounts, respectively. The two-stage model is evaluated for the probabilistic prediction of small-scale precipitation over France. It noticeably improves the skill of the prediction for both precipitation occurrence and amount. As the analog days vary from one prediction day to another, the atmospheric predictors selected in the regression stage and the value of the corresponding regression coefficients can vary from one prediction day to another. The model allows thus for a day-to-day adaptive and tailored downscaling. It can also reveal specific predictors for peculiar and non-frequent weather configurations.

  12. The cost of CO2 reduction. An application of the Global 2100 Model to Germany and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an application of the global 2100 model to Germany and France. The model is a five region world model which allows to simulate economic growth scenarios under different restrictions regarding the output of CO 2 . The basic production factors are capital plus labour and energy. Energy consists of electric and non-electric energy production. Electric energy is described in terms of different production technics whereas non-electric energy is described in terms of different resources. Energy and capital plus labour are substitutes as within each factor are capital and labour and electric and non-electric energy. Decision on the allocation of factors of production is made on the basis of prices: - endogeneous prices determined within the model and within a region, - exogeneous prices which are set by the user of the model and, - prices that are exogeneous to a region but internationally endogeneous. Exogeneous prices are set for coal and coal based technologies, renewable energies and advanced technologies of electricity production. The price of oil is internationally endogeneous in a certain way: by trial and error the international oil price has to be set in such a way that oil trade between exporting and importing countries will be balanced. Within the time horizon of the model a technological shift between fossil and non-fossil energy resources is possible. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  14. Runoff of pesticides from rice fields in the Ile de Camargue (Rhone river delta, France): Field study and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comoretto, Laetitia; Arfib, Bruno; Talva, Romain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Pichaud, Marc; Chiron, Serge; Hoehener, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    A field study on the runoff of pesticides was conducted during the cultivation period in 2004 on a hydraulically isolated rice farm of 120 ha surface with one central water outlet. Four pesticides were studied: Alphamethrin, MCPA, Oxadiazon, and Pretilachlor. Alphamethrin concentrations in runoff never exceeded 0.001 μg L -1 . The three other pesticides were found in concentrations between 5.2 and 28.2 μg L -1 in the runoff water shortly after the application and decreased thereafter. The data for MCPA compared reasonably well with predictions by an analytical runoff model, accounting for volatilization, degradation, leaching to groundwater, and sorption to soil. The runoff model estimated that runoff accounted for as much as 18-42% of mass loss for MCPA. Less runoff is observed and predicted for Oxadiazon and Pretilachlor. It was concluded that runoff from rice paddies carries important loads of dissolved pesticides to the wetlands in the Ile de Camargue, and that the model can be used to predict this runoff. - Runoff of dissolved pesticides was measured on a rice farm in the Camargue (France) and modeled with an analytical model

  15. Hydrogeological modeling constraints provided by geophysical and geochemical mapping of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Stephen; Guérin, Roger; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2014-09-01

    A methodological approach is described which combines geophysical and geochemical data to delineate the extent of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France; the methodology was used to calibrate a hydrogeological model of the contaminants' migration and degradation. The existence of strong reducing conditions in some parts of the aquifer is first determined by measuring in situ the redox potential and dissolved oxygen, dissolved ferrous iron and chloride concentrations. Electrical resistivity imaging and electromagnetic mapping, using the Slingram method, are then used to determine the shape of the pollutant plume. A decreasing empirical exponential relation between measured chloride concentrations in the water and aquifer electrical resistivity is observed; the resistivity formation factor calculated at a few points also shows a major contribution of chloride concentration in the resistivity of the saturated porous medium. MODFLOW software and MT3D99 first-order parent-daughter chain reaction and the RT3D aerobic-anaerobic model for tetrachloroethene (PCE)/trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination are finally used for a first attempt at modeling the degradation of the chlorinated ethenes. After calibration, the distribution of the chlorinated ethenes and their degradation products simulated with the model approximately reflects the mean measured values in the observation wells, confirming the data-derived image of the plume.

  16. Comments on the A. Aurengo document entitled 'the 2003 I.R.S.N. model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France' - 18 december 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The present document brings the principal comments of I.R.S.N. on the analysis note of the 18. december 2005 treating the 2003 I.R.S.N. model on the Chernobylsk accident fallout in France, transmitted by Mister A. Aurengo. (N.C.)

  17. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  18. Geological investigations contributing to the hydrogeological conceptual model in the Meuse/Haute-Marne area, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, M.; De Hoyos, A.; Hibsch, C.; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    Callovian-Oxfordian (COX) indurated clay formation is currently studied by Andra in the 'Meuse/Haute-Marne' (MHM) area for hosting a potential repository of high level, long-lived radioactive waste. IRSN is conducting studies in support of the safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme developed by Andra. IRSN, in collaboration with the Paris School of Mines, develops conceptual and numerical models of the underground water flows throughout the Paris sedimentary basin. The calibrated numerical model correctly represents the hydraulic heads and water salinities collected throughout the basin. At the MHM scale however, several flow patterns can still reproduce the measured heads, some of them assuming specific flow pathways along regional tectonic trends. Considering or not such tectonic trends in the model has however an impact on the estimated radionuclide transfer times to the outlets. Even though most ANDRA and IRSN geochemical analyses suggest a dominant diffusive transport across the COX between the underlying Dogger and overlying Oxfordian aquifers, few data point out the possible existence of local vertical connections across major tectonic structures. In order to select the most plausible options for the numerical modelling, IRSN compiled published studies and carried out fieldwork analysis to provide new data for its hydrogeological conceptual model. Relevant geological data can be considered both at the kilometre scale and at the metre scale. At the kilometre scale, the litho-stratigraphic scheme both for Dogger and Oxfordian series had previously been documented in the MHM area. Regional sedimentologic and diagenetic models are available for the Oxfordian aquifer and partially for the Dogger aquifer. Our fieldwork analysis complete these models thanks to new correlations pointed out during detailed iso-hyps mapping performed by G2R laboratory, southeast from the MHM area. Unlike the Kimmeridgian and COX sedimentary piles, which are

  19. ["Left hemicranium, the cranial nerves" by Tramond: An anatomical model in wax from the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière's Museum in Paris: description and tri-dimensional photographic reconstruction (TDPR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravey, S; Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2011-06-01

    An anatomical model in wax made by Tramond (middle of the 19th century) represented the cranial nerves of a left hemicranium. The aim of the study was to verify its anatomical veracity, to realize a tri-dimensional visualization by computer, and finally to numerize and to diffuse it to the general public in the purpose of culture on the internet. The model belonged to the Delmas, Orfila and Rouvière Museum (Paris Descartes university). It represented the cranial nerves especially the facial and the trigeminal nerves and their branches. To perform the photographic rotation every 5° along 360°, we used a special device made of two identical superimposed marble disks linked by a ball bearing. A digital camera and the Quick Time Virtual Reality software were used. Seventy-two pictures were shot. This wax was realized with a great morphological accuracy from a true cranium as a support for the cranial nerves. The work of numerization and its free diffusion on the Internet permitted to deliver to everybody the images of this sample of the collection of the Orfila Museum, the pieces of which were evacuated on December 2009 after its closure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of the models used in France for the evaluation of the consequences of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the consequences of an atmospheric release in case of an accident on a nuclear installation, different predictive models have been developed by the organizations involved in the management of the crisis. These models are of different numerical complexity: precalculated graphs, gaussian puff models or 3D models. The harmonization of these models, the definition of their use, notably in the first phases of the accident (predictive and real-time phases) have been discussed in a working group including representants of the utility, the safety authorities and the Meteorological Office. The reflexions of the group, the models already operational, those still under discussion and their use in the different technical crisis centers are presented

  1. An adaptive two-stage analog/regression model for probabilistic prediction of small-scale precipitation in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chardon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical downscaling models (SDMs are often used to produce local weather scenarios from large-scale atmospheric information. SDMs include transfer functions which are based on a statistical link identified from observations between local weather and a set of large-scale predictors. As physical processes driving surface weather vary in time, the most relevant predictors and the regression link are likely to vary in time too. This is well known for precipitation for instance and the link is thus often estimated after some seasonal stratification of the data. In this study, we present a two-stage analog/regression model where the regression link is estimated from atmospheric analogs of the current prediction day. Atmospheric analogs are identified from fields of geopotential heights at 1000 and 500 hPa. For the regression stage, two generalized linear models are further used to model the probability of precipitation occurrence and the distribution of non-zero precipitation amounts, respectively. The two-stage model is evaluated for the probabilistic prediction of small-scale precipitation over France. It noticeably improves the skill of the prediction for both precipitation occurrence and amount. As the analog days vary from one prediction day to another, the atmospheric predictors selected in the regression stage and the value of the corresponding regression coefficients can vary from one prediction day to another. The model allows thus for a day-to-day adaptive and tailored downscaling. It can also reveal specific predictors for peculiar and non-frequent weather configurations.

  2. French Revolution or Industrial Revolution? A Note on the Contrasting Experiences of England and France up to 1800

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Sharp; Jacob L. Weisdorf

    2011-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices in London and Paris in the centuries leading up to 1800. Whilst in London, building workers were facing low and stable consumer prices over the period, leaving plenty of scope for a demand-driven c...

  3. Integrated hydrological modelling of a managed coastal Mediterranean wetland (Rhone delta, France: initial calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chauvelon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a heavily managed coastal Mediterranean wetland. The hydrosystem studied , called ``Ile de Camargue', is the central part of the Rhone river delta. It comprises flat agricultural drainage basins, marshes, and shallow brackish lagoons whose connection to the sea is managed. This hydrosystem is subject to strong natural hydrological variability due to the combination of a Mediterranean climate and the artificial hydrological regime imposed by flooded rice cultivation. To quantify the hydrological balance at different spatial and temporal scales, a simplified model is developed — including the basin and the lagoons — using a time step that enables the temporal dynamic to be reproduced that is adapted to data availability. This modelling task takes into account the functioning of the natural and anthropogenic components of the hydrosystem. A conceptual approach is used for modelling drainage from the catchment, using a GIS to estimate water input for rice irrigation. The lagoon system is modelled using a two-dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model. Simulated results from the hydrodynamic model run under various hydro-climatic forcing conditions (water level, wind speed and direction, sea connection are used to calculate hydraulic exchanges between lagoon sub units considered as boxes. Finally, the HIC ('Hydrologie de l’Ile de Camargue' conceptual model is applied to simulate the water inputs and exchanges between the different units, together with the salt balance in the hydrosystem during a calibration period. Keywords: water management,conceptual hydrological model, hydrodynamic model, box model, GIS, Rhone delta, Camargue.

  4. Remote sensing of GHG over Paris megacity and Orléans forest using ground-based QualAir FTS and TCCON-Orléans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Y.; Jeseck, P.; Da Costa, J.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.

    2012-04-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, the ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS, IFS 125HR model) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. A description of the QualAir FTS will be given. Concentrations of atmospheric GHG, especially CO2 and CH4, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. Located in the centre of Paris, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary urban measurements as compared to unpolluted ground-based stations of existing networks (NDACC and TCCON). The work made by LPMAA to join the TCCON network will also be presented. TCCON-Orléans is a ground-based FTS of the TCCON network located in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). Preliminary comparisons of GHGs measurements from both sites will be shown. Such ground-based information will help to better characterize regional GHGs, especially regarding anthropogenic emissions and trends.

  5. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  6. Evaluation of root water uptake in the ISBA-A-gs land surface model using agricultural yield statistics over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, N.; Calvet, J.-C.; Decharme, B.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Pigeon, G.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of root water uptake in land surface models is affected by large uncertainties. The difficulty in mapping soil depth and in describing the capacity of plants to develop a rooting system is a major obstacle to the simulation of the terrestrial water cycle and to the representation of the impacts of drought. In this study, long time series of agricultural statistics are used to evaluate and constrain root water uptake models. The inter-annual variability of cereal grain yield and permanent grassland dry matter yield is simulated over France by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) generic land surface model (LSM). The two soil profile schemes available in the model are used to simulate the above-ground biomass (Bag) of cereals and grasslands: a two-layer force-restore (FR-2L) bulk reservoir model and a multi-layer diffusion (DIF) model. The DIF model is implemented with or without deep soil layers below the root zone. The evaluation of the various root water uptake models is achieved by using the French agricultural statistics of Agreste over the 1994-2010 period at 45 cropland and 48 grassland départements, for a range of rooting depths. The number of départements where the simulated annual maximum Bag presents a significant correlation with the yield observations is used as a metric to benchmark the root water uptake models. Significant correlations (p value neutral impact of the most refined versions of the model is found with respect to the simplified soil hydrology scheme. This shows that efforts should be made in future studies to reduce other sources of uncertainty, e.g. by using a more detailed soil and root density profile description together with satellite vegetation products. It is found that modelling additional subroot-zone base flow soil layers does not improve (and may even degrade) the representation of the inter-annual variability of the vegetation above-ground biomass. These results are

  7. High resolution modelling of the biogeochemical processes in the eutrophic Loire River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Curie, Florence; Gassama, Nathalie; Billen, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    A biogeochemical model was developed, coupling a physically based water temperature model (T-NET) with a semi-mechanistic biogeochemical model (RIVE, used in ProSe and Riverstrahler models) in order to assess at a fine temporal and spatial resolution the biogeochemical processes in the eutrophic Middle Loire hydrosystem (≈10 000 km², 3361 river segments). The code itself allows parallelized computing, which decreased greatly the calculation time (5 hours for simulating 3 years hourly). We conducted a daily survey during the period 2012-2014 at 2 sampling stations located in the Middle Loire of nutrients, chlorophyll pigments, phytoplankton and physic-chemical variables. This database was used as both input data (upstream Loire boundary) and validation data of the model (basin outlet). Diffuse and non-point sources were assessed based on a land cover analysis and WWTP datasets. The results appeared very sensible to the coefficients governing the dynamic of suspended solids and of phosphorus (sorption/desorption processes) within the model and some parameters needed to be estimated numerically. Both the Lagrangian point of view and fluxes budgets at the seasonal and event-based scale evidenced the biogeochemical functioning of the Loire River. Low discharge levels set up favorable physical conditions for phytoplankton growth (long water travel time, limited water depth, suspended particles sedimentation). Conversely, higher discharge levels highly limited the phytoplankton biomass (dilution of the colony, washing-out, limited travel time, remobilization of suspended sediments increasing turbidity), and most biogeochemical species were basically transferred downstream. When hydrological conditions remained favorable for phytoplankton development, P-availability was the critical factor. However, the model evidenced that most of the P in summer was recycled within the water body: on one hand it was assimilated by the algae biomass, and on the other hand it was

  8. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  10. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths.

  11. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 1 concerns the Ile-de-France region (Paris region). (J.S.)

  12. A look into hurricane Maria rapid intensification using Meteo-France's Arome-Antilles model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, R.; Faure, G.; Dupont, T.; Chauvin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Category 5 Hurricane Maria created a string of humanitarian crises. It caused billions of dollars of damage over the Caribbean but is also one of the worst natural disaster in Dominica.The hurricane took approximately 29 hours to strengthen from a tropical storm to a major category 5 hurricane. Here we present real-time forecasts of high resolution (2.5 km) Arome-Antilles regional model forced by real-time ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System. The model was able to relatively represent well the rapid intensification of the hurricane whether it was in timing or in location of the eye and strength of its eye wall.We will present an outline of results.

  13. Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatier, Mareva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research, we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allowed us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that ...

  14. Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The concept of climate justice has been, for the first time, used in an international agreement - namely, the Paris Agreement. But this recognition of the notion of climate justice is extremely restricted by the very way it is formulated. Preamble of the Paris Agreement 'notes' that climate justice is recognized by 'certain cultures'. Does it mean that particular and concrete stakes of climate justice of the pre-COP21 agenda have been recognized or, on the contrary, that the notion so introduced is actually an empty shell without any genuine legal perspective? Considering this uncertainty, it appears relevant to analyze the Paris Agreement through the claims of various groups and coalitions, which influenced the COP21 negotiations

  15. La Cité Universitaire Internationale de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris est le lieu où se concentrent le plus de résidences universitaires en Île-de-France avec une vocation affichée d’accueillir les étudiants et chercheurs du monde entier, et ce depuis 1925. Elle leur offre un ensemble de services centralisés et un cadre privilégié mais se considère avant tout comme un creuset pour la rencontre des cultures et la diffusion de la culture française parmi les élites intellectuelles internationales. Au-delà des intentions, nous avons cherché, par la rencontre de ses dirigeants et des résidents, à saisir d’une part, la réalité actuelle des échanges culturels promus par une politique du « brassage » et d’autre part, la dynamique de « l’espace vécu » des résidents.The Cité Internationale of Paris is the place where concentrate most university halls of residence in the French capital with a displayed vocation to welcome the students and the researchers of the whole world since 1925. It offers to them a set of centralized services and a privileged living environment but considers itself above all as a melting pot for the meeting of cultures and the spreading of French culture among international intellectual elites. Beyond intentions, we tried, by the meeting of managements and residents, to grasp the current reality of cultural exchanges thanks to the policy of the "mixing" and the dynamic of "the space lived" on residents.

  16. Structural and petrophysical characterization: from outcrop rock analogue to reservoir model of deep geothermal prospect in Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Lionel; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Damy, Pierre-Clément

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Interest Group (GIS) GEODENERGIES with the REFLET project aims to develop a geological and reservoir model for fault zones that are the main targets for deep geothermal prospects in the West European Rift system. In this project, several areas are studied with an integrated methodology combining field studies, boreholes and geophysical data acquisition and 3D modelling. In this study, we present the results of reservoir rock analogues characterization of one of these prospects in the Valence Graben (Eastern France). The approach used is a structural and petrophysical characterization of the rocks outcropping at the shoulders of the rift in order to model the buried targeted fault zone. The reservoir rocks are composed of fractured granites, gneiss and schists of the Hercynian basement of the graben. The matrix porosity, permeability, P-waves velocities and thermal conductivities have been characterized on hand samples coming from fault zones at the outcrop. Furthermore, fault organization has been mapped with the aim to identify the characteristic fault orientation, spacing and width. The fractures statistics like the orientation, density, and length have been identified in the damaged zones and unfaulted blocks regarding the regional fault pattern. All theses data have been included in a reservoir model with a double porosity model. The field study shows that the fault pattern in the outcrop area can be classified in different fault orders, with first order scale, larger faults distribution controls the first order structural and lithological organization. Between theses faults, the first order blocks are divided in second and third order faults, smaller structures, with characteristic spacing and width. Third order fault zones in granitic rocks show a significant porosity development in the fault cores until 25 % in the most locally altered material, as the damaged zones develop mostly fractures permeabilities. In the gneiss and schists units, the

  17. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 1; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 1 concerns the Ile-de-France region (Paris region). (J.S.)

  18. A 3d Regional Scale Photochemical Air Quality Model. Application to a 3 Day Summertime Episode over Paris Un modèle photochimique 3D de qualité de l'air à l'échelle régionale. Application à un épisode de 3 jours à Paris en été

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissimo B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents AZUR, a 3D Eulerian photochemical air quality model for the simulation of air pollution in urban and semi-urban areas. The model tracks gas pollutant species emitted into the atmosphere by transportation and industrial sources, it computes the chemical reactions of these species under varying meteorological conditions (photolysis, pressure, temperature, humidity, their transport by wind and their turbulent diffusion as a function of air stability. It has a modular software structure which includes several components dedicated to specific processes :-MERCURE, a meso-scale meteorological model to compute the wind field, turbulent diffusion coefficients, and other meteorological parameters. It is a 3D regional scale model accounting for different ground types and urban densities. It includes a complete set of physical parameterizations in clear sky. -MIEL, an emission inventory model describing the pollutant fluxes from automotive transportation, domestic and industrial activities. This model includes a mobile source inventory based on road vehicle countings together with global information on transportation fluxes extracted from statistical population data. It uses specific emission factors representative of the vehicle fleet and real driving patterns. -MoCA a photochemical gas phase model describing the chemistry of ozone, NOx, and hydrocarbon compounds. This model, with 83 species and 191 reactions, is a reduced mechanism well adapted to various air quality conditions (ranging from urban to rural conditions. For interpretative reasons, the identity of primary hydrocarbons is preserved. -AIRQUAL, a 3D Eulerian model describing the transport by mean wind flux and air turbulent diffusion of species in the atmosphere, associated with a Gear type chemical equation solver. The model has been applied to a 3-day summertime episode over Paris area. Simulation results are compared to ground level concentration measurements performed by

  19. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  1. [The meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris during troubled periods (1803-1946)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    With newly found archives and other already usable documents, it was possible to study the repercussions of several troubled periods in France on the meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris (1803-1946). It seems that only three meetings were cancelled for 143 years. As a matter of fact, the number of attending members decreased widely in the troubled times. Allusions to contemporary events are not scarce in the minutes and have been reported.

