WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling microstructure development

  1. Thermal and microstructural modelling in weld heat-affected zones: microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribera, J.M.; Prado, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    After having analysed in Part 2 of this work the thermal effects caused by a welding process, a metallurgical model which uses those results is proposed to predict the hardness and the microstructure resulting in weld heat affected zones. This model simulates the decomposition of austenite to its various products: martensite, bainite, pearlite and ferrite. Thus, it allows one to optimize welding process parameters to achieve the best microstructure possible. (Author) 5 refs

  2. Modelling microstructural evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, V.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation is characterised by some unique features that are not typically present in other application environments. While much understanding has been achieved by experimental studies, the ability to model this microstructural evolution for complex materials states and environmental conditions not only enhances understanding, it also enables prediction of materials behaviour under conditions that are difficult to duplicate experimentally. Furthermore, reliable models enable designing materials for improved engineering performance for their respective applications. Thus, development and application of mesoscale microstructural model are important for advancing nuclear materials technologies. In this chapter, the application of the Potts model to nuclear materials will be reviewed and demonstrated, as an example of microstructural evolution processes. (author)

  3. Modeling of emulsion copolymer microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doremaele, G.H.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to describe stages II and III of batch emulsion copolymn., and its predictive capabilities are investigated by application to the system styrene-Me acrylate. The main reaction site is the monomer-swollen polymer particle. Copolymn. rate and copolymer microstructure (molar

  4. Characterization and Modeling of Microstructure Development in Nickel-base Superalloy Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Miller, M.K.; Vitek, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Welding is important for economical reuse and reclamation of used and failed nickel-base superalloy blades, respectively [1]. Solidification and solid state decomposition of {gamma} (Face Centered Cubic, FCC) phase into {gamma}{prime} (L1{sub 2}-ordered) phase control the properties of these welds. In previous publications, the microstructure development in electron beam welds of PWA-1480 alloy [2] and laser beam welds of CMSX-4 alloy [3] were presented. These results showed that the weld cracking in these alloys were associated with low melting point eutectic at the dendrite boundaries [1,2]. The eutectic-{gamma}{prime} precipitation was reduced at rapid weld cooling rates and the partitioning between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} phase was found to be far from equilibrium conditions [3,4]. This observation was related to diffusional growth of {gamma}{prime} precipitate into {gamma} phase. Subsequent to the above work, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} phase from {gamma} phase were evaluated during continuous cooling conditions [5]. The results show that the number density of {gamma} precipitates increased with an increase in cooling rate. However, the details of this decomposition and also the fine-scale elemental partitioning characteristics between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} were not investigated. In this paper, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} from {gamma} during continuous cooling conditions were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe field ion microscopy. In addition, thermodynamic and kinetic models were used to describe microstructure development in Ni-base superalloy welds.

  5. Microstructure Modeling of Third Generation Disk Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program was to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool was to be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishments achieved during the third year (2009) of the program are summarized. The activities of this year included: Further development of multistep precipitation simulation framework for gamma prime microstructure evolution during heat treatment; Calibration and validation of gamma prime microstructure modeling with supersolvus heat treated LSHR; Modeling of the microstructure evolution of the minor phases, particularly carbides, during isothermal aging, representing the long term microstructure stability during thermal exposure; and the implementation of software tools. During the research and development efforts to extend the precipitation microstructure modeling and prediction capability in this 3-year program, we identified a hurdle, related to slow gamma prime coarsening rate, with no satisfactory scientific explanation currently available. It is desirable to raise this issue to the Ni-based superalloys research community, with hope that in future there will be a mechanistic understanding and physics-based treatment to overcome the hurdle. In the mean time, an empirical correction factor was developed in this modeling effort to capture the experimental observations.

  6. Modeling of microstructural evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Microstructural evolution under irradiation is an extremely complex phenomenon involving numerous interacting mechanisms which alter both the microstructure and microchemistry of structural alloys. Predictive procedures which correlate primary irradiation and material variables to microstructural response are needed to extrapolate from the imperfect data base, which will be available, to fusion reactor conditions. Clearly, a marriage between models and experiments is needed. Specific steps to achieving such a marriage in the form of composite correlation model analysis are outlined and some preliminary results presented. The strongly correlated nature of microstructural evolution is emphasized and it is suggested that rate theory models, resting on the principle of material balances and focusing on coupled point defect-microchemical segregation processes, may be a practical approach to correlation model development. (orig.)

  7. Fission gas release modelling: developments arising from instrumented fuel assemblies, out-of-pile experiments and microstructural observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, N.A.; Smith, M.R.; Pearce, J.H.; Ellis, W.E.; Beatham, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of fission gas release modelling in thermal reactor fuel (both steady-state and transient) and in particular, illustrates the way in which experimental data have been, and continue to be, the main driving force behind model development. To illustrate this point various aspects of fuel performance are considered: temperature calculation, steady-state and transient fission gas release, grain boundary gas atom capacity and microstructural phenomena. The sources of experimental data discussed include end-of-life fission gas release measurements, instrumented fuel assemblies (e.g. rods with internal pressure transducers, fuel centre thermocouples), swept capsule experiments, out-of-pile annealing experiments and microstructural techniques applied during post-irradiation evaluation. In the case of the latter, the benefit of applying many observation and analysis techniques on the same fuel samples (the approach adopted at NRL Windscale) is emphasized. This illustrates a shift of emphasis in the modelling field from the development of large, complex thermo-mechanical computer codes to the assessment of key experimental data in order to develop and evaluate sub-models which correctly predict the observed behaviour. (author)

  8. Understanding particulate coating microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal

    How a dispersion of particulates suspended in a solvent dries into a solid coating often is more important to the final coating quality than even its composition. Essential properties like porosity, strength, gloss, particulate order, and concentration gradients are all determined by the way the particles come together as the coating dries. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryoSEM) is one of the most effective methods to directly visualize a drying coating during film formation. Using this method, the coating is frozen, arresting particulate motion and solidifying the sample so that it be imaged in an SEM. In this thesis, the microstructure development of particulate coatings was explored with several case studies. First, the effect of drying conditions was determined on the collapse of hollow latex particles, which are inexpensive whiteners for paint. Using cryoSEM, it was found that collapse occurs during the last stages of drying and is most likely to occur at high drying temperatures, humidity, and with low binder concentration. From these results, a theoretical model was proposed for the collapse of a hollow latex particle. CryoSEM was also used to verify a theoretical model for the particulate concentration gradients that may develop in a coating during drying for various evaporation, sedimentation and particulate diffusion rates. This work created a simple drying map that will allow others to predict the character of a drying coating based on easily calculable parameters. Finally, the effect of temperature on the coalescence and cracking of latex coatings was explored. A new drying regime for latex coatings was identified, where partial coalescence of particles does not prevent cracking. Silica was shown to be an environmentally friendly additive for preventing crack formation in this regime.

  9. ON MODELLING OF MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION, LOCAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND STRESS – STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN ALUMINIUM CASTINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Ingvar; Seifeddine, Salem; Kotas, Petr

    2009-01-01

    , related to mechanical properties as elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength and elongation. In the present work, a test case of a complex casting in an aluminium alloy is considered including simulation of the entire casting process with focus on of microstructure formation, related to mechanical...

  10. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  11. Modelling of deformation and recrystallisation microstructures in rocks and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Paul D.; Evans, Lynn A.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Griera, Albert; Jessell, Mark W.; Lebensohn, Ricardo; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Peternell, Mark; Piazolo, Sandra; Weikusat, Ilka; Wilson, Chris J. L.

    2015-04-01

    Microstructures both record the deformation history of a rock and strongly control its mechanical properties. As microstructures in natural rocks only show the final "post-mortem" state, geologists have attempted to simulate the development of microstructures with experiments and later numerical models. Especially in-situ experiments have given enormous insight, as time-lapse movies could reveal the full history of a microstructure. Numerical modelling is an alternative approach to simulate and follow the change in microstructure with time, unconstrained by experimental limitations. Numerical models have been applied to a range of microstructural processes, such as grain growth, dynamic recrystallisation, porphyroblast rotation, vein growth, formation of mylonitic fabrics, etc. The numerical platform "Elle" (www.elle.ws) in particular has brought progress in the simulation of microstructural development as it is specifically designed to include the competition between simultaneously operating processes. Three developments significantly improve our capability to simulate microstructural evolution: (1) model input from the mapping of crystallographic orientation with EBSD or the automatic fabric analyser, (2) measurement of grain size and crystallographic preferred orientation evolution using neutron diffraction experiments and (3) the implementation of the full-field Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) solver for modelling anisotropic crystal-plastic deformation. The latter enables the detailed modelling of stress and strain as a function of local crystallographic orientation, which has a strong effect on strain localisation such as, for example, the formation of shear bands. These models can now be compared with the temporal evolution of crystallographic orientation distributions in in-situ experiments. In the last decade, the possibility to combine experiments with numerical simulations has allowed not only verification and refinement of the numerical simulation

  12. Stress-affected microstructural development and creep-swelling interrelationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; Flinn, J.E.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1977-05-01

    Macroscopic measurement of the deformations arising from swelling and creep during neutron irradiation indicate that both processes are dependent on the magnitude and possibly the sign of the applied stress state. Current modeling efforts also indicate that a strong interaction exists between swelling and creep through the stress state. Because the macroscopic distortions arise from the integrated microscopic strains associated with specific microstructural elements, the effect of applied stress on microstructural development has been studied

  13. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...... to the stress field as well as the FE calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of two powder compacts constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated and compared to free sintering of the same samples. Constrained sintering result in a larger number...

  14. Quantitative interface models for simulating microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Z.; Wang, T.; Zhou, S.H.; Liu, Z.K.; Chen, L.Q.

    2004-01-01

    To quantitatively simulate microstructural evolution in real systems, we investigated three different interface models: a sharp-interface model implemented by the software DICTRA and two diffuse-interface models which use either physical order parameters or artificial order parameters. A particular example is considered, the diffusion-controlled growth of a γ ' precipitate in a supersaturated γ matrix in Ni-Al binary alloys. All three models use the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters from the same databases. The temporal evolution profiles of composition from different models are shown to agree with each other. The focus is on examining the advantages and disadvantages of each model as applied to microstructure evolution in alloys

  15. Modeling Percolation in Polymer Nanocomposites by Stochastic Microstructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Soto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A methodology was developed for the prediction of the electrical properties of carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites via Monte Carlo computational simulations. A two-dimensional microstructure that takes into account waviness, fiber length and diameter distributions is used as a representative volume element. Fiber interactions in the microstructure are identified and then modeled as an equivalent electrical circuit, assuming one-third metallic and two-thirds semiconductor nanotubes. Tunneling paths in the microstructure are also modeled as electrical resistors, and crossing fibers are accounted for by assuming a contact resistance associated with them. The equivalent resistor network is then converted into a set of linear equations using nodal voltage analysis, which is then solved by means of the Gauss–Jordan elimination method. Nodal voltages are obtained for the microstructure, from which the percolation probability, equivalent resistance and conductivity are calculated. Percolation probability curves and electrical conductivity values are compared to those found in the literature.

  16. The implementation of microstructural and heat treatment models to development of forming technology of critical aluminum-alloy parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biba, Nikolay; Alimov, Artem; Shitikov, Andrey; Stebunov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    The demand for high performance and energy efficient transportation systems have boosted interest in lightweight design solutions. To achieve maximum weight reductions, it is not enough just to replace steel parts by their aluminium analogues, but it is necessary to change the entire concept of vehicle design. In this case we must develop methods for manufacturing a variety of critical parts with unusual and difficult to produce shapes. The mechanical properties of the material in these parts must also be optimised and tightly controlled to provide the best distribution within the part volume. The only way to achieve these goals is to implement technology development methods based on simulation of the entire manufacturing chain from preparing a billet through the forming operations and heat treatment of the product. The paper presents an approach to such technology development. The simulation of the technological chain starts with extruding a round billet. Depending on the extrusion process parameters, the billet can have different levels of material workout and variation of grain size throughout the volume. After extrusion, the billet gets formed into the required shape in a forging process. The main requirements at this stage are to get the near net shape of the product without defects and to provide proper configuration of grain flow that strengthens the product in the most critical direction. Then the product undergoes solution treatment, quenching and ageing. The simulation of all these stages are performed by QForm FEM code that provides thermo-mechanical coupled deformation of the material during extrusion and forging. To provide microstructure and heat treatment simulation, special subroutines has been developed by the authors. The proposed approach is illustrated by an industrial case study.

  17. Metal-Matrix Composites and Porous Materials: Constitute Models, Microstructure Evolution and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castafieda, P

    2000-01-01

    Constitutive models were developed and implemented numerically to account for the evolution of microstructure and anisotropy in finite-deformation processes involving porous and composite materials...

  18. Modeling of microstructure property relationships in titanium-aluminum-vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, Jaimie Scott

    Fuzzy logic neural network models were developed to predict the room temperature tensile behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. This involved the development of a database relating microstructure to properties. This necessitated establishing heat treatment processes to develop microstructural features, mechanical testing of samples, creating rigorous stereology procedures, developing numerical models to predict mechanical behavior, and determining trends and inter-relationships relating microstructural features to mechanical properties. Microstructural features were developed using a Gleeble(TM) 1500 Thermal-mechanical simulator. Samples were obtained from mill annealed plate material and both alpha + beta forged and beta forged materials. A total of 72 samples were beta solutionized and heat treated using different heating and cooling conditions. Rigorous stereology procedures were developed to characterize the important microstructural features. The features included Widmanstatten alpha lath thickness, volume fraction of total alpha, volume fraction of Widmanstatten alpha, grain boundary alpha thickness, mean edge length, colony scale factor, and prior beta grain size factor. Chemical composition was also determined using standard chemical analysis and microscopy techniques. The samples were tested for yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation at room temperature. Results from the tests and the characterization were used to develop fuzzy logic neural network models to predict the mechanical behaviors and develop relationships between the microstructural features (using CubiCalc RTC(TM)). Results were compared to standard multi-variable regression models. The fuzzy logic neural network models were able to predict the yield, and ultimate tensile strength, within acceptable error ranges with a limited number of input data samples. The models also predicted the elongation values but with larger errors. Of particular importance, the models identified the importance of

  19. Molecular modeling of the microstructure evolution during carbon fiber processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Saaketh; Li, Chunyu; Shen, Tongtong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    The rational design of carbon fibers with desired properties requires quantitative relationships between the processing conditions, microstructure, and resulting properties. We developed a molecular model that combines kinetic Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques to predict the microstructure evolution during the processes of carbonization and graphitization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers. The model accurately predicts the cross-sectional microstructure of the fibers with the molecular structure of the stabilized PAN fibers and physics-based chemical reaction rates as the only inputs. The resulting structures exhibit key features observed in electron microcopy studies such as curved graphitic sheets and hairpin structures. In addition, computed X-ray diffraction patterns are in good agreement with experiments. We predict the transverse moduli of the resulting fibers between 1 GPa and 5 GPa, in good agreement with experimental results for high modulus fibers and slightly lower than those of high-strength fibers. The transverse modulus is governed by sliding between graphitic sheets, and the relatively low value for the predicted microstructures can be attributed to their perfect longitudinal texture. Finally, the simulations provide insight into the relationships between chemical kinetics and the final microstructure; we observe that high reaction rates result in porous structures with lower moduli.

  20. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  1. Microstructural modeling of Vienne granite damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homand, F.; Hoxha, D.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructural approach in damage modeling, which is presented in this paper describes the evolution of micro-crack geometry as a function of history loading. If the crack geometry is known, the effective properties could then be calculated foe any cracked rock by the mean of a micro-mechanical model. The P L evolution law which is necessary in the describing of crack geometry evolution is hardly based on the crack microscope observation as well as on the theory of fabric tensors. This approach is applied in the modeling of mechanical behaviour of Vienne granite. The result of model simulations are compared with laboratory tests. (author)

  2. Microstructure based hygromechanical modelling of deformation of fruit tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, M. K.; Wang, Z.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.

    2017-10-01

    Quality parameters such as firmness and susceptibility to mechanical damage are affected by the mechanical properties of fruit tissue. Fruit tissue is composed of turgid cells that keep cell walls under tension, and intercellular gas spaces where cell walls of neighboring cells have separated. How the structure and properties of these complex microstructures are affecting tissue mechanics is difficult to unravel experimentally. In this contribution, a modelling methodology is presented to calculate the deformation of apple fruit tissue affected by differences in structure and properties of cells and cell walls. The model can be used to perform compression experiments in silico using a hygromechanical model that computes the stress development and water loss during tissue deformation, much like in an actual compression test. The advantage of the model is that properties and structure can be changed to test the influence on the mechanical deformation process. The effect of microstructure, turgor pressure, cell membrane permeability, wall thickness and damping) on the compressibility of the tissue was simulated. Increasing the turgor pressure and thickness of the cell walls results in increased compression resistance of apple tissue increases, as do decreasing cell size and porosity. Geometric variability of the microstructure of tissues plays a major role, affecting results more than other model parameters. Different fruit cultivars were compared, and it was demonstrated, that microstructure variations within a cultivar are so large that interpretation of cultivar-specific effects is difficult.

  3. Discrete element modeling of microstructure of nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Mei Qiang; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of nacre consists of polygon-shaped aragonite mineral tablets bonded by very thin layers of organic materials and is organized in a brick-mortar morphology. In this research, the discrete element method was utilized to model this structure. The aragonite mineral tablets were modeled with three-dimensional polygon particles generated by the Voronoi tessellation method to represent the Voronoi-like patterns of mineral tablets assembly observed in experiments. The organic matrix was modeled with a group of spring elements. The constitutive relations of the spring elements were inspired from the experimental results of organic molecules from the literature. The mineral bridges were modeled with simple elastic bonds with the parameters based on experimental data from the literature. The bulk stress-strain responses from the models agreed well with experimental results. The model results show that the mineral bridges play important roles in providing the stiffness and yield strength for the nacre, while the organic matrix in providing the ductility for the nacre. This work demonstrated the suitability of particle methods for modeling microstructures of nacre.

  4. Applications of a composite model of microstructural evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Near-term fusion reactors will have to be designed using radiation effects data from experiments conducted in fast fission reactors. These fast reactors generate atomic displacements at a rate similar to that expected in a DT fusion reactor first wall. However, the transmutant helium production in an austenitic stainless steel first wall will exceed that in fast reactor fuel cladding by about a factor of 30. Hence, the use of the fast reactor data will involve some extrapolation. A major goal of this work is to develop theoretical models of microstructural evolution to aid in this extrapolation. In the present work a detailed rate-theory-based model of microstructural evolution under fast neutron irradiation has been developed. The prominent new aspect of this model is a treatment of dislocation evolution in which Frank faulted loops nucleate, grow and unfault to provide a source for network dislocations while the dislocation network can be simultaneously annihilated by a climb/glide process. The predictions of this model compare very favorably with the observed dose and temperature dependence of these key microstructural features over a broad range. In addition, this new description of dislocation evolution has been coupled with a previously developed model of cavity evolution and good agreement has been obtained between the predictions of the composite model and fast reactor swelling data. The results from the composite model also reveal that the various components of the irradiation-induced microstructure evolve in a highly coupled manner. The predictions of the composite model are more sensitive to parametric variations than more simple models. Hence, its value as a tool in data analysis and extrapolation is enhanced

  5. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this program is to model, validate, and predict the precipitation microstructure evolution, using PrecipiCalc (QuesTek Innovations LLC) software, for 3rd generation Ni-based gas turbine disc superalloys during processing and service, with a set of logical and consistent experiments and characterizations. Furthermore, within this program, the originally research-oriented microstructure simulation tool will be further improved and implemented to be a useful and user-friendly engineering tool. In this report, the key accomplishment achieved during the second year (2008) of the program is summarized. The activities of this year include final selection of multicomponent thermodynamics and mobility databases, precipitate surface energy determination from nucleation experiment, multiscale comparison of predicted versus measured intragrain precipitation microstructure in quench samples showing good agreement, isothermal coarsening experiment and interaction of grain boundary and intergrain precipitates, primary microstructure of subsolvus treatment, and finally the software implementation plan for the third year of the project. In the following year, the calibrated models and simulation tools will be validated against an independently developed experimental data set, with actual disc heat treatment process conditions. Furthermore, software integration and implementation will be developed to provide material engineers valuable information in order to optimize the processing of the 3rd generation gas turbine disc alloys.

  6. Robust and fast nonlinear optimization of diffusion MRI microstructure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, R L; Fritz, F J; Tobisch, A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A

    2017-07-15

    Advances in biophysical multi-compartment modeling for diffusion MRI (dMRI) have gained popularity because of greater specificity than DTI in relating the dMRI signal to underlying cellular microstructure. A large range of these diffusion microstructure models have been developed and each of the popular models comes with its own, often different, optimization algorithm, noise model and initialization strategy to estimate its parameter maps. Since data fit, accuracy and precision is hard to verify, this creates additional challenges to comparability and generalization of results from diffusion microstructure models. In addition, non-linear optimization is computationally expensive leading to very long run times, which can be prohibitive in large group or population studies. In this technical note we investigate the performance of several optimization algorithms and initialization strategies over a few of the most popular diffusion microstructure models, including NODDI and CHARMED. We evaluate whether a single well performing optimization approach exists that could be applied to many models and would equate both run time and fit aspects. All models, algorithms and strategies were implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to remove run time constraints, with which we achieve whole brain dataset fits in seconds to minutes. We then evaluated fit, accuracy, precision and run time for different models of differing complexity against three common optimization algorithms and three parameter initialization strategies. Variability of the achieved quality of fit in actual data was evaluated on ten subjects of each of two population studies with a different acquisition protocol. We find that optimization algorithms and multi-step optimization approaches have a considerable influence on performance and stability over subjects and over acquisition protocols. The gradient-free Powell conjugate-direction algorithm was found to outperform other common algorithms in terms of

  7. Microstructural modelling of nuclear graphite using multi-phase models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berre, C.; Fok, S.L.; Marsden, B.J.; Mummery, P.M.; Marrow, T.J.; Neighbour, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new modelling technique using three-dimensional multi-phase finite element models in which meshes representing the microstructure of thermally oxidised nuclear graphite were generated from X-ray micro-tomography images. The density of the material was related to the image greyscale using Beer-Lambert's law, and multiple phases could thus be defined. The local elastic and non-linear properties of each phase were defined as a function of density and changes in Young's modulus, tensile and compressive strength with thermal oxidation were calculated. Numerical predictions compared well with experimental data and with other numerical results obtained using two-phase models. These models were found to be more representative of the actual microstructure of the scanned material than two-phase models and, possibly because of pore closure occurring during compression, compressive tests were also predicted to be less sensitive to the microstructure geometry than tensile tests

  8. A tracer diffusion model derived from microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, Jarmo; Muurinen, Arto; Olin, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Numerous attempts have been made to explain the tracer diffusion of various solutes in compacted clays. These attempts have commonly suffered from an inability to describe the diffusion of uncharged and charged solutes with a single unified model. Here, an internally consistent approach to describing the diffusion of solutes in a heterogeneous porous medium, such as compacted bentonite, in terms of its microstructure is presented. The microstructure is taken to be represented by a succession of unit cells, which consist of two consecutive regions (Do, 1996). In the first region, the diffusion is viewed to occur in two parallel paths: one through microcrystalline units (micropores) and the other through meso-pores between the microcrystalline units. Solutes exiting these two paths are then joined together to continue diffusing through the second, disordered, region, connecting the two adjacent microcrystalline units. Adsorption (incl. co-ion exclusion) is thought to occur in the micropores, whereas meso-pores and the disordered region accommodate free species alone. Co-ions are also assumed to experience transfer resistance into and out of the micropores, which is characterized in the model by a transmission coefficient. Although the model is not new per se, its application to compacted clays has never been attempted before. It is shown that in the limit of strong adsorption, the effective diffusivity is limited from above only by the microstructural parameters of the model porous medium. As intuitive and logical as this result may appear, it has not been proven before. In the limit of vanishing disordered region, the effective diffusivity is no longer explicitly constrained by any of the model parameters. The tortuosity of the diffusion path, i.e. the quotient of the actual diffusion path length in the porous-medium coordinates and the characteristic length of the laboratory frame

  9. On the principles of microstructure scale development for titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachev, B.A.; Mal'kov, A.V.; Gus'kova, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of an existing standard scale of microstructures for two-phase (α+#betta#)-titanium alloy semiproducts is given. The basic principles of development of control microstructure scales for titanium alloys are presented on the base of investigations and generalization of literature data on connection of microstructure of titanium intermediate products from (α+#betta#)-alloys with their mechanical properties and service life characteristics. A possibilities of changing mechanical and operating properties at the expense of obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively regulated microstructure in the alloy are disclosed on the example of the (α+#betta#)-titanium alloy

  10. Phase-field modelling of microstructural evolution and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingzhi

    As one of the most powerful techniques in computational materials science, the diffuse-interface phase-field model has been widely employed for simulating various meso-scale microstructural evolution processes. The main purpose of this thesis is to develop a quantitative phase-field model for predicting microstructures and properties in real alloy systems which can be linked to existing thermodynamic/kinetic databases and parameters obtained from experimental measurements or first-principle calculations. To achieve this goal; many factors involved in complicated real systems are investigated, many of which are often simplified or ignored in existing models, e.g. the dependence of diffusional atomic mobility and elastic constants on composition. Efficient numerical techniques must be developed to solve those partial differential equations that are involved in modelling microstructural evolutions and properties. In this thesis, different spectral methods were proposed for the time-dependent phase-field kinetic equations and diffusion equations. For solving the elastic equilibrium equation with the consideration of elastic inhomogeneity, a conjugate gradient method was utilized. The numerical approaches developed were generally found to be more accurate and efficient than conventional approach such as finite difference method. A composition-dependent Cahn-Hilliard equation was solved by using a semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method. It was shown that the morphological evolutions in bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening and interface-diffusion-controlled developed similar patterns and scaling behaviors. For bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening, a cubic growth law was obeyed in the scaling regime, whereas a fourth power growth law was observed for interface-diffusion-controlled coarsening. The characteristics of a microstructure under the influence of elastic energy depend on elastic properties such as elastic anisotropy, lattice mismatch, elastic inhomogeneity and

  11. Development of microstructure in thermomechanical processing of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium based alloys are used for the manufacture of fuel tubes pressure tubes calandria tubes and other components of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRS). In single or two phase zirconium alloy system a variety of microstructure can be generated by suitable heat treatments by the process of equilibrium and non equilibrium phase transformations Microstructure can also be modified by alloying with α and β stabilizers. The microstructure in Zr alloys could be single hexagonal phase (α alloys) two phase bcc and hexagonal (α + β alloys) phase, single metastable martensitic microstructure and β with ω phase. The microstructural and micro textural evolution during thermo mechanical treatments depends strongly on such initial microstructure. Hot extrusion is a significant bulk deformation step which decides the initial microstructure of the alloy. It is carried out at elevated temperature i e above the recrystallization temperature, which enable imposition of large strains in single step. This deformation causes a significant change in the microstructure of the material and depends on extrusion process parameters such as temperature, strain rate (Ram speed), reduction ratio etc. In the present paper development of microstructures, microtexture and texture have been examined. An attempt is also made to optimise the hot working parameters for different Zirconium alloys with help of these studies. (author)

  12. Development of micro-structured heat exchangers; Developpement d'echangeurs de chaleur microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzon, C

    2004-10-01

    This study has been carried out to defend the Technological Diploma of Research, in the aim to develop micro-structured heat exchangers. Realized within the Research Group on the Heat exchangers and Energy (GREThE) of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) of Grenoble. The rise of micro-technologies and the optimization of heat exchangers have led to emergence from few years of new structures of fluid paths with scales lower than the millimeter, thus making it possible to produce heat exchangers ultra-compacts. The micro-structured exchangers are heat exchangers whose hydraulic diameters are lower than the millimeter but with external dimensions of several centimeters. The study is based on two patents filed by the CEA and the characterization of these two geometries. A first concept of cross flow type finds applications with Gas/Liquid heat exchanger. A second type, a countercurrent, is more adapted to Liquid/Liquid applications. An approach with simplified analytical models and by numerical simulation was employed for each concept. An experimental study on the Gas/Liquid concept was also carried out. (author)

  13. Development of micro-structured heat exchangers; Developpement d'echangeurs de chaleur microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzon, C.