  2. A Rod Ricochet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    RUE DE LA FEDERATION PARIS 75752 FRANCE 1 CEA CESTA A GEILLE BOX 2 LE BARP 33114 FRANCE 5 CENTRE D’ETUDES DE GRAMAT C LOUPIAS...P OUTREBON J CAGNOUX C GALLIC J TRANCHET GRAMAT 46500 FRANCE 6 CENTRE DE RECHERCHES ET D’ETUDES D’ARCUEIL D BOUVART C

  3. Compte rendu de Viala (Alain, La France galante. Essai historique sur une catégorie culturelle, de ses origines jusqu’à la révolution, Paris, PUF, coll. « Les Littéraires », 2008, 541 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre De Craim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain Viala, professeur à l’Université d’Oxford, a constaté que le concept de galanterie est souvent mobilisé lorsqu’il s’agit d’évoquer la France ou les Français. Cette association d’idée l’a alors conduit à étudier, au-delà du lieu commun, comment un certain modèle galant s’est construit, a prospéré et enfin a décliné tout au long des xviie et xviiie siècles. Pour y parvenir, l’auteur se propose une méthode : l’exploration des œuvres picturales, musicales et littéraires revendiquées comme g...

  4. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  5. A Budget Impact Model for Paclitaxel-eluting Stent in Femoropopliteal Disease in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cock, Erwin; Sapoval, Marc; Julia, Pierre; Lissovoy, Greg de; Lopes, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (Cook Ireland Ltd., Limerick, Ireland) represents an advance in endovascular treatments for atherosclerotic superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Clinical data demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). This analysis assessed the likely impact on the French public health care budget of introducing reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent. A model was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the impact of a progressive transition from BMS to Zilver PTX over a 5-year horizon. The number of patients undergoing SFA stenting was estimated on the basis of hospital episode data. The analysis from the payer perspective used French reimbursement tariffs. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) after primary stent placement was the primary outcome. TLR rates were based on 2-year data from the Zilver PTX single-arm study (6 and 9 %) and BMS rates reported in the literature (average 16 and 22 %) and extrapolated to 5 years. Net budget impact was expressed as the difference in total costs (primary stenting and reinterventions) for a scenario where BMS is progressively replaced by Zilver PTX compared to a scenario of BMS only. The model estimated a net cumulative 5-year budget reduction of €6,807,202 for a projected population of 82,316 patients (21,361 receiving Zilver PTX). Base case results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Adoption of Zilver PTX could lead to important savings for the French public health care payer. Despite higher initial reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent, fewer expected SFA reinterventions after the primary stenting procedure result in net savings.

  6. A Budget Impact Model for Paclitaxel-eluting Stent in Femoropopliteal Disease in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cock, Erwin, E-mail: erwin.decock@unitedbiosource.com [United BioSource Corporation, Peri- and Post-Approval Services (Spain); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: Marc.sapoval2@egp.aphp.fr [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (France); Julia, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.julia@egp.aphp.fr [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Rene Descartes, Cardiovascular Surgery Department (France); Lissovoy, Greg de, E-mail: gdelisso@jhsph.edu [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management (United States); Lopes, Sandra, E-mail: Sandra.Lopes@CookMedical.com [Cook Medical, Health Economics and Reimbursement (Denmark)

    2013-04-15

    The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (Cook Ireland Ltd., Limerick, Ireland) represents an advance in endovascular treatments for atherosclerotic superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Clinical data demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). This analysis assessed the likely impact on the French public health care budget of introducing reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent. A model was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the impact of a progressive transition from BMS to Zilver PTX over a 5-year horizon. The number of patients undergoing SFA stenting was estimated on the basis of hospital episode data. The analysis from the payer perspective used French reimbursement tariffs. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) after primary stent placement was the primary outcome. TLR rates were based on 2-year data from the Zilver PTX single-arm study (6 and 9 %) and BMS rates reported in the literature (average 16 and 22 %) and extrapolated to 5 years. Net budget impact was expressed as the difference in total costs (primary stenting and reinterventions) for a scenario where BMS is progressively replaced by Zilver PTX compared to a scenario of BMS only. The model estimated a net cumulative 5-year budget reduction of Euro-Sign 6,807,202 for a projected population of 82,316 patients (21,361 receiving Zilver PTX). Base case results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Adoption of Zilver PTX could lead to important savings for the French public health care payer. Despite higher initial reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent, fewer expected SFA reinterventions after the primary stenting procedure result in net savings.

  7. Transposing an active fault database into a seismic hazard fault model for nuclear facilities. Pt. 1. Building a database of potentially active faults (BDFA) for metropolitan France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomard, Herve; Cushing, Edward Marc; Baize, Stephane; Chartier, Thomas [IRSN - Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Palumbo, Luigi; David, Claire [Neodyme, Joue les Tours (France)

    2017-07-01

    The French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), with the support of the Ministry of Environment, compiled a database (BDFA) to define and characterize known potentially active faults of metropolitan France. The general structure of BDFA is presented in this paper. BDFA reports to date 136 faults and represents a first step toward the implementation of seismic source models that would be used for both deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard calculations. A robustness index was introduced, highlighting that less than 15% of the database is controlled by reasonably complete data sets. An example of transposing BDFA into a fault source model for PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) calculation is presented for the Upper Rhine Graben (eastern France) and exploited in the companion paper (Chartier et al., 2017, hereafter Part 2) in order to illustrate ongoing challenges for probabilistic fault-based seismic hazard calculations.

  8. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  9. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  10. The Lancet Countdown on PM2·5 pollution-related health impacts of China's projected carbon dioxide mitigation in the electric power generation sector under the Paris Agreement: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Cai, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Except for comparing the implementation costs of the Paris Agreement with potential health benefits at the national levels, previous studies have not explored the health impacts of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs by countries and in regional details. In this Lancet Countdown study, we aimed to estimate and monetise the health benefits of China's NDCs in the electric power generation sector, and then compare them with the implementation costs, both at the national and regional levels. Methods: In this modelling study, we linked the Multi-regional model for Energy Supply system and their Environmental ImpaCts, the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China model, the offline-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, and the Integrated Health Impact Assessment model with a time scope from 2010 to 2050. We calculated the PM2·5 concentrations and compared the health impacts and implementation costs between two scenarios that reflect CO2 and air pollutant emissions—the reference (REF scenario (no climate policy and the NDC scenario (100% realisation of NDC targets: CO2 emission intensity needs to be about 40% below 2010 emissions by 2030 [roughly 35% below 2030 emissions in REF], and about 90% below 2010 emissions by 2050 [roughly 96% below 2050 emissions in REF]. Findings: Under a comparatively optimistic health benefits valuation condition, at the national level, 18–62% of implementation costs could be covered by the health benefits in 2030. In 2050, the overall health benefits would substantially increase to 3–9 times of the implementation costs. However, northwest China would require the highest implementation costs and will also have more premature deaths because of a more carbon-intensive energy structure than business as usual. By 2030, people in northwest China (especially in Gansu, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang provinces would need to bear worse air quality

  11. The myriad challenges of the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dann; Allen, Myles R.; Hall, Jim W.; Muller, Benito; Rajamani, Lavanya; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2018-05-01

    The much awaited and intensely negotiated Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement set out a more ambitious long-term temperature goal than many had anticipated, implying more stringent emissions reductions that have been under-explored by the research community. By its very nature a multidisciplinary challenge, filling the knowledge gap requires not only climate scientists, but the whole Earth system science community, as well as economists, engineers, lawyers, philosophers, politicians, emergency planners and others to step up. To kick start cross-disciplinary discussions, the University of Oxford's Environmental Change Institute focused its 25th anniversary conference upon meeting the challenges of the Paris Agreement for science and society. This theme issue consists of review papers, opinion pieces and original research from some of the presentations within that meeting, covering a wide range of issues underpinning the Paris Agreement. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  12. Comments on the A. Aurengo document entitled 'the 2003 I.R.S.N. model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France' - 18 december 2005; Commentaires sur le document d'A. Aurengo intitule 'Le modele IRSN 2003 des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France' - 18 decembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The present document brings the principal comments of I.R.S.N. on the analysis note of the 18. december 2005 treating the 2003 I.R.S.N. model on the Chernobylsk accident fallout in France, transmitted by Mister A. Aurengo. (N.C.)

  13. Aerosol particle measurements at three stationary sites in the megacity of Paris during summer 2009: meteorology and air mass origin dominate aerosol particle composition and size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During July 2009, a one-month measurement campaign was performed in the megacity of Paris. Amongst other measurement platforms, three stationary sites distributed over an area of 40 km in diameter in the greater Paris region enabled a detailed characterization of the aerosol particle and gas phase. Simulation results from the FLEXPART dispersion model were used to distinguish between different types of air masses sampled. It was found that the origin of air masses had a large influence on measured mass concentrations of the secondary species particulate sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, and oxygenated organic aerosol measured with the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer in the submicron particle size range: particularly high concentrations of these species (about 4 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, and 7 μg m−3, respectively were measured when aged material was advected from continental Europe, while for air masses originating from the Atlantic, much lower mass concentrations of these species were observed (about 1 μg m−3, 0.2 μg m−3, 0.4 μg m−3, and 1–3 μg m−3, respectively. For the primary emission tracers hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, black carbon, and NOx it was found that apart from diurnal source strength variations and proximity to emission sources, local meteorology had the largest influence on measured concentrations, with higher wind speeds leading to larger dilution and therefore smaller measured concentrations. Also the shape of particle size distributions was affected by wind speed and air mass origin. Quasi-Lagrangian measurements performed under connected flow conditions between the three stationary sites were used to estimate the influence of the Paris emission plume onto its surroundings, which was found to be rather small. Rough estimates for the impact of the Paris emission plume on the suburban areas can be

  14. Les débuts des relations "officielles" roumaines - françaises. La création de l'agence diplomatique roumaine à Paris (26 août / 7 septembre 1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oncescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization of diplomatic agents of the United Principalities in Paris was possible after the meeting held on August 26 / September 7 1860. After receiving the note from the Foreign Minister of Moldova, Mihail Jora, and a letter from Prince Cuza, French Foreign Minister, Ed. Thouvenel, said he was very happy to receive the staff of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Even so, he could not consider the Romanian Agent an official agent, because he would violate the 1858 Paris Convention, to which France participated. In this context, the United Principalities Agency was officially recognized and later became the Romanian Legation in Paris (1880.

  15. Morphological diversity of wild medicinal Paris L. from China and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris L. (Trilliaceae) is a temperate genus of about 24 perennial herbaceous species distributed from Europe to Eastern Asia. Paris is notable in China for its medicinal value. An investigation was conducted to determine the variations of 27 morphological characters of 196 accessions from 8 populations of medicinal Paris ...

  16. Advances in flash floods understanding and modelling derived from the FloodScale project in South-East France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braud Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area is prone to intense rainfall events triggering flash floods, characterized by very short response times that sometimes lead to dramatic consequences in terms of casualties and damages. These events can affect large territories, but their impact may be very local in catchments that are generally ungauged. These events remain difficult to predict and the processes leading to their generation still need to be clarified. The HyMeX initiative (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, 2010-2020 aims at increasing our understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean basin, in particular in terms of extreme events. In order to better understand processes leading to flash floods, a four-year experiment (2012-2015 was conducted in the Cévennes region (South-East France as part of the FloodScale project. Both continuous and opportunistic measurements during floods were conducted in two large catchments (Ardèche and Gard rivers with nested instrumentation from the hillslopes to catchments of about 1, 10, 100 to 1000 km2 covering contrasted geology and land use. Continuous measurements include distributed rainfall, stream water level, discharge, water temperature and conductivity and soil moisture measurements. Opportunistic measurements include surface soil moisture and geochemistry sampling during events and gauging of floods using non-contact methods: portable radars to measure surface water velocity or image sequence analysis using LS-PIV (Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry. During the period 2012-2014, and in particular during autumn 2014, several intense events affected the catchments and provided very rich data sets. Data collection was complemented with modelling activity aiming at simulating observed processes. The modelling strategy was setup through a wide range of scales, in order to test hypotheses about physical processes at the smallest scales, and aggregated functioning hypothesis at the largest

  17. [Prisma France: implementation program of an innovation in health and services system for disabled people. Adaptation of a case-management based integration model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somme, D; Trouvé, H; Couturier, Y; Carrier, S; Gagnon, D; Lavallart, B; Hébert, R; Cretin, C; Saint-Jean, O

    2008-02-01

    The French health and services system to maintain at home is characterized by its fragmentation, whereas the need of the people for intervention is generally total. This fragmentation have consequences: delay in services delivery, inadequate transmission of information, redundant evaluation, service conditioned by the entrance point solicited rather than by the need of the person and inappropriate use of expensive resources by ignorance or difficulty of access to the less expensive resources. The purpose of integration is to improve continuity of interventions for people in loss of autonomy. It consists in setting up a whole of organisational, managerial and clinical common tools. Organisational model "Projet et Recherches sur l'Intégration des Services pour le Maintien de l'Autonomie" (Prisma) tested in Quebec showed a strong impact on the prevention of the loss of autonomy in term of public health on a population level. This model rests on six principal elements: partnership, single entry point, case-management, a multidimensional standardized tool for evaluation, an individualized services plan and a system for information transmission. Thus, it was decided to try to implement in France this organisational model. The project is entitled Prisma France and is presented here. The analysis of the context of implementation of the innovation which represents integration in the field of health and services for frail older reveals obstacles (in particular because of diversity of professional concerned and a presentiment of complexity of the implementation of the model) and favourable conditions (in particular the great tension towards change in this field). The current conditions in France appear mainly favourable to the implementation of integration. The establishment of Prisma model in France requires a partnership work of definition of a common language as well on the diagnoses as on the solutions. The strategic and operational dialogue is thus a key element of the

  18. Quaternary river terrace formation in the Allier basin, France : a reconstruction based on sand bulk geochemistry and 3-D modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.

    1991-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is focussed on a quantitative reconstruction of the effects of past environmental dynamics within a fluvial system. The study area is part of the Allier basin (Limagne) in the Auvergne, Massif Central, France.

    The

  19. A fractal analysis of the public transportation system of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    L Benguigui

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the railway networks of the public transportation system of Paris, based on the notion of fractals, is presented. The two basic networks, (metropolitan and suburban) which have different functions, have also a different fractal dimension: 1.8 for the metropolitan network, and 1.5 for the suburban network. By means of computer simulation, it is concluded that the true dimension of the metro network is probably 2.0. A fractal model of the suburban network, with the same features ...

  20. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  1. Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Shin, Young Joon; Kim, Yong Wan

    2007-07-15

    In celebration of the 120th anniversary on Korea-France diplomatic relations, both Korea and France agreed that the New-generation Energy Forum on a VHTR-assisted nuclear hydrogen production, renewable energy, and bio-fuel should be held in Paries, France. In accordance with the agreement, the Korea-France Forum on New Technologies for Energy organized by KAERI and CEA was held at the Mercure Hotel Conference Hall in Paries for a couple of days, November 6 and 7 and a facility visit to the CEA-Saclay was arranged on November 8 by the French side. 19 scientists from both countries presented their R and D status and plans in 4 technical sessions of 'VHTR Nuclear System', 'VHTR-assited Hydrogen Production', 'Renewable Energy', and 'Fuel Cell and Energy Storage'. A contact point in each field was established for the exchange of technological information and dispatch of experts if necessary.

  2. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  3. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  4. Bookmaker and pari-mutuel betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Shing, Hui-Fai

    2008-01-01

    A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe and persist......A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe...... and persistent in bookmaker markets than in pari-mutuel markets; the latter sometimes exhibit no bias or a reverse FL bias. Our results help understand these differences: the odds grid in bookmaker markets leads to a built-in FL bias, whereas that used in pari-mutuel betting pushes these markets toward a reverse...

  5. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  6. The Lancet Countdown on PM2·5 pollution-related health impacts of China's projected carbon dioxide mitigation in the electric power generation sector under the Paris Agreement: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjia Cai, PhD; Jingxuan Hui, PhD; Can Wang, ProfPhD; Yixuan Zheng, PhD; Xin Zhang, PhD; Qiang Zhang, ProfPhD; Peng Gong, ProfPhD

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Background: Except for comparing the implementation costs of the Paris Agreement with potential health benefits at the national levels, previous studies have not explored the health impacts of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) by countries and in regional details. In this Lancet Countdown study, we aimed to estimate and monetise the health benefits of China's NDCs in the electric power generation sector, and then compare them with the implementation costs, both at the n...

  7. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  8. From Paris to the End of Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Dag Harald; Hveem, Helge

    2016-01-01

    "This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We ana...

  9. Paris after Trump: An Inconvenient Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    With his announcement to pull the US out of the Paris Agreement US President Donald Trump has snubbed the international climate policy community. Key remaining parties to the Agreement such as Europe and China might call for carbon tariffs on US imports as a sanctioning instrument to coerce US compliance. Our analysis, however, reveals an inconvenient insight for advocates of carbon tariffs: given the possibility of retaliatory tariffs across all imported goods, carbon tariffs do not constitu...

  10. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Using VEGETATION satellite data and the crop model STICS-Prairie to estimate pasture production at the national level in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, C.; Faivre, R.; Ruget, F.; Seguin, B.

    In France, pastures constitute an important land cover type, sustaining principally husbandry production. The absence of low-cost methods applicable to large regions has conducted to the use of simulation models, as in the ISOP system. Remote sensing data may be considered as a potential tool to improve a correct diagnosis in a real time framework. Thirteen forage regions (FR) of France, differing in their soil, climatic and productive characteristics were selected for this purpose. SPOT4-VEGETATION images have been used to provide, using subpixel estimation models, the spectral signature corresponding to pure pasture conditions. This information has been related with some growth variables estimated by STICS-Prairie model (inside ISOP system). Beyond the good general agreement between the two types of data, we found that the best relations were observed between NDVI middle infrared based index (SWVI) and leaf area index. The results confirm the capacities of the satellite data to provide complementary productive variables and help to identify the spatial and temporal differences between satellite and model information, mainly during the harvesting periods. This could contribute to improve the evaluations of the model on a regional scale.

  12. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk analysis by citizens? Analysis of the first consensus conference held in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marris, C.; Joly, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the French Parliamentary Office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices (OPECST) is currently organizing a consensus conference. Following the model developed by the Danish Board of Technology, a panel of 15 French citizens is being asked to evaluate the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture and food. This Danish model for direct citizen participation in technology assessment has gained growing support in other European countries and even further afield, such as Japan and Australia. This is, however, a novel experience for France, which has very little tradition for participatory technology assessment. The final and public phase of the 'conference citoyenne' will take place in Paris on 20-22 June 1998, therefore it is too early to outline our results in this abstract. Our paper will present an analysis of the impact and role of this conference in the wider public debate in France about agricultural bio-technologies. This will be based on interviews with key actors in this debate (scientists, consumer and environmental organisations, politicians), media reports, and video footage of the entire procedure of the consensus conference. (authors)

  14. Post Paris and November 8, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    COP 21 in Paris, as historic as it was, established the necessary, but not the sufficient. The signatories to the landmark Paris accord are a coalition of the willing, but their pledges are only as good as the sustained will of individual countries to adhere to their commitments. The U.S. presidential election has demonstrated how easily uncertainty can be added. Even if all countries abide by the Paris climate agreement, capping global mean temperatures to 2oC will likely require net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2085 and substantial negative emissions over the long term. Before the Paris agreement was finished, it was clear that the pledged emission cuts by 2030 would not be sufficient in and of themselves, to stay under 2oC. Given the accumulation of greenhouse gases to date, limiting warming to a maximum of 2oC would require bending the curve of global emissions by 2020, i.e., over the next four years. If the past is a prologue, without even taking into account an emergence from the global recession, we stand a realistic chance of blowing right past the 2oC target. What, then, are the challenges going forward? Is 2oC a real goal that is attainable, or is it a stretch goal? Meeting a 2oC target is a function of when mitigation begins in earnest, the rate of mitigation, and the rate and amount of carbon sequestration. What are the implications of this trade space? While much effort has been put into designing a climate observing system from a science perspective, relatively little thought has been put into determining what observations are needed to support policy decisions, mitigation, and verify the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions that resulted from the Paris Agreement. If 2oC is a stretch goal, intellectual honesty requires that we consider mitigation and adaptation in tandem, and not as either/or. Similarly, even with all its attendant ethical dilemmas, it is important to thoroughly study geoengineering so that policy makers have a robust

  15. The Lancet Countdown on PM2·5 pollution-related health impacts of China's projected carbon dioxide mitigation in the electric power generation sector under the Paris Agreement: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenjia; Hui, Jingxuan; Wang, Can; Zheng, Yixuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Gong, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Except for comparing the implementation costs of the Paris Agreement with potential health benefits at the national levels, previous studies have not explored the health impacts of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) by countries and in regional details. In this Lancet Countdown study, we aimed to estimate and monetise the health benefits of China's NDCs in the electric power generation sector, and then compare them with the implementation costs, both at the national and regional levels. In this modelling study, we linked the Multi-regional model for Energy Supply system and their Environmental ImpaCts, the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China model, the offline-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, and the Integrated Health Impact Assessment model with a time scope from 2010 to 2050. We calculated the PM 2·5 concentrations and compared the health impacts and implementation costs between two scenarios that reflect CO 2 and air pollutant emissions-the reference (REF) scenario (no climate policy) and the NDC scenario (100% realisation of NDC targets: CO 2 emission intensity needs to be about 40% below 2010 emissions by 2030 [roughly 35% below 2030 emissions in REF], and about 90% below 2010 emissions by 2050 [roughly 96% below 2050 emissions in REF]). Under a comparatively optimistic health benefits valuation condition, at the national level, 18-62% of implementation costs could be covered by the health benefits in 2030. In 2050, the overall health benefits would substantially increase to 3-9 times of the implementation costs. However, northwest China would require the highest implementation costs and will also have more premature deaths because of a more carbon-intensive energy structure than business as usual. By 2030, people in northwest China (especially in Gansu, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang provinces) would need to bear worse air quality, and 10 083 (95% CI 3419-16 138) more premature

  16. Decision-tree model for health economic comparison of two long-acting somatostatin receptor ligand devices in France, Germany, and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Rémi; Roze, Stéphane; Kurth, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) with product-specific formulation and means of administration are injected periodically in patients with acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. A simple decision-tree model aimed at comparing cost savings with ready-to-use Somatuline Autogel(®) (lanreotide) and Sandostatin LAR(®) (octreotide) for the UK, France, and Germany. The drivers of cost savings studied were the reduction of time to administer as well as a reduced baseline risk of clogging during product administration reported for Somatuline Autogel(®). The decision-tree model assumed two settings for SRL administration, ie, by either hospital-based or community-based nurses. In the case of clogging, the first dose was assumed to be lost and a second injection performed. Successful injection depended on the probability of clogging. Direct medical costs were included. A set of scenarios were run, varying the cost drivers, such as the baseline risk of clogging, SRL administration time, and percentage of patients injected during a hospital stay. Costs per successful injection were less for Somatuline Autogel(®)/Depot, ranging from Euros (EUR) 13-45, EUR 52-108, and EUR 127-151, respectively, for France, Germany, and the UK. The prices for both long-acting SRL were the same in France, and cost savings came to 100% from differences other than drug prices. For Germany and the UK, the proportion of savings due to less clogging and shorter administration time was estimated to be around 32% and 20%, respectively. Based on low and high country-specific patient cohort size estimations of individuals eligible for SRL treatment among the patient population with acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors, annual savings were estimated to be up to EUR 2,000,000 for France, EUR 6,000,000 for Germany, and EUR 7,000,000 for the UK. This model suggests that increasing usage of the Somatuline device for injection of SRL might lead to substantial savings for health care providers

  17. Ice-free Arctic projections under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.; Swart, Neil C.

    2018-05-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, emissions scenarios are pursued that would stabilize the global mean temperature at 1.5-2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, but current emission reduction policies are expected to limit warming by 2100 to approximately 3.0 °C. Whether such emissions scenarios would prevent a summer sea-ice-free Arctic is unknown. Here we employ stabilized warming simulations with an Earth System Model to obtain sea-ice projections under stabilized global warming, and correct biases in mean sea-ice coverage by constraining with observations. Although there is some sensitivity to details in the constraining method, the observationally constrained projections suggest that the benefits of going from 2.0 °C to 1.5 °C stabilized warming are substantial; an eightfold decrease in the frequency of ice-free conditions is expected, from once in every five to once in every forty years. Under 3.0 °C global mean warming, however, permanent summer ice-free conditions are likely, which emphasizes the need for nations to increase their commitments to the Paris Agreement.

  18. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137 Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137 Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137 Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134 Cs activity for estimating 137 Cs ( 137 Cs / 134 Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137 Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137 Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137 Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m 2 10 m 2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137 Cs fallout. The 137 Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at

  19. The Spirit of France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  20. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  1. The Biosphere Under Potential Paris Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Sebastian; Boysen, Lena R.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Rapid economic and population growth over the last centuries have started to push the Earth out of its Holocene state into the Anthropocene. In this new era, ecosystems across the globe face mounting dual pressure from human land use change (LUC) and climate change (CC). With the Paris Agreement, the international community has committed to holding global warming below 2°C above preindustrial levels, yet current pledges by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions appear insufficient to achieve that goal. At the same time, the sustainable development goals strive to reduce inequalities between countries and provide sufficient food, feed, and clean energy to a growing world population likely to reach more than 9 billion by 2050. Here, we present a macro-scale analysis of the projected impacts of both CC and LUC on the terrestrial biosphere over the 21st century using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to illustrate possible trajectories following the Paris Agreement. We find that CC may cause major impacts in landscapes covering between 16% and 65% of the global ice-free land surface by the end of the century, depending on the success or failure of achieving the Paris goal. Accounting for LUC impacts in addition, this number increases to 38%-80%. Thus, CC will likely replace LUC as the major driver of ecosystem change unless global warming can be limited to well below 2°C. We also find a substantial risk that impacts of agricultural expansion may offset some of the benefits of ambitious climate protection for ecosystems.

  2. Paris INDCs: will they achieve the goal of the Paris Climate Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribett, W. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Hope, A. P.; Bennett, B.; Canty, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We provide an overview of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted prior to the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which are the backbone of the Paris Climate Agreement. Two flavors of INDCs were submitted: unconditional (i.e., firm commitments) and conditional (commitments contingent on financial flow and/or technology transfer). Generally, the Paris INDCs extend to year 2030. However, achievement of either the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °C warming) of the Paris Agreement requires consideration of emissions out to 2060, due to the projected rise in energy demand, growing populations, and rising standards of living. We therefore project global carbon emissions out to year 2060, and compare to various RCP scenarios of IPCC (2013). These projections will be used to assess whether the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °) of the Paris Climate Agreement will be met.

  3. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  4. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenille Didier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera. They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG airport, to Barneville plage (in Normandy and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  5. France and the Rif War: Lessons from a Forgotten Counterinsurgency War (Northern Morocco - April 1925 - May 1927)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Points Histoire , 2009. - Harris, Walter, France, Spain and the Rif. London: Edward Arnold & CO., 1927. Woolman, David, Rebels in the Rif, Abd el...Marmie, Laguerre du Rif(Paris: Points Histoire , 2009), 17. 6 On the youth and education of Abd El Krim see Cow·celle-Labrousse, Laguerre du Rif, 213

  6. A origem da Universidade de Paris (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Afonso da Costa Nunes

    1967-03-01

    Foi no princípio do século XIII que a Universidade começou a organizar-se . Em 1200, por um privilégio outorgado por Filipe Augusto, a corporação dos professôres e dos estudantes de Paris passou a reger-se pela jurisdição eclesiástica, furtando-se dessa maneira ao fôro civil. Em 1215, Roberto de Courçon, legado pontifício, conce-deu ao studium parisiense seus primeiros estatutos oficiais . Se tais medidas constituíram o início da organização jurídica da Universidade, foram, por outro lado, o remate de um lento processo de formação . Mas, como decorreu êsse movimento germinativo da Universidade de Paris? Que condições o prepararam e que fatôres contri-buíram para sua gênese e desenvolvimento?

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  8. 3D Modeling By Consolidation Of Independent Geometries Extracted From Point Clouds - The Case Of The Modeling Of The Turckheim's Chapel (Alsace, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Fabre, Ph.; Schlussel, B.

    2014-06-01

    Turckheim is a small town located in Alsace, north-east of France. In the heart of the Alsatian vineyard, this city has many historical monuments including its old church. To understand the effectiveness of the project described in this paper, it is important to have a look at the history of this church. Indeed there are many historical events that explain its renovation and even its partial reconstruction. The first mention of a christian sanctuary in Turckheim dates back to 898. It will be replaced in the 12th century by a roman church (chapel), which subsists today as the bell tower. Touched by a lightning in 1661, the tower then was enhanced. In 1736, it was repaired following damage sustained in a tornado. In 1791, the town installs an organ to the church. Last milestone, the church is destroyed by fire in 1978. The organ, like the heart of the church will then have to be again restored (1983) with a simplified architecture. From this heavy and rich past, it unfortunately and as it is often the case, remains only very few documents and information available apart from facts stated in some sporadic writings. And with regard to the geometry, the positioning, the physical characteristics of the initial building, there are very little indication. Some assumptions of positions and right-of-way were well issued by different historians or archaeologists. The acquisition and 3D modeling project must therefore provide the current state of the edifice to serve as the basis of new investigations and for the generation of new hypotheses on the locations and historical shapes of this church and its original chapel (Fig. 1)

  9. 3D Modeling By Consolidation Of Independent Geometries Extracted From Point Clouds – The Case Of The Modeling Of The Turckheim's Chapel (Alsace, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koehl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turckheim is a small town located in Alsace, north-east of France. In the heart of the Alsatian vineyard, this city has many historical monuments including its old church. To understand the effectiveness of the project described in this paper, it is important to have a look at the history of this church. Indeed there are many historical events that explain its renovation and even its partial reconstruction. The first mention of a christian sanctuary in Turckheim dates back to 898. It will be replaced in the 12th century by a roman church (chapel, which subsists today as the bell tower. Touched by a lightning in 1661, the tower then was enhanced. In 1736, it was repaired following damage sustained in a tornado. In 1791, the town installs an organ to the church. Last milestone, the church is destroyed by fire in 1978. The organ, like the heart of the church will then have to be again restored (1983 with a simplified architecture. From this heavy and rich past, it unfortunately and as it is often the case, remains only very few documents and information available apart from facts stated in some sporadic writings. And with regard to the geometry, the positioning, the physical characteristics of the initial building, there are very little indication. Some assumptions of positions and right-of-way were well issued by different historians or archaeologists. The acquisition and 3D modeling project must therefore provide the current state of the edifice to serve as the basis of new investigations and for the generation of new hypotheses on the locations and historical shapes of this church and its original chapel (Fig. 1

  10. Nucleaire et Energies Nr 63 - June 2014. 18 months before the Paris Climate Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, Bernard; Ducroux, Guy; Lamorlette, Guy; Seyve, Claude; Simonnet, Jacques; Justin, Francois; Darricau, Aime; Blanc, Jacques; Salanave, Jean-Luc; Raisonnier, Daniele; Deleigne, Francoise

    2014-06-01

    After a first article which evokes the perspective and challenges of the Paris Climate Conference, two articles address energy issues: a discussion of the evolution of the energy sector (challenge of energy transition, evolutions of the energy mix in different countries, shale gases in the USA, Europe and France, electricity prices in France, situation and projects of French energy companies) and an overview of news in the renewable energy sector (in Morocco, Germany and the UK, the second bidding for offshore wind projects in France). Three articles deal with nuclear energy: agreements and projects in Niger, news about various fuel production sites in different countries, overview of the situation of reactors (EPR, China) and decisions on projects and investments in different countries, overview of activities and events related to the back-end of the fuel cycle (notably in different Areva sites) and to decommissioning in different countries. Four articles address societal issues related to nuclear safety and environment (relationships between French nuclear operators and Safety Authorities, the situation of populations around Fukushima, Greenpeace in Fessenheim, the issue of fuel sheath wear, use of rare earth materials in wind turbines), a positive perception of the presence of Areva (after Cogema) in Niger, a scenario for Fessenheim, and the deep disposal Cigeo project

  11. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2018-04-01

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  12. 16. Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasenby, A.; Page, L.; Vega, H.J. de; Biermann, P.L.; Ma, E.; Laveder, M.; Kormendy, J.; Weinheimer, C.; Freeman, K.; Walker, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Rebolo, R.; Wehus, K.; Mirabel, F.; Serenelli, A.; Das, S.; Cooray, A.; Burigana, C.; Sanchez, N.G.; Mather, J.C.; Smoot, G.F.; Schmidt, B.P.; Tognini, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Warm (keV scale) Dark Matter emerged impressively over CDM (Cold Dark Matter) as the leading Dark Matter candidate. In the context of this new Dark Matter situation, which implies novelties in the astrophysical, cosmological and keV particle physics context, this 16. Paris Colloquium 2012 is devoted to the LambdaWDM Standard Model of the Universe. The topics of the colloquium are as follows: -) observational and theoretical progress on the nature of dark matter: keV scale warm dark matter, -) large and small scale structure formation in agreement with observations at large scales and small galactic scales, and -) neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  13. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  14. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  15. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  16. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  17. A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroissien, Jean-Baptiste; Darboux, Frédéric; Couturier, Alain; Devillers, Benoît; Mouillot, Florent; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Global climate and land use changes could strongly affect soil erosion and the capability of soils to sustain agriculture and in turn impact regional or global food security. The objective of our study was to develop a method to assess soil sustainability to erosion under changes in land use and climate. The method was applied in a typical mixed Mediterranean landscape in a wine-growing watershed (75 km(2)) within the Languedoc region (La Peyne, France) for two periods: a first period with the current climate and land use and a second period with the climate and land use scenarios at the end of the twenty-first century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B future rainfall scenarios from the Météo France General circulation model was coupled with four contrasting land use change scenarios that were designed using a spatially-explicit land use change model. Mean annual erosion rate was estimated with an expert-based soil erosion model. Soil life expectancy was assessed using soil depth. Soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy were combined into a sustainability index. The median simulated soil erosion rate for the current period was 3.5 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 273 years, showing a low sustainability of soils. For the future period with the same land use distribution, the median simulated soil erosion rate was 4.2 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 249 years. The results show that soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy are more sensitive to changes in land use than to changes in precipitation. Among the scenarios tested, institution of a mandatory grass cover in vineyards seems to be an efficient means of significantly improving soil sustainability, both in terms of decreased soil erosion rates and increased soil life expectancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Binding Nations through Art Quilts and a Visit to the U.S. Embassy in Paris as a Cultural Envoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riché Richardson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008 when Géraldine Chouard, who was helping to coordinate the landmark exhibition in France entitled “Un Patchwork de Cultures,” mentioned the U.S. Embassy in Paris’s interest in inviting me to the city to share some of my quilts as a part of this exhibition and to be a “Cultural Envoy,” I was honored and excited by the possibility. The opportunity to return to Paris under the auspices of the U.S. Embassy, which officially materialized through a grant from the U.S. Departmen...

  19. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  20. Report from the NEA Data Bank to the NRDC meeting in Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the status report of the NEA Data Bank. It describes the organisational structure, the numerical and bibliographic data collections, other nuclear data activities and the data from the integral data experiments. The thermochemical database (TDB) in described, as well as the computer program services and the in-house computer configuration. (a.n.)

  1. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Mr. Chairman, I am grateful to President Sarkozy for hosting this important event and I welcome his active support for sharing the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology widely throughout the world. As both President Sarkozy and President Barroso noted, nuclear power is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. The IAEA has 151 Member States and the number of countries interested in introducing nuclear energy is growing steadily. Demand for our assistance is also constantly increasing. Access to nuclear power should not be the sole prerogative of developed countries. It should also be available to developing countries. The Agency is well-placed to help. We now have projects on introducing nuclear power with fifty-eight of our Member States, 17 of whom are actively preparing nuclear power programmes. We expect between 10 and 25 new countries to bring their first nuclear power plants on-line by 2030. These are momentous changes. We have come together at this conference because we have a shared goal: to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. The more we cooperate and coordinate, the more successful we will be in reaching that goal. The IAEA plays a key role in helping to share the advantages of nuclear power with interested countries. In doing so, we pay special attention to ensuring high standards of nuclear safety and security and we implement safeguards to verify that all nuclear activities in Member States are exclusively peaceful. Let me share with you some key areas of our work. First, the Agency provides practical guidance to countries considering whether nuclear power might be suitable for them. Two key Agency documents spell out, simply and clearly, everything which they need to do. One is entitled Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. It lays out all issues that decision makers need to consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that our shared goal is to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. I have no doubt that this conference will lead to improved coordination and help to achieve the IAEA's statutory objective, which is 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' Thank you. (IAEA) [fr

  2. Proceedings on safety case - IGSC Topical Session held 25 November 2001, Paris-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Patrik; Voinis, Sylvie; Ouzounian, Gerald; Van Luik, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    It is accepted universally that an assessment of the safety of proposed geological repositories is a key input to the decision-making process regarding the development of these facilities. Accordingly, implementing and regulatory organisations in many of the OECD/NEA countries are involved in the investigation and resolution of issues associated with repository safety and NEA has been concerned with this issue for several years. Most current repository development programmes envisage that repository development will occur in an incremental fashion, with decisions being taken by national authorities at several steps in the development process. It may be envisaged that safety assessments will become progressively more refined at successive stages of the development process, with an expectation of increasing levels of confidence that the assessed levels of safety can be realised in practice. Different countries are at different stages and therefore opinions can be expected to vary on where the key issues remain. In accordance with current terminology the Safety Case for a proposed facility should present the results of the safety assessment together with an illustration of the level of confidence in the results. The safety case should also discuss how levels of uncertainty would be reduced in succeeding development phases. The establishment of the IGSC (Integration Group for the Safety Case), to bring together all activities relating to the safety case, recognised its key role of the latter in the process of repository development. Initiatives currently being pursued by the IGSC include the development of a 'Safety Case Brochure', to synthesise current understanding about the requirements of the Safety Case. The IGSC has a role to develop common views on such key aspects of the Safety Case but should not be prescriptive. To go further in establishments of the safety case brochure, a 'Topical Session' on the Safety Case was organised as part of the 3. plenary meeting of the IGSC. This session was attended by 50 participants representing several waste management organisations and regulatory authorities from 15 OECD member countries, the IAEA and the European Commission. The Topical session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: - National programmes where safety assessments are currently being undertaken or have recently been completed, e.g. ONDRAF/NIRAS, NAGRA and ANDRA; - Feedback from peer reviews, e.g. SR97 (Sweden) and the Yucca Mountain biosphere assessment - The evolution of ICRP recommendations including the assessment of human intrusion; - Future activities, in particular launching the initiative to develop the safety case brochure. This document presents the various presentations and exchanges that took place during the Topical Session. Part A of this document summarises the material presented and provides a short overview of the main outcomes. The papers presented are compiled without elaboration by the Secretariat as Part B of the document and Part C gives a complete list of participants. It is hoped that the document as a whole provides a synthesis of current issues in safety case development including key issues being identified in recently undertaken peer reviews

  3. Statement to International Conference on Access to Civil Nuclear Energy, 8 March 2010, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Mr. Chairman, I am grateful to President Sarkozy for hosting this important event and I welcome his active support for sharing the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology widely throughout the world. As both President Sarkozy and President Barroso noted, nuclear power is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. The IAEA has 151 Member States and the number of countries interested in introducing nuclear energy is growing steadily. Demand for our assistance is also constantly increasing. Access to nuclear power should not be the sole prerogative of developed countries. It should also be available to developing countries. The Agency is well-placed to help. We now have projects on introducing nuclear power with fifty-eight of our Member States, 17 of whom are actively preparing nuclear power programmes. We expect between 10 and 25 new countries to bring their first nuclear power plants on-line by 2030. These are momentous changes. We have come together at this conference because we have a shared goal: to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. The more we cooperate and coordinate, the more successful we will be in reaching that goal. The IAEA plays a key role in helping to share the advantages of nuclear power with interested countries. In doing so, we pay special attention to ensuring high standards of nuclear safety and security and we implement safeguards to verify that all nuclear activities in Member States are exclusively peaceful. Let me share with you some key areas of our work. First, the Agency provides practical guidance to countries considering whether nuclear power might be suitable for them. Two key Agency documents spell out, simply and clearly, everything which they need to do. One is entitled Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. It lays out all issues that decision makers need to consider to ensure that nuclear energy is developed beneficially, responsibly and sustainably. The other is called Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It systematically defines all the milestones that should guide a country's preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power. These cover the appropriate legal and regulatory framework, engineering, financial and environmental concerns, safety and security, as well as the appropriate safeguards regime. These milestones are designed to help countries make progress, not to put obstacles in their way. Our second key role is as a reviewer. At the request of a Member State, we assemble teams of experts to conduct detailed reviews of, for example, the operational safety of its nuclear facilities, the effectiveness of its regulatory system or its overall progress in preparing for nuclear power. This system of peer review - which involves experts sharing information and experience with other experts - is of immense value. It helps to increase transparency, to the benefit of all. Third, the Agency provides a broad range of training to Member States. For example, we organize highly specialised technical training for nuclear engineers and scientists. In Montpelier, we help to run courses in nuclear law. This training helps countries to build up their own expertise so they can make informed decisions and are well prepared in dealing with vendors, consultants, industry associations and other governments. The IAEA plays an active role in contributing to technological development. A good example is the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Continual innovation in nuclear technology is essential. Fast reactors, for example, make it possible to extend the lifetime of uranium resources from hundreds of years to thousands of years, to lower costs and to reduce nuclear waste. Here, also, success will depend on international coordination. Let me state again that our shared goal is to assist countries embarking on nuclear power to do so knowledgeably, profitably, safely and securely. I have no doubt that this conference will lead to improved coordination and help to achieve the IAEA's statutory objective, which is 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' Thank you. (IAEA)