    2004-10-01

    This study has been carried out to defend the Technological Diploma of Research, in the aim to develop micro-structured heat exchangers. Realized within the Research Group on the Heat exchangers and Energy (GREThE) of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) of Grenoble. The rise of micro-technologies and the optimization of heat exchangers have led to emergence from few years of new structures of fluid paths with scales lower than the millimeter, thus making it possible to produce heat exchangers ultra-compacts. The micro-structured exchangers are heat exchangers whose hydraulic diameters are lower than the millimeter but with external dimensions of several centimeters. The study is based on two patents filed by the CEA and the characterization of these two geometries. A first concept of cross flow type finds applications with Gas/Liquid heat exchanger. A second type, a countercurrent, is more adapted to Liquid/Liquid applications. An approach with simplified analytical models and by numerical simulation was employed for each concept. An experimental study on the Gas/Liquid concept was also carried out. (author)

  14. Microstructure and properties of sintered mullite developed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microstructure and properties of sintered mullite developed from Indian bauxite ... ductivity, high-temperature stability, good chemical inertia, ... refractory applications. Normally .... using sputtered gold coating on the polished surface after.

  15. Microstructural Modeling of Brittle Materials for Enhanced Performance and Reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teague, Melissa Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Teague, Melissa Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Theron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Theron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grutzik, Scott Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grutzik, Scott Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Brittle failure is often influenced by difficult to measure and variable microstructure-scale stresses. Recent advances in photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS), including improved confocal laser measurement and rapid spectroscopic data collection have established the potential to map stresses with microscale spatial resolution (%3C2 microns). Advanced PLS was successfully used to investigate both residual and externally applied stresses in polycrystalline alumina at the microstructure scale. The measured average stresses matched those estimated from beam theory to within one standard deviation, validating the technique. Modeling the residual stresses within the microstructure produced general agreement in comparison with the experimentally measured results. Microstructure scale modeling is primed to take advantage of advanced PLS to enable its refinement and validation, eventually enabling microstructure modeling to become a predictive tool for brittle materials.

  16. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Mixing Models for Dual-Phase Steel Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linking the ferrite fraction in a dual-phase (DP steel microstructure and its electromagnetic properties is critical in the effort to develop on-line measurement techniques for phase transformation using electromagnetic (EM sensors. This paper developed a seamlessly integrated method for generating 3D microstructures and evaluating their equivalent permeability values. Both the generation of 3D microstructures and evaluation of equivalent permeability have been achieved through custom modelling packages developed by the authors. Voronoi modelling based on the random close packing of spheres (RCPS-VM was used to precisely control the ferrite fraction in DP steel microstructure, and an equivalent uniform field method for 3D finite element simulation was developed for efficient analysis.

  17. Utilization of FEM model for steel microstructure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kešner, A.; Chotěborský, R.; Linda, M.; Hromasová, M.

    2018-02-01

    Agricultural tools which are used in soil processing, they are worn by abrasive wear mechanism cases by hard minerals particles in the soil. The wear rate is influenced by mechanical characterization of tools material and wear rate is influenced also by soil mineral particle contents. Mechanical properties of steel can be affected by a technology of heat treatment that it leads to a different microstructures. Experimental work how to do it is very expensive and thanks to numerical methods like FEM we can assumed microstructure at low cost but each of numerical model is necessary to be verified. The aim of this work has shown a procedure of prediction microstructure of steel for agricultural tools. The material characterizations of 51CrV4 grade steel were used for numerical simulation like TTT diagram, heat capacity, heat conduction and other physical properties of material. A relationship between predicted microstructure by FEM and real microstructure after heat treatment shows a good correlation.

  18. A model for simulation of coupled microstructural and compositional evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, Veena; Homer, Eric R.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    The formation, transport and segregation of components in nuclear fuels fundamentally control their behavior, performance, longevity and safety. Most nuclear fuels enter service with a uniform composition consisting of a single phase with two or three components. Fission products form, introducing more components. The segregation and transport of the components is complicated by the underlying microstructure consisting of grains, pores, bubbles and more, which is evolving under temperature gradients during service. As they evolve, components and microstructural features interact such that composition affects microstructure and vice versa. The ability to predict the interdependent compositional and microstructural evolution in 3D as a function of burn-up would greatly improve the ability to design safe, high burn-up nuclear fuels. We present a model that combines elements of Potts Monte Carlo, MC, and the phase-field model to treat coupled microstructural-compositional evolution. This hybrid model uses an equation of state, EOS, based on the microstructural state and the composition. The microstructural portion uses the traditional MC EOS and the compositional portion uses the phase-field EOS: E hyb = N Σ i=1 (E v (q i ,C)+1/2 n Σ j=1 J(q i ,q j )) + ∫κ c (∇C) 2 dV. E v is the bulk free energy of each site i and J is the bond energy between neighboring sites i and j; thus, this term defines the microstructural interfacial energy. The last term is the compositional interfacial energy as defined in the traditional phase-field model. Evolution of coupled microstructure-composition is simulated by minimizing free energy in a path dependent manner. This model will be presented and will be demonstrated by applying it to evolution of nuclear fuels during service. (author)

  19. Influence of copper content on microstructure development of AlSi9Cu3 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodarac Zovko Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure development and possible interaction of present elements have been determined in charge material of EN AlSi9Cu3 quality. Literature review enables prediction of solidification sequence. Modelling of equilibrium phase diagram for examined chemical composition has been performed, which enables determination of equilibrium solidification sequence. Microstructural investigation indicated distribution and morphology of particular phase. Metallographic analysis tools enable exact determination of microstructural constituents: matrix αAl, eutectic αAl+βSi, iron base intermetallic phase - Al5FeSi, Alx(Fe,MnyCuuSiw and/or Alx(Fe,MnyMgzCuuSiw and copper base phases in ternary eutectic morphology Al-Al2Cu-Si and in complex intermetallic ramified morphology Alx(Fe,MnyMgzSiuCuw. Microstructure development examination reveals potential differences due to copper content which is prerequisite for high values of final mechanical, physical and technological properties of cast products.

  20. A modelling approach to designing microstructures in thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Nylen, P.; Wigren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermomechanical properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are strongly influenced by coating defects, such as delaminations and pores, thus making it essential to have a fundamental understanding of microstructure-property relationships in TBCs to produce a desired coating. Object-Oriented Finite element analysis (OOF) has been shown previously as an effective tool for evaluating thermal and mechanical material behaviour, as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent material microstructure as input to the model. In this work, OOF was used to predict the thermal conductivity and effective Young's modulus of TBC topcoats. A Design of Experiments (DoE) was conducted by varying selected parameters for spraying Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) topcoat. The microstructure was assessed with SEM, and image analysis was used to characterize the porosity content. The relationships between microstructural features and properties predicted by modelling are discussed. The microstructural features having the most beneficial effect on properties were sprayed with a different spray gun so as to verify the results obtained from modelling. Characterisation of the coatings included microstructure evaluation, thermal conductivity and lifetime measurements. The modelling approach in combination with experiments undertaken in this study was shown to be an effective way to achieve coatings with optimised thermo-mechanical properties.

  1. Some new aspects of microstructural development during sintering of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuer, H.; Woetting, G.; Gugel, E.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical properties of silicon nitride ceramics strongly depend on their microstructure. However, there is still a lively discussion about the parameters controlling the microstructural development. The current research was stimulated by the observation that a bimodal grain-size distribution in dense silicon nitride has a very beneficial effect on the mechanical properties, especially on the fracture toughness. This paper is focused on the relationship between the α-β-transformation and the densification of silicon nitride powders with different characteristics and sintering additives. Effects of β-grains originally present in the silicon nitride powder, of added β-silicon nitride seeds and of β-crystals formed by the α/β-transformation on the resulting microstructure and on the properties are discussed. The results are summarised in a model describing prerequisites and processing conditions, which are necessary to achieve a bimodal microstructure, i. e. a self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic. (orig.)

  2. Multiscale crystal defect dynamics: A coarse-grained lattice defect model based on crystal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Dandan; Li, Shaofan

    2017-10-01

    Crystal defects have microstructure, and this microstructure should be related to the microstructure of the original crystal. Hence each type of crystals may have similar defects due to the same failure mechanism originated from the same microstructure, if they are under the same loading conditions. In this work, we propose a multiscale crystal defect dynamics (MCDD) model that models defects by considering its intrinsic microstructure derived from the microstructure or material genome of the original perfect crystal. The main novelties of present work are: (1) the discrete exterior calculus and algebraic topology theory are used to construct a scale-up (coarse-grained) dual lattice model for crystal defects, which may represent all possible defect modes inside a crystal; (2) a higher order Cauchy-Born rule (up to the fourth order) is adopted to construct atomistic-informed constitutive relations for various defect process zones, and (3) an hierarchical strain gradient theory based finite element formulation is developed to support an hierarchical multiscale cohesive (process) zone model for various defects in a unified formulation. The efficiency of MCDD computational algorithm allows us to simulate dynamic defect evolution at large scale while taking into account atomistic interaction. The MCDD model has been validated by comparing of the results of MCDD simulations with that of molecular dynamics (MD) in the cases of nanoindentation and uniaxial tension. Numerical simulations have shown that MCDD model can predict dislocation nucleation induced instability and inelastic deformation, and thus it may provide an alternative solution to study crystal plasticity.

  3. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  4. Statistical models and NMR analysis of polymer microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical models can be used in conjunction with NMR spectroscopy to study polymer microstructure and polymerization mechanisms. Thus, Bernoullian, Markovian, and enantiomorphic-site models are well known. Many additional models have been formulated over the years for additional situations. Typica...

  5. Modeling Microstructural Evolution During Dynamic Recrystallization of Alloy D9 Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sumantra; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Dube, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the microstructural evolution of a 15Cr-15Ni-2.2Mo-Ti modified austenitic stainless steel (Alloy D9) during dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The input parameters were strain, strain rate, and temperature whereas microstructural features namely, %DRX and average grain size were the output parameters. The ANN was trained with the database obtained from various industrial scale metal-forming operations like forge hammer, hydraulic press, and rolling carried out in the temperature range 1173-1473 K to various strain levels. The performance of the model was evaluated using a wide variety of statistical indices and the predictability of the model was found to be good. The combined influence of temperature and strain on microstructural features has been simulated employing the developed model. The results were found to be consistent with the relevant fundamental metallurgical phenomena.

  6. Microstructural Characterization and Modeling of SLM Superalloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tim M.; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Bonacuse, Pete; Rogers, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Superalloy 718 is an excellent candidate for selective laser melting (SLM) fabrication due to a combination of excellent mechanical properties and workability. Predicting and validating the microstructure of SLM-fabricated Superalloy 718 after potential post heat-treatment paths is an important step towards producing components comparable to those made using conventional methods. At present, obtaining accurate volume fraction and size measurements of gamma-double-prime, gamma-prime and delta precipitates has been challenging due to their size, low volume fractions, and similar chemistries. A technique combining high resolution distortion corrected SEM imaging and with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy has been developed to accurately and independently measure the size and volume fractions of the three precipitates. These results were further validated using x-ray diffraction and phase extraction methods and compared to the precipitation kinetics predicted by PANDAT and JMatPro. Discrepancies are discussed in context of materials properties, model assumptions, sampling, and experimental errors.

  7. A 3D multilevel model of damage and strength of wood: Analysis of microstructural effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2011-01-01

    A 3D hierarchical computational model of damage and strength of wood is developed. The model takes into account the four scale microstructures of wood, including the microfibril reinforced structure at nanoscale, multilayered cell walls at microscale, hexagon-shape-tube cellular structure...

  8. Microstructural modelling and lubrication study during zirconium alloy hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Using torsion tests (with strain rate jumps) and an experimental hot mini-extrusion apparatus, several samples zirconium alloy have been deformed: Zircaloy-4 (high α range) and Zr-1Nb (α + β domain). The fragmentation of the microstructure and post-dynamic grain growth have been examined. The main difference between these two alloys is that Zr-1Nb does not show grain growth during a heat treatment within the α + β domain after hot deformation. The recrystallization volume fraction has been measured on extruded samples with or without heat treatment. These rheological and microstructural data have been used to determine the parameters of a microstructural model including: a work-hardening model (Laaasraoui/Jonas), a continuous dynamic recrystallization model (Gourdet/Montheillet) and a grain growth model. This model leads to a good prediction of recrystallization volume fraction for Zircaloy-4 extrusion. However, the Zr-1Nb model cannot be validated because of the difficulty to observe deformed microstructures. Extrusion process is lubricated with a solid film. Trapping tests show that this lubricant is thermoviscoplastic. Friction along the container and several observations show the lubrication is not realized by a continuous film. Indeed, the heterogeneousness of deformation of these alloys causes a rupture of the lubricant film. Experiments and numerical simulations show that the radial gradient of axial displacement is affected by friction but also by stress softening of the alloys. (author)

  9. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing...... materials have been developed and tested for enhancing the differentiation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes and fabricating biodegradable scaffolds for in-vivo tissue engineering applications. Along with various scaffolds fabrication methods we finally presented an optimized study of hepatic differentiation...... of hiPSC-derived DE cells cultured for 25 days in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system with an array of 16 small-scale tissue-bioreactors with integrated dual-pore pore scaffolds and flow rates. Hepatic differentiation and functionality of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes were successfully assessed and compared...

  10. Microstructural modelling of creep crack growth from a blunted crack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.; Giessen, E. van der

    1998-01-01

    The effect of crack tip blunting on the initial stages of creep crack growth is investigated by means of a planar microstructural model in which grains are represented discretely. The actual linking-up process of discrete microcracks with the macroscopic crack is simulated, with full account of the

  11. Microstructure Characterization and Modeling for Improved Electrode Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yao, Koffi (Pierre) [Argonne National Laboratory; ; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andy [Argonne National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [Texas A& M University; Mistry, Aashutosh [Texas A& M University; Verma, Ankit [Texas A& M University

    2017-08-03

    This presentation describes research work led by NREL with team members from Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University in microstructure analysis, modeling and validation under DOE's Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) program. The goal of the project is to close the gaps between CAEBAT models and materials research by creating predictive models that can be used for electrode design.

  12. Evaluating location specific strain rates, temperatures, and accumulated strains in friction welds through microstructure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Akram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A microstructural simulation method is adopted to predict the location specific strain rates, temperatures, grain evolution, and accumulated strains in the Inconel 718 friction welds. Cellular automata based 2D microstructure model was developed for Inconel 718 alloy using theoretical aspects of dynamic recrystallization. Flow curves were simulated and compared with experimental results using hot deformation parameter obtained from literature work. Using validated model, simulations were performed for friction welds of Inconel 718 alloy generated at three rotational speed i.e., 1200, 1500, and 1500 RPM. Results showed the increase in strain rates with increasing rotational speed. These simulated strain rates were found to match with the analytical results. Temperature difference of 150 K was noticed from center to edge of the weld. At all the rotational speeds, the temperature was identical implying steady state temperature (0.89Tm attainment. Keywords: Microstructure modeling, Dynamic recrystallization, Friction welding, Inconel 718, EBSD, Hot deformation, Strain map

  13. Impact of advanced microstructural characterization techniques on modeling and analysis of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Odette, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of radiation-induced alterations of dimensional and mechanical properties has been shown to be a direct and often predictable consequence of radiation-induced microstructural changes. Recent advances in understanding of the nature and role of each microstructural component in determining the property of interest has led to a reappraisal of the type and priority of data needed for further model development. This paper presents an overview of the types of modeling and analysis activities in progress, the insights that prompted these activities, and specific examples of successful and ongoing efforts. A review is presented of some problem areas that in the authors' opinion are not yet receiving sufficient attention and which may benefit from the application of advanced techniques of microstructural characterization. Guidelines based on experience gained in previous studies are also provided for acquisition of data in a form most applicable to modeling needs

  14. Mesoscale modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization of a Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Cui, Zhenshan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Ou, Hengan [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Long, Hui [University of Sheffield, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Microstructural evolution and plastic flow characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were investigated using a simulative model that couples the basic metallurgical principle of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) with the two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton (CA). Variation of dislocation density with local strain of deformation is considered for accurate determination of the microstructural evolution during DRX. The grain topography, the grain size and the recrystallized fraction can be well predicted by using the developed CA model, which enables to the establishment of the relationship between the flow stress, dislocation density, recrystallized fraction volume, recrystallized grain size and the thermomechanical parameters. (orig.)

  15. Modeling on Fe-Cr microstructure: evolution with Cr content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arroyo, D.; Perlado, J.M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.; Caturla, M.J.; Victoria, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The minimum energy configuration of interstitials in the Fe-Cr system, which is the base for the low activation steels being developed in the European fusion reactor materials community, is determined by magnetism. Magnetism plays also a role in the atomic configurations found with increasing Cr content. Results will be presented from a program in which the microstructure evolution produced after heavy ion irradiation in the range from room temperature to 80 K is studied as a function of the Cr content in alloys produced under well controlled conditions, i.e. from high purity elements and with adequate heat treatment. It is expected that these measurements will serve as matrix for model validation. The first step in such modeling sequence is being performed by modeling the evolution of displacement cascades in Fe using the Dudarev -Derlet and Mendeleev potentials for Fe and the Caro potential for Fe-Cr. It is of particular interest to study the evolution of high-energy cascades, where an attempt will be made to clarify the role of the evolution of sub-cascades. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) techniques will be used then to simulate the defect evolution. A new parallel kMC code is being implemented for this purpose. (authors)

  16. Stochastic model for the 3D microstructure of pristine and cyclically aged cathodes in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchler, Klaus; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Mitsch, Tim; Manke, Ingo; Schmidt, Volker

    2018-04-01

    It is well-known that the microstructure of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries strongly affects their performance. Vice versa, the microstructure can exhibit strong changes during the usage of the battery due to aging effects. For a better understanding of these effects, mathematical analysis and modeling has turned out to be of great help. In particular, stochastic 3D microstructure models have proven to be a powerful and very flexible tool to generate various kinds of particle-based structures. Recently, such models have been proposed for the microstructure of anodes in lithium-ion energy and power cells. In the present paper, we describe a stochastic modeling approach for the 3D microstructure of cathodes in a lithium-ion energy cell, which differs significantly from the one observed in anodes. The model for the cathode data enhances the ideas of the anode models, which have been developed so far. It is calibrated using 3D tomographic image data from pristine as well as two aged cathodes. A validation based on morphological image characteristics shows that the model is able to realistically describe both, the microstructure of pristine and aged cathodes. Thus, we conclude that the model is suitable to generate virtual, but realistic microstructures of lithium-ion cathodes.

  17. Effect of food microstructure on growth dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes in fish-based model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Davy; Bolívar, Araceli; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Baka, Maria; Skåra, Torstein; Van Impe, Jan F

    2018-06-01

    Traditionally, predictive growth models for food pathogens are developed based on experiments in broth media, resulting in models which do not incorporate the influence of food microstructure. The use of model systems with various microstructures is a promising concept to get more insight into the influence of food microstructure on microbial dynamics. By means of minimal variation of compositional and physicochemical factors, these model systems can be used to study the isolated effect of certain microstructural aspects on microbial growth, survival and inactivation. In this study, the isolated effect on microbial growth dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes of two food microstructural aspects and one aspect influenced by food microstructure were investigated, i.e., the nature of the food matrix, the presence of fat droplets, and microorganism growth morphology, respectively. To this extent, fish-based model systems with various microstructures were used, i.e., a liquid, a second more viscous liquid system containing xanthan gum, an emulsion, an aqueous gel, and a gelled emulsion. Growth experiments were conducted at 4 and 10 °C, both using homogeneous and surface inoculation (only for the gelled systems). Results regarding the influence of the growth morphology indicated that the lag phase of planktonic cells in the liquid system was similar to the lag phase of submerged colonies in the xanthan system. The lag phase of submerged colonies in each gelled system was considerably longer than the lag phase of surface colonies on these respective systems. The maximum specific growth rate of planktonic cells in the liquid system was significantly lower than for submerged colonies in the xanthan system at 10 °C, while no significant differences were observed at 4 °C. The maximum cell density was higher for submerged colonies than for surface colonies. The nature of the food matrix only exerted an influence on the maximum specific growth rate, which was

  18. Modeling the microstructure of surface by applying BRDF function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Kamil

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents the modeling of surface microstructure using a bidirectional reflectance distribution function. This function contains full information about the reflectance properties of the flat surfaces - it is possible to determine the share of the specular, directional and diffuse components in the reflected luminous stream. The software is based on the authorial algorithm that uses selected elements of this function models, which allows to determine the share of each component. Basing on obtained data, the surface microstructure of each material can be modeled, which allows to determine the properties of this materials. The concentrator directs the reflected solar radiation onto the photovoltaic surface, increasing, at the same time, the value of the incident luminous stream. The paper presents an analysis of selected materials that can be used to construct the solar concentrator system. The use of concentrator increases the power output of the photovoltaic system by up to 17% as compared to the standard solution.

  19. Fatigue modeling of materials with complex microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2011-01-01

    with the phenomenological model of fatigue damage growth. As a result, the fatigue lifetime of materials with complex structures can be determined as a function of the parameters of their structures. As an example, the fatigue lifetimes of wood modeled as a cellular material with multilayered, fiber reinforced walls were...

  20. Modelling of Filling, Microstructure Formation, Local Mechanical Properties and Stress – Strain Development in High-Pressure Die Cast Aluminium Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    .e. whether the casting is based on cast iron- or aluminium-alloys. The distribution of local properties in a casting might vary substantially which makes it complex to optimize the casting with good accuracy. Often, mechanical simulations of the load situation are based on the assumption that the cast...... in an aluminium alloy is considered including simulation of the entire casting process with emphasis on microstructure formation related to mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, yield stress, ultimate strength and elongation as well as residual stresses. Subsequently, the casting is subjected to service...... loads and the results of this analysis are discussed in relation to the predicted local properties as well as the residual stresses originating from the casting simulation....

  1. Modeling of microstructure evolution in direct metal laser sintering: A phase field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Jyotirmoy; Sarangi, Hrushikesh; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2017-02-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a new technology in the field of additive manufacturing, which builds metal parts in a layer by layer fashion directly from the powder bed. The process occurs within a very short time period with rapid solidification rate. Slight variations in the process parameters may cause enormous change in the final build parts. The physical and mechanical properties of the final build parts are dependent on the solidification rate which directly affects the microstructure of the material. Thus, the evolving of microstructure plays a vital role in the process parameters optimization. Nowadays, the increase in computational power allows for direct simulations of microstructures during materials processing for specific manufacturing conditions. In this study, modeling of microstructure evolution of Al-Si-10Mg powder in DMLS process was carried out by using a phase field approach. A MATLAB code was developed to solve the set of phase field equations, where simulation parameters include temperature gradient, laser scan speed and laser power. The effects of temperature gradient on microstructure evolution were studied and found that with increase in temperature gradient, the dendritic tip grows at a faster rate.

  2. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikare, Veena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Madison, Jonathan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Holm, Elizabeth Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Patterson, Burton R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Homer, Eric R. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  3. Development of microstructure of niobium-microalloyed steels after deformation in two-phase region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majta, J.; Bator, A.

    1999-01-01

    The inhomogeneity of microstructure development of hot deformed niobium-microalloyed steels in the austenite and two phase region is effectively described using an integrated computer modeling process. In particular, the effect of varying the finish deformation temperature, strain and strain rate on the inhomogeneity of austenite and ferrite structures are studied. Presented here investigations take into account kinetics of recrystallization, phase transformation, and the resulting mechanical properties. (author)

  4. Modeling Financial Time Series Based on a Market Microstructure Model with Leverage Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhui Xi; Hui Peng; Yemei Qin

    2016-01-01

    The basic market microstructure model specifies that the price/return innovation and the volatility innovation are independent Gaussian white noise processes. However, the financial leverage effect has been found to be statistically significant in many financial time series. In this paper, a novel market microstructure model with leverage effects is proposed. The model specification assumed a negative correlation in the errors between the price/return innovation and the volatility innovation....