  4. First case of chancroid in 14 years at the largest STI clinic in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Lassau, François; Rousseau, Clotilde; Bagot, Martine; Janier, Michel

    2016-08-01

    We report the first case of chancroid seen at our clinic in 14 years. It was diagnosed by nuclear acid amplification test in a male patient returning from Madagascar. Although the disease is considered on the verge of disappearance even in tropical countries, its real potential for reemergence - due to new strains of Haemophilus ducreyi, underreporting and a lack of widespread use of molecular testing - could be underestimated. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. International Conference on Geological Repositories 2016. Conference Synthesis, 7-9 December 2016, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walke, Russell; Kwong, Gloria; )

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales. Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies. However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries. Building upon the success of previous conferences held in Denver (1999), Stockholm (2003), Berne (2007) and Toronto (2012), the ICGR 2016 brought together high-level decision makers from regulatory and local government bodies, waste management organisations and public stakeholder communities to review current perspectives of geological repository development. This publication provides a synthesis of the 2016 conference on continued engagement and safe implementation of repositories, which was designed to promote information and experience sharing, particularly in the development of polices and regulatory frameworks. Repository safety, and the planning and implementation of repository programs with societal involvement, as well as ongoing work within different international organisations, were also addressed at the conference. (authors)

  6. Lessons from france: the cardiovascular prevention clinic in the la pitie-salpetriere hospital in paris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.K.; Rensing, K.L.; Giral, P.; Cramer, M.J.; Bruckert, E.; Twickler, T.B.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in the Netherlands. In this background, various initiatives have been launched to reduce the frequency of cardiovascular disease. One of those is the creation of clinical units with a special focus on prevention of

  7. Origin of the Societe des Americanistes, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Riviale (1991 produced a two volume dissertation summarizing the work of French scholars involved in anthropology, ethnography, and archaeology in Peru from the beginning of Peruvian independence in 1821 up until World War 1. From the commentary, it is clear that not only does this volume trace individual scholars, and institu­tions involved in archaeologically-related research, but it develops a number of general intellectual themes as well. Riviale has recently (1996 extracted a portion of his dissertation relating to the events leading up to the founding of the Society of Americanists, Paris, in 1895. Because he is focusing in this case on the origin of a specific organiza­tion, he concentrates on exegesis of the institutional antecedents from 1821 onward.

  8. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Victor, David G.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-11-01

    Under the Paris Agreement nations made pledges known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), which indicate how national governments are evaluating climate risks and policy opportunities. We find that NDCs reveal important systematic patterns reflecting national interests and capabilities. Because the ocean plays critical roles in climate mitigation and adaptation, we created a quantitative marine focus factor (MFF) to evaluate how governments address marine issues. In contrast to the past, when oceans received minimal attention in climate negotiations, 70% of 161 NDCs we analysed include marine issues. The percentage of the population living in low-lying areas--vulnerable to rising seas--positively influences the MFF, but negotiating group (Annex 1 or small island developing states) is equally important, suggesting political motivations are crucial to NDC development. The analysis reveals gaps between scientific and government attention, including on ocean deoxygenation, which is barely mentioned. Governments display a keen interest in expanding marine research on climate priorities.

  9. Paris and its long-term temperature goal: First steps on a long road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a means to achieve its long-term temperature goal, the Paris Agreement put in place a system of regularly updated country pledges alternating with global stocktaking exercises that assess progress towards achieving the Paris goals. By now, the vast majority of countries have submitted their intended actions (also known as Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs). This begs the question what these amount to and whether they are in line with the agreement`s long-term temperature goal. A structured sensitivity analysis of the emissions implications of the Paris pledges has been carried out, showing that the ambiguity and imprecision of the NDCs leaves open a wide range of possible outcomes by 2030. This range has important implications for the feasibility and cost of pathways that attempt to limit warming to the temperature goals of the Agreement. We identify salient steps to reduce the overall uncertainty, and explore the minimum requirements that have to be met for integrated energy-economy-land models to still find options to stay within the temperature limits of the Paris Agreement. These requirements come under the form of near-term emissions reductions, and assumptions about the deployment of carbon-dioxide removal technologies in the second half of the century.

  10. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  11. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; M. Valari; A. Colette; O. Sanchez; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; R. Vautard; Z. Klimont; S. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed bas...

  12. Paris 2000 researches and men; Paris 2000 des recherches et des hommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IWA and ISWA congresses organized in Paris in july showed the latest research developments in the field of water and wastes management. The water sector is more mature than the waste sector but for both a closer association of the public and private is increasing. A summary of the presentations in successively the water and the wastes management is proposed bringing an analysis of the international situation and regulations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Experimental and statistical characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) within the ile-de-France region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudic, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role within the atmospheric system acting as precursors of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosols (causing health and climatic impacts); hence the growing interest of better characterizing them. Significant uncertainties are still associated with compounds speciation, quantification and respective contributions from the different emission sources. This thesis proposes, through several laboratory and intensive field campaigns, a detailed characterization of VOCs and their main emissions sources within the Ile-de-France region. We used methods based on the determination of speciation profiles indicative of road traffic, wood burning and natural gas sources obtained from near-field investigations (inside a tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue). These different source profiles were used as chemical fingerprints for the identification of the main VOC emission sources, which respective contributions were estimated using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) source-receptor model applied to one-year VOCs (including NMHC+OVOC) measurements in Paris. This thesis allowed, for the first time, to evaluate the seasonal variability of VOCs and their main emission sources. Road traffic-related emissions are major VOC local/regional sources in Paris (contributing to a quarter of total annual emissions). The important impact of wood burning in winter (50 % of the VOC total mass) was observed. Results obtained from this approach were compared with the regional emissions inventory provided by the air quality monitoring network Airparif. Finally, a good agreement was found between our observations and the inventory for road traffic and wood burning-related sources. This independent assessment of inventories is of great interest because they are currently used as input data within air quality prediction models. (author) [fr

  14. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, Irène; Dieudonné, Elsa; Vuillemin, Cyrille; Lopez, Morgan; Lac, Christine; Schmidt, Martina; Delmotte, Marc; Chevallier, Frédéric; Ravetta, François; Perrussel, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Bréon, François-Marie; Broquet, Grégoire; Ramonet, Michel; Spain, T. Gerard; Ampe, Christophe

    2018-03-01

    Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010-2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast-southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou - TRN; Montgé-en-Goële - MON), two are peri-urban (Gonesse - GON; Gif-sur-Yvette - GIF) and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower). In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010-13 July 2011). We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol-1 (ppm) can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic), the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN) show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends on the time of the day and on

  15. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Xueref-Remy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010–2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast–southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou – TRN; Montgé-en-Goële – MON, two are peri-urban (Gonesse – GON; Gif-sur-Yvette – GIF and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower. In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010–13 July 2011. We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol−1 (ppm can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic, the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends

  16. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  17. Case study - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  19. Louis-Eugène Varlin e a Comuna de Paris (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Costa Pinto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma breve notícia sobre a trajetória política de Louis-Eugène Varlin (1839 - 1871, operário francês (encadernador de livros radicado em Paris (1852 - 1871, intelectual autodidata, um dos principais organizadores da seção francesa da AIT (Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores a partir de 1865. Personagem emblemático nas lutas sociais acontecidas no período de setembro de 1870 a maio de 1871, quando do cerco à cidade pelas tropas prussianas e depois pelas tropas do governo Thiers, motivos que o levaram à participação no Comitê Central da Guarda Nacional, assim como à organização dos comitês distritais da Comuna (março a maio de 1871.     

  20. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  1. The Paris Climate Conference: What kind of international agreement in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Watkinson, Paul; Navizet, Damien

    2015-01-01

    At stake during the 21. Climate Conference (COP21) to be held in Paris in 2015 is the adoption of a worldwide agreement that can be applied to all countries. This agreement, which will take effect by 2020, will focus not only on reducing greenhouse gases and adapting to climate change but also on funding and concrete actions for sustainable, resilient economic development. Throughout the coming year, France, which hosts and chairs the COP21, must see to it that a transparent, inclusive process allows all parties to express their viewpoints and be heard. An agreement is not the only result expected of this conference. For the sake of fairness and in order to limit global warming to 2 deg. C, pledges and commitments, including financial ones, from countries in favor of protecting the climate are expected too. International recognition will also have to be provided to climate-related initiatives that have already been launched

  2. [Management of wheezing disorders in infants participating in the PARIS birth cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, M; Nikasinovic, L; Foucault, C; Le Marec, A M; Giordanella, J P; Just, J; Momas, I

    2012-01-01

    While wheezing disorders are common in preschool children, their management is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the use of medical health care resources due to wheezing disorders in infants aged 18 months followed up in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medication on account of respiratory disorders during the previous 12 months were collected with a standardized questionnaire, administered by a paediatrician, during the health check offered to every child aged 18 months included in the PARIS birth cohort. The prevalence of wheezing disorders during the past 12 months amounted to 560/1974 (28.4%). Among wheezers, 493 (89.3%) required a medical visit because of difficult breathing; 61 (11.0%) went to the emergency room, 35 (6.4%) were admitted to the hospital and 375 (67.2%) received an inhaled anti-asthmatic medication. Recourse to chest physiotherapy was reported in 472 of them (85.1%). This study confirms the high use of healthcare resources because of wheezing disorders in infants and suggests a higher use of anti-asthmatic medications in France compared to other European countries. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating ASCAT surface soil moisture and GEOV1 leaf area index into the SURFEX modelling platform: a land data assimilation application over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barbu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The land monitoring service of the European Copernicus programme has developed a set of satellite-based biogeophysical products, including surface soil moisture (SSM and leaf area index (LAI. This study investigates the impact of joint assimilation of remotely sensed SSM derived from Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT backscatter data and the Copernicus Global Land GEOV1 satellite-based LAI product into the the vegetation growth version of the Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs land surface model within the the externalised surface model (SURFEX modelling platform of Météo-France. The ASCAT data were bias corrected with respect to the model climatology by using a seasonal-based CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function matching technique. A multivariate multi-scale land data assimilation system (LDAS based on the extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used for monitoring the soil moisture, terrestrial vegetation, surface carbon and energy fluxes across the domain of France at a spatial resolution of 8 km. Each model grid box is divided into a number of land covers, each having its own set of prognostic variables. The filter algorithm is designed to provide a distinct analysis for each land cover while using one observation per grid box. The updated values are aggregated by computing a weighted average. In this study, it is demonstrated that the assimilation scheme works effectively within the ISBA-A-gs model over a four-year period (2008–2011. The EKF is able to extract useful information from the data signal at the grid scale and distribute the root-zone soil moisture and LAI increments throughout the mosaic structure of the model. The impact of the assimilation on the vegetation phenology and on the water and carbon fluxes varies from one season to another. The spring drought of 2011 is an interesting case study of the potential of the assimilation to improve drought monitoring. A comparison between simulated and in situ soil

  4. The PermaFRANCE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    altitudes (infra-periglacial belt) : - the effect of frost/thaw cycles on rock weathering is monitored on 3 sites on various lithologies ; - a network of seasonal frost monitoring sites (frost occurrence and frost depth) at different altitudes is not yet implemented, but is in discussion. The scope is to gain a complete view of frost related phenomena, of their distribution over altitude, and of their evolution at different altitudinal levels. It is actually expected that some phenomena will migrate to higher altitudes and evolve accordingly in intensity and frequency. The PermaFRANCE network is mainly supported by three research laboratories : PACTE/Institut de Géographie Alpine at the Université de Grenoble, EDYTEM at the Université de Savoie, and PRODIG at the Université Paris 7. Several other partners (labs, private companies, individuals, institutions) will be associated. Financial support is provided by several research projects : the Interreg PermaDATARock project for the permafrsot in rockfaces, a Fondation MAIF project for the monitoring of rockglaciers, and now mainly the ETC Alpine Space PermaNET project until 2011. For further financing, the scope si to be recognized as a long term observation service (SOERE), a status that would ensure financing for several years. The longest time series amount to 25 years for displacement of one rockglacier, 6 years for GST monitoring on one site, 5 years for RST, but most time series have only 2 years or less. The first monitoring report should be printed in the mean time and presented at the conference.

  5. Protocol to amend the convention of 31st January 1963 supplementary to the Paris convention of 29th July 1960 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, as amended by the additional protocol of 28th January 1964, Paris, 16 November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Protocol further amends the Convention of 31 January 1963 supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland, within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (U.K.)

  6. Reconstruction of a saline, lacustrine carbonate system (Priabonian, St-Chaptes Basin, SE France): Depositional models, paleogeographic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettéron, Alexandre; Hamon, Youri; Fournier, François; Séranne, Michel; Pellenard, Pierre; Joseph, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    A 220-m thick carbonate-dominated succession has been deposited in shallow-water, saline lake environments during the early to middle Priabonian (MP17A-MP18 mammal zones) in the Saint-Chaptes Basin (south-east France). The palaeoenvironmental, paleoclimatic and palaeogeographic significance of such saline lake carbonates has been deciphered on the basis of a multi-proxy analyses including: 1) depositional and diagenetic features; 2) biological components (molluscs, benthic foraminifera, characean gyrogonites, spores and pollens); 3) carbon and oxygen stable isotopes; 4) trace elements; and 5) clay mineralogy. Five stages of lacustrine system evolution have been identified: 1) fresh-water closed lake under dry climate (unit U1); 2) fresh to brackish water lacustrine deltaic system with a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation under relatively wet climatic conditions (unit U2); 3) salt-water lacustrine carbonate system under humid climatic setting (unit U3); 4) evaporitic lake (unit U4); and 5) closed lake with shallow-water carbonate sedimentation under subtropical to Mediterranean climate with dry seasons (unit U5). Upper Eocene aridification is evidenced to have started as early as the earliest Priabonian (unit U1: MP17A mammal zone). A change from humid to dryer climatic conditions is recorded between units U3 and U4. The early to middle Priabonian saline lake is interpreted as an athalassic (inland) lake that have been transiently connected with neighboring salt lakes influenced by seawater and/or fed with sulfates deriving from recycling of evaporites. Maximum of connection with neighboring saline lakes (Mormoiron Basin, Camargue and Central grabens, Hérault Basin) likely occurred during unit U3 and at the base of unit U5. The most likely sources of salts of these adjacent basins are: 1) Triassic evaporites derived from salt-diapirs (Rhône valley) or from paleo-outcrops located east of the Durance fault or offshore in the Gulf of Lion; or 2) marine

  7. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  8. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  9. A 3d Regional Scale Photochemical Air Quality Model. Application to a 3 Day Summertime Episode over Paris Un modèle photochimique 3D de qualité de l'air à l'échelle régionale. Application à un épisode de 3 jours à Paris en été

    OpenAIRE

    Carissimo B.; Dupont E.; Musson-Genon L.; Riboud P. M.; Jaecker-Voirol A.; Lipphardt M.; Martin B.; Quandalle Ph.; Salles J.; Aumont B.; Bergametti G.; Bey I.; Toupance G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents AZUR, a 3D Eulerian photochemical air quality model for the simulation of air pollution in urban and semi-urban areas. The model tracks gas pollutant species emitted into the atmosphere by transportation and industrial sources, it computes the chemical reactions of these species under varying meteorological conditions (photolysis, pressure, temperature, humidity), their transport by wind and their turbulent diffusion as a function of air stability. It has a modular softwar...

  10. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Lias (Hettangien-Sinémurien qui apparaît comme une roche-mère potentielle des huiles du Trias. En ce qui concerne ces dernières, leurs principaux chemins de migration sont probablement les failles qui recoupent le Trias et la base du Lias qui ont pu jouer un rôle important au cours du Tertiaire (failles en distension. Une migration latérale dans les réservoirs (calcaires poreux du Dogger, grès du Trias est envisagée. A l'est du Bassin (sud de Nancy quelques gisements de gaz et d'huile rencontrés dans le Muschelkalk semblent avoir une origine paléozoïque (bassin Sarro-Lorrain. This article gives the main results of the geochemical survey made in the Paris Basin from cuttings and core samples coming from 100 petroleum or mining boreholes and from oil samples taken from Mesozoic reservoirs (Triassic, Upper Bathonian, Neocomian. The different geochemical methods used are pyrolysis, which is well suited for examining the numerous cuttings samples gathered, gas chromatography for the detailed analysis of oils and rock extracts, and mass spectrometry for examining biomarkers. The main times when oil and gas were formed were determined by computerized simulation using a mathematical model for the formation of hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis methods were used to compile geochemical logs of the boreholes investigated and to determine, by computing, the initial pyrolisis parameters of source rocks before their burial. In this way, within the area investigated, maps were compiled of the initial organic carbon, the total petroleum potentials and the amounts of migrated hydrocarbons. These results as a whole show that the source rocks for the great majority of the Mesozoic oils are situated in the Lias, ranging from the Toarcian to the Hettangian, and that the zones having the best petroleum potential in the Basin are located in areas of strong subsidence in Lias times. The detailed examination of the hydrocarbons and biomarkers did not distinguish different oils from each other

  11. De Paris à Lyon. Les mutations éditoriales du «Lancelot du Lac»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Burg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lancelot du Lac est le premier roman arthurien imprimé à la Renais­sance. Dans sa première édition parue en 1488, qui réunit deux imprimeurs (Jean Le Bourgeois à Rouen et Jean Du Pré à Paris, un découpage et un prologue inédits sont ajoutés par le remanieur. Le texte sera réédité six fois par divers imprimeurs-libraires parisiens jusqu’en 1533. L’édition de luxe d’Antoine Vérard (1494, destinée au roi Charles VIII, présente d’importantes modifications effectuées dans un but commercial. Après une longue période d’accalmie qui signe le début du déclin de la vogue des romans de chevalerie médiévaux, Benoît Rigaud publie à Lyon, sous une forme considérablement abrégée, la dernière édition connue du Lancelot au XVIe siècle (1591. Si elle ne présente que peu d’intérêt littéraire, elle apporte cependant des informations concernant les pratiques éditoriales et les goûts du  lecteur de la fin du XVIe siècle. De Paris à Lyon, entre renaissance et déclin, le parcours éditorial d’un incontournable roman arthurien.Lancelot du Lac is the editio princeps of an Arthurian romance in Renaissance France. The first edition in 1488, which brings together two printers (Jean Le Bourgeois from Rouen and Jean Du Pré from Paris, offers original arrangement and prologue added by the compositor. The text will be published six times by various printers and booksellers in Paris until 1533. The luxurious edition from Antoine Vérard (1494 dedicated to King Charles VIII provides interesting transformations in commercial purposes. After a long time without edition, showing the beginning of chivalry literature’s decline, Benoît Rigaud publish in Lyon, in a greatly abbreviated form, the last known edition of Lancelot in the XVIth century (1591. If it presents no literary interest, it provides nevertheless informations about editorial practices and reader’s tastes from the end of Renaissance France. From Paris to

  12. Winter air pollution and infant bronchiolitis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségala, Claire; Poizeau, David; Mesbah, Mounir; Willems, Sylvie; Maidenberg, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common respiratory pathogens in infants and young children. It is not known why some previously healthy infants, when in contact with RSV, develop bronchiolitis whereas others have only mild symptoms. Our study aimed to evaluate the possible association between emergency hospital visits for bronchiolitis and air pollution in the Paris region during four winter seasons. We included children under the age of 3 years who attended emergency room services for bronchiolitis (following standardized definition) during the period 1997-2001. Two series of data from 34 hospitals, the daily number of emergency hospital consultations (n=50857) and the daily number of hospitalizations (n=16588) for bronchiolitis, were analyzed using alternative statistical methods; these were the generalized additive model (GAM) and case-crossover models. After adjustments for public holidays, holidays and meteorological variables the case-crossover model showed that PM10, BS, SO2 and NO2 were positively associated with both consultations and hospitalizations. GAM models, adjusting for long-term trend, seasonality, holiday, public holiday, weekday and meteorological variables, gave similar results for SO2 and PM10. This study shows that air pollution may act as a trigger for the occurrence of acute severe bronchiolitis cases.