  5. Multi-Scale Modeling of Microstructural Evolution in Structural Metallic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei

    Metallic alloys are a widely used class of structural materials, and the mechanical properties of these alloys are strongly dependent on the microstructure. Therefore, the scientific design of metallic materials with superior mechanical properties requires the understanding of the microstructural evolution. Computational models and simulations offer a number of advantages over experimental techniques in the prediction of microstructural evolution, because they can allow studies of microstructural evolution in situ, i.e., while the material is mechanically loaded (meso-scale simulations), and bring atomic-level insights into the microstructure (atomistic simulations). In this thesis, we applied a multi-scale modeling approach to study the microstructural evolution in several metallic systems, including polycrystalline materials and metallic glasses (MGs). Specifically, for polycrystalline materials, we developed a coupled finite element model that combines phase field method and crystal plasticity theory to study the plasticity effect on grain boundary (GB) migration. Our model is not only coupled strongly (i.e., we include plastic driving force on GB migration directly) and concurrently (i.e., coupled equations are solved simultaneously), but also it qualitatively captures such phenomena as the dislocation absorption by mobile GBs. The developed model provides a tool to study the microstructural evolution in plastically deformed metals and alloys. For MGs, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the nucleation kinetics in the primary crystallization in Al-Sm system. We calculated the time-temperature-transformation curves for low Sm concentrations, from which the strong suppressing effect of Sm solute on Al nucleation and its influencing mechanism are revealed. Also, through the comparative analysis of both Al attachment and Al diffusion in MGs, it has been found that the nucleation kinetics is controlled by interfacial attachment of Al, and that

  6. Theory and modeling of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials: Solute segregation, grain growth and phase transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning

    2005-11-01

    To accurately predict microstructure evolution and, hence, to synthesis metal and ceramic alloys with desirable properties involves many fundamental as well as practical issues. In the present study, novel theoretical and phase field approaches have been developed to address some of these issues including solute drag and segregation transition at grain boundaries and dislocations, grain growth in systems of anisotropic boundary properties, and precipitate microstructure development in polycrystalline materials. The segregation model has allowed for the prediction of a first-order segregation transition, which could be related to the sharp transition of solute concentration of grain boundary as a function of temperature. The incorporating of interfacial energy and mobility as functions of misorientation and inclination in the phase field model has allowed for the study of concurrent grain growth and texture evolution. The simulation results were analyzed using the concept of local grain boundary energy density, which simplified significantly the development of governing equations for texture controlled grain growth in Ti-6Al-4V. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques have been developed by incorporating thermodynamic and diffusivity databases. The models have been validated against DICTRA simulations in simple 1D problems and applied to simulate realistic microstructural evolutions in Ti-6Al-4V, including grain boundary a and globular a growth and sideplate development under both isothermal aging and continuous cooling conditions. The simulation predictions agree well with experimental observations.

  7. Modeling of the flow behavior of SAE 8620H combing microstructure evolution in hot forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobin; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng

    2017-10-01

    With the development of net-shape forming technology, hot forming process is widely applied to manufacturing gear parts, during which, materials suffer severe plastic distortion and microstructure changes continually. In this paper, to understand and model the flow behavior and microstructure evolution, SAE 8620H, a widely used gear steel, is selected as the object and the flow behavior and microstructure evolution are observed by an isothermal hot compression tests at 1273-1373 K with a strain rate of 0.1-10 s-1. Depending on the results of the compression test, a set of internal-state-variable based unified constitutive equations is put forward to describe the flow behavior and microstructure evaluation of SAE 8620H. Moreover, the evaluation of the dislocation density and the fraction of dynamic recrystallization based on the theory of thermal activation is modeled and reincorporated into the constitutive law. The material parameters in the constitutive model are calculated based on the measured flow stress and dynamic recrystallization fraction. The predicted flow stress under different deformation conditions has a good agreement with the measured results.

  8. Effects of pulsed dual-ion irradiation of microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packan, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of pulsed irradiation on the development of microstructure during Ni ion bombardment has been investigated in a simple austenitic alloy similar to type 316 stainless steel. Bombardment conditions were 10 dpa, 940 K, pulsing with equal on/off times of either 0.5 or 60 s, and the addition of 20 appM He/dpa to some specimens either by room temperature preimplantation or by dual-beam coimplantation. Particular care was taken to minimize thermal pulses from beam heating (to 0 C). The results show that pulsing has a subtle influence, and the effects on specific cavity parameters are complex. Pulsing produced a small increase in swelling in the helium-free case, but a slight decrease for helium-implanted specimens, and it seems to have counteracted the usual stimulative effects of helium on cavity nucleation

  9. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this initiative, funded by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, is to model, validate, and predict, with high fidelity, the microstructural evolution of third-generation high-refractory Ni-based disc superalloys during heat treating and service conditions. This initiative is a natural extension of the DARPA-AIM (Accelerated Insertion of Materials) initiative with GE/Pratt-Whitney and with other process simulation tools. Strong collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a key component of this initiative and the focus of this program is on industrially relevant disk alloys and heat treatment processes identified by GRC. Employing QuesTek s Computational Materials Dynamics technology and PrecipiCalc precipitation simulator, physics-based models are being used to achieve high predictive accuracy and precision. Combining these models with experimental data and probabilistic analysis, "virtual alloy design" can be performed. The predicted microstructures can be optimized to promote desirable features and concurrently eliminate nondesirable phases that can limit the reliability and durability of the alloys. The well-calibrated and well-integrated software tools that are being applied under the proposed program will help gas turbine disk alloy manufacturers, processing facilities, and NASA, to efficiently and effectively improve the performance of current and future disk materials.

  10. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1998-09-30

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  11. Texture and microstructure development during hot deformation of ME20 magnesium alloy: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Al-Samman, T.; Mu, S.; Gottstein, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Second phase precipitates in ME20 hindered activation of tensile twinning at 300 deg. C. → New off-basal sheet texture during c-axis compression at low Z conditions. → Ce amplifies the role of pyramidal -slip over prismatic slip at 0.3T m . → Prismatic slip becomes equally important to deformation at 0.6T m . → Accurate texture predictions using a cluster-type Taylor model with grain interaction. - Abstract: The influence of deformation conditions and starting texture on the microstructure and texture evolution during hot deformation of a commercial rare earth (RE)-containing magnesium alloy sheet ME20 was investigated and compared with a conventional Mg sheet alloy AZ31. For all the investigated conditions, the two alloys revealed obvious distinctions in the flow behavior and the development of texture and microstructure, which was primarily attributed to the different chemistry of the two alloys. The presence of precipitates in the fine microstructure of the ME20 sheet considerably increased the recrystallization temperature and suppressed tensile twinning. This gave rise to an uncommon Mg texture development during deformation. Texture simulation using an advanced cluster-type Taylor approach with consideration of grain interaction was employed to correlate the unique texture development in the ME20 alloy with the activation scenarios of different deformation modes.

  12. Nucleation and microstructure development in Cr-Mo-V tool steel during gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behúlová, M.; Grgač, P.; Čička, R.

    2017-11-01

    Nucleation studies of undercooled metallic melts are of essential interest for the understanding of phase selection, growth kinetics and microstructure development during their rapid non-equilibrium solidification. The paper deals with the modelling of nucleation processes and microstructure development in the hypoeutectic tool steel Ch12MF4 with the chemical composition of 2.37% C, 12.06 % Cr, 1.2% Mo, 4.0% V and balance Fe [wt. %] in the process of nitrogen gas atomization. Based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation, the nucleation temperature of molten rapidly cooled spherical particles from this alloy with diameter from 40 μm to 600 μm in the gas atomization process is calculated using various estimations of parameters influencing the nucleation process - the Gibbs free energy difference between solid and liquid phases and the solid/liquid interfacial energy. Results of numerical calculations are compared with experimentally measured nucleation temperatures during levitation experiments and microstructures developed in rapidly solidified powder particles from the investigated alloy.

  13. Accurate modeling and evaluation of microstructures in complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman

    2018-02-01

    Accurate characterization of heterogeneous materials is of great importance for different fields of science and engineering. Such a goal can be achieved through imaging. Acquiring three- or two-dimensional images under different conditions is not, however, always plausible. On the other hand, accurate characterization of complex and multiphase materials requires various digital images (I) under different conditions. An ensemble method is presented that can take one single (or a set of) I(s) and stochastically produce several similar models of the given disordered material. The method is based on a successive calculating of a conditional probability by which the initial stochastic models are produced. Then, a graph formulation is utilized for removing unrealistic structures. A distance transform function for the Is with highly connected microstructure and long-range features is considered which results in a new I that is more informative. Reproduction of the I is also considered through a histogram matching approach in an iterative framework. Such an iterative algorithm avoids reproduction of unrealistic structures. Furthermore, a multiscale approach, based on pyramid representation of the large Is, is presented that can produce materials with millions of pixels in a matter of seconds. Finally, the nonstationary systems—those for which the distribution of data varies spatially—are studied using two different methods. The method is tested on several complex and large examples of microstructures. The produced results are all in excellent agreement with the utilized Is and the similarities are quantified using various correlation functions.

  14. Microstructure-based constitutive modeling of TRIP steel: Prediction of ductility and failure modes under different loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.S.; Liu, W.N.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the ultimate ductility and failure modes of a commercial transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) 800 steel under different loading conditions with an advanced microstructure-based finite-element analysis. The representative volume element (RVE) for the TRIP 800 under examination is developed based on an actual microstructure obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The ductile failure of the TRIP 800 under different loading conditions is predicted in the form of plastic strain localization without any prescribed failure criteria for the individual phases. This indicates that the microstructure-level inhomogeneity of the various constituent phases can be the key factor influencing the final ductility of the TRIP 800 steel under different loading conditions. Comparisons of the computational results with experimental measurements suggest that the microstructure-based modeling approach accurately captures the overall macroscopic behavior of the TRIP 800 steel under different loading and boundary conditions.

  15. Modeling of Microstructure Evolution in Austenitic Stainless Steels Irradiated Under Light Water Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, J.; Stoller, R.E.; Was, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    A model for the development of microstructure during irradiation in fast reactors has been adapted for light water reactor (LWR) irradiation conditions (275 approximately 325 C, up to approximately10 dpa). The original model was based on the rate-theory, and included descriptions of the evolution of both dislocation loops and cavities. The model was modified by introducing in-cascade interstitial clustering, a term to account for the dose dependence of this clustering, and mobility of interstitial clusters. The purpose of this work was to understand microstructural development under LWR irradiation with a focus on loop nucleation and saturation of loop density. It was demonstrated that in-cascade interstitial clustering dominates loop nucleation in neutron irradiation in LWRS. Furthermore it was shown that the dose dependence of in-cascade interstitial clustering is needed to account for saturation behavior as commonly observed. Both quasi-steady-state (QSS) and non-steady-state (NSS) solutions to the rate equations were obtained. The difference between QSS and NSS treatments in the calculation of defect concentration is reduced at LWR temperature when in-cascade interstitial clustering dominates loop nucleation. The mobility of interstitial clusters was also investigated and its impact on loop density is to reduce the nucleation term. The ultimate goal of this study is to combine the evolution of microstructure and microchemistry together to account for the radiation damage in austenitic stainless steels

  16. A Mathematical Model to Capture Complex Microstructure Orientation on Insect Wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyle T Polet

    Full Text Available Microstructures on insect wings can promote directional drop shedding, and the local orientation of these structures is expected to facilitate drop removal. However, microstructures may exhibit very different orientations at different locations on the wing. Using the march fly Penthetria heteroptera, we propose that local orientation of small hairs (microtrichia reflects a balance of three nonexclusive strategies: (1 preventing water from becoming stuck in intervenous grooves (microtrichia point upslope, (2 shedding water off the wing as readily as possible (microtrichia point towards the nearest edge, and, (3 shedding water away from the body (microtrichia point distally. We present evidence for all three and show that local microtrichial orientation is seldom determined by any one factor. We develop a mathematical model that employs factor-specific weighting values determined via optimization. Our predictions are tested against the orientation of microtrichia randomly sampled from a P. heteroptera specimen. Using the best-fit weighting parameters, the model displays a median residual of 20°; no residual is greater than 46°. The model also reproduces qualitative aspects of microtrichial orientation, such as bifurcation midway between veins and convergence toward peaks. This strong correspondence between modelled and observed orientation supports the role of microtrichia as directional antiwetting devices and highlights the importance of considering both function and wing geometry to explain the organization of natural microstructure arrays.

  17. New Mechanistic Models of Long Term Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Evans, T. Matthew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Greaney, P. Alex [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2018-05-15

    The report describes the development of a discrete element method (DEM) based modeling approach to quantitatively predict deformation and failure of typical nickel based superalloys. A series of experimental data, including microstructure and mechanical property characterization at 600°C, was collected for a relatively simple, model solid solution Ni-20Cr alloy (Nimonic 75) to determine inputs for the model and provide data for model validation. Nimonic 75 was considered ideal for this study because it is a certified tensile and creep reference material. A series of new DEM modeling approaches were developed to capture the complexity of metal deformation, including cubic elastic anisotropy and plastic deformation both with and without strain hardening. Our model approaches were implemented into a commercially available DEM code, PFC3D, that is commonly used by engineers. It is envisioned that once further developed, this new DEM modeling approach can be adapted to a wide range of engineering applications.

  18. Microstructural development during laser cladding of low-C martensitic stainless steel.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat input plays an important role in the microstructural development of 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel. The microstructure of low-C 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel resulting from laser cladding was investigated. For 410L a ferritic...

  19. Micro-Structural Evolution and Size-Effects in Plastically Deformed Single Crystals: Strain Gradient Continuum Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah

    the macroscopic effects related to strain gradients, most predict smooth micro-structures. The evolution of dislocation micro-structures, during plastic straining of ductile crystalline materials, is highly complex and nonuniform. Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct......An extensive amount of research has been devoted to the development of micro-mechanics based gradient plasticity continuum theories, which are necessary for modeling micron-scale plasticity when large spatial gradients of plastic strain appear. While many models have proven successful in capturing...... strain. It is clear that many challenges are associated with modeling dislocation structures, within a framework based on continuum fields, however, since the strain gradient effects are attributed to the dislocation micro-structure, it is a natural step, in the further development of gradient theories...

  20. Laser-induced microstructural development and phase evolution in magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.L.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase evolution caused by laser processing was firstly reported. • Microstructure development was controlled by heat flow thermodynamics and kinetics. • Solid-state transformation resulted in submicron and nano-scale precipitates. • Cluster-shaped particles in overlapped region were due to precipitation coarsening. • Properties of materials can be tailored selectively by laser processing. -- Abstract: Secondary phase plays an important role in determining microstructures and properties of magnesium alloys. This paper focuses on laser-induced microstructure development and secondary phase evolution in AZ91D Mg alloy studied by SEM, TEM and EDS analyses. Compared to bulk shape and lamellar structure of the secondary phase in as-received cast material, rapid-solidified microstructures with various morphologies including nano-precipitates were observed in laser melt zone. Formation mechanisms of microstructural evolution and effect of phase development on surface properties were further discussed

  1. A 2-DOF microstructure-dependent model for the coupled torsion/bending instability of rotational nanoscanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keivani, M.; Abadian, N.; Koochi, A.; Mokhtari, J.; Abadyan, M.

    2016-10-01

    It has been well established that the physical performance of nanodevices might be affected by the microstructure. Herein, a two-degree-of-freedom model base on the modified couple stress theory is developed to incorporate the impact of microstructure in the torsion/bending coupled instability of rotational nanoscanner. Effect of microstructure dependency on the instability parameters is determined as a function of the microstructure parameter, bending/torsion coupling ratio, van der Waals force parameter and geometrical dimensions. It is found that the bending/torsion coupling substantially affects the stable behavior of the scanners especially those with long rotational beam elements. Impact of microstructure on instability voltage of the nanoscanner depends on coupling ratio and the conquering bending mode over torsion mode. This effect is more highlighted for higher values of coupling ratio. Depending on the geometry and material characteristics, the presented model is able to simulate both hardening behavior (due to microstructure) and softening behavior (due to torsion/bending coupling) of the nanoscanners.

  2. Objective Characterization of Snow Microstructure for Microwave Emission Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Kim, Edward J.; Molotch, Noah P.; Margulis, Steven A.; Courville, Zoe; Malzler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave (PM) measurements are sensitive to the presence and quantity of snow, a fact that has long been used to monitor snowcover from space. In order to estimate total snow water equivalent (SWE) within PM footprints (on the order of approx 100 sq km), it is prerequisite to understand snow microwave emission at the point scale and how microwave radiation integrates spatially; the former is the topic of this paper. Snow microstructure is one of the fundamental controls on the propagation of microwave radiation through snow. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the prospects for driving the Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks with objective measurements of snow specific surface area to reproduce measured brightness temperatures when forced with objective measurements of snow specific surface area (S). This eliminates the need to treat the grain size as a free-fit parameter.

  3. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Fernandez, Julian R.; Monti, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo 3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, Al Mo and Mo Al , as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair Al Mo +Mo Al , in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al 5 Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author) [es

  4. Key Factors Influencing the Energy Absorption of Dual-Phase Steels: Multiscale Material Model Approach and Microstructural Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2018-06-01

    The increase in use of dual-phase (DP) steel grades by vehicle manufacturers to enhance crash resistance and reduce body car weight requires the development of a clear understanding of the effect of various microstructural parameters on the energy absorption in these materials. Accordingly, DP steelmakers are interested in predicting the effect of various microscopic factors as well as optimizing microstructural properties for application in crash-relevant components of vehicle bodies. This study presents a microstructure-based approach using a multiscale material and structure model. In this approach, Digimat and LS-DYNA software were coupled and employed to provide a full micro-macro multiscale material model, which is then used to simulate tensile tests. Microstructures with varied ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, and carbon content in DP steels were studied. The impact of these microstructural features at different strain rates on energy absorption characteristics of DP steels is investigated numerically using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. The model is implemented in a multiscale finite-element framework. A comprehensive statistical parametric study using response surface methodology is performed to determine the optimum microstructural features for a required tensile toughness at different strain rates. The simulation results are validated using experimental data found in the literature. The developed methodology proved to be effective for investigating the influence and interaction of key microscopic properties on the energy absorption characteristics of DP steels. Furthermore, it is shown that this method can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions at different strain-rate conditions.

  5. A microstructurally based fracture model for nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the physical basis of, and assumptions behind, a fracture model for nuclear graphites. Microstructurally related inputs, such as filler particle size, filler particle fracture toughness (K Ic ), density, pore size distribution, number of pores and specimen geometry (size and volume), are utilized in the model. The model has been applied to two graphites, Great Lakes Carbon Corporation grade H-451 and Toyo Tanso grade IG-110. For each graphite, the predicted tensile failure probabilities are compared with experimental data generated using ASTM Standard C-749 tensile test specimens. The predicted failure probabilities are in close agreement with the experimental data, particularly in the case of the H-451. The model is also shown to qualitatively predict the influence on the failure probabilities of changes in filler particle size, density, pore size, pore size distribution, number of pores and specimen geometry (stressed volume). The good performance is attributed to the sound physical basis of the model, which recognizes the dominant role of porosity in controlling crack initiation and propagation during graphite fracture. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  6. Development of microstructure to optimise mechanical performance of power generation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.

    1986-11-01

    The factors responsible for the development of microstructure in CEGB construction ceramics and steels is assessed as a function of composition, thermomechanical treatment, thermal ageing and environmental degradation. The relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties (tensile, toughness, creep and fatigue) of relevance to structures operating in power generation equipment is then developed in quantitative terms. The conclusions from the assessment are as follows: 1 The relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of construction ceramics and steels used in the power generation industry has been assessed. 2 Factors which significantly influence microstructure and thus mechanical properties are chemical composition, thermomechanical treatment, ageing and environmental degradation. The influence of such microstructural changes in tensile, toughness, fatigue and creep properties of ceramics and steels is assessed. 3 The benefits arising from an understanding of materials behaviour are discussed in terms of improved materials and the assessment of plant performance. (author)

  7. Modeling Financial Time Series Based on a Market Microstructure Model with Leverage Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic market microstructure model specifies that the price/return innovation and the volatility innovation are independent Gaussian white noise processes. However, the financial leverage effect has been found to be statistically significant in many financial time series. In this paper, a novel market microstructure model with leverage effects is proposed. The model specification assumed a negative correlation in the errors between the price/return innovation and the volatility innovation. With the new representations, a theoretical explanation of leverage effect is provided. Simulated data and daily stock market indices (Shanghai composite index, Shenzhen component index, and Standard and Poor’s 500 Composite index via Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method are used to estimate the leverage market microstructure model. The results verify the effectiveness of the model and its estimation approach proposed in the paper and also indicate that the stock markets have strong leverage effects. Compared with the classical leverage stochastic volatility (SV model in terms of DIC (Deviance Information Criterion, the leverage market microstructure model fits the data better.

  8. Human eye cataract microstructure modeling and its effect on simulated retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Shuang; Chang, Chung-Hao; Horng, Chi-Ting; Yao, Hsin-Yu; Sun, Han-Ying; Huang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2017-02-01

    We designed a crystalline microstructure during cataract lesions and calculated the aberration value of the eye by using ray trace modeling to identify the corresponding spherical aberration, coma aberration, and trefoil aberration value under different pathological-change degrees. The mutual relationship between microstructure and aberration was then discussed using these values. Calculation results showed that with increased layer number of microstructure, the influence of aberration value on spherical aberration was the greatest. In addition, the influence of a relatively compact microstructure on spherical aberration and coma aberration was small, but that on trefoil aberration was great.

  9. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response

  10. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  11. Multi-scale damage modelling in a ceramic matrix composite using a finite-element microstructure meshfree methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The problem of multi-scale modelling of damage development in a SiC ceramic fibre-reinforced SiC matrix ceramic composite tube is addressed, with the objective of demonstrating the ability of the finite-element microstructure meshfree (FEMME) model to introduce important aspects of the microstructure into a larger scale model of the component. These are particularly the location, orientation and geometry of significant porosity and the load-carrying capability and quasi-brittle failure behaviour of the fibre tows. The FEMME model uses finite-element and cellular automata layers, connected by a meshfree layer, to efficiently couple the damage in the microstructure with the strain field at the component level. Comparison is made with experimental observations of damage development in an axially loaded composite tube, studied by X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation. Recommendations are made for further development of the model to achieve greater fidelity to the microstructure. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242308

  12. A model problem concerning ionic transport in microstructured solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2015-11-01

    We consider ionic transport by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is determined by homogenizing the relevant field equations via the notion ofmulti-scale convergence. The resulting homogenized response involves several effective tensors, but they all require the solution of just one standard conductivity problem over the representative volume element. A multi-scale model for semicrystalline polymer electrolytes with spherulitic morphologies is derived by applying the theory to a specific class of two-dimensional microgeometries for which the effective response can be computed exactly. An enriched model accounting for a random dispersion of filler particles with interphases is also derived. In both cases, explicit expressions for the effective material parameters are provided. The models are used to explore the effect of crystallinity and filler content on the overall response. Predictions support recent experimental observations on doped poly-ethylene-oxide systems which suggest that the anisotropic crystalline phase can actually support faster ion transport than the amorphous phase along certain directions dictated by the morphology of the polymeric chains. Predictions also support the viewpoint that ceramic fillers improve ionic conductivity and cation transport number via interphasial effects.

  13. Microstructure and texture development of 7075 alloy during homogenisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Ghosh, Manojit

    2018-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy during homogenisation was studied by optical microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction in detailed. It has been found that primary cast structure consisted of primary α (Al), lamellar eutectic structure η Mg(Zn, Cu, Al)2 and a small amount of θ (Al2Cu) phase. A transformation of primary eutectic phase from η Mg(Zn, Cu, Al)2 to S (Al2CuMg) was observed after 6 h of homogenisation treatment. The volume fraction of dendrite network structure and intermetallic phase was decreased with increase in holding time and finally disappeared after 96 h of homogenisation, which is consistent with the results of homogenisation kinetic analysis. Crystallographic texture of this alloy after casting and 96 h of homogenisation was also studied. It was found that casting process led the development of strong Goss, Brass, P and CuT components, while after homogenisation Cube, S and Copper components became predominant. Mechanical tests revealed higher hardness, yield strength and tensile strength for cast materials compared to homogenised alloys due to the presence of coarse micro-segregation of MgZn2 phase. The significant improvement of ductility was observed after 96-h homogenisation, which was attributed to dissolution of second phase particles and grain coarsening. Fracture surfaces of the cast samples indicated the presence of shrinkage porosity and consequently failure occurred in the interdendritic regions or grain boundaries with brittle mode, while homogenised alloys failed under ductile mode as evident by the presence of fine dimple surfaces.

  14. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugé, Lauriane; Pong, Alice C.; Bongers, Andre; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E.; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P hydrocephalus development. PMID:26848844

  15. Microstructure development in Kolmogorov, Johnson-Mehl, and Avrami nucleation and growth kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Eloi; Crespo, Daniel

    1999-08-01

    A statistical model with the ability to evaluate the microstructure developed in nucleation and growth kinetics is built in the framework of the Kolmogorov, Johnson-Mehl, and Avrami theory. A populational approach is used to compute the observed grain-size distribution. The impingement process which delays grain growth is analyzed, and the effective growth rate of each population is estimated considering the previous grain history. The proposed model is integrated for a wide range of nucleation and growth protocols, including constant nucleation, pre-existing nuclei, and intermittent nucleation with interface or diffusion-controlled grain growth. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving quantitative agreement even in cases where previous models fail.