  13. Diagnostic study, design and implementation of an integrated model of care in France: a bottom-up process with continuous leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu de Stampa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustaining integrated care is difficult, in large part because of problems encountered securing the participation of health care and social service professionals and, in particular, general practitioners (GPs. Purpose: To present an innovative bottom-up and pragmatic strategy used to implement a new integrated care model in France for community-dwelling elderly people with complex needs. Results: In the first step, a diagnostic study was conducted with face-to-face interviews to gather data on current practices from a sample of health and social stakeholders working with elderly people. In the second step, an integrated care model called Coordination Personnes Agées (COPA was designed by the same major stakeholders in order to define its detailed characteristics based on the local context. In the third step, the model was implemented in two phases: adoption and maintenance. This strategy was carried out by a continuous and flexible leadership throughout the process, initially with a mixed leadership (clinician and researcher followed by a double one (clinician and managers of services in the implementation phase. Conclusion: The implementation of this bottom-up and pragmatic strategy relied on establishing a collaborative dynamic among health and social stakeholders. This enhanced their involvement throughout the implementation phase, particularly among the GPs, and allowed them to support the change practices and services arrangements

  14. Use of agricultural statistics to verify the interannual variability in land surface models: a case study over France with ISBA-A-gs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the interannual variability of the above-ground biomass of herbaceous vegetation simulated by the ISBA-A-gs land surface model, within the SURFEX modelling platform, French agricultural statistics for C3 crops and grasslands were compared with the simulations for the 1994–2008 period. While excellent correlations are obtained for grasslands, representing the interannual variability of crops is more difficult. It is shown that, the Maximum Available soil Water Capacity (MaxAWC has a large influence on the correlation between the model and the agricultural statistics. In particular, high values of MaxAWC tend to reduce the impact of the climate interannual variability on the simulated biomass. Also, high values of MaxAWC allow the simulation of a negative trend in biomass production, in relation to a marked warming trend, of about 0.12 Kyr−1 on average, affecting the daily maximum air temperature during the growing period (April–June. This trend is particularly acute in Northern France. The estimates of MaxAWC for C3 crops and grasslands, currently used in SURFEX, are about 129 mm and do not vary much. Therefore, more accurate grid-cell values of this parameter are needed.

  15. Herbert Marcuse vai a Paris, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pessoa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio fornece uma interpretação do filme Paris, Texas, de Wim Wenders, à luz da dialética da civilização como apresentada por Herbert Marcuse em Eros e civilização: uma interpretação filosófica do pensamento de Freud. Para que a “aplicação” do pensamento de Marcuse ao filme de Wenders não soterre a obra de arte com filosofemas previamente existentes e de uso disseminado, o contato entre a imagem do cineasta e a palavra do filósofo acontece em uma via de mão dupla. Assim, se a princípio a caracterização marcuseana da dialética entre a pulsão erótica e as demandas da civilização serve para articular algumas das imagens do filme de Wenders, tentamos mostrar, no final de nosso percurso, como o filme de Wenders permite a formulação de algumas questões que tornam visível o quanto o próprio Marcuse negligenciou uma das principais contribuições de Freud para a reflexão estética: a relação essencial entre a pulsão de morte e a negatividade da arte.

  16. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Rivollat

    Full Text Available An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers

  17. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  18. Turning Paris into reality at the University of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David G.; Abdulla, Ahmed; Auston, David; Brase, Wendell; Brouwer, Jack; Brown, Karl; Davis, Steven J.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Meier, Alan; Modera, Mark; Zarin Pass, Rebecca; Phillips, David; Sager, Jordan; Weil, David; TomKat Natural Gas Exit Strategies Working Group

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement highlights the need for local climate leadership. The University Of California's approach to deep decarbonization offers lessons in efficiency, alternative fuels and electrification. Bending the emissions curve globally requires efforts that blend academic insights with practical solutions.

  19. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  20. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  1. Retrospective observational study of emergency department syndromic surveillance data during air pollution episodes across London and Paris in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Helen E; Morbey, Roger; Fouillet, Anne; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Dobney, Alec; Hughes, Thomas C; Smith, Gillian E; Elliot, Alex J

    2018-04-19

    Poor air quality (AQ) is a global public health issue and AQ events can span across countries. Using emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance from England and France, we describe changes in human health indicators during periods of particularly poor AQ in London and Paris during 2014. Using daily AQ data for 2014, we identified three periods of poor AQ affecting both London and Paris. Anonymised near real-time ED attendance syndromic surveillance data from EDs across England and France were used to monitor the health impact of poor AQ.Using the routine English syndromic surveillance detection methods, increases in selected ED syndromic indicators (asthma, difficulty breathing and myocardial ischaemia), in total and by age, were identified and compared with periods of poor AQ in each city. Retrospective Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify significant increases in ED attendance data on days with (and up to 3 days following) poor AQ. Almost 1.5 million ED attendances were recorded during the study period (27 February 2014 to 1 October 2014). Significant increases in ED attendances for asthma were identified around periods of poor AQ in both cities, especially in children (aged 0-14 years). Some variation was seen in Paris with a rapid increase during the first AQ period in asthma attendances among children (aged 0-14 years), whereas during the second period the increase was greater in adults. This work demonstrates the public health value of syndromic surveillance during air pollution incidents. There is potential for further cross-border harmonisation to provide Europe-wide early alerting to health impacts and improve future public health messaging to healthcare services to provide warning of increases in demand. © Crown copyright 2018. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office/Queen’s Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  2. The I.R.S.N.-2003 model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France; Le modele IRSN 2003 des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A

    2005-12-15

    In conclusion, the whole of the method impreciseness, the sometime important variation between the very simplifying hypothesis used and the available data ( especially for the air contamination and the fallout of nuclear tests), the variations between the results of the model and the measurements, its incompatible results with these ones exposed and validated in the report I.P.S.N.-1997, lead to consider that the I.R.S.N.-2003 model does not allow a reliable quantitative estimation of Chernobylsk fallout and let alone the dosimetry estimations for which it has been used. (N.C.)

  3. Modelling the transport of suspended particulate matter by the Rhone River plume (France). Implications for pollutant dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.

    2005-01-01

    A model to simulate the transport of suspended particulate matter by the Rhone River plume has been developed. The model solves the 3D hydrodynamic equations, including baroclinic terms and a 1-equation turbulence model, and the suspended matter equations including advection/diffusion of particles, settling and deposition. Four particle classes are considered simultaneously according to observations in the Rhone. Computed currents, salinity and particle distributions are, in general, in good agreement with observations or previous calculations. The model also provides sedimentation rates and the distribution of different particle classes over the sea bed. It has been found that high sedimentation rates close to the river mouth are due to coarse particles that sink rapidly. Computed sedimentation rates are also similar to those derived from observations. The model has been applied to simulate the transport of radionuclides by the plume, since suspended matter is the main vector for them. The radionuclide transport model, previously described and validated, includes exchanges of radionuclides between water, suspended matter and bottom sediment described in terms of kinetic rates. A new feature is the explicit inclusion of the dependence of kinetic rates upon salinity. The model has been applied to 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu. Results are, in general, in good agreement with observations. - A model has been developed to simulate transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rhone River plume

  4. Forecasts of agricultural exchanges with a view to a contamination model - the case of wheat in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccia, Carlo; Stemmelen, Eric; Pages, Pierre; Maitre, Paul

    1977-12-01

    Following a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the main data, two types of models were experimented allowing to 'project' exchange tables in a near future: 'empirical' models derived from a systematic study of the various coefficients able to specify the structure of an exchange matrix; 'explanatory' models based on the utilization of a linear model and the construction of a 'generalized cost' of exchange with the help of physical and economical parameters. The contamination model is then presented; it gives and forecasts individual and collective doses likely to be received by the inhabitants of each region from the ingestion of bread, biscuits... The doses are dependent on the results or assumptions at the level of the initial contaminations, the technical transformations of the product and the inter-regional exchanges of the initial product and its derivatives [fr

  5. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Patterns of post-acute health care utilization after a severe traumatic brain injury: Results from the PariS-TBI cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Claire; Bayen, Eleonore; Darnoux, Emmanuelle; Ghout, Idir; Azerad, Sylvie; Ruet, Alexis; Vallat-Azouvi, Claire; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Aegerter, Philippe; Weiss, Jean-Jacques; Azouvi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To assess brain injury services utilization and their determinants using Andersen's model. Prospective follow-up of the PariS-TBI inception cohort. Out of 504 adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 245 survived and 147 received a 4-year outcome assessment (mean age 33 years, 80% men). Provision rates of medical, rehabilitation, social and re-entry services and their relations to patients' characteristics were assessed. Following acute care discharge, 78% of patients received physiotherapy, 61% speech/cognitive therapy, 50% occupational therapy, 41% psychological assistance, 63% specialized medical follow-up, 21% community re-entry assistance. Health-related need factors, in terms of TBI severity, were the main predictors of services. Provision of each therapy was significantly associated with corresponding speech, motor and psychological impairments. However, care provision did not depend on cognitive impairments and cognitive therapy was related to pre-disposing and geographical factors. Community re-entry assistance was provided to younger and more independent patients. These quantitative findings illustrate strengths and weaknesses of late brain injury care provision in urban France and highlight the need to improve treatment of cognitive impairments.

  7. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  8. Small-area spatiotemporal analysis of heatwave impacts on elderly mortality in Paris: A cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Ragettli, Martina S; Deguen, Séverine

    2017-08-15

    Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris. We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009 among people aged >65 at the French census block level within Paris. We used two heat wave days' definitions that were compared to non-heat wave days. A Bernoulli cluster analysis method was applied to identify high risk clusters of mortality during heat waves. We performed random effects meta-regression analyses to investigate factors associated with the magnitude of the mortality risk. The spatial approach revealed a spatial aggregation of death cases during heat wave days. We found that small scale chronic PM 10 exposure was associated with a 0.02 (95% CI: 0.001; 0.045) increase of the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We also found a positive association with the percentage of foreigners and the percentage of labor force, while the proportion of elderly people living in the neighborhood was negatively associated. We also found that green space density had a protective effect and inversely that the density of constructed feature increased the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We showed that a spatial variation in terms of heat-related vulnerability exists within Paris and that it can be explained by some contextual factors. This study can be useful for designing interventions targeting more vulnerable areas and reduce the burden of heat waves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrimination of Wild Paris Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm−1), scanning range (10000 cm−1∼4000 cm−1) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm−1 and 5973∼4007 cm−1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R2X and Q2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence. PMID:24558477

  10. Dietary inadequacies observed in homeless men visiting an emergency night shelter in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, N; Coupel, J; Deheeger, M; Briend, A

    2001-04-01

    To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of homeless men. A night emergency shelter in Paris, France. Dietary survey (48-h) including alcohol intake and a questionnaire on age, duration of homelessness, smoking habits. Subjects were also weighed and measured. Ninety-seven men aged 18-72 years (mean 43.3), of whom 54% were homeless for more than 18 months, 82% were smokers and 53% were regular and/or excessive drinkers. The BMI distribution was shifted towards low values, the percentage of wasted persons being four times higher than in the reference population. The mean total energy intake was 2376 kcal and included a high and highly variable percentage of energy derived from alcohol (12.0% Among drinkers, the mean ethanol intake was 90 g and there was a significant negative correlation between ethanol and non-alcoholic energy intakes. The median intakes of potassium, calcium, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, and niacin were lower than European Population Reference Intakes but only the mean intake of vitamin B1 was significantly lower. Eighty percent of non-alcoholic energy was provided by charitable organisations. For most nutrients, the nutritional density of the shelter ration was not significantly different from the density of the foods purchased by the homeless. These data suggest that the content of some nutrients should be increased in existing food assistance programs for homeless people in France.

  11. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C.; Vanderpooten, D.

    2001-01-01

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l -1 [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l -1 for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l -1 for ester and 3.30FF l -1 for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l -1 for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  12. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Thiveral-Grignon, 78 (France); Vanderpooten, D. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, LAMSADE, Paris, 75 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l{sup -1} [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l{sup -1} for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l{sup -1} for ester and 3.30FF l{sup -1} for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l{sup -1} for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  13. Christophe Couderc, dir., Le théâtre Espagnol du Siècle d'Or en France. De la traduction au transfert culturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andrès

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Christophe Couderc, Le théâtre Espagnol du Siècle d'Or en France. De la traduction au transfert culturel, Presses Universitaires de Paris Ouest, París, 2012, 299 pp. ISBN: 978-2-84016-102-8.

  14. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  15. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  16. Deuteron form factors and e-d polarization observables for the Paris and Graz-II potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Plessas, W.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1983-01-01

    Elastic e-d scattering is studied employing the meson-theoretical Paris potential and the non-local separable Graz-II potential. Electric and magnetic form factors are calculated with inclusion of meson-exchange currents and compared to existing experimental data. Deuteron vector and tensor polarizations are predicted and discussed in relation to the deuteron wave functions of the potential models considered. Thereby the off-shell behaviour of the Graz-II interaction is found to be close to that one of the Paris potential over the most important domain of low and moderate off-shell moments. (Author)

  17. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  18. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  19. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  1. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  2. Assessment of nitrate pollution in the Grand Morin aquifers (France): Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flipo, Nicolas [Centre de Geosciences, UMR Sisyphe, ENSMP, 35 rue Saint-Honore, F-77305 Fontainebleau (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.flipo@ensmp.fr; Jeannee, Nicolas [Geovariances, 49 bis, avenue Franklin Roosevelt, F-77212 Avon (France); Poulin, Michel [Centre de Geosciences, UMR Sisyphe, ENSMP, 35 rue Saint-Honore, F-77305 Fontainebleau (France); Even, Stephanie [Centre de Geosciences, UMR Sisyphe, ENSMP, 35 rue Saint-Honore, F-77305 Fontainebleau (France); Ledoux, Emmanuel [Centre de Geosciences, UMR Sisyphe, ENSMP, 35 rue Saint-Honore, F-77305 Fontainebleau (France)

    2007-03-15

    The objective of this work is to combine several approaches to better understand nitrate fate in the Grand Morin aquifers (2700 km{sup 2}), part of the Seine basin. CAWAQS results from the coupling of the hydrogeological model NEWSAM with the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model of river PROSE. CAWAQS is coupled with the agronomic model STICS in order to simulate nitrate migration in basins. First, kriging provides a satisfactory representation of aquifer nitrate contamination from local observations, to set initial conditions for the physically based model. Then associated confidence intervals, derived from data using geostatistics, are used to validate CAWAQS results. Results and evaluation obtained from the combination of these approaches are given (period 1977-1988). Then CAWAQS is used to simulate nitrate fate for a 20-year period (1977-1996). The mean nitrate concentrations increase in aquifers is 0.09 mgN L{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, resulting from an average infiltration flux of 3500 kgN.km{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. - Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling allows assessment of nitrate concentrations in aquifer systems.

  3. Assessment of nitrate pollution in the Grand Morin aquifers (France): Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flipo, Nicolas; Jeannee, Nicolas; Poulin, Michel; Even, Stephanie; Ledoux, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to combine several approaches to better understand nitrate fate in the Grand Morin aquifers (2700 km 2 ), part of the Seine basin. CAWAQS results from the coupling of the hydrogeological model NEWSAM with the hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model of river PROSE. CAWAQS is coupled with the agronomic model STICS in order to simulate nitrate migration in basins. First, kriging provides a satisfactory representation of aquifer nitrate contamination from local observations, to set initial conditions for the physically based model. Then associated confidence intervals, derived from data using geostatistics, are used to validate CAWAQS results. Results and evaluation obtained from the combination of these approaches are given (period 1977-1988). Then CAWAQS is used to simulate nitrate fate for a 20-year period (1977-1996). The mean nitrate concentrations increase in aquifers is 0.09 mgN L -1 yr -1 , resulting from an average infiltration flux of 3500 kgN.km -2 yr -1 . - Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling allows assessment of nitrate concentrations in aquifer systems

  4. Evaluation of a landscape evolution model to simulate stream piracies: Insights from multivariable numerical tests using the example of the Meuse basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.

  5. Estimating Poromechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Fractured Media Aquifers Using a Model of the Aquifer at Ploemeur France: Broad Applications and Future Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. W.; Burbey, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Aquifers in fractured crystalline bedrock are located over half of the earth's surface and are vital civil and economic resources particularly in places where ample, safe surface water is not available. With fractured media aquifers providing large percentages of water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use in many regions of the world. Distinguishing sustainable quantities of extraction is of paramount importance to the continuing viability of these important resources and the communities they serve. The fractured and faulted crystalline-rock aquifer system supporting the community of Ploemeur France has been providing one million cubic meters of water annually, resulting in a modest long-term drawdown of about 15m. To understand the sources and mechanisms of recharge that support this aquifer system, a three-dimensional ABAQUS model was developed using known geologic, water-level and geodetic (tiltmeters and GPS) data to simulate the natural aquifer system that is dominated by a permeable sub-vertical fault and an intersecting semi-horizontal contact zone. The model is used to constrain the poromechanical properties of the fault and contact zones relative to the host crystalline rocks and overlying saprolite by taking advantage of the tilt and seasonal GPS responses caused by municipal pumping along with water-level data for the area. A chief goal in this modeling effort is to assess the sources of recharge to this aquifer system that is atypically productive for a crystalline-rock setting. Preliminary results suggest that the source of water supplying this community is a combination of rapid localized recharge through the saprolite and fault zone and recharge along the contact zone, both from the north (older water) and where it is exposed to the south (younger water). The modeling effort also shows the importance of combining GPS and surface tiltmeter data with water-level measurements for constraining the properties of this complex aquifer system and

  6. Calculations of antiproton-nucleus quasi-bound states using the Paris N bar N potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    An optical potential constructed using the p bar N scattering amplitudes derived from the 2009 version of the Paris N bar N potential is applied in calculations of p bar quasi-bound states in selected nuclei across the periodic table. A proper self-consistent procedure for treating energy dependence of the amplitudes in a nucleus appears crucial for evaluating p bar binding energies and widths. Particular attention is paid to the role of P-wave amplitudes. While the P-wave potential nearly does not affect calculated p bar binding energies, it reduces considerably the corresponding widths. The Paris S-wave potential supplemented by a phenomenological P-wave term yields in dynamical calculations p bar binding energies Bpbar ≈ 200 MeV and widths Γpbar ∼ 200- 230 MeV, which is very close to the values obtained within the RMF model consistent with p bar -atom data.

  7. Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Joseph; Pizer, William; Tavoni, Massimo; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Akimoto, Keigo; Blanford, Geoffrey; Carraro, Carlo; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James; Iyer, Gokul C.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Richels, Richard; Rose, Steven; Sano, Fuminori

    2016-11-01

    The Paris Agreement culminates a six-year transition towards an international climate policy architecture based on parties submitting national pledges every five years. An important policy task will be to assess and compare these contributions. We use four integrated assessment models to produce metrics of Paris Agreement pledges, and show differentiated effort across countries: wealthier countries pledge to undertake greater emission reductions with higher costs. The pledges fall in the lower end of the distributions of the social cost of carbon and the cost-minimizing path to limiting warming to 2 °C, suggesting insufficient global ambition in light of leaders’ climate goals. Countries’ marginal abatement costs vary by two orders of magnitude, illustrating that large efficiency gains are available through joint mitigation efforts and/or carbon price coordination. Marginal costs rise almost proportionally with income, but full policy costs reveal more complex regional patterns due to terms of trade effects.

  8. Geochemical tracing and hydrogeochemical modelling of water-rock interactions during salinization of alluvial groundwater (Upper Rhine Valley, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Y., E-mail: yann.lucas@eost.u-strasbg.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Schmitt, A.D., E-mail: anne-desiree.schmitt@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)] [Universite de Franche-Comte et CNRS-UMR 6249, Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Chabaux, F., E-mail: francois.chabaux@eost.u-strasbg.fr [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Clement, A.; Fritz, B. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Elsass, Ph. [BRGM, GEODERIS, 1, rue Claude Chappe, 57070 Metz (France); Durand, S. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS, Laboratoire d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie de Strasbourg, Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre, 1, rue Blessig, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Major and trace elements along with strontium and uranium isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect a conservative mixing. {yields} A coupled hydrogeochemical model demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process. {yields} The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite. {yields} It is necessary to consider the pollution history to explain the important chloride, sodium and calcium concentration modifications. {yields} The model shows that the rapidity of the cationic exchange reactions insures a reversibility of the cation fixation on clays in the aquifer. - Abstract: In the southern Upper Rhine Valley, groundwater has undergone intensive saline pollution caused by the infiltration of mining brines, a consequence of potash extraction carried out during the 20th century. Major and trace elements along with Sr and U isotopic ratios show that groundwater geochemical characteristics along the saline plumes cannot reflect conservative mixing between saline waters resulting from the dissolution of waste heaps and one or more unpolluted end-members. The results imply the occurrence of interactions between host rocks and polluted waters, and they suggest that cationic exchange mechanisms are the primary controlling process. A coupled hydrogeochemical model has been developed with the numerical code KIRMAT, which demonstrates that cationic exchange between alkalis from polluted waters and alkaline-earth elements from montmorillonite present in the host rock of the aquifer is the primary process controlling the geochemical evolution of the groundwater. The model requires only a small amount of montmorillonite (between 0.75% and 2.25%), which is in agreement with the observed mineralogical composition of the aquifer. The model also proves

  9. Integrative modelling approaches for analysis of impact of multifunctional agriculture: a review for France, Germany and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Zander, P.; Josien, E.; Groot, J.C.J.; Meyer, B.C.; Knierim, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews integrative modelling approaches which were developed to analyze the impact of multifunctional agriculture, or which may be used as such. The approaches are integrative in combining multiple goals of agriculture, and confronting these with current or potential performance of

  10. Evidence of political yardstick competition in France using a two-regime spatial Durbin model with fixed effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul; Freret, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    This research proposes a two-regime spatial Durbin model with spatial and time-period fixed effects to test for political yardstick competition and exclude any other explanation that might produce spatial interaction effects among the dependent variable, the independent variables, or the error term.

  11. Behavior of uranium and thorium isotopes in soils of the Boreon area, Mercantour Massif (S.E. France). Leaching and weathering rate modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezzoug, S.; Michel, H.; Barci-Funel, G.; Barci, V.; Fernex, F.

    2009-01-01

    Four cores were collected in weathered rocks and soils in the Boreon forest area (1765 m, Mercantour Massif, France). The samples were analyzed for the isotopes 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U and 238 U. The activity and isotopic ratio profiles suggest that uranium was mobilized (leaching and precipitation) during the weathering process, as well as thorium but in a much less proportion. A model was drawn up to evaluate the U leaching rate and the time that some levels of the weathered rocks have been subjected to weathering. It utilizes LATHAM and SCHWARCZ's two equations,15 expressed as 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 238 U activity ratios, which assume that the alpha recoil effect allows easier leaching for 234 U than 238 U and no Th mobility. But this last assumption does not correspond to the observations made in the Boreon area, since it appears that in some soil deeper layers 230 Th and 228 Th are in radioactive deficit relatively to their parents. As there are four unknown quantities (the time, the leaching rates of 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th), the problem to be solved requires two more equations; these can be obtained utilizing the U activity ratio in water, and taking into account the 232 Th behavior. In some sites the 238 U leaching rate is high in deeper soil levels (near the fresh rocks); this would correspond to a loss of half the U amount in less than 24 000 years. (author)

  12. Coupled HM modelling of the mine-by test at Meuse-Haute-Marne (MHM) URL France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildizdag, K.; Shao, H.; Hesser, J.; Soennke, J.; Noiret, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In order to test the feasibility of disposing High-Level and Long-Lived Wastes (HLW-LL) in Callovo- Oxfordian clay formation (COx), the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) has carried out scientific and engineering investigations in the Meuse-Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) since November 1999. The COx (Figure 1) is of a special interest because of its very favourable characteristics for being a possible host rock for the disposal of radioactive waste. The project OHZ (Observation and Monitoring of the EDZ) was initiated in 2008 by ANDRA. In the framework of this project, a Mine-by experiment was performed in the niche GCS. The excavation was started on 29.01.2008. Displacement and pore pressure evolution during the excavation was measured by different sensors. Within the cooperation between BGR and ANDRA numerical calculations have been done using the code RockFlow to understand the hydraulic and mechanical (HM) coupling mechanisms of Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone observed during the Mine-by experiment. Modelling results: With regard to the bedding of COx a transverse isotropy approach was applied. Thus the anisotropy effects caused by the bedding have been considered in coupled HM models (Massmann, 2009). Intensive parameter studies in comparison with measured deformation and pore pressure data have been conducted to reduce modelling uncertainties. Fully saturated models yield very precise results in the far field wherein excavation effect has its lower impact. Rapid decline of pore pressure and continuously increasing deformation subsequent to excavation in the near field could not be interpreted even taking shrinkage and partially saturation into consideration. During the Mine-by test, overpressures on sidewalls and reduced pressures on roof and floor were measured due to the mechanical effect on pore pressure which is induced by the bedding. Good agreement between

  13. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  14. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km 2 ). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R 2  = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can France Reach the Factor 4 Objective? An Assessment Based on a Stylised Energy-Economy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriet, Fanny; Maggiar, Nicolas; Schubert, Katheline

    2016-01-01

    We build, calibrate and simulate a stylised energy-economy model designed to evaluate the level of carbon tax that would allow the French economy to reduce its CO_2 emissions by a factor of four over a forty-year horizon. We estimate the substitution possibilities between fossil energy and other factors for households and firms. We show that if energy-saving technical progress continues at its recent historical pace, the initial level of the carbon tax recommended by the Quinet report is totally inadequate

  16. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  17. Two modelling approaches to water-quality simulation in a flooded iron-ore mine (Saizerais, Lorraine, France): a semi-distributed chemical reactor model and a physically based distributed reactive transport pipe network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, V; Collon-Drouaillet, P; Fabriol, R

    2008-02-19

    The flooding of abandoned mines in the Lorraine Iron Basin (LIB) over the past 25 years has degraded the quality of the groundwater tapped for drinking water. High concentrations of dissolved sulphate have made the water unsuitable for human consumption. This problematic issue has led to the development of numerical tools to support water-resource management in mining contexts. Here we examine two modelling approaches using different numerical tools that we tested on the Saizerais flooded iron-ore mine (Lorraine, France). A first approach considers the Saizerais Mine as a network of two chemical reactors (NCR). The second approach is based on a physically distributed pipe network model (PNM) built with EPANET 2 software. This approach considers the mine as a network of pipes defined by their geometric and chemical parameters. Each reactor in the NCR model includes a detailed chemical model built to simulate quality evolution in the flooded mine water. However, in order to obtain a robust PNM, we simplified the detailed chemical model into a specific sulphate dissolution-precipitation model that is included as sulphate source/sink in both a NCR model and a pipe network model. Both the NCR model and the PNM, based on different numerical techniques, give good post-calibration agreement between the simulated and measured sulphate concentrations in the drinking-water well and overflow drift. The NCR model incorporating the detailed chemical model is useful when a detailed chemical behaviour at the overflow is needed. The PNM incorporating the simplified sulphate dissolution-precipitation model provides better information of the physics controlling the effect of flow and low flow zones, and the time of solid sulphate removal whereas the NCR model will underestimate clean-up time due to the complete mixing assumption. In conclusion, the detailed NCR model will give a first assessment of chemical processes at overflow, and in a second time, the PNM model will provide more

  18. Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 μg/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of distributed water level and soil moisture data in the evaluation of the PUMMA periurban distributed hydrological model: application to the Mercier catchment, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Fuamba, Musandji; Branger, Flora; Batchabani, Essoyéké; Sanzana, Pedro; Sarrazin, Benoit; Jankowfsky, Sonja

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrological models are used at best when their outputs are compared not only to the outlet discharge, but also to internal observed variables, so that they can be used as powerful hypothesis-testing tools. In this paper, the interest of distributed networks of sensors for evaluating a distributed model and the underlying functioning hypotheses is explored. Two types of data are used: surface soil moisture and water level in streams. The model used in the study is the periurban PUMMA (Peri-Urban Model for landscape Management, Jankowfsky et al., 2014), that is applied to the Mercier catchment (6.7 km2) a semi-rural catchment with 14% imperviousness, located close to Lyon, France where distributed water level (13 locations) and surface soil moisture data (9 locations) are available. Model parameters are specified using in situ information or the results of previous studies, without any calibration and the model is run for four years from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2010 with a variable time step for rainfall and an hourly time step for reference evapotranspiration. The model evaluation protocol was guided by the available data and how they can be interpreted in terms of hydrological processes and constraints for the model components and parameters. We followed a stepwise approach. The first step was a simple model water balance assessment, without comparison to observed data. It can be interpreted as a basic quality check for the model, ensuring that it conserves mass, makes the difference between dry and wet years, and reacts to rainfall events. The second step was an evaluation against observed discharge data at the outlet, using classical performance criteria. It gives a general picture of the model performance and allows to comparing it to other studies found in the literature. In the next steps (steps 3 to 6), focus was made on more specific hydrological processes. In step 3, distributed surface soil moisture data was used to assess the

  20. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Arthi Chandran,2 Gergana Zlateva,2 Andreas Winkelmann,3 Serge Perrot4 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Covance Market Access Services, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Primary Care Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Global Health Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany; 4Service de Médecine Interne et Thérapeutique, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods: Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results: A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9, 51.2 (9.5, and 49.2 (9.8, respectively (P = 0.085. Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany (P < 0.001. Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087 than in France ($481, P < 0.001 or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001. Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431 than in France ($8718 or Germany ($10,001, but represented

  1. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  3. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007

  4. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  5. Tidal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  6. La titrisation en France.

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  7. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  8. Gaz de France 2006 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary

  9. Pharmacy education in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  10. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  11. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  12. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO 2 emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [de

  13. Business model et positionnements voulus des nouveaux concepts de proximité en France : une grille d'analyse appliquée à la branche proximité de Casino

    OpenAIRE

    Capo , Claire; CHANUT , Odile

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In France, new brands of proximity stores make up for the decrease of growth of GMS and meet an increased demand for convenience and services in city centers. They are based on a "generic business model": a high cost structure, an offer composed mainly of Private Brands and of many services and a franchise system. However, each brand of retail store has a specific desirable characterized by different types of proximity. This desirable positioning is analyzed through as...

  14. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition; Hauts-de-France. Vorreiter in der franzoesischen Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [German] Frankreich hatte sich im Vorfeld des letztjaehrigen Pariser-Klimagipfels auf ambitionierte Energiewendeziele festgelegt. Insbesondere die 2016 neu gebildete Region Hauts-de-France sticht dabei als Vorreiter heraus. Dort treibt man Innovationen und Investitionen mit dem Ziel an, bis 2050 den Eigenbedarf vollstaendig mittels erneuerbarer Quellen zu decken. Die Orientierung dazu liefert Jeremy Rifkins Idee der dritten industriellen Revolution. Im Erfolgsfall laege die Region beim Klimaschutz deutlich vor den nationalen Zielen, die bis 2050 ''nur'' eine CO{sub 2}-Emissionsreduktion von 75 % vorsehen. Neben der Forschung und Entwicklung (F and E) zu vielen Zukunftsideen werden in Hauts-de-France aber auch einige Grossprojekte zur Absicherung der europaeischen Energieversorgung realisiert, die Ausweis der dortigen Agilitaet sind.

  15. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  16. Wartime Paris, cirrhosis mortality, and the ceteris paribus assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Roizen, Ron; Farrell, Michael; Kerr, William; Lemmens, Paul

    2002-07-01

    This article critiques the ceteris paribus assumption, which tacitly sustains the epidemiologic literature's inference that the sharp decline in cirrhosis mortality observed in Paris during the Second World War derived from a sharp constriction in wine consumption. Paris's wartime circumstances deviate substantially from the "all else being equal" assumption, and at least three other hypotheses for the cirrhosis decline may be contemplated. Historical and statistical review. Wartime Paris underwent tumultuous changes. Wine consumption did decline, but there were, as well, a myriad of other changes in diet and life experience, many involving new or heightened hardships, nutritional, experiential, institutional, health and mortality risks. Three competing hypotheses are presented: (1) A fraction of the candidates for cirrhosis mortality may have fallen to more sudden forms of death; (2) alcoholics, heavy drinkers and Paris's clochard subpopulation may have been differentially likely to become removed from the city's wartime population, whether by self-initiated departure, arrest and deportation, or death from other causes, even murder; and (3) there was mismeasurement in the cirrhosis mortality decline. The alcohol-cirrhosis connection provided the template for the alcohol research effort (now more than 20 years old) aimed at re-establishing scientific recognition of alcohol's direct alcohol-problems-generating associations and causal responsibilities. In a time given to reports of weaker associations of the alcohol-cirrhosis connection, the place and importance of the Paris curve in the wider literature, as regards that connection, remains. For this reason, the Paris findings should be subjected to as much research scrutiny as they undoubtedly deserve.

  17. Comparison of two numerical modelling approaches to a field experiment of unsaturated radon transport in a covered uranium mill tailings soil (Lavaugrasse, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadi, Zakaria; Guillevic, Jerome [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SEDRAN/BRN, 31 avenue de la Division Leclerc, B.P. 17, 92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    Uncertainties on the mathematical modelling of radon transport in an unsaturated covered uranium mill tailings (UMT) soil at field scale can have a great impact on the estimation of the average measured radon flux to the atmosphere at the landfill cover, which must be less than the threshold value 0.74 Bq.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}recommended by the federal standard (EPA 40 CFR 192). These uncertainties are usually attributed to the numerical errors from the numerical schemes dealing with soil layering and to inadequate representations of the modelling of physical processes at the soil/plant/atmosphere interface and of the soil hydraulic and transport properties, as well as their parameterization. In this work, we compare one-dimensional simulation results from two numerical models of two-phase (water-air) porous media flow and radon transport to the data of radon activity exhalation flux and depth-volumetric concentration measured during a field campaign from June to November of 1999 in a two-layered soil of 1.3 m thickness (i.e., cover material/UMT: 0.5/0.8 m) of an experimental pond located at the Lavaugrasse UMT-landfill site (France). The first numerical modelling approach is a coupled finite volume compositional (i.e., water, radon, air) transport model (TOUGH2/EOS7Rn code, Saadi et al., 2013), while the second one is a decoupled finite difference one-component (i.e., radon) transport model (TRACI code, Ferry et al., 2001). Transient simulations during six month of hourly rainfall and atmospheric pressure variations showed that calculations from the one-component transport model usually overestimate both measured radon exhalation flux and depth-concentration. However, considering the effective unsaturated pore air-component diffusivity to be different from that of the radon-component in the compositional transport model allowed to significantly enhancing the modelling of these radon experimental data. The time-averaged radon flux calculated by EOS7Rn (3.42 Bq

  18. [Are schizophrenic patients being told their diagnosis today in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Kovess-Masféty, V

    2017-04-01

    diagnosis announcement, as psycho-education programs have shown their efficiency and usefulness for both patients and relatives. Finally, in order to overcome some of the difficulties related to breaking the bad news about a schizophrenia diagnosis, developing the existing Anglo-Saxon models and recommendations in France, where only very few protocols exist, could allow a positive evolution in clinical practice and help to set a therapeutic and partnering approach of diagnosis disclosure. However, in order to better understand the situation in France regarding schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure, the present state of clinical practice still remains to be analyzed precisely, as the last study on a relatively large sample was made only in 1999. Thus, the obvious limits of our study lie in the fact that most available surveys in France are not recent enough to have taken into account legal and social evolutions. Also, the studies that we used for this paper use different methodologies, in the majority focus solely on health professionals, and they are not representative enough in terms of size or sample to inform about the present state of the practice. As a conclusion, having stressed the lack of recent data about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure in France, we suggest a new study using validated tools on a representative sample and taking into account both perceptions of psychiatrist and patient. As has been the case for other severe pathologies, we also suggest that a consensus conference take place on the subject of schizophrenia diagnostic information in order to elaborate guidelines to support this difficult disclosure. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization and modeling of natural tracers' transfers through the argillites of Tournemire (France); Caracterisation et modelisation des transferts de traceurs naturels dans les argilites de Tournemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patriarche, D

    2001-09-13

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is investigating the argillaceous formation of Tournemire (France) as a methodological underground laboratory for conducting research on the feasibility of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in argilites. Because of the very low water content and hydraulic conductivity of the argilites, the migration through this media should be very low. The fluid flow regime and transport have been studied using natural tracers from the interstitial water. The deuterium and chloride of interstitial water have been chosen for their conservative behavior. After the development of a protocol for the chloride extraction from the water, and tests on the vacuum distillation method for the water extraction from the rock, systematic data acquisition has been performed on the argillaceous sequence of the massif and near the fracture areas. Both chloride and deuterium profiles suggest that transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale. But the profiles show an enrichment in delta D and delta {sup 18}O of the interstitial solution in the area of one meter adjacent to a fracture compared to pore water of samples located at further distance. Therefore, these observations are suggesting that a second process could generate specific transfers, at the vicinity of faults. The hypothesis of the molecular diffusion as a dominant process for transport was successfully tested using a transport model, over periods of several tenth of millions years, taking into account geodynamical features of the region (such as tectonic and induced faults), and assuming that some variations of the tracer concentrations at the system boundaries occurred during the major climate-change periods. Even if tracers' transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale, they are or should have been affected by a second process causing heterogeneity of concentrations at the vicinity of faults. This process involves either, intrusion of salted

  20. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  1. Assessment of Public Health and Economic Impact of Intranasal Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccination of Children in France Using a Dynamic Transmission Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlier, L; Lamotte, M; Grenèche, S; Lenne, X; Carrat, F; Weil-Olivier, C; Damm, O; Schwehm, M; Eichner, M

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the epidemiological and economic impact of extending the French influenza vaccination programme from at-risk/elderly (≥65 years) only to healthy children (2-17 years). A deterministic, age-structured, dynamic transmission model was used to simulate the transmission of influenza in the French population, using the current vaccination coverage with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in at-risk/elderly individuals (current strategy) or gradually extending the vaccination to healthy children (aged 2-17 years) with intranasal, quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (QLAIV) from current uptake up to 50% (evaluated strategy). Epidemiological, medical resource use and cost data were taken from international literature and country-specific information. The model was calibrated to the observed numbers of influenza-like illness visits/year. The 10-year number of symptomatic cases of confirmed influenza and direct medical costs ('all-payer') were calculated for the 0-17- (direct and indirect effects) and ≥18-year-old (indirect effect). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated for the total population, using a 4% discount rate/year. Assuming 2.3 million visits/year and 1960 deaths/year, the model calibration yielded an all-year average basic reproduction number (R 0 ) of 1.27. In the population aged 0-17 years, QLAIV prevented 865,000 influenza cases/year (58.4%), preventing 10-year direct medical expenses of €374 million. In those aged ≥18 years with unchanged TIV coverage, 1.2 million cases/year were averted (27.6%) via indirect effects (additionally prevented expenses, €457 million). On average, 613 influenza-related deaths were averted annually overall. The ICER was €18,001/life-year gained. The evaluated strategy had a 98% probability of being cost-effective at a €31,000/life-year gained threshold. The model demonstrated strong direct and indirect benefits of protecting healthy children against influenza with

  2. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  3. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Chestnoy; Dinara Gershinkova

    2017-01-01

    In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in address...