  16. Theoretical modeling of cellular and dendritic solidification microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younggil

    In this dissertation, we use three-dimensional (3D) phase-field (PF) modeling to investigate (i) 3D solid-liquid interface dynamics observed in microgravity experiments, and (ii) array patterns in a thin-sample geometry. In addition, using the two-dimensional (2D) dendritic-needle-network (DNN) model, we explore (iii) secondary sidebranching dynamics. Recently, solidification experiments are carried out in the DSI (Directional Solidification Insert) of the DECLIC (Device for the study of Critical LIquids and Crystallization) facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Thus, the directional solidification experiments are achieved under limited convective currents, and the experimental observations reveal unique dynamics of 3D microstructure in a purely diffusive growth regime. In this directional solidification setup, a temperature field between heat sources could evolve due to two main factors: (i) heat transfer within an adiabatic zone and (ii) latent heat rejection at the interface. These two thermal effects are phenomenologically characterized using a time-dependent thermal shift. In addition, we could quantitatively account for these thermal factors using a numerical calculation of the evolution of temperature field. We introduce these phenomenological and quantitative thermal representations into the PF model. The performed simulations using different thermal descriptions are compared to the experimental measurements from the initial planar interface dynamics to the final spacing selection. The DECLIC-DSI experimental observations exhibit complex grain boundary (GB) dynamics between large grains with a small misorientation. In the observations, several large grains with a small misorientation with respect to the temperature gradient are formed during solidification. Specifically, at a convergent GB, a localized group of misoriented cells penetrates into a nearby grain, which yields the morphological instability of grain boundaries. Remarkably, while

  17. Microstructure development of welding joints in high Cr ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubushiro, Keiji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morishima, Keiko [IHI Corporation (Japan). Research Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Creep failure in high Cr ferritic steels welding joints are Type IV failure. Type IV-failure was ruptured in fine grained region of heat affected zone, microstructure and phase transformation process at welding in fine grained region were very important to clarify. Microstructure difference of heat affected zone was investigated in Gr.91, Gr.92, Gr.122 welding joint. The fraction of 60 degree block boundary, packet boundary, random boundary (including prior gamma boundary) length was compared in three ferritic steels by EBSP(Electron Backscatter Diffraction Pattern) analysis. HAZ was almost fully martensite phase in Gr.122 weld joint. On the other hand, HAZ in Gr.91 welding joint were some equiaxial grain and martensite structure. (orig.)

  18. Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, A Model for the Microstruc- ture of Some Advanced Bainitic Steels , Mater. Trans., 1991, 32, p 689–696 19. G.J. Davies and J.G. Garland...REPORT Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding Report Title ABSTRACT A fully coupled (two-way

  19. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mengwu; Xiong Shoumei

    2012-01-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  20. Microstructural development during the quenching and partitioning process in a newly designed low-carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santofimia, M.J., E-mail: m.j.santofimianavarro@tudelft.nl [Materials Innovation Institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Zhao, L. [Materials Innovation Institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Petrov, R. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Kwakernaak, C.; Sloof, W.G.; Sietsma, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of the microstructural development of a new quenching and partitioning (Q and P) steel. Q and P treatments, starting from full austenitization, were applied to the developed steel, leading to microstructures containing volume fractions of retained austenite of up to 0.15. The austenite was distributed as films in between the martensite laths. Analysis demonstrates that, in this material, stabilization of austenite can be achieved at significantly shorter time scales via the Q and P route than is possible via a bainitic isothermal holding. The results showed that the thermal stabilization of austenite during the partitioning step is not necessarily accompanied by a significant expansion of the material. This implies that the process of carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite occurs across low-mobility martensite-austenite interfaces. The amount of martensite formed during the first quench has been quantified. Unlike martensite formed in the final quench, this martensite was found to be tempered during partitioning. Measured volume fractions of retained austenite after different treatments were compared with simulations using model descriptions for carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite. Simulation results confirmed that the carbon partitioning takes place at low-mobility martensite-austenite interfaces.

  1. Microstructure evolution during cyclic tests on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. TEM observation and modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giordana, M. F.; Giroux, P. F.; Alvarez; Armas, I.; Sauzay, M.; Armas, A.; Kruml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 550, JUL (2012), s. 103-111 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : martensitic steels * softening behaviour * microstructural evolution * modelling Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.108, year: 2012

  2. Biophysical modeling of high field diffusion MRI demonstrates micro-structural aberration in chronic mild stress rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Chuhutin, Andrey; Wiborg, Ove

    2016-01-01

    anhedonia is considered to be a realistic model of depression in studies of animal subjects. Stereological and neuronal tracing techniques have demonstrated persistent remodeling of microstructure in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMS brains. Recent developments in diffusion MRI (d...... microstructure in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen and amygdala regions of CMS rat brains by comparison to brains from normal controls. To validate findings of CMS induced microstructural alteration, histology was performed to determine neurite, nuclear and astrocyte density. d-MRI based...... neurite density and tensor-based mean kurtosis (MKT) were significantly higher, while mean diffusivity (MD), extracellular diffusivity (Deff) and intra-neurite diffusivity(DL) were significantly lower in the amygdala of CMS rat brains. Deff was also significantly lower in the hippocampus and caudate...

  3. Effect of grain morphology on gas bubble swelling in UMo fuels – A 3D microstructure dependent Booth model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang, E-mail: shenyang.hu@pnnl.gov; Burkes, Douglas; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet

    2016-11-15

    A three dimensional microstructure dependent swelling model is developed for studying the fission gas swelling kinetics in irradiated nuclear fuels. The model is extended from the Booth model [1] in order to investigate the effect of heterogeneous microstructures on gas bubble swelling kinetics. As an application of the model, the effect of grain morphology, fission gas diffusivity, and spatially dependent fission rate on swelling kinetics are simulated in UMo fuels. It is found that the decrease of grain size, the increase of grain aspect ratio for the grain having the same volume, and the increase of fission gas diffusivity (fission rate) cause the increase of swelling kinetics. Other heterogeneities such as second phases and spatially dependent thermodynamic properties including diffusivity of fission gas, sink and source strength of defects could be naturally integrated into the model to enhance the model capability.

  4. Concurrent multiscale modeling of microstructural effects on localization behavior in finite deformation solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Coleman N.; Foulk, James W.; Mota, Alejandro; Lim, Hojun; Littlewood, David J.

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multiscale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J2 plasticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this study, the framework is applied to model incipient localization in tensile specimens during necking.

  5. Methods and apparatuses for the development of microstructured nuclear fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos, NM; Carroll, David W [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David J [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-04-21

    Microstructured nuclear fuel adapted for nuclear power system use includes fissile material structures of micrometer-scale dimension dispersed in a matrix material. In one method of production, fissile material particles are processed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fluidized-bed reactor including a gas inlet for providing controlled gas flow into a particle coating chamber, a lower bed hot zone region to contain powder, and an upper bed region to enable powder expansion. At least one pneumatic or electric vibrator is operationally coupled to the particle coating chamber for causing vibration of the particle coater to promote uniform powder coating within the particle coater during fuel processing. An exhaust associated with the particle coating chamber and can provide a port for placement and removal of particles and powder. During use of the fuel in a nuclear power reactor, fission products escape from the fissile material structures and come to rest in the matrix material. After a period of use in a nuclear power reactor and subsequent cooling, separation of the fissile material from the matrix containing the embedded fission products will provide an efficient partitioning of the bulk of the fissile material from the fission products. The fissile material can be reused by incorporating it into new microstructured fuel. The fission products and matrix material can be incorporated into a waste form for disposal or processed to separate valuable components from the fission products mixture.

  6. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  7. Phase-field model and its numerical solution for coring and microstructure evolution studies in alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Dorr, Milo R.; Wickett, Michael E.; Belak, James F.

    2011-03-01

    We describe an algorithm for the numerical solution of a phase-field model (PFM) of microstructure evolution in alloys using physical parameters from thermodynamic (CALPHAD) and kinetic databases. The coupled system of PFM equations includes a local order parameter, a quaternion representation of local crystal orientation and a species composition parameter. Time evolution of microstructures and alloy composition is obtained using an implicit time integration of the system. Physical parameters in databases can be obtained either through experiment or first-principles calculations. Application to coring studies and microstructure evolution of Au-Ni will be presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344

  8. Microstructure-sensitive Crystal Viscoplasticity for Ni-base Superalloys Targeting Long-term Creep-Fatigue Interaction Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Richard W.

    2017-09-30

    The aim of this project is to develop a microstructure-sensitive crystal viscoplasticity (CVP) model for single-crystal Ni-base superalloys to model the behavior of the material and components in the hot gas path sections of industrial gas turbines (IGT). Microstructure degradation associated with aging critical to predicting long-term creep-fatigue interactions will be embedded into the model through the γ' precipitate morphology evolution by coupling the coarsening drivers and kinetics into the constitutive equations of the CVP model. Model parameters will be determined using new experimental protocols that involve systematically artificially aging the alloy under different stress conditions to determine the relationship between the size and morphology g' precipitates on the creep and thermomechanical fatigue response.

  9. Microstructure-sensitive Crystal Viscoelasticity for Ni-base Superalloys Targeting Long-term Creep-Fatigue Interaction Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Richard W

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this project is to develop a microstructure-sensitive crystal viscoplasticity (CVP) model for single-crystal Ni-base superalloys to model the behavior of the material and components in the hot gas path sections of industrial gas turbines (IGT). Microstructure degradation associated with aging critical to predicting long-term creep-fatigue interactions will be embedded into the model through the γ' precipitate morphology evolution by coupling the coarsening drivers and kinetics into the constitutive equations of the CVP model. Model parameters will be determined using new experimental protocols that involve systematically artificially aging the alloy under different stress conditions to determine the relationship between the size and morphology g' precipitates on the creep and thermomechanical fatigue response.

  10. Modeling of AA5083 Material-Microstructure Evolution During Butt Friction-Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Yalavarthy, H. V.; He, T.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2010-07-01

    A concise yet a fairly comprehensive overview of the friction stir welding (FSW) process is provided. This is followed by a computational investigation in which FSW behavior of a prototypical solution-strengthened and strain-hardened aluminum alloy, AA5083-H131, is modeled using a fully coupled thermo-mechanical finite-element procedure developed in our prior study. Particular attention is given to proper modeling of the welding work-piece material behavior during the FSW process. Specifically, competition and interactions between plastic-deformation and dynamic-recrystallization processes are considered to properly account for the material-microstructure evolution in the weld nugget zone. The results showed that with proper modeling of the material behavior under high-temperature/severe-plastic-deformation conditions, significantly improved agreement can be attained between the computed and measured post-FSW residual-stress and material-strength distribution results.

  11. Microstructure development in RuO2-glass thick-film resistors and its effect on the electrical resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Iizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    Microstructure development in RuO 2 -glass thick-film resistors has been studied by optical microscopy with special emphasis on the effect of glass particle size and mixing and firing conditions. The microstructure development has been characterized by the coalescence of glass grains, infiltration of glass into RuO 2 particle aggregates, and agglomeration of RuO 2 particles. The resistivity-firing temperature relationship has been correlated with the microstructure development

  12. 3D Microstructure Modeling of Porous Metal Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Čapek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2012), s. 344-352 ISSN 2075-4701. [International Conference on Porous Metals and Metallic Foams /7./. Busan, 18.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1206; GA ČR GA203/09/1353 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : porous metal filter * stochastic reconstruction * microstructural descriptors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Microstructure-Sensitive Modeling of High Cycle Fatigue (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    liquid nitrogen bath to obtain complete martensitic transformation at the surface. This is followed by tempering at 500°C for 1.5 hours to achieve...microstructure of martensite [38-42] and the scales over which process-induced strengthening effects are realized in components, it is quite challenging to...Deformation and fracture in martensitic carbon steels tempered at low temperatures. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and

  14. GMM - a general microstructural model for qualitative and quantitative studies of smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Hoekmark, H.

    1990-12-01

    A few years ago an attempt was made to accommodate a number of basic ideas on the fabric and interparticle forces that are assumed to be valid in montmorillonite clay in an integrated microstructural model and this resulted in an SKB report on 'Outlines of models of water and gas flow through smectite clay buffers'. This model gave reasonable agreement between predicted hydraulic conductivity values and actually recorded ones for room temperature and porewater that is poor in electrolytes. The present report describes an improved model that also accounts for effects generated by salt porewater and heating, and that provides a basis for both quantitative determination of transport capacities in a more general way, and also for analysis and prediction of rheological behaviour in bulk. It has been understood very early by investigators in this scientific field that full understanding of the physical state of porewater is asked for in order to make it possible to develop models for clay particle interaction. In particular, a deep insight in the nature of the interlamellar water and of the hydration mechanisms leading to an equilibrium state between the two types of water, and of forcefields in matured smectite clay, requires very qualified multi-discipline research and attempts have been made by the senior author to initiate and coordinate such work in the last 30 years. Despite this effort it has not been possible to get an unanimous understanding of these things but a number of major features have become more clear through the work that we have been able to carry out in the current SKB research work. Thus, NMR studies and precision measurements of the density of porewater as well as comprehensive electron microscopy and rheological testing in combination with application of stochastical mechanics, have led to the hypothetical microstructural model - the GMM - presented in this report. (au)

  15. Microstructural modeling of fatigue fracture of shape memory alloys at thermomechanical cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Fedor S.; Evard, Margarita E.; Volkov, Aleksandr E.

    2018-05-01

    A microstructural model of shape memory alloys (SMA) describing their deformation and fatigue fracture is presented. A new criterion of fracture has been developed which takes into account the effect of hydrostatic pressure, deformation defects and material damage. It is shown that the model can describe the fatigue fracture of SMA under various thermomechanical cycling regimes. Results of calculating the number of cycles to failure at thermocycling under a constant stress, at symmetric two-sided cyclic deformation, at straining-unloading cycles, at cycling in the regime of the thermodynamic cycles of a SMA working body in the hard (strain controlled) and soft (stress controlled) working cycles, is studied. Results of calculating the number of cycles to failure are presented for different parameters of these cycles.

  16. Effect of the microstructure on the creep behavior of PM Udimet 720 superalloy--experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, Sophie; Couturier, Raphaeel; Guetaz, Laure; Burlet, Helene

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy processed Udimet 720 is a high creep strength nickel-based superalloy considered for high temperature turbine disks for nuclear gas cooled reactors working under 700 deg. C. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained microstructures have been obtained by applying respectively a subsolvus or a supersolvus solution treatments, followed by ageing treatments. In both microstructures, the distribution of the strengthening γ' precipitates has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The creep curves of the coarse-grained microstructure show the three usual creep stages. On the contrary, the creep curves of the fine-grained microstructure show a transition directly from primary to apparent tertiary creep without any obvious steady state. According to TEM analyses, Orowan loops surround Udimet 720 CR γ' and U720 HS γ' at high stress whereas U720 HS γ' are sheared at low stress. To describe the behavior of the superalloy Udimet 720, a specific creep model is developed on the basis of McLean and Dyson models including physical damage parameters

  17. Microstructural development in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.J.; Baek, E.R.; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    TEM is used to investigate microstructural development in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy. The as-cast microstructure of a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy was found to vary depending on casting conditions and also through the thickness of ribbon. For completely Zone A ribbon, intercellular phase consists of a microquasi-crystalline phase, while for the Zone A and Zone B mixed ribbon, it consists of a silicide phase. In either case, formation of globular particles of a cluster microquasi-crystalline phase is observed near the air side of the ribbon. Annealing study shows significant differences in the final microstructure depending on the initial status of the ribbon. Completely Zone A ribbon, whose microstructure is composed of a microquasi-crystalline phase, results in a very coarse microstructure after annealing as compared to the Zone A and Zone B mixed ribbon. This result has important implications for the development of high-performance elevated-temperature Al alloys. 12 refs

  18. Development and Implementation of Discrete Polymeric Microstructural Cues for Applications in Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, James Richardson

    Chronic fibrosis caused by acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiac dysfunction. Despite care in the acute setting of MI, subsequent development of scar tissue and a lack of treatments for this maladaptive response lead to a poor prognosis. This has increased burdens on the cost of healthcare due to chronic disability. Here a novel therapeutic strategy that aims to mitigate myocardial fibrosis by utilizing injectable polymeric microstructural cues to attenuate the fibrotic response and improve functional outcomes is presented. Additionally, applications of integrated chemical functionalizations into discrete, micro-scale polymer structures are discussed in the realm of tissue engineering in order to impart enhancements in in vivo localization, three-dimensional manipulation and drug delivery. Polymeric microstructures, termed "microrods" and "microcubes", were fabricated using photolithographic techniques and studied in three-dimensional culture models of the fibrotic environment and by direct injection into the infarct zone of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In vitro gene expression and functional and histological results were analyzed, showing a dose-dependent down-regulation fibrotic indicators and improvement in cardiac function. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles and functionalized fluorocarbons were incorporated into the polymeric microdevices to promote in situ visualization by magnetic resonance imaging as well as to facilitate the manipulation and alignment of microstructural cues in a tissue-realistic environment. Lastly, successful encapsulation of native MGF peptide within microrods is demonstrated with release over two weeks as a proof of concept in the ability to locally deliver myogenic or supportive pharmacotherapeutics to the injured myocardium. This work demonstrates the efficacy and versatility of discrete microtopographical cues to attenuate the fibrotic response after MI and suggests a novel

  19. Evaluation of long-term creep-fatigue life of stainless steel weldment based on a microstructure degradation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai; Hasebe, Shinichi

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a newly developed analytical method of evaluation of creep-fatigue strength of stainless weld metals. Based on the observation that creep-fatigue crack initiates adjacent to the interface of sigma-phase/delta-ferrite and matrix, a mechanistic model which allows the evaluation of micro stress/strain concentration adjacent to the interface was developed. Fatigue and creep damage were evaluated using the model which describes the microstructure after exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Thus it was made possible to predict analytically the long-term creep-fatigue life of stainless steel metals whose microstructure is degraded as a result of high temperature service. (author)

  20. Hydrodynamic modeling of laser interaction with micro-structured targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velechovsky, Jan; Limpouch, Jiri; Liska, Richard; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A model is developed for numerical simulations of laser absorption in plasmas made of porous materials, with particular interest in low-density foams. Laser absorption is treated on two spatial scales simultaneously. At the microscale, the expansion of a thin solid pore wall is modeled in one dimension and the information obtained is used in the macroscale fluid simulations for the description of the plasma homogenization behind the ionization front. This two-scale laser absorption model is implemented in the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian hydrocode PALE. In conclusion, the numerical simulations of laser penetration into low-density foams compare favorably with published experimental data.

  1. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  2. Characterisation and modelling of the microstructural and mechanical evolution of a steam turbine rotor steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.

    2012-07-01

    This dissertation deals with the effective mechanical analysis of steam turbine parts which is not only required for the reliable and safe use of newly built steam turbines, but also for the remaining life assessment of components that have been exposed to service duty over long periods of time. This Thesis aims to develop a physically motivated evolutionary constitutive model for a low-alloy bainitic 2CrMoNiWV (23CrMoNiWV8-8) steam turbine rotor steels. A comprehensive experimental characterisation is performed concerning the mechanical and microstructural evolution of 2CrMoNiWV as subjected to low cycle fatigue (LCF) deformation at elevated temperatures, at different strain rates and for various strain amplitudes. This cyclic plastic deformation causes the rearrangement of dislocations in the microstructure of the steels used for such rotor applications. Symmetric, strain controlled LCF experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of the High Temperature Integrity Group at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology EMPA. These include mechanical tests in the temperature range between 20 °C to 600 °C at strain rates of 0.001%/s to 1.0%/s and strain amplitudes of ±0.25% to ±1.0%. The LCF experiments reported on comprehensively characterise the temperature, strain rate and strain amplitude dependent cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour of 2CrMoNiWV. Both complete single-specimen endurance tests and interrupted multi-specimen tests have been performed. On the basis of this experimental evidence, an evolutionary formulation of the model is further developed that excellently reproduces the strain amplitude dependent mechanical evolution of 2CrMoNiWV when subjected to LCF loading at different constant strain amplitudes but equal temperature and strain rate. The simulation of benchmark experiments introducing increasing or decreasing strain amplitude steps into the LCF deformation history provide promising results. A further important

  3. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weijun, E-mail: weijun.he@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zheng, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-02-27

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  4. Modelling of microstructural creep damage in welded joints of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, G.

    2000-01-01

    Welded joints of 316L stainless steel under service conditions at elevated temperature are known to be preferential sites of creep damage, as compared to the base material. This damage results in the formation of cavities and the development of creep cracks which can lead to a premature failure of welded components. The complex two-phase microstructure of 316L welds was simulated by manually filling a mould with longitudinal deposited weld beads. The moulded material was then aged during 2000 hours at 600 deg. C. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy was largely used to examine the microstructure of the simulated material before and after ageing. Smooth and notched creep specimens were cut from the mould and tested at 600 deg. C under various stress levels. A comparison of the lifetime versus nominal stress curves for the base and welded materials shows a greater dependence of the welded material to creep phenomena. Observation and EBSD analysis show that damage is preferentially located along the austenite grain boundaries. The stress and strain fields in the notched specimens were calculated by finite element method. A correlation of this field to the observed damage was made in order to propose a predictive law relating the creep damage to the mechanical conditions applied locally. Further mechanical tests and simulation on CT specimens and mode II tubular specimens allowed validating the model under various multiaxial loading conditions. (author)

  5. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weijun; Zheng, Li; Xin, Renlong; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  6. Creating physically-based three-dimensional microstructures: Bridging phase-field and crystal plasticity models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.

  7. Dynamics of multiphase systems with complex microstructure. I. Development of the governing equations through nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a general model for the dynamic behavior of multiphase systems in which the bulk phases and interfaces have a complex microstructure (for example, immiscible polymer blends with added compatibilizers, or polymer stabilized emulsions with thickening agents dispersed in the

  8. Microstructural model for the plasticity of amorphous solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hütter, M.; Breemen, van L.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of localized shear transformation zones (STZ), a thermodynamically consistent model for the viscoplastic deformation of amorphous solids is developed. The approach consists of a dynamic description of macroscopic viscoplasticity that is enriched by the evolution of number

  9. Towards a phase field model of the microstructural evolution of duplex steel with experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2012-01-01

    A phase field model to study the microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline dual-phase material with conserved phase fraction has been implemented, and 2D simulations have been performed. For 2D simulations, the model predicts the cubic growth well-known for diffusion-controlled systems. Some...... interphase boundaries are found to show a persistent non-constant curvature, which seems to be a feature of multi-phase materials. Finally, it is briefly outlined how this model is to be applied to investigate microstructural evolution in duplex steel. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland....

  10. Osteoporosis imaging: effects of bone preservation on MDCT-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters and finite element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Thomas; Grande Garcia, Eduardo; Burgkart, Rainer; Gordijenko, Olga; Liebl, Hans; Jungmann, Pia M.; Gruber, Michael; Zahel, Tina; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength due to a reduction of bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure predisposing an individual to an increased risk of fracture. Trabecular bone microstructure analysis and finite element models (FEM) have shown to improve the prediction of bone strength beyond bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. These computational methods have been developed and validated in specimens preserved in formalin solution or by freezing. However, little is known about the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM in human vertebrae. Four thoracic vertebrae were harvested from each of three fresh human cadavers (n = 12). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up. In the intervals between MDCT imaging, two vertebrae from each donor were formalin-fixed and frozen, respectively. BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters (histomorphometry and fractal dimension), and FEM-based apparent compressive modulus (ACM) were determined in the MDCT images and validated by mechanical testing to failure of the vertebrae after 6 months. Changes of BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM in formalin-fixed and frozen vertebrae over 6 months ranged between 1.0–5.6 % and 1.3–6.1 %, respectively, and were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM as assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up correlated significantly with mechanically determined failure load (r = 0.89–0.99; p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients r were not significantly different for the two preservation methods (p > 0.05). Formalin fixation and freezing up to six months showed no significant effects on trabecular bone microstructure

  11. Phase-field model simulation of ferroelectric/antiferroelectric materials microstructure evolution under multiphysics loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi

    Ferroelectric (FE) and closely related antiferroelectric (AFE) materials have unique electromechanical properties that promote various applications in the area of capacitors, sensors, generators (FE) and high density energy storage (AFE). These smart materials with extensive applications have drawn wide interest in the industrial and scientific world because of their reliability and tunable property. However, reliability issues changes its paradigms and requires guidance from detailed mechanism theory as the materials applications are pushed for better performance. A host of modeling work were dedicated to study the macro-structural behavior and microstructural evolution in FE and AFE material under various conditions. This thesis is focused on direct observation of domain evolution under multiphysics loading for both FE and AFE material. Landau-Devonshire time-dependent phase field models were built for both materials, and were simulated in finite element software Comsol. In FE model, dagger-shape 90 degree switched domain was observed at preexisting crack tip under pure mechanical loading. Polycrystal structure was tested under same condition, and blocking effect of the growth of dagger-shape switched domain from grain orientation difference and/or grain boundary was directly observed. AFE ceramic model was developed using two sublattice theory, this model was used to investigate the mechanism of energy efficiency increase with self-confined loading in experimental tests. Consistent results was found in simulation and careful investigation of calculation results gave confirmation that origin of energy density increase is from three aspects: self-confinement induced inner compression field as the cause of increase of critical field, fringe leak as the source of elevated saturation polarization and uneven defects distribution as the reason for critical field shifting and phase transition speed. Another important affecting aspect in polycrystalline materials is the

  12. The potential advantages of microstructure modeling of titanium to the aerospace industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, R.R.; Furrer, D.U.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-organization team across the entire titanium aerospace supply chain has been established to develop and implement modeling tools for the reduction of manufacturing lead-time and cost. This Air Force sponsored Metals Affordability Initiative (MAI) program is developing model tools capable of predicting the microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium alloys. The developed tools are intended to enable predicting the microstructure and texture evolution through wrought processing and heat treatment of ingot metallurgy titanium components, with a stronger emphasis on the latter stages of the processing. It will also take into account chemistry, including the composition of the individual phases during processing. Beta phase and primary alpha phase grain growth at temperature and during cooling along with morphological aspects will be taken into consideration.The success of this modeling effort could have a significant impact on the industry in terms of reducing cost and lead times of wrought products -- while this study is directed at forgings, there is no reason it would not be applicable to other product forms. Initial applications of these tools include the potential to reduce and in some cases eliminate certification testing presently done on forged or other components. There is also the potential for making a disposition on components with a metallurgical discrepancy without cutting up (sacrificing) a part(s), through the use of predictive tools. For parts where the property requirements are difficult to meet, these modeling tools could also enable one to determine the more critical parameters and concentrate efforts on controlling them, providing a more consistent product.In the longer term, titanium modeling tools could result in reduction of the lead time and cost of developing a new heat treatment or alloy to meet specific application requirements -- the models could be used to predict the proper aim chemistry, optimized chemistry limits, and

  13. Nd-Fe-B-Cu hot deformation processing: a comparison of deformation modes, microstructural development and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, M.; Sinka, V.; Assis, O.B.G.; Oliveira, I. de; Freitas, E. de

    1996-01-01

    Due to its relative simplicity and low cost the hot deformation of Nd-Fe-B ingots is rapidly reaching the status of a valid alternative to sintering. Among the possible deformation modes, pressing, rolling and forging are perhaps the most successful. This paper describes the research programme undertaken so far, by discussing the relationship between deformation mode, microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets produced by hot deformation mode, microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets produced by hot deformation of a number of Nd-fe-B-Cu alloys. Microstructural observation showed that both pressed and forged samples are characterized by a heterogeneous microstructure and from magnetic measurements it was concluded that magnetic properties differ when taken in the center or in the periphery of the sample. On the other hand roller magnets were homogeneous both in terms of microstructure and magnetic properties, and interpretations of the mechanisms of texture development and of microstructural development of hot deformed magnets is put forward. (author)

  14. 3D Microstructure Modeling of Porous Metal Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hejtmánek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a modified method of stochastic reconstruction of two porous stainless-steel filters. The description of their microstructures was based on a combination of the two-point probability function for the void phase and the lineal-path functions for the void and solid phases. The method of stochastic reconstruction based on simulated annealing was capable of reproducing good connectivity of both phases, which was confirmed by calculating descriptors of the local porosity theory. Theoretical values of permeability were compared with their experimental counterparts measured by means of quasi-stationary permeation of four inert gases.