  4. The roles of resuspension, diffusion and biogeochemical processes on oxygen dynamics offshore of the Rhône River, France: a numerical modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Julia M.; Harris, Courtney K.; Fennel, Katja; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Xu, Kehui; Rabouille, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Observations indicate that resuspension and associated fluxes of organic material and porewater between the seabed and overlying water can alter biogeochemical dynamics in some environments, but measuring the role of sediment processes on oxygen and nutrient dynamics is challenging. A modeling approach offers a means of quantifying these fluxes for a range of conditions, but models have typically relied on simplifying assumptions regarding seabed-water-column interactions. Thus, to evaluate the role of resuspension on biogeochemical dynamics, we developed a coupled hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and biogeochemical model (HydroBioSed) within the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). This coupled model accounts for processes including the storage of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved nutrients within the seabed; fluxes of this material between the seabed and the water column via erosion, deposition, and diffusion at the sediment-water interface; and biogeochemical reactions within the seabed. A one-dimensional version of HydroBioSed was then implemented for the Rhône subaqueous delta in France. To isolate the role of resuspension on biogeochemical dynamics, this model implementation was run for a 2-month period that included three resuspension events; also, the supply of organic matter, oxygen, and nutrients to the model was held constant in time. Consistent with time series observations from the Rhône Delta, model results showed that erosion increased the diffusive flux of oxygen into the seabed by increasing the vertical gradient of oxygen at the seabed-water interface. This enhanced supply of oxygen to the seabed, as well as resuspension-induced increases in ammonium availability in surficial sediments, allowed seabed oxygen consumption to increase via nitrification. This increase in nitrification compensated for the decrease in seabed oxygen consumption due to aerobic remineralization that occurred as organic matter was entrained into the water

  5. Gerard Larguier, Artist, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larguier, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) has been pursuing a study of collective memory, based on its experience with the Manche disposal facility. In 2010 - in response to the project Centre industriel de stockage geologique (Cigeo), its concomitant need to preserve collective memory of the site for at least 500 years, and public demand - Andra launched an initiative to ensure that future generations do not forget about the existence of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Pursuing its investigations in this area, Andra has led theoretical enquiries that consider art as a possible vehicle of collective memory. Memory is often found between parentheses that do not overload the spirit but enclose it in rules that facilitate forgetting... which is a vanity of the present moment. The past must always have the role of providing future ferment. And then the transfer occurs that can open up to history. Born in 1938, Gerard Larguier began working in 1956 with the renowned poster artist Paul Colin of Nancy before going on to study at the Beaux-Arts in Paris and Academie Julian. He has worked at his studio in the Bateau Lavoir in Paris since 1979 as well as Bonnet's former presbytery in the Meuse since 1973. Using both materials and relief, he has exhibited his artwork at leading institutions around the world. Since 1998, he has taken up the theme of memory in his works 'Chronique du XXeme siecle', 'Autodafes et palimpsestes' and his series 'A saute-souvenances'. He has also tackled the evolution of artwork over the centuries in a series of fifty works entitled 'Les chefs-d'oeuvre revisites'. In 2008, Gerard Larguier completed a fresco commissioned by Andra on the local heritage and environment of the Bure Laboratory. In 2010, the municipality of Soulaines d'Huys commissioned a fresco of the history of the town from the sixteenth century to the present using the archives of

  6. Integrated geophysical and geological modelling: insights in the 3D structure and kinematics of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, Ph.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    Using the Editeur Géologique, a software specifically developed for the purpose of 3D geological modelling by the French Geological Survey (BRGM), we model a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe, in Champtoceaux area (Brittany, western France). The area shows exposures of strongly deformed eclogite-bearing gneisses and micaschists. These units were stacked during collision and exhumed during late Devonian to early Carboniferous times. Regional-scale dextral simple shear accompanied strike-slip movements along the SASZ (South Armorican Shear Zone). It produced a km-scale antiformal structure in the Champtoceaux metamorphic units with a steeply-dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward-plunging axis. Interpretation of the recent Armor2 seismic profile shows that the well-recognized north-dipping early lithological structuration is cross-cut by Carboniferous south-dipping inverse tectonics of crustal extension. In order to precise and extend in 3D the structures interpreted in the seismic profile, we model seven radial gravity profiles throughout Champtoceaux periclinal termination, based on data from the French gravity database. Direct 2D modelling is performed at a crustal scale, based on seismic constraints and geological field observations, as well as density measurements on samples or in drill holes. Input in the Editeur Géologique, the consistency of cross-sections, digitized geological map and structural information (foliation dips) is first checked. From the surface to the Moho, available spatialised 2D information is then interpolated in the whole 3D space using adapted geostatistical analysis. Finally, taking into account densities associated to each modelled geological body, the computation of the 3D gravity effect of the model is compared to the measured Bouguer anomaly, which insures that all complex 3D gravity effects are well taken into account. Results emphasise the usefulness of integrated geological and geophysical 3D modelling

  7. Assessment by regional modelling of the impact of monopile foundations on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport: case of Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Offshore monopile foundations of wind turbines modify hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local scale and also at regional scale. The aim of this work is to assess these changes and to parametrize them in a regional model. These modifications were previously evaluated using the regional circulation model MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008) in tests-cases (Rivier et al., 2014) using two approaches: in the first approach, monopiles are explicitly modelled in the mesh as dry cells and in the second approach a sub-grid parametrization which considers the drag force exerted by a monopile on the flow is used. The sub-grid parametrization is improved close to the bed in this paper by adding a drag force term in the momentum equations, source terms in the turbulence model and by increasing the bed shear stress at monopile location. Changes in hydrodynamics regime, especially near-bed, affect sediment transport regime and modifications due to monopiles on sediment dynamics is also investigated using the MARS3D sediment transport module (Le Hir et al., 2011) which solves the advection-diffusion equations. Test-cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France) where an offshore wind farm is planned to be built. Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and bed thickness changes due to the monopile simulated by both approaches are compared to each other and to experimental measurements made in a flume at the University of Caen or to published data (e.g. Roulund et al., 2005; Dargahi,1989). Then the model is applied in a real configuration on an area including the future offshore wind farm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed along a tidal cycle. Currents increase at the side edge of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream the monopile. Turbulent kinetic

  8. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  9. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  10. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  11. Planeteria: news from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Acker, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-10-01

    France has a good network of planetaria. They are linked through a network called Association of the French Speaking Planetaria. In this talk, I will present this organization and its different activities. I will also report on the making of a Art and Science museum in Grenoble which will include a planetarium. The grand opening is foreseen in 2014. Finally, I will present an astronomical show which has been adapted for planetaria and demonstrate how this benefits both to the show and the planetarium.

  12. An office building of Paris city air-conditioned by an aquifer-source heat pump; Un immeuble parisien climatise par une thermofrigopompe sur nappe phreatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-09-01

    A 7000 m{sup 2} office building of Paris (France) is equipped with an aquifer-source heat pump for the space heating and cooling. This choice allows to save 28400 euros of heating/cooling expenses each year with respect to other solutions. The equipment ensures also the production of hot and chilled water and the calories recovered from the refrigeration system are used to supply the space heating needs of the building. This paper describes the equipments (heat pump, heat exchangers, ventilation-convection systems), the centralized control system and the cost-benefit aspects. (J.S.)

  13. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  14. Polyp Morphology: An Interobserver Evaluation for the Paris Classification Among International Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Hazewinkel, Y.; East, James E.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Rastogi, Amit; Pellisé, Maria; Sanduleanu-Dascalescu, Silvia; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Paris classification is an international classification system for describing polyp morphology. Thus far, the validity and reproducibility of this classification have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the interobserver agreement for the Paris classification among seven Western

  15. Mael-e(st-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mée, Mael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A performance of Mael Le Mée and France Geoffroy Photos and videos (France: Denis Louis Photo (Montreal: Alexandre Cv France Geoffroy’s assistant: Rosalie Chrétien Production: Espace Projet and Dorsa Barlow Performance co-developed within the project BIOGRAPHIES, with the support of CNC – DICRéAM, Aquitaine Regional Council and the City of Bordeaux.

  16. Gas de France international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the main international objectives of Gaz de France, and actions taken to achieve them. The safety and the reliability of natural gas supplies is the priority-holder axis of the international strategy of Gaz de France. The second axis is to obtain a consolidated position in Europe on natural gas markets and valorize the know-how of Gaz de France in foreign countries

  17. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of {sup 137}CS in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, avenue de la Terrasse, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of {sup 137}Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of {sup 137}Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout {sup 137}Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the {sup 134}Cs activity for estimating {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137}Cs /{sup 134}Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare {sup 137}Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this {sup 137}Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their {sup 137}Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m{sup 2} 10 m{sup 2} or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the {sup 137}Cs fallout. The

  18. Soviet-France cooperative study of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vsekhvsyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Ivanchuk, V.I.; Popov, O.S.; Rubo, G.A.; Kuchmij, S.; Kuchmij, O.; Shtel'makher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The study continues the investigations on the solar corona performed according to the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''The white corona dynamics'' during total solar eclipses on July 10 1972 and June 30, 1973 by the expeditions of Kiev University and Paris Astrophysical Institute. The results of the study of eclipse negatives obtained on June 30 1973 in Africa are given. On the basis of new methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5sup(m) as the photometry standards it has been found with high accuracy the distribution of the total corona brightness up to r approximately equal to 4.5 Rsub(S) and its K- and F-corona components for E and N directions. Neither color effect nor flattening is found in the dust component (r -6 Esub(S)

  19. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  20. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68 respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle

  1. Withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement hurts the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoff, Jason

    2017-09-01

    The Trump administration's domestic plans would have curtailed the nation's climate action even if it had stayed in the Paris Agreement. Yet, the decision to leave the agreement undermines US international energy and climate leadership and the prospects of ramping up global climate policy ambition.

  2. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the

  3. The impact of the US retreat from the Paris Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, Jonathan; McGee, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, Tim; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I.

    2017-01-01

    The United States’ decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement (pending possible re-engagement under different terms) may have significant ramifications for international climate policy, but the implications of this decision remain contested. This commentary illustrates how comparative analysis

  4. What does the Paris Agreement mean for adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Maillet, Michelle; Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement takes a significant step forward in strengthening the adaptation pillar of global climate policy. By widening the normative framing around adaptation, calling for stronger adaptation commitments from states, being explicit about the multilevel nature of adaptation governance, and

  5. Artificial radioactive products in the atmosphere at Paris. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J; Venet, A M

    1952-01-01

    The radioactivity of solid matter in rain water and air collected near Paris in November 1951, and in April and May 1952, follows the same decay law as that observed for fission products after a nuclear detonation in Nevada in November 1951.

  6. Retracted: Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on seconddegree burns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... This article previously published in Volume 15 Issue 10 of this journal in October 2016 has been retracted in line with the guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines). Retracted: Ma Z, Yin W, Hu G, Zhu Z, Huang Z. Effect of Paris polyphylla ...

  7. The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and Carbon Markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.

  8. The Magic Factory: How MGM Made "An American in Paris."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Donald

    This book covers the aesthetic and production aspects of the 1951 musical film, "An American in Paris," through interviews with many of the production specialists who helped make this motion picture. The film represents the genre of the color Hollywood musical. It was the winner of six Academy Awards, featured a major star and a developing star,…

  9. Creating to understand – developmental biology meets engineering in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicheva, Anna; Rivron, Nicolas C.

    2017-01-01

    In November 2016, developmental biologists, synthetic biologists and engineers gathered in Paris for a meeting called ‘Engineering the embryo’. The participants shared an interest in exploring how synthetic systems can reveal new principles of embryonic development, and how the in vitro manipulation

  10. Paris polyphylla extract inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Paris polyphylla extract (PPE) on proliferation and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. Methods: Morphological changes were examined by microscopy in A549 cells after exposure to PPE. Trypan blue staining of living cells was used to aid the construction of the cell growth curve ...

  11. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  12. Graph Theory in Paris : Conference in Memory of Claude Berge

    CERN Document Server

    Fonlupt, Jean; Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Alfonsín, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, a conference on graph theory was held in Paris in memory of Claude Berge, one of the pioneers of the field. The event brought together many prominent specialists on topics, such as perfect graphs and matching theory, upon which Claude Berge's work has had a major impact. This volume includes contributions to these and other topics from many of the participants.

  13. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  14. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  15. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  16. Les arts en France autour de 1400. Création artistique, questions iconographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Russo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Durant le printemps et l’été 2004, cinq grandes expositions ont montré la très grande richesse des arts en France, sous le règne de Charles VI (1368-1422, roi de 1380 à 1422, et d’Isabeau de Bavière (1371-1435, reine de 1385 à 1435. Une forte insistance fut mise sur le foyer parisien (Paris 1400. Les arts sous Charles VI, musée du Louvre, Paris, 22 mars-12 juillet, sous le commissariat d’Élisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, mais aussi, et ce fut une grande originalité, sur les principaux foyers sit...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of routine varicella vaccination using the measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine in France: an economic analysis based on a dynamic transmission model for varicella and herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Kavi J; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Sauboin, Christophe; Tehard, Bertrand; Alain, Sophie; Denis, François

    2015-04-01

    Each year in France, varicella and zoster affect large numbers of children and adults, resulting in medical visits, hospitalizations for varicella- and zoster-related complications, and societal costs. Disease prevention by varicella vaccination is feasible, wherein a plausible option involves replacing the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine with the combined MMR and varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This study aimed to: (1) assess the cost-effectiveness of adding routine varicella vaccination through MMRV, using different vaccination strategies in France; and (2) address key uncertainties, such as the economic consequences of breakthrough varicella cases, the waning of vaccine-conferred protection, vaccination coverage, and indirect costs. Based on the outputs of a dynamic transmission model that used data on epidemiology and costs from France, a cost-effectiveness model was built. A conservative approach was taken regarding the impact of varicella vaccination on zoster incidence by assuming the validity of the hypothesis of an age-specific boosting of immunity against varicella. The model determined that routine MMRV vaccination is expected to be a cost-effective option, considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of €20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year saved; routine vaccination was cost-saving from the societal perspective. Results were driven by a large decrease in varicella incidence despite a temporary initial increase in the number of zoster cases due to the assumption of exogenous boosting. In the scenario analyses, despite moderate changes in assumptions about incidence and costs, varicella vaccination remained a cost-effective option for France. Routine vaccination with MMRV was associated with high gains in quality-adjusted life-years, substantial reduction in the occurrences of varicella- and zoster-related complications, and few deaths due to varicella. Routine MMRV vaccination is also expected to provide reductions in costs related to

  18. Integrated modeling of agricultural scenarios (IMAS) to support pesticide action plans: the case of the Coulonge drinking water catchment area (SW France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Françoise; Leccia-Phelpin, Odile; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Minette, Sébastien; Miralles, André; Barberis, Delphine; Scordia, Charlotte; Kuentz-Simonet, Vanessa; Tonneau, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    -economic conditions for developing alternative agricultural systems or targeting mitigation measures. Our integrated assessment of these scenarios combines the calculation of spatialized environmental indicators with integrated bio-economic modeling. The latter is achieved by a combined use of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modeling with our own purpose-built land use generator module (Generator of Land Use version 2 (GenLU2)) and an economic model developed using General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for cost-effectiveness assessment. This integrated approach is applied to two embedded catchment areas (total area of 360,000 ha) within the Charente river basin (SW France). Our results show that it is possible to differentiate scenarios based on their effectiveness, represented by either evolution of pressure (agro-environmental indicators) or transport into waters (pesticide concentrations). By analyzing the implementation costs borne by farmers, it is possible to identify the most cost-effective scenarios at sub-basin and other aggregated levels (WFD hydrological entities, sensitive areas). Relevant results and indicators are fed into a specifically designed database. Data warehousing is used to provide analyses and outputs at all thematic, temporal, or spatial aggregated levels, defined by the stakeholders (type of crops, herbicides, WFD areas, years), using Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing (SOLAP) tools. The aim of this approach is to allow public policy makers to make more informed and reasoned decisions when managing sensitive areas and/or implementing mitigation measures.

  19. Considering the Creation of a Domestic Intelligence Agency in the United States: Lessons from the Experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    National Infrastructure. CSIS—see Canadian Security Intelligence Service. Dard, Olivier, “L’OAS: Histoire d’un Refus,” Guerre d’Algérie, Vol. 8, June...Faligot, Jean Guisnel, and Rémi Kauffer, eds., Histoire Secrète de la Ve République, Paris: La Découverte, 2006a, pp. 394–399. ———, “La France Complice...ou Otage de la Seconde Guerre d’Algérie?” in Roger Faligot, Jean Guisnel, and Rémi Kauffer, eds., Histoire Secrète de la Ve République, Paris: La

  20. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  1. High-resolution inventory of NO emissions from agricultural soils over the Ile-de-France region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, M.-N. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Gabrielle, B., E-mail: Benoit.Gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Laville, P.; Cellier, P. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Beekmann, M. [Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques - CNRS, Universites Paris-Est and Paris 7, F-94 010 Creteil (France); Gilliot, J.-M.; Michelin, J.; Hadjar, D. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Curci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica - CETEMPS, Universita' degli Studi dell' Aquila, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Arable soils are a significant source of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, and thereby contribute to ozone pollution. However, their actual impact on ozone formation is strongly related to their spatial and temporal emission patterns, which warrant high-resolution estimates. Here, we combined an agro-ecosystem model and geo-referenced databases to map these sources over the 12 000 km{sup 2} administrative region surrounding Paris, France, with a kilometric level resolution. The six most frequent arable crop species were simulated, with emission rates ranging from 1.4 kg N-NO ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to 11.1 kg N-NO ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The overall emission factor for fertilizer-derived NO emissions was 1.7%, while background emissions contributed half of the total NO efflux. Emissions were strongly seasonal, being highest in spring due to fertilizer inputs. They were mostly sensitive to soil type, crops' growing season and fertilizer N rates. - The use of an agro-ecosystem model at regional scale makes it possible to map the emissions of nitric oxide from arable soils at a resolution compatible with tropospheric ozone models.

  2. New Maids and Caretakers in Paris?: The Reactivation of Transnational Social Fields of Spanish Emigration Following the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Oso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the migration of Spanish women to France following the 2008 economic crisis, considering the reactivation of the transnational social fields that have been built up between the two countries over the years. It reveals how the recession has led to a renewal of the gender-based labour niches filled by women emigrating to Paris in the period between 1950 and 1970 (bonnes à tout faire or maid, domestic workers, caretakers and cleaners, stemming from the reactivation of transnational fields built up through social networks woven by the various migratory trends. It provides an insight into the way these transnational fields are linked to global production and reproduction chains in terms of the patriarchal reorganisation of the labour market and workforce. It concludes that the economic crisis has reinforced traditional social reproduction channels rooted in gender-based sources of employment.

  3. Major bleeding complications in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: One-year observational study in a Paris Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, L; Konan, M; Hij, A; Goldwirt, L; Peyrony, O; Fieux, F; Faure, P; Madelaine, I; Villiers, S; Farge-Bancel, D; Frère, C

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DAOC) are indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given their advantages and friendly use for patient, the prescription of long term DOAC therapy has rapidly increased both as first line treatment while initiating anticoagulation and as a substitute to vitamins K antagonist (VKA) in poorly controlled patients. However, DOAC therapy can also be associated with significant bleeding complications, and in the absence of specific antidote at disposal, treatment of serious hemorrhagic complications under DOAC remains complex. We report and discuss herein five cases of major hemorrhagic complications under DOAC, which were reported to the pharmacological surveillance department over one year at Saint-Louis University Hospital (Paris, France). We further discuss the need for careful assessment of the risk/benefit ratio at time of starting DOAC therapy in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Key figures on climate France, Europe and Worldwide. Edition 2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2018 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Bonn from 6 to 17 November 2017. This latest version was updated relative to the 2017 edition. New data sources have been used for emissions factors and the part on the carbon footprint was further developed. The part on climate policies notably deals with the Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Several data sets, displayed in graphs in this document are also available in tables on the web version. Content: 1 - What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. 2 - Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. 3 - How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. 4 - What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. 5 - Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  5. Key figures on climate France and Worldwide - 2017 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baude, Manuel; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Duvernoy, Jerome; Vailles, Charlotte; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Hiblot, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    In line with previous years, the 2017 edition of 'Key figures on climate' has been written in the context of the 22. Conference of the Parties on Climate Change (COP 22) held in Marrakech from 7 to 18 November 2016. This latest version, published as part of the new 'datalab' collection of the General commission for sustainable development was updated and expanded relative to the 2016 edition. New data sources have been used for the part on global CO_2 emissions. The part on climate policies was further developed, and notably deals with the Paris agreement adopted in December 2015 at COP 21. Moreover, the analysis of climate finance (current climate investments and climate finance needs) has been expanded. About the form, and with a goal of simplification, some data previously displayed in both a graph and a table is now presented only in a graph. Content: Part 1: What is climate change? This part summarizes the scientific basis of climate change, including indicators, causes and possible consequences of global warming. Part 2: Which amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted globally? The focus here is on the most relevant data related to global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, in particular the geographic distribution of these emissions. Part 3: How much greenhouse gas is emitted in Europe and in France? A complete overview of GHG emissions statistics in Europe and in France is presented in this part as well as estimates of the carbon footprint of French people. Part 4: What is the sectoral distribution of GHG emissions in Europe and in France? This part features the detailed evolution since 1990 of GHG emissions in the following economic sectors: energy sector, transports, industry, residential and tertiary, agriculture, forestry, land use and waste management. Part 5: Which climate policies in the world, in Europe and in France? The main climate policies are described at each level: global, European and French

  6. PARIS project: Radiolytic oxidation of molecular iodine in containment during a nuclear reactor severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosland, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR - CEN Cadarache, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: loic.bosland@irsn.fr; Funke, F. [AREVA NP GmbH, Technical Center, P.O. Box 1109, D-91001 Erlangen (Germany); Girault, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR - CEN Cadarache, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Langrock, G. [AREVA NP GmbH, Technical Center, P.O. Box 1109, D-91001 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear LWR (light water reactor), the high radiation fields reached in the reactor containment building due to the release of fission products from the reactor core could induce air radiolysis. The air radiolysis products could, in turn, oxidise gaseous molecular iodine into aerosol-borne iodine-oxygen-nitrogen compounds. Thereby, this reaction involves a change of iodine speciation and a decrease of iodine volatility in the reactor containment atmosphere. Kinetic data were produced within the PARIS project on the air radiolysis products formation and destruction, and on their reaction with molecular iodine, with the objective of developing and validating existing kinetic models. The current paper includes the non-iodine tests of the PARIS project whose objective was to determine the rates of formation and destruction of air radiolysis products in the presence of both structural containment surfaces (decontamination coating ('paint') and stainless steel), aerosol particles such as silver rich particles (issued from the control rods) in boundary conditions representative for LWR or PHEBUS facility containments. It is found that the air radiolysis products concentration increases with dose and tend to approach saturation levels at doses higher than about 1 kGy. This behaviour is more evident in oxygen/steam atmospheres, producing ozone, than in air/30% (v/v) steam atmospheres, the latter favouring the model-predicted on-going production of nitrogen dioxide even at very high doses. No significant effect of temperature, dose rate and hydrogen addition (4%, v/v) was observed. Furthermore, the inserted surfaces do not exhibit significant effects on the air radiolysis concentrations. However, these 'non-noticeable influence' could be due to a masking of small effects by the appreciable scattering of the experimental air radiolysis product concentrations. The PARIS results are then analysed using two

  7. PARIS project: Radiolytic oxidation of molecular iodine in containment during a nuclear reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosland, L.; Funke, F.; Girault, N.; Langrock, G.