  15. Microstructural analysis of geopolymer developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jailes de Santana; Mafra, Marcio Paulo de Araujo; Rabelo, Adriano Alves; Fagury, Renata Lilian Ribeiro Portugal; Fagury Neto, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Geopolymers are one of the widely discussed topics of materials science in recent times due to its vast potential as an alternative binder material to cement. This work aimed to evaluate the microstructure of geopolymers developed from wood fly ash, post-mortem doloma refractory and metakaolin. A preliminary study has been completed and achieved significant results compressive strength: the best formulation of geopolymer paste obtained approximately 25 MPa. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy, the geopolymer paste, allowed to verify the homogeneity, distribution of components, and providing evidence of raw materials that do not respond if there was crystalline phase, porosity and density of the structure. (author)

  16. Transport processes in directional solidification and their effects on microstructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Prantik

    The processing of materials with unique electronic, mechanical, optical and thermal properties plays a crucial role in modern technology. The quality of these materials depend strongly on the microstructures and the solute/dopant fields in the solid product, that are strongly influenced by the intricate coupling of heat and mass transfer and melt flow in the growth systems. An integrated research program is developed that include precisely characterized experiments and detailed physical and numerical modeling of the complex transport and dynamical processes. Direct numerical simulation of the solidification process is carried out that takes into account the unsteady thermo-solutal convection in the vertical Bridgman crystal growth system, and accurately models the thermal interaction between the furnace and the ampoule by appropriately using experimentally measured thermal profiles. The flow instabilities and transitions and the nonlinear evolution following the transitions are investigated by time series and flow pattern analysis. A range of complex dynamical behavior is predicted with increasing thermal Rayleigh number. The route to chaos appears as: steady convection --> transient mono-periodic --> transient bi-periodic --> transient quasiperiodic --> transient intermittent oscillation- relaxation --> stable intermittent oscillation-relaxation attractor. The spatio-temporal dynamics of the melt flow is found to be directly related to the spatial patterns observed experimentally in the solidified crystals. The application of the model to two phase Sn-Cd peritectic alloys showed that a new class of tree-like oscillating microstructure develops in the solid phase due to unsteady thermo-solutal convection in the liquid melt. These oscillating layered structures can give the illusion of band structures on a plane of polish. The model is applied to single phase solidification in the Al-Cu and Pb-Sn systems to characterize the effect of convection on the macroscopic

  17. Reassessment of the role of stress in development of radiation-induced microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Wolfer, W.G.; Brager, H.R.

    1978-10-01

    Data are now accumulating which clearly demonstrate that the stress state plays a strong role in the development of void and dislocation microstructure in metals during neutron irradiation. In these experiments the application of a tensile biaxial stress state at constant fluence and temperature has been found to lead to a progressively decreasing metal density with increasing stress. The effect of stress on the concurrent development of voids, Frank interstitial loops and dislocation networks has been studied with transmission electron microscopy. The results of these experiments clearly show that the densities of both Frank loops and voids are enhanced by a tensile stress field, with the relevant operating variable being the hydrostatic stress. More importantly it appears that any anisotropy in the stress field is reflected in a corresponding anisotropy that develops in the number of Frank loops that form on the various (111) planes. The loop density that develops on each plane exhibits a clear and direct dependence on the resolved normal stress component at each plane. Although the data from these experiments have been previously interpreted to support the existence of stress-assisted nucleation mechanisms for both loops and voids, further analysis has shown both of these explanations to be deficient in one or more respects, and both models have been replaced

  18. Microstructure evolution during homogenization of Al–Mn–Fe–Si alloys: Modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Poole, W.J.; Wells, M.A.; Parson, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of Al–Mn–Fe–Si, or AA3xxx, alloys has been investigated using a combination of modeling and experimental studies. The model is fully coupled to CALculation PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) software and has explicitly taken into account the two different length scales for diffusion encountered in modeling the homogenization process. The model is able to predict the evolution of all the important microstructural features during homogenization, including the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of dispersoids and alloying elements in solution, the dispersoid number density and the size distribution, and the type and fraction of intergranular constituent particles. Experiments were conducted using four direct chill (DC) cast AA3xxx alloys subjected to various homogenization treatments. The resulting microstructures were then characterized using a range of characterization techniques, including optical and electron microscopy, electron micro probe analysis, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, and electrical resistivity measurements. The model predictions have been compared with the experimental measurements to validate the model. Further, it has been demonstrated that the validated model is able to predict the effects of alloying elements (e.g. Si and Mn) on microstructure evolution. It is concluded that the model provides a time and cost effective tool in optimizing and designing industrial AA3xxx alloy chemistries and homogenization heat treatments

  19. An EBSD Evaluation of the Microstructure of Crept Nimonic 101 for the Validation of a Polycrystal-Plasticity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschka, S.; Munk, L.; Wriggers, P.; Maier, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Nimonic 101 is one of the early nickel-based superalloys developed for the use in gas turbines. In such environments, the material is exposed to a combination of both high temperatures and mechanical loads for a long duration. Hence, thermal creep is of the utmost concern as it often limits service life. This study focuses on creep tests, carried out on Nimonic 101 at different temperatures under a constant tensile load of 735 MPa. To characterize the microstructural evolution, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were employed before and after loading. At higher temperatures, a significant change of the microstructure was observed. The grains elongated and aligned their orientation along the load axis. In parallel, a crystal plasticity material model has been set up in the classical large deformation framework. Modeling results are compared to the acquired EBSD data.

  20. Multiscale modeling of the solidification microstructure evolution in the presence of ultrasonic stirring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastac, Laurentiu

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment (UST) was studied to improve the quality of cast ingots as well as to control the solidification microstructure evolution. Ultrasonically-induced cavitation consists of the formation of small cavities (bubbles) in the molten metal followed by their growth, pulsation and collapse. These cavities are created by the tensile stresses that are produced by acoustic waves in the rarefaction phase. The cavitation threshold pressure for nucleation of the bubbles may decrease with increasing the amount of dissolved gases and especially with the amount of inclusions in the melt. A UST model was developed to predict the ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming. The developed UST modeling approach is based on the numerical solution of Lilley model (that is founded on Lighthills's acoustic analogy), fluid flow, and heat transfer equations, and mesoscopic modeling of the grain structure. The UST model was applied to study the solidification of Al-based alloys) under the presence of ultrasound. It is found that the predicted ultrasonic cavitation region is relatively small, the acoustic streaming is strong and thus the created/survived bubbles/nuclei are transported into the bulk liquid quickly. The predicted grain size under UST condition is at least one order of magnitude lower than that without UST, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Longitudinal development of thalamic and internal capsule microstructure in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kristine; Travers, Brittany G; Dadalko, Olga I; Dean, Douglas C; Tromp, Do; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel; Freeman, Abigail; Prigge, Molly D; Froehlich, Alyson; Duffield, Tyler C; Zielinski, Brandon A; Bigler, Erin D; Lange, Nicholas; Anderson, Jeff S; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

    2018-03-01

    The thalamus is a key sensorimotor relay area that is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown how the thalamus and white-matter structures that contain thalamo-cortical fiber connections (e.g., the internal capsule) develop from childhood into adulthood and whether this microstructure relates to basic motor challenges in ASD. We used diffusion weighted imaging in a cohort-sequential design to assess longitudinal development of the thalamus, and posterior- and anterior-limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC and ALIC, respectively) in 89 males with ASD and 56 males with typical development (3-41 years; all verbal). Our results showed that the group with ASD exhibited different developmental trajectories of microstructure in all regions, demonstrating childhood group differences that appeared to approach and, in some cases, surpass the typically developing group in adolescence and adulthood. The PLIC (but not ALIC nor thalamus) mediated the relation between age and finger-tapping speed in both groups. Yet, the gap in finger-tapping speed appeared to widen at the same time that the between-group gap in the PLIC appeared to narrow. Overall, these results suggest that childhood group differences in microstructure of the thalamus and PLIC become less robust in adolescence and adulthood. Further, finger-tapping speed appears to be mediated by the PLIC in both groups, but group differences in motor speed that widen during adolescence and adulthood suggest that factors beyond the microstructure of the thalamus and internal capsule may contribute to atypical motor profiles in ASD. Autism Res 2018, 11: 450-462. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microstructure of the thalamus, a key sensory and motor brain area, appears to develop differently in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Microstructure is important because it informs us of the density and organization of different brain tissues. During

  2. Modeling transmission parameters of polymer microstructured fibers for applications in FTTH networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdula, P.; Welikow, K.; Szczepański, P.; Buczyński, R.; Piramidowicz, R.

    2011-10-01

    This paper is focused on selected aspects of designing and modeling of transmission parameters of plastic optical fibers (POFs), considered in the context of their potential applications in optical access networks and, specifically, in Fiber-To- The-Home (FTTH) systems. The survey of state-of-the-art solutions is presented and possibility of improving transmission properties of POFs by microstructurization is discussed on the basis of the first results of numerical modeling. In particular, the microstructured POF was designed supporting propagation of limited number of modes while keeping relatively large mode area and, simultaneously, significantly lowered bending losses.

  3. Wetting on micro-structured surfaces: modelling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea

    -patterns, and suggests that there is a balance between optimal wetting properties and mechanical robustness of the microposts. We subsequently analyse liquid spreading on surfaces patterned with slanted microposts. Such a geometry induces unidirectional liquid spreading, as observed in several recent experiments. Our...... liquid spreading and spontaneous drop removal on superhydrophobic surfaces. We do this by applying different numerical techniques, suited for the specific topic. We first consider superhydrophobicity, a condition of extreme water repellency associated with very large static contact angles and low roll......The present thesis deals with the wetting of micro-structured surfaces by various fluids, and its goal is to elucidate different aspects of this complex interaction. In this work we address some of the most relevant topics in this field such as superhydrophobicity, oleophobicity, unidirectional...

  4. Microstructure-based modelling of the long-term monotonic and cyclic creep of the martensitic steel X 20(22) CrMoV 12 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henes, D.; Straub, S.; Blum, W.; Moehlig, H.; Granacher, J.; Berger, C.

    1999-01-01

    The current state of development of the composite model of deformation of the martensitic steel X 20(22) CrMoV 12 1 under conditions of creep is briefly described. The model is able to reproduce differences in monotonic creep strength of different melts with slightly different initial microstructures and to simulate cyclic creep with alternating phases of tension and compression. (orig.)

  5. Influence of Microstructure Representation on Flow Stress and Grain Size Prediction in Through-Process Modeling of AA5182 Sheet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmar, Johannes; Bambach, Markus; Karhausen, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering is an up to date method for developing new materials and optimizing complete process chains. In the simulation of a process chain, material models play a central role as they capture the response of the material to external process conditions. While much effort is put into their development and improvement, less attention is paid to their implementation, which is problematic because the representation of microstructure in the model has a decisive influence on modeling accuracy and calculation speed. The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of different microstructure representation concepts on the prediction of flow stress and microstructure evolution when using the same set of material equations. Scalar, tree-based and cluster-based concepts are compared for a multi-stage rolling process of an AA5182 alloy. It was found that implementation influences the predicted flow stress and grain size, in particular in the regime of coupled hardening and softening.

  6. The effect of strain distribution on microstructural developments during forging in a newly developed nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.C. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Argyrakis, C.; Hardy, M.C. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Birosca, S., E-mail: 522042@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-27

    In the current study, the effect of strain distribution in a simple forging geometry on the propensity for recrystallization, and its impact on mechanical properties has been investigated in a newly developed experimental nickel-based superalloy. The new alloy was produced via a Powder Metallurgy (PM) route and was subsequently Hot Isostatic Processed (HIP), isothermally forged, and heat treated to produce a coarse grain microstructure with average grain size of 23–32 μm. The alloy was examined by means of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to characterise the microstructural features such as grain orientation and morphology, grain boundary characteristics and the identification of potential Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) throughout each stage of the processing route. Results at the central region of the cross-section plane parallel to the loading direction showed significant microstructural differences across the forging depth. This microstructural variation was found to be highly dependent on the value of local strain imparted during forging such that areas of low effective strain showed partial recrystallisation and a necklace grain structure was observed following heat treatment. Meanwhile, a fully recrystallised microstructure with no PPBs was observed in the areas of high strain values, in the central region of the forging.

  7. Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus dynamics in/on variable (micro)structures of fish-based model systems at suboptimal temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Maria; Verheyen, Davy; Cornette, Nicolas; Vercruyssen, Stijn; Van Impe, Jan F

    2017-01-02

    The limited knowledge concerning the influence of food (micro)structure on microbial dynamics decreases the accuracy of the developed predictive models, as most studies have mainly been based on experimental data obtained in liquid microbiological media or in/on real foods. The use of model systems has a great potential when studying this complex factor. Apart from the variability in (micro)structural properties, model systems vary in compositional aspects, as a consequence of their (micro)structural variation. In this study, different experimental food model systems, with compositional and physicochemical properties similar to fish patés, are developed to study the influence of food (micro)structure on microbial dynamics. The microbiological safety of fish products is of major importance given the numerous cases of salmonellosis and infections attributed to staphylococcus toxins. The model systems understudy represent food (micro)structures of liquids, aqueous gels, emulsions and gelled emulsions. The growth/inactivation dynamics and a modelling approach of combined growth and inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, related to fish products, are investigated in/on these model systems at temperatures relevant to fish products' common storage (4°C) and to abuse storage temperatures (8 and 12°C). ComBase (http://www.combase.cc/) predictions compared with the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) values estimated by the Baranyi and Roberts model in the current study indicated that the (micro)structure influences the microbial dynamics. Overall, ComBase overestimated microbial growth at the same pH, a w and storage temperature. Finally, the storage temperature had also an influence on how much each model system affected the microbial dynamics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Microstructural strength of tidal soils – a rheometric approach to develop pedotransfer functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoppe Nina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil stability, especially in visually comparable soils can occur due to microstructural processes and interactions. By investigating these microstructural processes with rheological investigations, it is possible to achieve a better understanding of soil behaviour from the mesoscale (soil aggregates to macroscale (bulk soil. In this paper, a rheological investigation of the factors influencing microstructural stability of riparian soils was conducted. Homogenized samples of Marshland soils from the riparian zone of the Elbe River (North Germany were analyzed with amplitude sweeps (AS under controlled shear deformation in a modular compact rheometer MCR 300 (Anton Paar, Germany at different matric potentials. A range physicochemical parameters were determined (texture, pH, organic matter, CaCO3 etc. and these factors were used to parameterize pedotransfer functions. The results indicate a clear dependence of microstructural elasticity on texture and water content. Although the influence of individual physicochemical factors varies depending on texture, the relevant features were identified taking combined effects into account. Thus, stabilizing factors are: organic matter, calcium ions, CaCO3 and pedogenic iron oxides; whereas sodium ions and water content represent structurally unfavorable factors. Based on the determined statistical relationships between rheological and physicochemical parameters, pedotransfer functions (PTF have been developed.

  9. Microstructural development and mechanical properties of iron based cermets processed by pressureless and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Van der Biest, O.; Vanmeensel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Processing of Fe-based cermets by pressureless sintering and spark plasma sintering. ► Influence of carbon content on the sintering mechanism and hardness. ► The cermet phase diagram was calculated and permits to explain the microstructure. ► SPS provides ferritic matrix and different carbide distribution than CPS samples. ► Pressureless sintered samples contain retained austenite at room temperature. - Abstract: Iron-based cermets are an interesting class of metal-ceramic composites in which properties and the factors influencing them are to be explored. In this work the metal matrix contains Cr, W, Mo and V as alloying elements, and the hard phase is constituted by 50 vol% of titanium carbonitride (TiCN) particles. The work studies the influence of the C content and the processing method on the sinterability, microstructure and hardness of the developed cermet materials. For that purpose, cermet samples with different C content in the matrix (0 wt%, 0.25 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt%) were prepared by conventional pressureless sintering (CPS) and, in order to achieve finer microstructures and to reduce the sintering time, by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density and hardness (HV30) of the processed materials was evaluated, while their phase composition and microstructure was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The equilibrium phase diagram of the composite material was calculated by ThermoCalc software in order to elucidate the influence of the carbon content on the obtained phases and developed microstructures.

  10. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  11. Microstructure representations for sound absorbing fibrous media: 3D and 2D multiscale modelling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tomasz G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes and investigates computationally-efficient microstructure representations for sound absorbing fibrous media. Three-dimensional volume elements involving non-trivial periodic arrangements of straight fibres are examined as well as simple two-dimensional cells. It has been found that a simple 2D quasi-representative cell can provide similar predictions as a volume element which is in general much more geometrically accurate for typical fibrous materials. The multiscale modelling allowed to determine the effective speeds and damping of acoustic waves propagating in such media, which brings up a discussion on the correlation between the speed, penetration range and attenuation of sound waves. Original experiments on manufactured copper-wire samples are presented and the microstructure-based calculations of acoustic absorption are compared with the corresponding experimental results. In fact, the comparison suggested the microstructure modifications leading to representations with non-uniformly distributed fibres.

  12. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF A MULTISCALE MICROSTRUCTURE BY ANISOTROPIC TESSELLATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Altendorf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the area of tessellation models, there is an intense activity to fully understand the classical models of Voronoi, Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl. Still, these models are all simulations of isotropic growth and are therefore limited to very simple and partly convex cell shapes. The here considered microstructure of martensitic steel has a much more complex and highly non convex cell shape, requiring new tessellation models. This paper presents a new approach for anisotropic tessellation models that resolve to the well-studied cases of Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl for spherical germs. Much better reconstructions can be achieved with these models and thus more realistic microstructure simulations can be produced for materials widely used in industry like martensitic and bainitic steels.

  13. Solidification microstructures and solid-state parallels: Recent developments, future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asta, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Beckermann, C. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Karma, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kurz, W. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: wilfried.kurz@epfl.ch; Napolitano, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Plapp, M. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Purdy, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., L8S 4L7 (Canada); Rappaz, M. [Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Trivedi, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Rapid advances in atomistic and phase-field modeling techniques as well as new experiments have led to major progress in solidification science during the first years of this century. Here we review the most important findings in this technologically important area that impact our quantitative understanding of: (i) key anisotropic properties of the solid-liquid interface that govern solidification pattern evolution, including the solid-liquid interface free energy and the kinetic coefficient; (ii) dendritic solidification at small and large growth rates, with particular emphasis on orientation selection; (iii) regular and irregular eutectic and peritectic microstructures; (iv) effects of convection on microstructure formation; (v) solidification at a high volume fraction of solid and the related formation of pores and hot cracks; and (vi) solid-state transformations as far as they relate to solidification models and techniques. In light of this progress, critical issues that point to directions for future research in both solidification and solid-state transformations are identified.

  14. Microstructure Development and Characteristics of Semisolid Aluminum Alloys; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merton Flemings; Srinath Viswanathan

    2001-01-01

    A drop forge viscometer was employed to investigate the flow behavior under very rapid compression rates of A357, A356 diluted with pure aluminum and Al-4.5%Cu alloys. The A357 alloys were of commercial origin (MHD and SIMA) and the rheocast, modified A356 and Al-4.5Cu alloys were produced by a process developed at the solidification laboratory of MIT

  15. Market Microstructure Model: study of variations of exchange rate for Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Antonieta; Salazar Soares , Vasco

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the commercial relations between Europe and its principal commercial partners, such as Asia and Latin America, for the period of 1999 to 2007. The methodology appeals to the correlation analysis of the variables of the model and the autocorrelation of the exchange rate variation variable, to the Augmented DickeyFuller (1979) and Philips Perron tests (1988), and finally, to the market microstructure model suggested by Medeiros(2005). Medeiros(2005) model, when applied to the ...

  16. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@areva.com [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Fournier, Lionel [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Barbu, Alain [Alain Barbu Consultant, 6 Avenue Pasteur Martin Luther King, 78230 Le Pecq (France)

    2016-01-15

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium. - Highlights: • Irradiation of steels with helium is studied through a new cluster dynamics model. • There is only a small effect of helium on cavity distributions in PWR conditions. • An increase in helium production causes an increase in cavity density over 500 °C. • The role of helium is to stabilize cavities via reduced emission of vacancies.

  17. Recent Developments in Assessing Microstructure-Sensitive Early Stage Fatigue of Polycrystals (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    can strongly affect formation of fatigue cracks. El Bartali et al. [7] quantified plastic strain at the grain scale in a duplex stainless steel and mea...finite ele- ment models for 304L stainless steel using EBSD measurements ta- ken on successive slices of microstructure through the thickness. Their work...inclusions in martensitic gear steel in the context of 3D polycrystal plasticity and nonlocal FIPs. Coupled effects of inclusion fracture/debonding and

  18. Development of Metallographic Etchants for the Microstructure Evolution of A6082-T6 BFSW Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Tamadon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND—The solid-phase joining of A6082-T6 plates by bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW is problematic. Better methods are needed to evaluate the microstructural evolution of the weld. However, conventional Al reagents (e.g., Keller’s and Kroll’s do not elucidate the microstructure satisfactorily, specifically regarding grain size and morphology within the weld region. APPROACH—We developed innovative etchants for metallographic observations for optical microscopy. RESULTS—The macrostructure and microstructure of A6082-T6 BFSW welds were clearly demonstrated by optical microscopy analysis. The microetching results demonstrated different microstructures of the Stir Zone (S.Z distinct from the Base Metal (B.M and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ & Thermo-mechanical Affected Zone (TMAZ. The micrographs showed a significant decrease in grain size from 100 μm in B.M to ultrafine 4–10 μm grains for the S.Z. Also, the grain morphology changed from directional columnar in the B.M to equiaxed in the S.Z. Furthermore, thermomechanical recrystallization was observed by the morphological flow of the grain distortion in HAZ and TMAZ. The etchants also clearly show the polycrystalline structure, microflow patterns, and the incoherent interface around inclusion defects. ORIGINALITY—Chemical compositions are identified for a suite of etchant reagents for metallographic examination of the friction-stir welded A6082-T6 alloy. The reagents have made it possible to reveal microstructures not previously evident with optical microscopy.

  19. Experimental and model based investigation of the links between snow bidirectional reflectance and snow microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, M.; Flin, F.; Malinka, A.; Brissaud, O.; Hagenmuller, P.; Dufour, A.; Lapalus, P.; Lesaffre, B.; Calonne, N.; Rolland du Roscoat, S.; Ando, E.

    2017-12-01

    Snow optical properties are unique among Earth surface and crucial for a wide range of applications. The bi-directional reflectance, hereafter BRDF, of snow is sensible to snow microstructure. However the complex interplays between different parameters of snow microstructure namely size parameters and shape parameters on reflectance are challenging to disentangle both theoretically and experimentally. An accurate understanding and modelling of snow BRDF is required to correctly process satellite data. BRDF measurements might also provide means of characterizing snow morphology. This study presents one of the very few dataset that combined bi-directional reflectance measurements over 500-2500 nm and X-ray tomography of the snow microstructure for three different snow samples and two snow types. The dataset is used to evaluate the approach from Malinka, 2014 that relates snow optical properties to the chord length distribution in the snow microstructure. For low and medium absorption, the model accurately reproduces the measurements but tends to slightly overestimate the anisotropy of the reflectance. The model indicates that the deviation of the ice chord length distribution from an exponential distribution, that can be understood as a characterization of snow types, does not impact the reflectance for such absorptions. The simulations are also impacted by the uncertainties in the ice refractive index values. At high absorption and high viewing/incident zenith angle, the simulations and the measurements disagree indicating that some of the assumptions made in the model are not met anymore. The study also indicates that crystal habits might play a significant role for the reflectance under such geometries and wavelengths. However quantitative relationship between crystal habits and reflectance alongside with potential optical methodologies to classify snow morphology would require an extended dataset over more snow types. This extended dataset can likely be obtained

  20. Determination of Basic Structure-Property Relations for Processing and Modeling in Advanced Nuclear Fuel: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kirk; Parra, Manuel; Peralta, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The project objective is to study structure-property relations in solid solutions of nitrides and oxides with surrogate elements to simulate the behavior of fuels of inert matrix fuels of interest to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), with emphasis in zirconium-based materials. Work with actual fuels will be carried out in parallel in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three key aspects will be explored: microstructure characterization through measurement of global texture evolution and local crystallographic variations using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD); determination of mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, quasi-static compression strength, and hardness, as functions of load and temperature, and, finally, development of structure-property relations to describe mechanical behavior of the fuels based on experimental data. Materials tested will be characterized to identify the mechanisms of deformation and fracture and their relationship to microstructure and its evolution. New aspects of this research are the inclusion of crystallographic information into the evaluation of fuel performance and the incorporation of statistical variations of microstructural variables into simplified models of mechanical behavior of fuels that account explicitly for these variations. The work is expected to provide insight into processing conditions leading to better fuel performance and structural reliability during manufacturing and service, as well as providing a simplified testing model for future fuel production

  1. An advanced constitutive model in the sheet metal forming simulation: the Teodosiu microstructural model and the Cazacu Barlat yield criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.L.; Oliveira, M.C.; Menezes, L.F.

    2004-01-01

    Two constitutive models used to describe the plastic behavior of sheet metals in the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming process are studied: a recently proposed advanced constitutive model based on the Teodosiu microstructural model and the Cazacu Barlat yield criterion is compared with a more classical one, based on the Swift law and the Hill 1948 yield criterion. These constitutive models are implemented into DD3IMP, a finite element home code specifically developed to simulate sheet metal forming processes, which generically is a 3-D elastoplastic finite element code with an updated Lagrangian formulation, following a fully implicit time integration scheme, large elastoplastic strains and rotations. Solid finite elements and parametric surfaces are used to model the blank sheet and tool surfaces, respectively. Some details of the numerical implementation of the constitutive models are given. Finally, the theory is illustrated with the numerical simulation of the deep drawing of a cylindrical cup. The results show that the proposed advanced constitutive model predicts with more exactness the final shape (medium height and ears profile) of the formed part, as one can conclude from the comparison with the experimental results

  2. Microstructural and Texture Development in Two Austenitic Steels with High-Manganese Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Basudev; Ray, Ranjit Kumar; Leffers, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Two austenitic steels, Fe-21.3Mn-3.44Si-3.74Al-0.5C and Fe-29.8Mn-2.96Si-2.73Al-0.52C, were subjected to cold rolling with 30 to 80 pct reduction with an increment of 10 pct and subsequently the development of their microstructures and textures were studied. The overall texture after 80 pct cold ...

  3. Microstructure and texture development during high-strain torsion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeden, B.

    2006-07-01

    In this study polycrystalline NiAl has been subjected to torsion deformation. The deformation, microstructure and texture development subject to the shear strain are studied by different techniques (Electron Back-Scatter and High Energy Synchrotron Radiation). Beside the development of microstructure and texture with shear strain, the effect of an initial texture as well as the deformation temperature on the development of texture and microstructure constitute an important part of this study. Therefore, samples with three different initial textures were deformed in the temperature range T=700 K-1300 K. The shear stress-shear strain curves are characterized by a peak at low strains, which is followed by softening and a steady state at high strains. Grain refinement takes place for all samples and the average grain size decreases with temperature. For temperatures T>1000 K, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization occurs, by which new grains form by nucleation and subsequent growth. The texture is characterized by two components, {l_brace}100{r_brace}<100> (cube,C) and {l_brace}110{r_brace}<100> (Goss,G). Torsional creep of NiAl is characterized by a stress exponent, which depends on temperature and an activation energy, which is stress dependent. The Swift effect, due to which samples change their axial dimension during torsion without applied axial stress, is observed for NiAl. (orig.)

  4. Development of a new dual phase steel with laminated microstructural morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 4156–83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, 3619995161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Toroghinejad, M.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 4156–83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The development of dual phase steels to meet the current world demands, for the purpose of decreasing the fuel consumption with increasing the strength to weight ratio, requires certain microstructural modifications. In the present research, a new morphology of DP steel, known as Laminated–DP steel, as well as its unique production method has been introduced. The new process developed involved properly selecting low carbon steels, stacking them in a laminated manner and performing a roll bonding process followed by short austenitization treatment. The martensite volume fraction was designed and obtained to be 24%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructural examination. Moreover, deformation and tensile behavior of the newly developed steel were studied and compared with those of some ordinary DP steel (ODP). Room temperature uniaxial tensile tests also revealed mechanical properties comparable with those of the commercial DP600 steel, a kind of structural automotive steel. - Highlights: • A new method for producing dual phase steels was introduced. • Employing a new thermo-mechanical process a laminated microstructure was obtained. • Mechanical properties of the new laminated DP steel were studied. • Tensile properties of the new DP steel were comparable with those of the commercial DP600 steel.

  5. Two-Scale Modelling of Effects of Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties on Dynamic Performance of an Aluminium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Influences of microstructure and properties of an aluminium alloy on resistance to dynamic perforation are predicted using a decoupled multiscale ... simulated performance. Library parameters typical for aluminium alloys (Kohn, 1969) are used for the macroscopic equation of state of Al 2139, details of...Two-Scale Modelling of Effects of Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties on Dynamic Performance of an Aluminium Alloy by J. D

  6. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of the permeability and capillary adsorption of cement model microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalzale, M. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McDonald, P.J., E-mail: p.mcdonald@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The lattice Boltzmann method is used to investigate the permeability of microstructures of cement pastes generated using the numerical models CEMHYD3D (Bentz, 1997) and {mu}IC (Bishnoi and Scrivener, 2009). Results are reported as a function of paste water-to-cement ratio and degree of hydration. The permeability decreases with increasing hydration and decreasing water-to-cement ratio in agreement with experiment. However the permeability is larger than the experimental data recorded using beam bending methods (Vichit-Vadakan and Scherer, 2002). Notwithstanding, the lattice Boltzmann results compare favourably with alternate numerical methods of permeability calculation for cement model microstructures. In addition, we show early results for the liquid/vapour capillary adsorption and desorption isotherms in the same model {mu}IC structures. The broad features of the experimental capillary porosity isotherm are reproduced, although further work is required to adequately parameterise the model.

  7. Role of Polycarboxylate-ether superplasticizers on cement hydration kinetics and microstructural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentini L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycarboxylate-ether (PCE superplasticizers are a fundamental constituent of modern cementbased materials due to their impact on the rheology of the fresh mix and mechanical performance of the hardened material. The effect of PCEs on cement hydration kinetics has been known since their introduction in the early 1980s. However, detailed knowledge of the role played by PCE macromolecules on the basic mechanisms of cement hydration (dissolution, diffusion, precipitation is still lacking. A better understanding of how such mechanisms are influenced by the addition of PCE is no doubt beneficial to the design of novel superplasticizing admixtures. Here, I report on some recent findings about the role of PCE superplasticizers on cement hydration kinetics and microstructural development. The interaction between PCE and C3S pastes was investigated by an ad-hoc kinetic model based on a combination of generalized forms of the Avrami and BNG (Boundary Nucleation and Growth models. The model is used to fit the rate of C-S-H precipitation measured by in-situ X-ray powder diffraction combined with mass balance calculations. The results show that a switch from heterogeneous to homogeneous C-S-H nucleation occurs in the presence of PCEs and that the C-S-H growth rate decreases proportionally to the amount of PCE used. The predicted switch to homogeneous nucleation is in agreement with experimental results obtained by XRD-enhanced micro-tomography imaging, showing that, in the presence of PCE, C-S-H preferentially forms in the pore space rather than at the surface of clinker particles.

  8. Development of Weld Metal Microstructures in Pulsed Laser Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, F.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Torkamany, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The microstructure of the weld metal of a duplex stainless steel made with Nd:YAG pulsed laser is investigated at different travel speeds and pulse frequencies. In terms of the solidification pattern, the weld microstructure is shown to be composed of two distinct zones. The presence of two competing heat transfer channels to the relatively cooler base metal and the relatively hotter previous weld spot is proposed to develop two zones. At high overlapping factors, an array of continuous axial grains at the weld centerline is formed. At low overlapping factors, in the zone of higher cooling rate, a higher percentage of ferrite is transformed to austenite. This is shown to be because with extreme cooling rates involved in pulsed laser welding with low overlapping, the ferrite-to-austenite transformation can be limited only to the grain boundaries.

  9. Image analysis: a tool characterising and modelling the microstructure of the MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charollais, F.

    1997-01-01

    The MOX nuclear fuel, made up of about 3 to 10 % of plutonium oxide mixed with uranium oxide, is elaborated by an original manufacturing method (MIMAS process). The MOX pellets feature a singular and complex microstructure, including enriched plutonium zones dispersed in a low plutonium content matrix. Their properties as well as their performances levels are strongly linked with this microstructure. Tools, found in the literature, allowing to quantify with relevant parameters the microstructural images from different analytical equipment (optical microscopy, electron probe micro-analyser and autoradiography) have been adapted and used in order to characterize these nuclear fuels. Taking into account the heterogeneity of the MOX microstructure, we turn our's attention, at the beginning of this study, to the analysis conditions: choice of the magnification, sampling and statistical analysis of the measurements. An improvement of the ceramographic preparation of the samples, required for an automatic image analysis (of the granular structure), has been realised by thermal etching under oxidizing gas. This method enables the strong content plutonium zones to be revealed distinctly. The first part of the study concerns the characterization of the three-dimensional structure of uranium oxide and MOX fuels by average variables using the principles of mathematical morphology and stereology. The second part introduces probabilistic models, in particular the Boolean scheme, in order to improve and complete the three-dimensional characterization of the MOX fuel and more specifically the enriched plutonium islands dispersion in the pellet. [fr

  10. Forging property, processing map, and mesoscale microstructural evolution modeling of a Ti-17 alloy with a lamellar (α+β) starting microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Naito, Daiki; Miyoshi, Kento; Yamanaka, Kenta; Chiba, Akihiko; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko

    2017-12-01

    This work identifies microstructural conversion mechanisms during hot deformation (at temperatures ranging from 750 °C to 1050 °C and strain rates ranging from 10-3 s-1 to 1 s-1) of a Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti-17) alloy with a lamellar starting microstructure and establishes constitutive formulae for predicting the microstructural evolution using finite-element analysis. In the α phase, lamellae kinking is the dominant mode in the higher strain rate region and dynamic globularization frequently occurs at higher temperatures. In the β phase, continuous dynamic recrystallization is the dominant mode below the transition temperature, Tβ (880 890 °C). Dynamic recovery tends to be more active at conditions of lower strain rates and higher temperatures. At temperatures above Tβ, continuous dynamic recrystallization of the β phase frequently occurs, especially in the lower strain rate region. A set of constitutive equations modeling the microstructural evolution and processing map characteristic are established by optimizing the experimental data and were later implemented in the DEFORM-3D software package. There is a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and simulated results, indicating that the established series of constitutive models can be used to reliably predict the properties of a Ti-17 alloy after forging in the (α+β) region.

  11. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.fukuda@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Kiran Kumar, N.A.P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Snead, Lance L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten was performed in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). To investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ∼90–∼800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and microstructure changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten. - Highlights: • The microstructure and irradiation hardening of single crystal pure W irradiated in HFIR was investigated. • The neutron energy spectrum influence was evaluated by comparing the HFIR results with previous work in Joyo and JMTR. • In the dose range up to ∼1 dpa, the neutron energy spectrum influence of irradiation hardening was not clear. • In the dose range above 1 dpa, the neutron energy influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development was clearly observed. • The irradiation induced precipitates caused significant irradiation hardening of pure W irradiated in HFIR.

  12. A numerical model for modeling microstructure and THM couplings in fault gouges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veveakis, M.; Rattez, H.; Stefanou, I.; Sulem, J.; Poulet, T.

    2017-12-01

    When materials are subjected to large deformations, most of them experience inelastic deformations, accompanied by a localization of these deformations into a narrow zone leading to failure. Localization is seen as an instability from the homogeneous state of deformation. Therefore a first approach to study it consists at looking at the possible critical conditions for which the constitutive equations of the material allow a bifurcation point (Rudnicki & Rice 1975). But in some cases, we would like to know the evolution of the material after the onset of localization. For example, a fault in the crustal part of the lithosphere is a shear band and the study of this localized zone enables to extract information about seismic slip. For that, we need to approximate the solution of a nonlinear boundary value problem numerically. It is a challenging task due to the complications that arise while dealing with a softening behavior. Indeed, the classical continuum theory cannot be used because the governing system of equations is ill-posed (Vardoulakis 1985). This ill-posedness can be tracked back to the fact that constitutive models don't contain material parameters with the dimension of a length. It leads to what is called "mesh dependency" for numerical simulations, as the deformations localize in only one element of the mesh and the behavior of the system depends thus on the mesh size. A way to regularize the problem is to resort to continuum models with microstructure, such as Cosserat continua (Sulem et al. 2011). Cosserat theory is particularly interesting as it can explicitly take into account the size of the microstructure in a fault gouge. Basically, it introduces 3 degrees of freedom of rotation on top of the 3 translations (Godio et al. 2016). The original work of (Mühlhaus & Vardoulakis 1987) is extended in 3D and thermo-hydro mechanical couplings are added to the model to study fault system in the crustal part of the lithosphere. The system of equations is

  13. State parameter-based modelling of microstructure evolution in micro-alloyed steel during hot forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buken, H; Kozeschnik, E

    2016-01-01

    In steel production, thermo-mechanical treatment at elevated temperatures is an inevitable step for controlling the microstructure and, thus, the mechanical-technological properties of the final product. One of the main goals in modelling microstructure evolution is the prediction of progress and interaction of hardening and softening mechanism at temperatures, where reheating, hot rolling, finish rolling and coiling are typically carried out. The main mechanisms that need to be accounted for are precipitation, grain growth, solute drag, recovery, recrystallization and phase transformation, which are to be described as functions of temperature, external loading and chemical composition of the material. In the present work, we present a new approach for dealing with these problems and apply it to the thermal and mechanical loading of microalloyed steel. Within this model, we quantitatively predict, for instance, the phenomenon of recrystallization stop in the presence of precipitation. The computational treatment is verified against experimental data from literature, where good agreement is achieved. (paper)

  14. On modeling micro-structural evolution using a higher order strain gradient continuum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, S. A.; Nielsen, K. L.; Niordson, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    is to improve the micro-structural response predicted using strain gradient crystal plasticity within a continuum mechanics framework. One approach to modeling the dislocation structures observed is through a back stress formulation, which can be related directly to the strain gradient energy. The present work...... the experimentally observed micro-structural behavior, within a framework based on continuous field quantities, poses obvious challenges, since the evolution of dislocation structures is inherently a discrete and discontinuous process. This challenge, in particular, motivates the present study, and the aim...... offers an investigation of constitutive equations for the back stress based on both considerations of the gradient energy, but also includes results obtained from a purely phenomenological starting point. The influence of model parameters is brought out in a parametric study, and it is demonstrated how...

  15. Final Report on Developing Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High-Energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Almer, Jonathan D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a summary of research activities on understanding microstructure – property correlation in reactor materials using in situ high-energy X-rays. The report is a Level 2 deliverable in FY16 (M2CA-13-IL-AN_-0403-0111), under the Work Package CA-13-IL-AN_- 0403-01, “Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High Energy Xrays”, as part of the DOE-NE NEET Program. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the application of in situ high energy X-ray measurements of nuclear reactor materials under thermal-mechanical loading, to understand their microstructure-property relationships. The gained knowledge is expected to enable accurate predictions of mechanical performance of these materials subjected to extreme environments, and to further facilitate development of advanced reactor materials. The report provides detailed description of the in situ X-ray Radiated Materials (iRadMat) apparatus designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermal-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. We conducted several case studies using the iRadMat to obtain a better understanding of deformation and fracture mechanisms of irradiated materials. In situ X-ray measurements on neutron-irradiated pure metal and model alloy and several representative reactor materials, e.g. pure Fe, Fe-9Cr model alloy, 316 SS, HT-UPS, and duplex cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) CF-8 were performed under tensile loading at temperatures of 20-400°C in vacuum. A combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and imaging techniques were utilized to interrogate microstructure at different length scales in real time while the specimen was subject to thermal-mechanical loading. In addition, in situ X-ray studies were

  16. Mechanical Modelling of Cancellous Bone from their Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz–Cervantes O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is established a spongy bone bidimensional models methodology for its analysis by finite element software. The models are focused to represent the bone trabecular structure by Voronoi cells, using the coordinates of the porous center, contained within the bone structure, obtained by optical microscope images. Looking for a better geometrical similarity, it was assigned a thicker transversal area in the trabecula union zone, because has been reported that this factor gives a better approximation to experimental results. To feed the finite element models, compression test has been done to trabecular specimens, taking the maximum strain and maximum stress, to obtain the elastic modulus. By means of strained specimen images analysis, it has been established the structure collapse moment. It was when the 36% of total trabeculae failed. Finally it was obtained a tissue Young modulus of 323 [MPa] and with this value, the resistance variation in function of density and trabecular architecture.

  17. Modeling macro-and microstructures of Gas-Metal-Arc Welded HSLA-100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Debroy, T.

    1999-06-01

    Fluid flow and heat transfer during gas-metal-arc welding (GMAW) of HSLA-100 steel were studied using a transient, three-dimensional, turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow model. The temperature and velocity fields, cooling rates, and shape and size of the fusion and heat-affected zones (HAZs) were calculated. A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was computed to aid in the understanding of the observed weld metal microstructure. The computed results demonstrate that the dissipation of heat and momentum in the weld pool is significantly aided by turbulence, thus suggesting that previous modeling results based on laminar flow need to be re-examined. A comparison of the calculated fusion and HAZ geometries with their corresponding measured values showed good agreement. Furthermore, “finger” penetration, a unique geometric characteristic of gas-metal-arc weld pools, could be satisfactorily predicted from the model. The ability to predict these geometric variables and the agreement between the calculated and the measured cooling rates indicate the appropriateness of using a turbulence model for accurate calculations. The microstructure of the weld metal consisted mainly of acicular ferrite with small amounts of bainite. At high heat inputs, small amounts of allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite were also observed. The observed microstructures are consistent with those expected from the computed CCT diagram and the cooling rates. The results presented here demonstrate significant promise for understanding both macro-and microstructures of steel welds from the combination of the fundamental principles from both transport phenomena and phase transformation theory.

  18. Microstructure evolution during cyclic tests on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. TEM observation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordana, M.F., E-mail: giordana@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Giroux, P.-F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Sauzay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Armas, A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Kruml, T. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno, 616 62 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cycle fatigue test are carried out on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EUROFER 97 shows a pronounced cyclic softening accompanied by microstructural changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cycling induces a decrement in dislocation density and subgrain growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean subgrain size evolution is predicted by modelling. - Abstract: The 9% Cr quenched and tempered reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel EUROFER 97 is one of the candidates for structural components of fusion reactors. Isothermal, plastic strain-controlled, low-cycle fatigue tests are performed. Tested at room temperature, this steel suffers a cyclic softening effect linked to microstructural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy, such as the decrease of dislocation density inside subgrains or the growth of subgrain size. From the assumed mechanisms of softening a simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed to predict these microstructure evolutions during cycling and monotonic deformation.

  19. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase (α + β) brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S.; Suwas, Satyam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase (α + β) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both α (fcc) and β (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the α phase during subsequent deformation.

  20. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@met.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both {alpha} (fcc) and {beta} (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the {alpha} phase during subsequent deformation.

  1. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000`s of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in {alpha}Fe during irradiation at 600 K.

  2. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000's of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in αFe during irradiation at 600 K

  3. Predictive modeling of interfacial damage in substructured steels: application to martensitic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, F; Kouznetsova, V G; Geers, M G D

    2016-01-01

    Metallic composite phases, like martensite present in conventional steels and new generation high strength steels exhibit microscale, locally lamellar microstructures characterized by alternating layers of phases or crystallographic variants. The layers can be sub-micron down to a few nanometers thick, and they are often characterized by high contrasts in plastic properties. As a consequence, fracture in these lamellar microstructures generally occurs along the layer interfaces or within one of the layers, typically parallel to the interface. This paper presents a computational framework that addresses the lamellar nature of these microstructures, by homogenizing the plastic deformation at the mesoscale by using the microscale response of the laminates. Failure is accounted for by introducing a family of damaging planes that are parallel to the layer interface. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode opening are incorporated. The planes along which failure occurs are captured using a smeared damage approach. Coupling of damage with isotropic or anisotropic plasticity models, like crystal plasticity, is straightforward. The damaging planes and directions do not need to correspond to crystalline slip planes, and normal opening is also included. Focus is given on rate-dependent formulations of plasticity and damage, i.e. converged results can be obtained without further regularization techniques. The validation of the model using experimental observations in martensite-austenite lamellar microstructures in steels reveals that the model correctly predicts the main features of the onset of failure, e.g. the necking point, the failure initiation region and the failure mode. Finally, based on the qualitative results obtained, some material design guidelines are provided for martensitic and multi-phase steels. (paper)

  4. Phase-field models of microstructure evolution in a system with elastic inhomogeneity and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang

    In this thesis, the phase-field approach is employed to study the effect of elastic inhomogeneity and structural defects on phase separation kinetics and morphological evolution in bulk and film systems, the precipitation of theta ' phase (Al2Cu) in Al-Cu alloys, and solute strengthening of alloys. By combining the iteration method for calculating the elastic energy and a semi-implicit spectral method for solving the Cahn-Hilliard equation an extremely efficient phase-field model is developed for studying morphological evolution in coherent systems with large elastic inhomogeneity. Spinodal decomposition in a thin film with periodically distributed arrays of interfacial dislocations is simulated. The results show that the periodic stress field associated with the array of interfacial dislocations leads to a directional phase separation and the formation of ordered microstructures. The metastable theta' (Al2Cu) precipitates are one of the primary strengthening precipitates in Al-Cu alloys. They are of a plate-like shape with strong interfacial energy and mobility anisotropies. A phase-field model which can automatically incorporate the thermodynamic and kinetic information from databases is developed. The relationships between phase-field model parameters and material thermodynamic and kinetic properties are established. Systematic simulations of theta' growth in 1D, 2D and 3D are carried out. The growth of a single theta ' precipitate in 1D exactly reproduces the results from analytical solutions. The phase-filed model can serve as a basis for quantitative understanding of the influence of elastic energy, interface energy anisotropy and interface mobility anisotropy on the precipitation of theta' in Al-Cu alloys. Precipitates and solutes are commonly used to strengthen alloys. A phase field model of dislocation dynamics, which employs 12 order parameter fields to describe the dislocation distribution in a single fcc crystal, and one composition field to describe

  5. Determination of parameters of microstructural inhomogeneity of metal deformation by the method of modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornienko, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    A method is suggested to estimate microstructural non-uniformity of deformation in metals by means of modelling. This method includes measurement of deformation in metals by small-dimensioned dividing grid cells as well as calculation of parameters by means of model representation of microdeformation distribution. It is shown that the method of modelling gives an opportunity to objectively estimate deformation non-uniformity in metals irrespective of the selected dimension of a dividing grid cells. New structural characteristics: base and wave of variations, reflecting a degree of dividing or uniting grains in metals according to the non-uniformity of deformation are introduced

  6. Developing strong concurrent multiphysics multiscale coupling to understand the impact of microstructural mechanisms on the structural scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulk, James W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alleman, Coleman N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mota, Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bergel, Guy Leshem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Popova, Evdokia [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering; Montes de Oca Zapiain, David [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering; Kalidindi, Suryanarayana Raju [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering; Ernst, Corey [Elemental Technologies, Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The heterogeneity in mechanical fields introduced by microstructure plays a critical role in the localization of deformation. To resolve this incipient stage of failure, it is therefore necessary to incorporate microstructure with sufficient resolution. On the other hand, computational limitations make it infeasible to represent the microstructure in the entire domain at the component scale. In this study, the authors demonstrate the use of concurrent multi- scale modeling to incorporate explicit, finely resolved microstructure in a critical region while resolving the smoother mechanical fields outside this region with a coarser discretization to limit computational cost. The microstructural physics is modeled with a high-fidelity model that incorporates anisotropic crystal elasticity and rate-dependent crystal plasticity to simulate the behavior of a stainless steel alloy. The component-scale material behavior is treated with a lower fidelity model incorporating isotropic linear elasticity and rate-independent J 2 plas- ticity. The microstructural and component scale subdomains are modeled concurrently, with coupling via the Schwarz alternating method, which solves boundary-value problems in each subdomain separately and transfers solution information between subdomains via Dirichlet boundary conditions. Beyond cases studies in concurrent multiscale, we explore progress in crystal plastic- ity through modular designs, solution methodologies, model verification, and extensions to Sierra/SM and manycore applications. Advances in conformal microstructures having both hexahedral and tetrahedral workflows in Sculpt and Cubit are highlighted. A structure-property case study in two-phase metallic composites applies the Materials Knowledge System to local metrics for void evolution. Discussion includes lessons learned, future work, and a summary of funded efforts and proposed work. Finally, an appendix illustrates the need for two-way coupling through a single degree of

  7. Constitutive Model Of Graded Micro-Structure Obtained Via Strain Induced Phase Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ortwein, Rafał

    The literature review has been divided into three main sub-chapters. The first one is concentrated on the general information about stainless steels and their applications. It is important to perform a general overview and get an idea where the results of the present thesis could be applied. Description of all the brands of stainless steels, their microstructures and properties are important, as similar characteristics can be found in the newly created functionally graded structures. The second sub-chapter is an overview of the most important constitutive models and the experimental results for materials that undergo plastic strain induced phase transformation. Finally, the last one is devoted to functionally graded microstructures obtained via strain induced martensitic transformation – the subject of particular importance for the present thesis. As a general note, the literature review is organized mainly in a chronological order. In some cases similar publications or publications of the same Authors were...