    2008-01-01

    In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear LWR (light water reactor), the high radiation fields reached in the reactor containment building due to the release of fission products from the reactor core could induce air radiolysis. The air radiolysis products could, in turn, oxidise gaseous molecular iodine into aerosol-borne iodine-oxygen-nitrogen compounds. Thereby, this reaction involves a change of iodine speciation and a decrease of iodine volatility in the reactor containment atmosphere. Kinetic data were produced within the PARIS project on the air radiolysis products formation and destruction, and on their reaction with molecular iodine, with the objective of developing and validating existing kinetic models. The current paper includes the non-iodine tests of the PARIS project whose objective was to determine the rates of formation and destruction of air radiolysis products in the presence of both structural containment surfaces (decontamination coating ('paint') and stainless steel), aerosol particles such as silver rich particles (issued from the control rods) in boundary conditions representative for LWR or PHEBUS facility containments. It is found that the air radiolysis products concentration increases with dose and tend to approach saturation levels at doses higher than about 1 kGy. This behaviour is more evident in oxygen/steam atmospheres, producing ozone, than in air/30% (v/v) steam atmospheres, the latter favouring the model-predicted on-going production of nitrogen dioxide even at very high doses. No significant effect of temperature, dose rate and hydrogen addition (4%, v/v) was observed. Furthermore, the inserted surfaces do not exhibit significant effects on the air radiolysis concentrations. However, these 'non-noticeable influence' could be due to a masking of small effects by the appreciable scattering of the experimental air radiolysis product concentrations. The PARIS results are then analysed using two different kinetic models

  8. The C'JAAD: a French team for early intervention in psychosis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppetit, Alice; Bourgin, Julie; Martinez, Gilles; Kazes, Mathilde; Mam-Lam-Fook, Célia; Gaillard, Raphael; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2018-04-01

    The aim is to describe a centre operating in Paris that pioneers the early intervention for young people at the onset and at high risk of psychosis in France. Comprehensive descriptive analysis of different clinical and service measures is used in describing the implementation of the C'JAAD (Evaluation Centre for Young Adults and Adolescents) using data from an ongoing prospective non-interventional research programme. Over a 2-year period, 151 patients were referred to the C'JAAD and included in the ICAAR research programme. After evaluation by the Comprehensive Assessment of the At-Risk Mental States Scale, 53.7% were identified at risk of developing a psychosis, 20.6% presented a full-blown psychosis and 25.7% were considered not at risk of developing a psychosis. A total of 84% of the at-risk subjects suffered from a psychiatric co-morbidity, of which anxiodepressive symptoms being the most frequent (39%). The global functioning of these at-risk subjects was seriously impaired (average Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale score = 48.9). More than one third of the patients was self-referred (33.8%), 22.5% were addressed by a psychiatrist whereas 10.6% were referred by a general practitioner. In this paper, we report for the first time the activities of the C'JAAD, the pioneer unit in France for early detection and treatment of young adults with early psychosis. These observations indicate that such early intervention centre is a feasible and sustainable extension of traditional care for people with mental disorders in this country and offers promising perspective for the development of further centres. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Organic market gardening around the Paris agglomeration: agro-environmental performance and capacity to meet urban requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, Juliette; Medina, Michael Ramos; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette

    2016-05-04

    Organic market gardening is often promoted by urban municipalities as a way to resource part of the food supply, creating new social links and protecting groundwater resources. The agronomical and environmental performance of six commercial organic market gardening farms supplying vegetables in Paris were evaluated and compared with other vegetable production systems. When expressed in terms of protein production, the yield of these systems appears rather low compared with the productive capacity of open-field organic cropping systems where vegetable production is inserted into rotation with other crops. Moreover, the requirement of producing infiltrated water meeting the drinking water standards seriously limits the allowable rate of fertilisation, thus limiting production. The data reported herein show that to supply the amount of vegetables required by the Paris agglomeration (12 million inhabitants) only by organic market gardening, 160,000-205,000 ha, i.e. 28-36 % of the agricultural area of the surrounding Ile-de-France region, would be required. We conclude that organic market gardening is only one of several other farming systems which can contribute to a re-localised supply of vegetables to large cities.

  10. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after "Paris": an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Bregman, Bram; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2018-02-01

    In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these targets, it is important to know how GMST has progressed since pre-industrial times. However, the Paris Agreement is not conclusive as regards methods to calculate it. Should trend progression be deduced from GCM simulations or from instrumental records by (statistical) trend methods? Which simulations or GMST datasets should be chosen, and which trend models? What is pre-industrial and, finally, are the Paris targets formulated for total warming, originating from both natural and anthropogenic forcing, or do they refer to anthropogenic warming only? To find answers to these questions we performed an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis where datasets and model choices have been varied. For all cases we evaluated trend progression along with uncertainty information. To do so, we analysed four trend approaches and applied these to the five leading observational GMST products. We find GMST progression to be largely independent of various trend model approaches. However, GMST progression is significantly influenced by the choice of GMST datasets. Uncertainties due to natural variability are largest in size. As a parallel path, we calculated GMST progression from an ensemble of 42 GCM simulations. Mean progression derived from GCM-based GMSTs appears to lie in the range of trend-dataset combinations. A difference between both approaches appears to be the width of uncertainty bands: GCM simulations show a much wider spread. Finally, we discuss various choices for pre-industrial baselines and the role of warming definitions. Based on these findings we propose an estimate for signal progression in GMSTs since pre-industrial.

  11. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year...

  12. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  13. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  14. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  15. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  16. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  17. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  18. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  19. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  20. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  1. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  2. Energy in France. References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet is a compilation of key data about the energy in France: energy and economy (energy industries and gross internal product, employment, investments), overall energies (primary energy production and consumption, sectoral consumption, energy bill, price of imported crude oil), petroleum (primary production, sectoral consumption of refined petroleum products, automotive fuels demand, import and export of petroleum products), natural gas (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of origin), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports), electric power (production per origin, classical thermal production per type of fuel, sectoral consumption), renewable energies (overall production, heat networks supplied with non-conventional energy sources, wood consumption, wind power production, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, cumulated energy saving), energy prices (in industries and households, automotive fuel prices, energy consumptions in households), energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). A synthesis of the main energy tariffs and prices is given in a separate folder. (J.S.)

  3. Jaromir Krejcar, technique’s apology. Czechoslovak pavilion at the International Exhibition, Paris 1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pura Moreno Moreno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available L'Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans les Temps Modernes in Paris (1937 offered, across the construction of their pavilions to each country the opportunity to materialize their technological progress and also to show socio-political factors referred to the art’s integration or aesthetic formalization of their ideologies. In the Czechoslovakian pavilion, made by the architect Jaromir Krejcar, crystallized architectural postulates from the purism, cubism, and new objectivity close to technical aspects driven by the russian constructivism that had been developed during the first decades of the twentieth century in the architecture of the new Czech Republic. Its geographical location, at the crossroads of Europe, had favored the knowledge of avant-garde movements of its two flanks: the Eastern Europe –France, Germany, Austria and Netherlands— on one hand, and the other the Soviet Union. This article will recognize the architectural thought of Krejcar’s generation across the decisions of the pavilion’s project. The characteristics of its emplacement, combined with the moral obligation of showing the high technological level of his country, managed to place it as one of the best examples of that exhibition. Its materialization represent the culmination of previous architectural researches in Czechoslovakia that were truncated from 1939 by the political circumstances.

  4. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  5. Evaluation and monitoring of an household waste incineration plant in Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, A.; Le Moullec, Y.; Gilibert, E.

    1995-01-01

    Urban population is more and more concerned by air quality and waste disposal. In Paris Area, municipal waste are incinerated in three large plants all equipped with gas cleaning systems, except one that will be equipped in June 1995. It appeared interesting to characterize and evaluate the impact of this incinerator on ambient air quality in an area where other sources interfere. An sampling campaign was set up on six sites of AIRPARIF (ile de France Air Quality Monitoring Network). Nitrogen oxides. Sulphur dioxide and black smokes are measured in continuously. Other pollutants, considered more specific of waste incineration plants were analysed on a 24 h-sampling basis (heavy metals, hydrochloride acid, Chlorides). The first results seem to show some trends. Regarding usual pollutants, it appears downwind sites present higher average level that upwind sites. For hydrochloric acid, 24 h. averages are higher when the site was frequently downwind during the day. The size of the data set is small for heavy metals, however it seems that an impact can be detected for Cd and Zn. (author)

  6. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  7. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  8. Patient education, nudge, and manipulation: defining the ethical conditions of the person-centered model of care

    OpenAIRE

    Reach, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Gérard Reach1,2 1Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital AP-HP, 2EA 3412, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ile-de-France (CRNH-IDF), Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France Abstract: Patient education (PE) is expected to help patients with a chronic disease to manage their lives and give them the possibility of adopting, in an appropriate manner, beneficial changes in health behaviors that are prescribed...

  9. Prediction of fatigue crack growth behaviour of an α-β titanium alloy in Paris-regime using LCF properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, V.K.; Saxena, V.K.; Srinivas, M.

    1993-01-01

    A model has been developed in the recent past to predict fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviour in the Paris-regime of various steels by employing low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties. The model forms its basis on the assumption that the cyclic damage process immediately ahead of a crack-tip, restricted in a small zone termed as process zone, is identical to those experienced in the LCF loading of a smooth specimen. Within the process zone, fatigue damage has been assumed in terms of product of stress and plastic strain which is analogous to the plastic strain energy density of the smooth specimen under fatigue loading. In this paper the model developed by Kujawski and Ellyin has been used to predict the FCG behaviour of an α-β titanium alloy in the Paris-regime by employing the experimentally obtained LCF properties. The FCG behaviour thus theoretically predicted was compared with the experimentally determined FCG behaviour

  10. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  11. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  12. Atmospheric aerosol variability above the Paris Area during the 2015 heat wave - Comparison with the 2003 and 2006 heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2017-12-01

    The aerosol layers during the heat wave of July 2015 over Paris Area have been studied using a N2-Raman lidar with co- and cross-polarized channels. The lidar observations are examined to allow the identification of main aerosol types and their origins, in synergy with measurements of the AERONET sunphotometer network and back trajectory studies from the HYSPLIT model. The results are compatible with spaceborne observations of MODIS and CALIOP. As for previous heat waves of August 2003 and July 2006 occurring in France, the aerosol optical thickness is very large, up to 0.8 at the lidar wavelength of 355 nm (between 0.5 and 0.7 at 550 nm). However, air mass trajectories highlight that the observed aerosol layers may have multiple and diverse origins during the 2015 heat wave (North America, Northwest Africa, Southern and Northern Europe). Biomass burning, pollution and desert dust aerosols have been identified, using linear particle depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and analysis of back trajectories initiated at the altitudes and arrival times of the plumes. These layers are elevated and are shown to have little impact on surface aerosol concentrations (PM10 < 40 μg m-3 or PM2.5 < 25 μg m-3) and therefore no influence on the local air quality during the 2015 heat wave, unlike in 2003 and 2006. However, they significantly modify the radiative budget by trapping part of the solar ingoing/outgoing fluxes, which leads to a mean aerosol radiative forcing close to +50 ± 17 Wm-2 per aerosol optical thickness unit at 550 nm (AOT550) for solar zenith angles between 55 and 75°, which are available from sunphotometer measurements. This value is smaller than those of the 2003 and 2006 heat waves, which are assessed to be +95 ± 13 and +70 ± 18 Wm-2/AOT550, respectively. The differences between the heat wave of 2015 and the others are mainly due to both the nature and the diversity of aerosols, as indicated by the dispersion of the single scattering albedo distributions at

  13. Sex discrimination from the acetabulum in a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France using digital photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P J

    2011-02-01

    Digital photogrammetric methods were used to collect diameter, area, and perimeter data of the acetabulum for a twentieth-century skeletal sample from France (Georges Olivier Collection, Musée de l'Homme, Paris) consisting of 46 males and 36 females. The measurements were then subjected to both discriminant function and logistic regression analyses in order to develop osteometric standards for sex assessment. Univariate discriminant functions and logistic regression equations yielded overall correct classification accuracy rates for both the left and the right acetabula ranging from 84.1% to 89.6%. The multivariate models developed in this study did not provide increased accuracy over those using only a single variable. Classification sex bias ratios ranged between 1.1% and 7.3% for the majority of models. The results of this study, therefore, demonstrate that metric analysis of acetabular size provides a highly accurate, and easily replicable, method of discriminating sex in this documented skeletal collection. The results further suggest that the addition of area and perimeter data derived from digital images may provide a more effective method of sex assessment than that offered by traditional linear measurements alone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The First Published History of Universal Architectural Models. Jean-Nicholas-Louis Durand’s Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes (Paris 1800, and the Extended Italian Edition of Giuseppe Antonelli (Venice 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fontana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes”, published in Paris in 1799-1800 by Jean- Nicholas-Louis Durand, at the height of the positivistic climate engendered by the contemporary culture of encyclopedism, plays an important role in architectural historiography. The volume allowed architectural students and architectural enthusiasts alike the first opportunity to study a vast range of architectural design models of all periods and places organised into typological categories, illustrated in highly didactic and homogenous drawings. The immediate success of the “Recueil” was guaranteed by the simultaneous publication (in 1800 of an explanatory text to accompany the illustrative material, written by Jacques Guillaume Legrand in accordance with Durand. More than thirty years later, the Venetian editor Giuseppe Antonelli proposed a re-launch of the “Recueil” intended to meet the contemporaneous historical and critical context of modern Europe, publishing a bilingual Italian-French edition of highly commercially ambitious scope. The Venetian “Raccolta”, which appeared in 1833, united Legrand’s text with Durand’s illustrations, - and importantly included almost double the illustrations- with the addition of antique buildings, and also included modern architectural models, alongside contemporary Italian, French and German architectural design projects. This contribution intends to set Antonelli’s ambitious undertaking into the contemporaneous critical and vivacious academic cultural climate of the Venice of the 1830’s, and also includes a thorough examination of the additional illustrations that were added by the Venetian publisher to the original French canon.

  15. Recent progress towards climate services in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deandreis, C.; Lemond, J.; Dandin, P.; Braconnot, P.

    2013-01-01

    Important efforts have been made in recent years to develop climate services in France. Many initiatives have emerged to build an adapted System of information. This development is consistent with legislative and regulatory obligations, with a concern for economic advance, or a citizen questioning related to global change. The web portal 'DRIAS, les futurs du climat' provides an easy access to climate scenarios for France, opened to everyone concerned by impact and adaptation to climate change. This achievement results of a close co-operation between the major French climate modelling groups and the operational services of Meteo-France. It has been benefiting from the support of the Ministry in charge of Sustainable Development namely through its GICC program. The next steps with DRIAS will be defined both by a strong consistency with the scientific community work and by the requirements and expectations of users. In this, it is a real service. Following a different approach more focused on the specific and advanced needs of particular users, the French projects INVULNERABLe and SECIF sought to create a relevant and tailored to the industrial sector. This kind of products requires a support to educate operational users to climate change issue, and then to enhance the interface between climatologists and skilled users within the concerned companies. Both approaches are representative of current efforts of the French national scientific community to provide a useful part of the knowledge developed by the Academia and Meteo-France. The various initiatives are carried out with the wish to share and be consistent with research community work. They are mutually enriching, and with all stakeholders involved, they gradually build a real climate service in France. (authors)

  16. Theories of genetics and evolution and the development of medical entomology in France (1900-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, G; Opinel, A

    2008-12-01

    The development of entomology and medical entomology in France is discussed in the context of the prevalence of Lamarckian ideas concerning heredity and evolution. Lamarckian ideas have greatly influenced research carried out at the Institut Pasteur by Emile Roubaud and more generally in Felix Mesnil's laboratory, as well as research in general entomology at the Museum national d'histoire naturelle. By contrast, it did not influence research and teaching at the Faculté de médecine of Paris or that of physicians more generally including those in overseas Instituts Pasteur, which clearly kept away from theoretical discussion concerning the origin of variations and adaptation in insects of medical interest.

  17. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.

  18. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  19. Seismic velocities to characterize the soil-aquifer continuum on the Orgeval experimental basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Ludovic, B.; Dhemaied, A.; Flipo, N.; Guérin, R.; Mouhri, A.; Faycal, R.; Vitale, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Among geophysical methods applied to hydrogeology, seismic prospecting is frequently confined to the characterization of aquifers geometry. The combined study of pressure- (P) and shear- (SH) wave velocities (respectively Vp and Vs) can however provide information about the aquifer parameters, as it is commonly done for most fluids in hydrocarbon exploration. This approach has recently been proposed in sandy aquifers with the estimation of Vp/Vs ratio. In order to address such issues in more complex aquifer systems (e.g. unconsolidated, heterogeneous or low-permeability media) we carried out P- and SH-wave seismic surveys on the Orgeval experimental basin (70 km east from Paris, France). This basin drains a multi-layer aquifer system monitored by a network of piezometers. The upper part of the aquifer system is characterized by tabular layers well delineated all over the basin thanks to Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Time Domain ElectroMagnetic (TDEM) soundings and wells. But the lateral variability of the intrinsic properties in each layer raises questions regarding the hydrodynamics of the upper aquifer and the validity of interpolations between piezometers. A simple interpretation of P- and SH-wave first arrivals for tabular models provides 1D velocity structures in very good agreement with the stratification anticipated from ERT and nearby geological logs. Vp/Vs ratios show a strong contrast at a depth consistent with the observed water table level, reinforcing the assumption of a free upper aquifer in the area. Similar experiments have to be conducted under different hydrological conditions to validate these observations. Anticipating the need to propose lateral applications of the method, we additionally performed tomographic inversions of the recorded data to retrieve 2D Vp and Vs models. If interpreted independently, both models fail to depict the stratification of the medium and the water table level cannot be straightforwardly identified

  20. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan E.; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; Kyle, Page; McFarland, James; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  1. CO Seasonal Variability and Trend over Paris Megacity Using Ground-Based QualAir FTS and Satellite IASI-MetOp Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette

    2012-11-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey urban atmospheric pollution and air quality. A Bruker Optics IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer belonged to the Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique (LPMAA), was adapted for ground-based atmospheric measurements. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, this ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third largest European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. Concentrations of atmo