  8. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs

  10. Development of microstructure and texture in strip casting grain oriented silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Yun-Bo, E-mail: yunbo_xu@126.com; Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Fang, Feng; Lu, Xiang; Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Grain oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling processes. The development of microstructure and texture was investigated by using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the microstructure and texture evolutions of strip casting grain oriented silicon steel are significantly distinct from those in the conventional processing route. The as-cast strip is composed of coarse solidification grains and characterized by pronounced 〈001〉//ND texture together with very weak Goss texture. The initial coarse microstructure enhances {111} shear bands formation during the first cold rolling and then leads to the homogeneously distributed Goss grains through the thickness of intermediate annealed sheet. After the secondary cold rolling and primary annealing, strong γ fiber texture with a peak at {111}〈112〉 dominates the primary recrystallization texture, which is beneficial to the abnormal growth of Goss grain during the subsequent high temperature annealing. Therefore, the secondary recrystallization of Goss orientation evolves completely after the high temperature annealing and the grain oriented silicon steel with a good magnetic properties (B{sub 8}=1.94 T, P{sub 1.7/50}=1.3 W/kg) can be prepared. - Highlights: • Grain oriented silicon steel was developed by a novel ultra-short process. • Many evenly distributed Goss “seeds” were originated from cold rolled shear bands. • More MnS inhibitors were obtained due to the rapid cooling of strip casing. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  11. A one-population Amari model with periodic microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svanstedt, Nils; Wyller, John; Malyutina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We review the derivation of the homogenized one-population Amari equation by means of the two-scale convergence technique of Nguetseng in the case of periodic microvariation in the connectivity function. A key point in this derivation is Visintin's theorem for two-scale convergence of convolution integrals. We construct single bump solutions of the resulting homogenized equation using a pinning function technique for the case where the solutions are independent of the local variable and the firing rate function is modelled as a unit step function. The parameter measuring the degree of heterogeneity plays the role of a control parameter. The connectivity functions are periodically modulated in both the synaptic footprint and in the spatial scale. A framework for analysing the stability of these structures is formulated. This framework is based on spectral theory for Hilbert–Schmidt integral operators and it deforms to the standard Evans function approach for the translational invariant case in the limit of no heterogeneity. The upper and lower bounds of the growth/decay rates of the perturbations imposed on the bump states can be expressed in terms of the operator norm of the actual Hilbert–Schmidt operator. Intervals for which the pinning function is increasing correspond to unstable bumps, while complementary intervals where the pinning function decreases correspond to stable bumps, just as in the translational invariant case. Examples showing the properties of the bumps are discussed in detail when the connectivity kernels are given in terms of an exponential decaying function, a wizard hat function and a damped oscillating function. (paper)

  12. Creep and damage in argillaceous rocks: microstructural change and phenomenological modeling; Fluage et endommagement des roches argileuses: evolution de la microstructure et modelisation phenomenologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, G

    2005-06-15

    The underground radioactive waste disposal far exceeds the period of exploitation of common civil engineering works. These specific projects require to predict the irreversible deformations over a large time scale (several centuries) in order to assess the extension and to forecast the evolution of the EDZ (Excavation Damage Zone) around the cavity. In this study, the viscosity of three sedimentary argillaceous rocks has been studied under different conditions of uniaxial compression: static or cyclic creep tests, monotonic and quasistatic tests, performed across various strata orientations. Argillaceous rocks are studied as a possible host layer for radioactive waste disposals. Indeed, they present some of the physical characteristics and mechanical properties, which are essential for being a natural barrier: low permeability, high creep potential and important holding capacity of radioactive elements. The purpose of the experimental study was to shed some light over the mechanisms governing the development of delayed deformations and damage of argillaceous rocks. It relates three rocks: an argillite from East of France, a Tournemire argillite and a marl from Jurassic Mountains. On atomic scale, viscoplastic deformations are due to irreversible displacements of crystalline defects, called dislocations. The experimental study was also supplemented with observations on thin sections extracted from the argillite and marl samples using a SEM. The aim was to identify the mechanisms responsible for the time-dependent behaviour on a microstructural scale. Analytical simulations of the mechanical behaviour of the three rocks gave parameters used in different viscoplastic models. The best modeling was obtained with the viscoplastic model which takes account of the development of volumetric strains and of the damage anisotropy. (author)

  13. The role of microstructure and phase distribution in the failure mechanisms and life prediction model for PSZ coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, R. D., Jr.; Sone, Ichiro; Biederman, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) may become widely used for Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC). Failure of these coatings can occur due to thermal fatigue in oxidizing atmospheres. The failure is due to the strains that develop due to thermal gradients, differences in thermal expansion coefficients, and oxidation of the bond coating. The role of microstructure and the cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phase distribution in the strain development and subsequent failure will be discussed. An X-ray diffraction technique for accurate determination of the fraction of each phase in PSZ will be applied to understanding the phase transformations and strain development. These results will be discussed in terms of developing a model for life prediction in PSZ coatings during thermal cycling.

  14. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  15. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by dislocation loop formation and growth, microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, radiation-induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, and in some cases, void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiationinduced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses beyond 200 dpa). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. Predictive modeling relies on an understanding of the physical processes and also on the development of microstructure and microchemical models to describe their evolution under

  16. Effect of reversible hydrogen alloying and plastic deformation on microstructure development in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzinova, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen leads to degradation in fracture-related mechanical properties of titanium alloys and is usually considered as a very dangerous element. Numerous studies of hydrogen interaction with titanium alloys showed that hydrogen may be considered not only as an impurity but also as temporary alloying element. This statement is based on the following. Hydrogen stabilizes high-temperature β-phase, leads to decrease in temperature of β→α transformation and extends (α + β )-phase field. The BCC β-phase exhibits lower strength and higher ductility in comparison with HCP α -phase. As a result, hydrogen improves hot workability of hard-to-deform titanium alloys. Hydrogen changes chemical composition of the phases, kinetics of phase transformations, and at low temperatures additional phase transformation (β→α + TiH 2 ) takes place, which is accompanied with noticeable change in volumes of phases. As a result, fine lamellar microstructure may be formed in hydrogenated titanium alloys after heat treatment. It was shown that controlled hydrogen alloying improves weldability and machinability of titanium alloys. After processing hydrogenated titanium preforms are subjected to vacuum annealing, and the hydrogen content decreases up to safe level. Hydrogen removal is accompanied with hydrides dissolution and β→α transformation that makes possible to control structure formation at this final step of treatment. Thus, reversible hydrogen alloying of titanium alloys allows to obtain novel microstructure with enhanced properties. The aim of the work was to study the effect of hydrogen on structure formation, namely: i) influence of hydrogen content on transformation of lamellar microstructure to globular one during deformation in (α+β)-phase field; ii) effect of dissolved hydrogen on dynamic recrystallization in single α- and β- phase regions; iii) influence of vacuum annealing temperature on microstructure development. The work was focused on the optimization of

  17. Ceramic coatings: A phenomenological modeling for damping behavior related to microstructural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassini, N.; Patsias, S.; Lambrinou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has shown that both stiffness and damping of ceramic coatings exhibit different non-linearities. These properties strongly depend on the microstructure, which is characterized by heterogeneous sets of elastic elements with mesoscopic sizes and shapes, as in non-linear mesoscopic elastic materials. To predict the damping properties of this class of materials, we have implemented a phenomenological model that characterizes their elastic properties. The model is capable of reproducing the basic features of the observed damping behavior for zirconia coatings prepared by air plasma spraying and electron-beam physical-vapor-deposition

  18. Multilevel modeling of micromechanics and phase formation for microstructural evolution of magnetic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Yoshihiro; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Takaya, Shigeru; Nagae, Yuji; Aoto, Kazumi

    2005-03-01

    The present research aims at a proposal of theoretical treatise to describe the local phase transformation from austenite to ferrite in the stainless steels under hot cyclic fatigue conditions. In experiments, this local phase transformation is detected as a magnetized region in the non-magnetic matrix after low-cycle fatigue test at the elevated temperature. The theoretical frame proposed here is composed of two methodologies. In the first approach, microstructure evolution with γ → α transformation is described by the phase field method. In the second approach, micromechanical method on the basis of the unit cell modeling is proposed to develop a new micromechanical analysis. The details of two approached are summarized in the following. (1) Phase formation simulation by the phase field method. Most of reports have started that γ-α phase transformation as a creep damage is induced by dechromization, which comes from carbide precipitation around grain boundaries. A new theoretical treatise is proposed for simulating this γ → α transformation in Fe-Cr-Ni system. Stabilities of both phases are investigated for various chemical compositions. Furthermore, in order to investigate dechromization phenomena in Fe-Cr-Ni-C system, a new theoretical frame is also proposed to handle an interstitial element in phase field method. (2) Low cycle fatigue elasto-plastic analysis by the unit-cell modeling. In experiments, the magnetized zones are generated to distribute at the vicinity of the hard, delta-phase inclusion in the austenitic matrix. The cumulative plastic region advances in the surroundings of this hard inclusion with increasing the number of cycles in the controlled strain range. This predicted profile of cumulative plastic regions corresponds to the experimentally measured, magnetized zones. In addition, the effect of geometric configuration of this inclusion on the plastic region evolution has close relationship of creep damage advancement in experiments

  19. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of 60 Ni which produces no helium, 59 Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ( Nat Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of 59 Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to ∼7 dpa at 300 and 400 degrees C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400 degrees C than at 300 degrees C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from 59 Ni and Nat Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400 degrees C. At 300 degrees C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400 degrees C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces

  20. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ({sup Nat}Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to {approx}7 dpa at 300 and 400{degrees}C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400{degrees}C than at 300{degrees}C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and {sup Nat}Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400{degrees}C. At 300{degrees}C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400{degrees}C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

  1. Development of Ferrite-Coated Soft Magnetic Composites: Correlation of Microstructure to Magnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Katie Jo

    milling and analyzed for magnetic core loss dependence on particle size, cure temperature, and microstructure of both coating and core powder. We present a significant increase in core loss related to eddy current loss from coating particles sintering and Fe grain growth. Lastly, a more resistive coating material, NiZnCu-ferrite, is applied for improved resistivity, which leads to lower eddy current loss and improved magnetic performance. By highlighting the importance of microstructure and composition on magnetic properties, a closer look at interfacial features and local microstrain are necessary and accomplished in this work. Future developments of ferrite-based SMC coatings are required to transform the use of electromagnetic devices in today's society.

  2. Microstructure evolution and texture development in thermomechanically processed Mg-Li-Al based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Govind [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (India); Shekhar, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermomechanical processing of novel LAT 971 and LATZ 9531 Mg-Al-Li based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural deviation from the equilibrium phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disparity in texture of these alloys after hot-rolling (recrystallization and grain growth). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of alloying and phase distribution in affecting the texture/interplaner spacing. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of alloying and thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and texture evolution on the two Mg-Li-Al based alloys, namely Mg-9 wt% Li-7 wt% Al-1 wt% Sn (LAT971) and Mg-9 wt% Li-5 wt% Al-3 wt% Sn-1 wt% Zn (LATZ9531) has been elicited. Novel Mg-Li-Al based alloys were cast (induction melting under protective atmosphere) followed by hot rolling at {approx}573 K with a cumulative reduction of five. A contrary dual phase dendritic microstructure rich in {alpha}-Mg, instead of {beta}-Li phase predicted by equilibrium phase diagram of Mg-Li binary alloy was observed. Preferential presence of Mg-Li-Sn primary precipitates (size 4-10 {mu}m) within {alpha}-Mg phase and Mg-Li-Al secondary precipitates (<3 {mu}m) interspersed in {beta}-Li indicated their degree of dissolution during hot-rolling and homogenization in the dual phase matrix. Presence of Al, Sn and Zn alloying elements in the Mg-Li based alloy has resulted an unusual dual-phase microstructure, change in the lattice parameter, and intriguing texture evolution after hot-rolling of cast LAT 971 and LATZ9531 alloy. Strong texture was absent in the as-cast samples whereas texture development after hot-rolling revealed an increased activity of the non-basal (101{sup Macron }0) slip planes. The quantification of the grain average misorientation (less than 2 Degree-Sign ) using electron backscattered diffraction confirmed the presence of strain free grains in majority of the grains (fraction >0.75) after hot-rolling of Mg

  3. Development of microstructural heterogeneities in the initial stage of mild steel conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.F. da.

    1980-07-01

    After determining the Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) and discussing some changes in formability of mild aluminum-killed steel sheets, prestrained by various amounts by uniaxial tension and symmetrical biaxial stretching modes, the microstructural heterogeneities developed during uniform deformation, such as, internal and superficial damage, caracterized by inclusions, cracks, pores and surface roughness, were studied experimentally. In addition, the surface roughness behaviour of rimmed mild steel sheets developed during uniform deformation by uniaxial tension and symmetrical biaxial stretching modes, was studied. The results showed that, in the range of uniform deformation, the evolution of superficial damage, mainly the relief of these sheets, seems to be more important than internal damage. These observations could be a possible explanation for the development of localized necks in biaxially stretched sheets. (Author) [pt

  4. Microstructure-based multiscale modeling of elevated temperature deformation in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, Paul E.; Hector, Louis G.; Du Ningning; Bower, Allan F.

    2010-01-01

    A multiscale model for predicting elevated temperature deformation in Al-Mg alloys is presented. Constitutive models are generated from a theoretical methodology and used to investigate the effects of grain size on formability. Flow data are computed with a polycrystalline, microstructure-based model which accounts for grain boundary sliding, stress-induced diffusion, and dislocation creep. Favorable agreement is found between the computed flow data and elevated temperature tensile measurements. A creep constitutive model is then fit to the computed flow data and used in finite-element simulations of two simple gas pressure forming processes, where favorable results are observed. These results are fully consistent with gas pressure forming experiments, and suggest a greater role for constitutive models, derived largely from theoretical methodologies, in the design of Al alloys with enhanced elevated temperature formability. The methodology detailed herein provides a framework for incorporation of results from atomistic-scale models of dislocation creep and diffusion.

  5. Microstructure Development and Its Influence on the Properties of Styrene-Ethylene-Butylene-Styrene/Polystyrene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritima Banerjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a novel attempt to understand the microstructure of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS/polystyrene (PS blends not only through morphological studies, but also thermal, mechanical and rheological characterizations. SEBS/PS blends containing 10, 30 and 50 wt % PS were processed in a micro-compounder and characterized. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies, with selective staining of the PS phase, revealed the presence of PS as nanometer-sized domains, as well as phase-separated micrometer-sized aggregates. Blends with 30 and 50 wt % PS exhibited a fibrillar microstructure, obeying Hirsch’s model of short fiber composites. A remarkable increase in glass transition temperature indicated a strong interaction of the fibrils with SEBS. All blends showed two modes of relaxation corresponding to the two phases. A single mode of relaxation of the PS phase has been attributed to combined effects of the partial miscibility of the added PS, along with the interaction of the fibrils with SEBS. The long relaxation time of the elastomeric phase indicated the tendency of these materials to undergo time-dependent shrinkage in secondary processing operations. An increase in PS content resulted in the lowering of the shear viscosity and energy requirement for mixing, indicating the ease of processing.

  6. An analytical–numerical model of laser direct metal deposition track and microstructure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M Naveed; Pinkerton, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Multiple analytical and numerical models of the laser metal deposition process have been presented, but most rely on sequential solution of the energy and mass balance equations or discretization of the problem domain. Laser direct metal deposition is a complex process involving multiple interdependent processes which can be best simulated using a fully coupled mass-energy balance solution. In this work a coupled analytical–numerical solution is presented. Sub-models of the powder stream, quasi-stationary conduction in the substrate and powder assimilation into the area of the substrate above the liquidus temperature are combined. An iterative feedback loop is used to ensure mass and energy balances are maintained at the melt pool. The model is verified using Ti–6Al–4V single track deposition, produced with a coaxial nozzle and a diode laser. The model predictions of local temperature history, the track profile and microstructure scale show good agreement with the experimental results. The model is a useful industrial aid and alternative to finite element methods for selecting the parameters to use for laser direct metal deposition when separate geometric and microstructural outcomes are required

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Flow Stress Model of a 20Mn5 Hollow Steel Ingot during Hot Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ma, Qing-Xian; Luo, Jian-Bin

    2018-03-21

    20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft due to its good performance of strength, toughness and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under high temperature were not studied. In this study, the hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850-1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01/s-1/s are conducted using Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulation machine. And the flow stress curves and microstructure after hot compression are obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relation and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 hollow steel ingot.

  8. Multipass forging of Inconel 718 in the delta-Supersolvus domain: assessing and modeling microstructure evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the evolution of the microstructure of Inconel 718 during multi-pass forging processes. During the forming process, the material is subjected to several physical phenomena such as work-hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. In this work, transformation kinetics are modeled in the δ-Supersolvus domain (T>Tsolvus where the alloy is single-phase, all the alloying elements being dissolved into the FCC matrix. Torsion tests were used to simulate the forging process and recrystallization kinetics was modeled using a discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX two-site mean field model. The microstructure evolution under hot forging conditions is predicted in both dynamic and post-dynamic regimes based on the initial distribution of grain size and the evolution of dislocation density distribution during each step of the process. The model predicts recrystallization kinetics, recrystallized grain size distribution and stress–strain curve for different thermo-mechanical conditions and makes the connection between dynamic and post-dynamic regimes.

  9. Numerical modelling of softwood time-dependent behaviour based on microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2010-01-01

    The time-dependent mechanical behaviour of softwood such as creep or relaxation can be predicted, from knowledge of the microstructural arrangement of the cell wall, by applying deformation kinetics. This has been done several times before; however, often without considering the constraints defined...... by the basic physical mechanism behind the time-dependent behaviour. The mechanism causing time-dependency is thought to be sliding of the microfibrils past each other as a result breaking and re-bonding of hydrogen bonds. This can be incorporated in a numerical model by only allowing time-dependency in shear...

  10. Construction of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived oriented bone matrix microstructure by using in vitro engineered anisotropic culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Ryosuke; Matsugaki, Aira; Isobe, Yoshihiro; Saku, Taro; Yun, Hui-Suk; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Bone tissue has anisotropic microstructure based on collagen/biological apatite orientation, which plays essential roles in the mechanical and biological functions of bone. However, obtaining an appropriate anisotropic microstructure during the bone regeneration process remains a great challenging. A powerful strategy for the control of both differentiation and structural development of newly-formed bone is required in bone tissue engineering, in order to realize functional bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a novel anisotropic culture model by combining human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and artificially-controlled oriented collagen scaffold. The oriented collagen scaffold allowed hiPSCs-derived osteoblast alignment and further construction of anisotropic bone matrix which mimics the bone tissue microstructure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the construction of bone mimetic anisotropic bone matrix microstructure from hiPSCs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that the hiPSCs-derived osteoblasts possess a high level of intact functionality to regulate cell alignment. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 360-369, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modelling the effective diffusion coefficient of anions in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite knowing the microstructure of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.

    2009-01-01

    After having presented the issue of radioactive waste storage, the concept of geological storage and its application in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory, and described the Callovo-Oxfordian geological formation and the argillite transport properties, this research thesis aims at developing a prediction of these properties at a macroscopic scale for water and anions. A first part presents the different experimental means implemented to acquire the diffusion coefficients for the studied materials (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and purified Puy illite), and the spatial organisation of minerals by LIBS probe-based mapping to highlight a relationship between rock microstructure and its transport macroscopic properties. The next part presents the models which have been developed at the nanometer and micrometre scale to predict the diffusion coefficients. Experimental results are then compared with computed values

  12. Optical, electrical, structural and microstructural characteristics of rf sputtered ITO films developed for art protection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikova Sytchkova, A.; Grilli, M.L.; Piegari, A.; Boycheva, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conductive tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films have been prepared by rf sputtering in an Ar and Ar+O 2 gas mixture, both with and without additional substrate heating. The influence of both deposition conditions and post-annealing treatment on optical, electrical, structural and microstructural properties of the ITO films has been investigated. The optical constants have been calculated in the range 320-2500 nm using a combination of several theoretical models. A schematic diagram for the film properties change versus composition has been proposed in terms of a generalized parameter characterising the energy efficiency of the film formation. The deposition conditions and the optical and electrical properties of the films have been optimized with respect to the requirements for their application in art protection coatings. (orig.)

  13. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnken, N., E-mail: n.warnken@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ma, D. [Foundry Institute of the RWTH-Aachen, Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Drevermann, A. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Reed, R.C. [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fries, S.G. [SGF Consultancy, 52064 Aachen (Germany)] [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Steinbach, I. [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  14. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnken, N.; Ma, D.; Drevermann, A.; Reed, R.C.; Fries, S.G.; Steinbach, I.

    2009-01-01

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  15. Modelling of Eutectic Saturation Influence on Microstructure in Thin Wall Ductile Iron Casting Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbelko A.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Calculation of eutectic saturation influence (Sc = 0.9 - 1.1 on microstructure (austenite and graphite fraction, density of austenite and graphite grains and temperature curves in 2 mm wall ductile iron casting has been done.

  16. Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During the Thermomechanical Processing of Titanium Alloys (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semiatin, S. L; Furrer, D. U

    2008-01-01

    ... (or combination of properties) can be obtained through microstructural modification. Microstructure evolution and control in titanium alloys is heavily dependent on the allotropic transformation from a hexagonal-close-packed crystal structure...

  17. Impedance Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Microstructure Development of Sustainable Fly Ash Cement Mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, José Marcos; Sánchez, Isidro; Climent, Miguel Ángel

    2017-09-25

    Today, the characterisation of the microstructure of cement-based materials using non-destructive techniques has become an important topic of study, and among them, the impedance spectroscopy has recently experienced great progress. In this research, mortars with two different contents of fly ash were exposed to four different constant temperature and relative humidity environments during a 180-day period. The evolution of their microstructure was studied using impedance spectroscopy, whose results were contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry. The hardening environment has an influence on the microstructure of fly ash cement mortars. On one hand, the impedance resistances R₁ and R₂ are more influenced by the drying of the materials than by microstructure development, so they are not suitable for following the evolution of the porous network under non-optimum conditions. On the other hand, the impedance spectroscopy capacitances C₁ and C₂ allow studying the microstructure development of fly ash cement mortars exposed to those conditions, and their results are in accordance with mercury intrusion porosimetry ones. Finally, it has been observed that the combined analysis of the abovementioned capacitances could be very useful for studying shrinkage processes in cement-based materials kept in low relative humidity environments.

  18. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin

    1999-07-31

    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  19. Development of banded microstructure in 34CrNiMo6 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a banded microstructure in hot-rolled 34CrNiMo6 steel which consisted of bainitic and martensitic bands is explained. The chemical compositions of the bands were measured with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, which showed that the martensitic bands contained more alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Si than bainitic bands. By using Oberhoffer reagent, the segregations of phosphorus were also revealed. These phosphorus segregations coincided with the positive segregations of the alloying elements. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT diagrams of steel were calculated. They confirmed the formation of martensite in positive segregations and the formation of bainite in negative segregations.

  20. Microstructural development of PCAs irradiated in HFIR at 300 to 4000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.P.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hishinuma, A.; Hamada, S.

    1986-01-01

    Microstructural developments were determined on solution-annealed (SA) and cold-worked (CW) JPCA and US PCAs irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at 300 and 400 0 C. Irradiation produced damage levels of about 10 and 34 dpa and helium concentrations of around 580 and 2500 at. ppM, respectively. High concentrations of fine bubbles and MC precipitates, as well as Frank faulted loops, were observed in both SA and CW PCAs. Mutual stability of the MC particles and associated fine bubbles contributed to the extension of the transient regime of swelling to higher fluence. The irradiation responses of JPCA and US-PCA were similar in the HFIR, despite minor compositional differences (P,B) between the two materials. Useful fusion applications of SA-PCA as well as CW-PCA in the 300 0 C temperature range are suggested from these data

  1. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  2. Durability of cement-based materials: modeling of the influence of physical and chemical equilibria on the microstructure and the residual mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, E.

    2004-09-01

    A large part of mechanical and durability characteristics of cement-based materials comes from the performances of the hydrated cement, cohesive matrix surrounding the granular skeleton. Experimental studies, in situ or in laboratory, associated to models, have notably enhanced knowledge on the cement material and led to adapted formulations to specific applications or particularly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, these models, developed for precise cases, do not permit to specifically conclude for other experimental conclusions. To extend its applicability domain, we propose a new evolutive approach, based on reactive transport expressed at the microstructure scale of the cement. In a general point of view, the evolution of the solid compounds of the cement matrix, by dissolutions or precipitations, during chemical aggressions can be related to the pore solution evolution, and this one relied to the ionic exchanges with the external environment. By the utilization of a geochemical code associated to a thermodynamical database and coupled to a 3D transport model, this approach authorizes the study of all aggressive solution. The approach has been validated by the comparison of experimental observations to simulated degradations for three different environments (pure water, mineralized water, seawater) and on three different materials (CEM I Portland cement with 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 water-to cement ratio). The microstructural approach permits also to have access to mechanical properties evolutions. During chemical aggressions, the cement matrix evolution is traduced in a microstructure evolution. This one is represented from 3D images similarly to the models developed at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A new finite-element model, validated on previous tests or models, evaluates the stiffness of the cement paste, using as a mesh these microstructures. Our approach identifies and quantifies the major influence of porosity and its spatial

  3. Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, GERALD M.

    2005-03-31

    Thermodynamic calculations based on Gibbs free energy in the magnetization-magnetic intensity-temperature (M-H-T) magnetic equation of state space demonstrate that significantly different phase equilibria may result for those material systems where the product and parent phases exhibit different magnetization responses. These calculations show that the Gibbs free energy is changed by a factor equal to -MdH, where M and H are the magnetization and applied field strength, respectively. Magnetic field processing is directly applicable to a multitude of alloys and compounds for dramatically influencing phase stability and phase transformations. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength promises to provide a very robust mechanism for developing and tailoring enhanced microstructures (and even nanostructures through accelerated kinetics) with superior properties for a broad spectrum of material applications. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) Advanced Materials for the Future project, ferrous alloys were studied initially since this alloy family exhibits ferromagnetism over part of its temperature range of stability and therefore would demonstrate the maximum impact of this novel processing mechanism. Additionally, with these ferrous alloys, the high-temperature parent phase, austenite, exhibits a significantly different magnetization response from the potential product phases, ferrite plus carbide or martensite; and therefore, the solid-state transformation behavior of these alloys will be dramatically influenced by the presence of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Finally, a thermodynamic calculation capability (within ThermoCalc for example) was developed during this project to enable parametric studies to be performed to predict the magnitude of the influence of magnetic processing variables on the phase stability (phase diagrams) in

  4. Process-scale modelling of microstructure in direct chill casting of aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, M.; Heyvaert, L.; Založnik, M.; Combeau, H.; Daloz, D.; Lesoult, G.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanical properties of an alloy being related to its microstructure, the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the grain structure formation in direct chill casting is crucial. However, the grain size prediction by modelling is difficult since a variety of multi-scale coupled phenomena have to be considered. Nucleation and growth of the grains are interrelated, and the macroscopic transport phenomena such as the motion of grains and inoculant particles with the flow impact the nucleation-gowth competition. Thus we propose to study the grain size distribution of a 5182 alloy industrial scale slab of 510 mm thickness, both non-inoculated and inoculated with Al-3Ti-1B, for which experimental grain size measurements are available. We use a volume-averaged two-phase multi-scale model that describes nucleation from inoculant particles and grain growth, fully coupled with macroscopic transport phenomena: fluid flow induced by natural convection and solidification shrinkage, heat, mass and solute mass transport, grains and inoculant particles motion. We analyze the effect of liquid and grain motion as the effect of grain morphology on microstructure formation and we show in which extent those phenomena are responsible for the grain size distribution observed experimentally. The effect of the refiner level is also studied.

  5. Development of the novel ferrous-based stainless steel for biomedical applications, part I: high-temperature microstructure, mechanical properties and damping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Zong; Chen, Shih-Chung; Shih, Yung-Hsun; Hung, Jing-Ming; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Li-Hsiang; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2011-10-01

    This research investigated the high-temperature microstructure, mechanical properties, and damping behavior of Fe-9 Al-30 Mn-1C-5 Co (wt.%) alloy by means of electron microscopy, experimental model analysis, and hardness and tensile testing. Subsequent microstructural transformation occurred when the alloy under consideration was subjected to heat treatment in the temperature range of 1000-1150 °C: γ → (γ+κ). The κ-phase carbides had an ordered L'1(2)-type structure with lattice parameter a = 0.385 nm. The maximum yield strength (σ(y)), hardness, elongation, and damping coefficient of this alloy are 645 MPa, Hv 292, ~54%, and 178.5 × 10(-4), respectively. These features could be useful in further understanding the relationship between the biocompatibility and the wear and corrosion resistance of the alloy, so as to allow the development of a promising biomedical material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase-field modeling of the microstructure evolution and heterogeneous nucleation in solidifying ternary Al–Cu–Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundin, Julia; Pogorelov, Evgeny; Emmerich, Heike

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the microstructure evolution during the isothermal and non-isothermal solidification of ternary Al–Cu–Ni alloys by means of a general multi-phase-field model for an arbitrary number of phases. The stability requirements for the model functions on every dual interface guarantee the absence of “ghost” phases. The aim was to generate a realistic microstructure by coupling the thermodynamic parameters of the phases and the thermodynamically consistent phase-field evolution equations. It is shown that the specially constructed thermal noise terms disturb the stability on the dual interfaces and can produce heterogeneous nucleation of product phases at energetically favorable points. Similar behavior can be observed in triple junctions where the heterogeneous nucleation of a fourth phase is more favorable. Finally, the model predicts the growth of a combined eutectic-like and peritectic-like structure that is comparable to the observed experimental microstructure in various alloys

  7. Microstructure-based constitutive modeling for the large intestine validated by histological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolis, Dimitrios P; Sassani, Sofia G

    2013-05-01

    Other than its transport role, the large bowel performs numerous sophisticated functions, e.g. water, electrolyte, and vitamin absorption, optimized by its contractile properties and passive recoil capacity, but these properties have attracted limited attention than has been the case for other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, we investigated in vitro the pseudo-elastic properties of tubular specimens from the ascending, mid, and descending colon, and the rectum of healthy Wistar rats under passive quasi-static conditions and a physiologic range of pressures/axial stretches. A neo-Hookean and five-fiber family model was chosen as a microstructure-based material model for its efficiency in producing accurate representations of the three-dimensional inflation/extension data in relation to the underlying microstructure. Guided by our optical microscopy observations, this model took account of isotropic elastin properties and multi-directional collagen organization, but suffered from parameter covariance. Moreover, the contributions to the total model of the neo-Hookean and circumferential-fiber family were negligible, given the tiny amounts of elastin and circumferentially-arranged collagen fibers that were disclosed histologically, and the contributions of the diagonal and radial-fiber families to data representation were similar. The multiaxial response of the intestinal wall was fit equally accurately but without over-parameterization problems by the neo-Hookean and three-fiber (diagonal and axial) family model. The preferred alignment of collagen fibers towards the axial direction bestowed increased axial stiffness to the tissue. The mid colon was the stiffest region by virtue of its greatest material parameters, as validated by its higher collagen content than that of the distal regions. The present findings generate a more cohesive understanding of the large bowel in histomechanical terms, with potential for clinical and biomedical applications

  8. Influence of agglomeration of a recycled cement additive on the hydration and microstructure development of cement based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Shui, Z.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study, including experimental and mechanism analysis, on investigating the effect of agglomeration of a recycled cement additive on the hydration and microstructure development of cement based materials. The recycled additive is firstly produced form waste hardened cement paste

  9. A Microstructure-Based Model to Characterize Micromechanical Parameters Controlling Compressive and Tensile Failure in Crystallized Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerani, T.; Zhao, J.

    2014-03-01

    A discrete element model is proposed to examine rock strength and failure. The model is implemented by UDEC which is developed for this purpose. The material is represented as a collection of irregular-sized deformable particles interacting at their cohesive boundaries. The interface between two adjacent particles is viewed as a flexible contact whose stress-displacement law is assumed to control the material fracture and fragmentation process. To reproduce rock anisotropy, an innovative orthotropic cohesive law is developed for contact which allows the interfacial shear and tensile behaviours to be different from each other. The model is applied to a crystallized igneous rock and the individual and interactional effects of the microstructural parameters on the material compressive and tensile failure response are examined. A new methodical calibration process is also established. It is shown that the model successfully reproduces the rock mechanical behaviour quantitatively and qualitatively. Ultimately, the model is used to understand how and under what circumstances micro-tensile and micro-shear cracking mechanisms control the material failure at different loading paths.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of n-irradiated Fe-Cr Model Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasevic, Milena; Al Mazouzi, Abderrahim

    2008-01-01

    High chromium ( 9-12 wt %) ferritic/martensitic steels are candidate structural materials for future fusion reactors and other advanced systems such as accelerator driven systems (ADS). Their use for these applications requires a careful assessment of their mechanical stability under high energy neutron irradiation and in aggressive environments. In particular, the Cr concentration has been shown to be a key parameter to be optimized in order to guarantee the best corrosion and swelling resistance, together with the least embrittlement. In this work, the characterization of the neutron irradiated Fe-Cr model alloys with different Cr % with respect to microstructure and mechanical tests will be presented. The behavior of Fe-Cr alloys have been studied using tensile tests at different temperature range ( from -160 deg. C to 300 deg. C). Irradiation-induced microstructure changes have been studied by TEM for two different irradiation doses at 300 deg. C. The density and the size distribution of the defects induced have been determined. The tensile test results indicate that Cr content affects the hardening behavior of Fe-Cr binary alloys. Hardening mechanisms are discussed in terms of Orowan type of approach by correlating TEM data to the measured irradiation hardening. (authors)

  11. Microstructural characterization of atom clusters in irradiated pressure vessel steels and model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, P.; Pareige, P.; Akamatsu, M.; Van Duysen, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize the microstructural evolution of iron solid solution under irradiation, two pressure vessel steels irradiated in service conditions, and, for comparison, low copper model alloys irradiated with neutrons and electrons, have been studied through small angle neutron scattering and atom probe experiments. In Fe-Cu model alloys, copper clusters are formed containing uncertain proportions of iron. In the low copper industrial steels, the feature is more complex; solute atoms such as Ni, Mn and Si, sometimes associated with Cu, segregate as ''clouds'' more or less condensed in the iron solid solution. These silicides, or at least Si, Ni, Mn association, may facilitate the copper segregation although the initial iron matrix contains a low copper concentration. (authors). 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Microstructural characterization of atom clusters in irradiated pressure vessel steels and model alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P; Pareige, P [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France); Akamatsu, M; Van Duysen, J C [Electricite de France (EDF), 77 - Ecuelles (France)

    1994-12-31

    In order to characterize the microstructural evolution of iron solid solution under irradiation, two pressure vessel steels irradiated in service conditions, and, for comparison, low copper model alloys irradiated with neutrons and electrons, have been studied through small angle neutron scattering and atom probe experiments. In Fe-Cu model alloys, copper clusters are formed containing uncertain proportions of iron. In the low copper industrial steels, the feature is more complex; solute atoms such as Ni, Mn and Si, sometimes associated with Cu, segregate as ``clouds`` more or less condensed in the iron solid solution. These silicides, or at least Si, Ni, Mn association, may facilitate the copper segregation although the initial iron matrix contains a low copper concentration. (authors). 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Angle-adjustable density field formulation for the modeling of crystalline microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Le; Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2018-05-01

    A continuum density field formulation with particle-scale resolution is constructed to simultaneously incorporate the orientation dependence of interparticle interactions and the rotational invariance of the system, a fundamental but challenging issue in modeling the structure and dynamics of a broad range of material systems across variable scales. This generalized phase field crystal-type approach is based upon the complete expansion of particle direct correlation functions and the concept of isotropic tensors. Through applications to the modeling of various two- and three-dimensional crystalline structures, our study demonstrates the capability of bond-angle control in this continuum field theory and its effects on the emergence of ordered phases, and provides a systematic way of performing tunable angle analyses for crystalline microstructures.

  14. Effect of nano-SiO2 particles and curing time on development of fiber-matrix bond properties and microstructure of ultra-high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zemei; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Shi, Caijun

    2017-01-01

    Bond properties between fibers and cementitious matrix have significant effect on the mechanical behavior of composite materials. In this study, the development of steel fiber-matrix interfacial bond properties in ultra-high strength concrete (UHSC) proportioned with nano-SiO 2 varying between 0 and 2%, by mass of cementitious materials, was investigated. A statistical model relating either bond strength or pullout energy to curing time and nano-SiO 2 content was proposed by using the response surface methodology. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and backscatter scanning electron microscopy (BSEM) were used to characterize the microstructure of the matrix and the fiber-matrix interface, respectively. Micro-hardness around the embedded fiber and hydration products of the matrix were evaluated as well. Test results indicated that the optimal nano-SiO 2 dosage was 1% in terms of the bond properties and the microstructure. The proposed quadratic model efficiently predicted the bond strength and pullout energy with consideration of curing time and nano-SiO 2 content. The improvement in bond properties associated with nano-silica was correlated with denser matrix and/or interface and stronger bond and greater strength of hydration products based on microstructural analysis.

  15. Prediction of irradiation induced microstructures in the AgCu model alloy using a multiscale method coupling atomistic and phase field modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Demange, Gilles; Pontikis, Vassilis; Lunéville, Laurence; Simeone, David

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a multiscale approach based on phase field was developed to simulate the microstructure's evolution under irradiation in binary systems, from atomic to microstructural scale. For that purpose, an efficient numerical scheme was developed. In the case of AgCu alloy under Krypton ions irradiation, phenomenological parameters were computed using atomistic methods, as a function of the temperature and the irradiation flux. As a result, we predicted the influence of the irradiation fl...

  16. Microstructural development in physical vapour-deposited partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y. H. (Center for Intelligent Processing of Materials, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609-2280 (United States)); Biederman, R.R. (Center for Intelligent Processing of Materials, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609-2280 (United States)); Sisson, R.D. Jr. (Center for Intelligent Processing of Materials, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609-2280 (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The effects of processing parameters of physical vapour deposition on the microstructure of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) thermal barrier coatings have been experimentally investigated. Emphasis has been placed on the crystallographic texture of the PSZ coatings and the microstructure of the top surface of the PSZ coatings as well as the metal-ceramic interface. The variations in the deposition chamber temperature, substrate thickness, substrate rotation and vapour incidence angle resulted in the observation of significant differences in the crystallographic texture and microstructure of the PSZ coatings. ((orig.))

  17. Developing mathematical modelling competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Jensen, Tomas Højgaard

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of mathematical modelling competence, by which we mean being able to carry through a whole mathematical modelling process in a certain context. Analysing the structure of this process, six sub-competences are identified. Mathematical modelling competence...... cannot be reduced to these six sub-competences, but they are necessary elements in the development of mathematical modelling competence. Experience from the development of a modelling course is used to illustrate how the different nature of the sub-competences can be used as a tool for finding...... the balance between different kinds of activities in a particular educational setting. Obstacles of social, cognitive and affective nature for the students' development of mathematical modelling competence are reported and discussed in relation to the sub-competences....

  18. Alterations of parenchymal microstructure, neuronal connectivity and cerebrovascular resistance at adolescence following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Maxime; Li, Ying; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Kannurpatti, Sridhar

    2018-06-01

    TBI is a leading cause of morbidity in children. To investigate outcome of early developmental TBI during adolescence, a rat model of fluid percussion injury was developed, where previous work reported deficits in sensorimotor behavior and cortical blood flow at adolescence. 1 Based on the non-localized outcome, we hypothesized that multiple neurophysiological components of brain function, namely neuronal connectivity, synapse/axonal microstructural integrity and neurovascular function are altered and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods could be used to determine regional alterations. Adolescent outcomes of developmental TBI were studied 2-months after injury, using functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). fMRI based resting state functional connectivity (RSFC), representing neural connectivity, was significantly altered between sham and TBI. RSFC strength decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus accompanied by decrease in the spatial extent of their corresponding RSFC networks and inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Cerebrovascular reactivity to arterial CO2 changes diminished after TBI across both hemispheres, with a more pronounced decrease in the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and motor cortex. DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), reporting on axonal and microstructural integrity of the brain, indicated similar inter-hemispheric asymmetry, with highest change in the ipsilateral hippocampus and regions adjoining the ipsilateral thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala. TBI-induced corpus callosal microstructural alterations indicated measurable changes in inter-hemispheric structural connectivity. Hippocampus, thalamus and select cortical regions were most consistently affected in multiple imaging markers. The multi-modal MRI results demonstrate cortical and subcortical alterations in neural connectivity, cerebrovascular resistance and parenchymal microstructure in the adolescent brain

  19. The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-30

    Over the past several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been actively involved in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Material Management and Minimization (formerly Global Threat Reduction Initiative). The U.S. High- Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) project is developing alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel to reduce the proliferation threat. One option for a high-density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo). Forming the U-10Mo fuel plates/foils via rolling is an effective technique and is actively being pursued as part of the baseline manufacturing process. The processing of these fuel plates requires systematic investigation/understanding of the pre- and post-rolling microstructure, end-state mechanical properties, residual stresses, and defects, their effect on the mill during processing, and eventually, their in-reactor performance. In the work documented herein, studies were conducted to determine the effect of cold and hot rolling the as-cast and homogenized U-10Mo on its microstructure and hardness. The samples were homogenized at 900°C for 48 h, then later annealed for several durations and temperatures to investigate the effect on the material’s microstructure and hardness. The rolling of the as-cast plate, both hot and cold, was observed to form a molybdenum-rich and -lean banded structure. The cold rolling was ineffective, and in some cases exacerbated the as-cast defects. The grains elongated along the rolling direction and formed a pancake shape, while the carbides fractured perpendicularly to the rolling direction and left porosity between fractured particles of UC. The subsequent annealing of these samples at sub-eutectoid temperatures led to rapid precipitation of the ' lamellar phase, mainly in the molybdenum-lean regions. Annealing the samples above the eutectoid temperature did not refine the grain size or the banded

  20. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  1. Thermomechanical Testing and Microstructural Development of Class L Steel Wheel Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Macrostructure, microstructure, and quantitative metallographic analysis is conducted on Association of American Railroads Class L wheel steel specimens tested in a Gleeble 1500 under combined mechanical compression and resistance heating to temperat...

  2. Zirconia thin films from aqueous precursors: Processing, microstructural development, and epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of ZrO 2 (Y 2 O 3 ) were prepared from aqueous salt precursors by spin coating. Films were pyrolyzed to produce porous polycrystalline thin films of 5-10 nm grain size. Subsequent microstructural development depends greatly upon the nature of the substrate. Upon randomly oriented sapphire, the films initially sintered to full density; further heat treatment and grain growth causes these films to break into interconnected islands and finally isolated particles. Thermodynamic calculations predict that breakup is energetically favorable when the grain-size film-thickness ratio exceeds a critical value. Upon basal-plane-oriented sapphire, grain growth and breakup prefer the (100) oriented grains, presumably because this orientation is a special interface of low energy. The isolated, oriented grains produced by film breakup act as seeds for the growth of newly deposited material. Upon (100) cubic zirconia, true epitaxial films develop. Epitaxial growth was observed for lattice mismatches up to 1.59%. Growth proceeds from a fine epitaxial layer which is produced during the initial stages of heat treatment, consuming the porous polycrystalline material and producing a dense epitaxial thin film whose misfit is accommodated by a combination of film strain and misfit dislocations

  3. Prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke modulates the development of white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Picciotto, Marina R; Heath, Christopher J; Frost, Stephen J; Tsou, Kristen A; Dwan, Rita A; Jackowski, Marcel P; Constable, Robert T; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-12-05

    Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been linked to cognitive and auditory processing deficits in offspring. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that exposure to nicotine disrupts neurodevelopment during gestation and adolescence, possibly by disrupting the trophic effects of acetylcholine. Given recent clinical and preclinical work suggesting that neurocircuits that support auditory processing may be particularly vulnerable to developmental disruption by nicotine, we examined white matter microstructure in 67 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. The groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, IQ, years of parent education, or symptoms of inattention. Diffusion tensor anisotropy and anatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired, and auditory attention was assessed, in all subjects. Both prenatal exposure and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in anterior cortical white matter. Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Nicotine-induced disruption of the development of auditory corticofugal fibers may interfere with the ability of these fibers to modulate ascending auditory signals, leading to greater noise and reduced efficiency of neurocircuitry that supports auditory processing.

  4. Modeling of Metallic Glass Matrix Composites Under Compression: Microstructure Effect on Shear Band Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Qiu, Kun; Sun, Longgang; Wu, Qingqing

    2018-01-01

    The relationship among processing, microstructure, and mechanical performance is the most important for metallic glass matrix composites (MGCs). Numerical modeling was performed on the shear banding in MGCs, and the impacts of particle concentration, morphology, agglomerate, size, and thermal residual stress were revealed. Based on the shear damage criterion, the equivalent plastic strain acted as an internal state variable to depict the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of shear bands. The element deletion technique was employed to describe the process of transformation from shear band to micro-crack. The impedance effect of particle morphology on the propagation of shear bands was discussed, whereby the toughening mechanism was clearly interpreted. The present work contributes to the subsequent strengthening and toughening design of MGCs.

  5. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Noemi [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kowal, Andrzej [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, PAN, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Cracow (Poland); Rincon, Jesus-Maria [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, C. Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Villegas, Maria-Angeles, E-mail: mariangeles.villegas@cchs.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C. Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  6. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Noemi; Kowal, Andrzej; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

    2010-01-01

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  7. Microstructure-based characterization of permeability using a random walk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F F; Yang, Y S

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative transport properties of materials are analysed using a random walk model, based on the microscopic compositional distribution of compositions in the materials. A material sample is defined on a simple-cubic lattice, with volume fractions specified for each composition on every volume pixel (voxel). The quantitative relation between bulk permeability and fine-scale anisotropy is investigated by assuming fully anisotropic and fully isotropic voxel morphology. Such a study has prompted an analytic approximate formulation to predict bulk permeability range for a heterogeneous multi-component system that lacks detailed microstructure information. The numerical approach is verified on synthetic structures with known permeability. The analysis technique is applied to a real-world rock sample, as illustrated by a case study detailed in this paper. The investigations show that the bulk permeability is affected significantly by fine length scale anisotropy. (paper)

  8. Image analysis and 2D/3D modeling of the MOX fuel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudinet, Ghislain

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of the MOX fuel, made with UO_2 and PuO_2, determines his 'in pile' behavior. The french companies CEA and COGEMA are highly interested in its description by image analysis, which is the object of the present work. The segmentation algorithms described here use pictures issued from a microprobe and a SEM, to analyse the plutonium and porosity distribution in the fuel pellets. They are innovating, automated and robust enough to be used with a small data set. They have been successfully tested on different fuels, before and after irradiation. Three-dimensional informations have been computed with a genetic algorithm. The obtained 3D object size distributions allowed the modeling of many different industrial and research fuels. 3D reconstruction is accurate and stable, and provides a basis for different studies among which the study of the MOX fuel 'in pile' behavior. (author)

  9. ENTERPRISES DEVELOPMENT: MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Shenderivska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s purpose is to provide recommendations for the effective managing the companies’ development taking into account the sectoral key elements’ transformation. Methodology. The enterprise profits’ econometric simulation is conducted to determine the most significant factors influencing their development. According to the model testing result, their multicollinearity was revealed. To get rid of the multicollinearity phenomenon from the profit models, isolated regressors are excluded, namely, return on assets, material returns, return on equity. To obtain qualitative models with a small error of model parameters estimation and, accordingly, high reliability of the conclusion about the interrelation between the factors of the model and the resulting feature, factors in the income model that are not closely interconnected, that is, not multicollinear, are included. Determination coefficients R2 and F-criterion were calculated for model quality checking. The modern printing enterprises of Ukraine key elements, connected with integration into the global information space, are analysed. Results. The interrelation between a company’s development and earning capacity is identified in the study. The profit importance as the main source for enterprise financing is substantiated. Factors that have the greatest impact on the enterprises’ development are labour productivity, financial autonomy, working capital turnover, and the character of their influence is most adequately reflected by the power model. Peculiarities of the enterprises’ activity include increased competition at the inter-branch level, poorly developed industrial relations, and the own sources of financing activities shortage. Practical implications. Based on information on the most significant developmental impact factors, directions for perspective enterprises development for their competitiveness increase are proposed: diversification based on the activity expansion

  10. Harmonizing DTI measurements across scanners to examine the development of white matter microstructure in 803 adolescents of the NCANDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Chu, Weiwei; Kwon, Dongjin; Nichols, B Nolan; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Brumback, Ty; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; De Bellis, Michael D; Voyvodic, James T; Clark, Duncan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-04-15

    Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development

  11. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Property Development of Selective Laser Melted Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Anthony Patrick

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology that utilizes a high-power laser to melt metal powder and form a part layer-by-layer. Over the last 25 years, the technology has progressed from prototyping polymer parts to full scale production of metal component. SLM offers several advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques; however, the current alloy systems that are researched and utilized for SLM do not address applications requiring high electrical and thermal conductivity. This work presents a characterization of the microstructural evolution and mechanical property development of two copper alloys fabricated via SLM and post-process heat treated to address this gap in knowledge. Tensile testing, conductivity measurement, and detailed microstructural characterization was carried out on samples in the as-printed and heat treated conditions. A single phase solid solution strengthened binary alloy, Cu-4.3Sn, was the first alloy studied. Components were selectively laser melted from pre-alloyed Cu-4.3Sn powder and heat treated at 873 K (600 °C) and 1173 K (900 °C) for 1 hour. As-printed samples were around 97 percent dense with a yield strength of 274 MPa, an electrical conductivity of 24.1 %IACS, and an elongation of 5.6%. Heat treatment resulted in lower yield strength with significant increases in ductility due to recrystallization and a decrease in dislocation density. Tensile sample geometry and surface finish also showed a significant effect on measured yield strength but a negligible change in measured ductility. Microstructural characterization indicated that grains primarily grow epitaxially with a sub-micron cellular solidification sub-structure. Nanometer scale tin dioxide particles identified via XRD were found throughout the structure in the tin-rich intercellular regions. The second alloy studied was a high-performance precipitation hardening Cu-Ni-Si alloy, C70250. Pre-alloyed powder was selectively laser melted to

  12. An Experimental Study on Mechanical Modeling of Ceramics Based on Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual grinding result of ceramics has not been well predicted by the present mechanical models. No allowance is made for direct effects of materials microstructure and almost all the mechanical models were obtained based on crystalline ceramics. In order to improve the mechanical models of ceramics, surface grinding experiments on crystalline ceramics and non-crystalline ceramics were conducted in this research. The normal and tangential grinding forces were measured to calculate single grit force and specific grinding energy. Grinding surfaces were observed. For crystalline alumina ceramics, the predictive modeling of normal force per grit fits well with the experimental result, when the maximum undeformed chip thickness is less than a critical depth, which turns out to be close to the grain size of alumina. Meanwhile, there is a negative correlation between the specific grinding energy and the maximum undeformed chip thickness. With the decreasing maximum undeformed chip thickness, the proportions of ductile removal and transgranular fracture increase. However, the grinding force models are not applicable for non-crystalline ceramic fused silica and the specific grinding energy fluctuates irregularly as a function of maximum undeformed chip thickness seen from the experiment.

  13. Modeling the Microstructure Curvature of Boron-Doped Silicon in Bulk Micromachined Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure curvature, or buckling, is observed in the micromachining of silicon sensors because of the doping of impurities for realizing certain electrical and mechanical processes. This behavior can be a key source of error in inertial sensors. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the buckling value is important in designing MEMS devices. In this study, the curvature in the proof mass of an accelerometer is modeled as a multilayered solid model. Modeling is performed according to the characteristics of the solid diffusion mechanism in the bulk-dissolved wafer process (BDWP based on the self-stopped etch technique. Moreover, the proposed multilayered solid model is established as an equivalent composite structure formed by a group of thin layers that are glued together. Each layer has a different Young’s modulus value and each undergoes different volume shrinkage strain owing to boron doping in silicon. Observations of five groups of proof mass blocks of accelerometers suggest that the theoretical model is effective in determining the buckling value of a fabricated structure.

  14. The Development and Microstructure Analysis of High Strength Steel Plate NVE36 for Large Heat Input Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang; Liangfa, Xie; Ming, Wei; Jianli, Li

    In the shipbuilding industry, the welding efficiency of the ship plate not only has a great effect on the construction cost of the ship, but also affects the construction speed and determines the delivery cycle. The steel plate used for large heat input welding was developed sufficiently. In this paper, the composition of the steel with a small amount of Nb, Ti and large amount of Mn had been designed in micro-alloyed route. The content of C and the carbon equivalent were also designed to a low level. The technology of oxide metallurgy was used during the smelting process of the steel. The rolling technology of TMCP was controlled at a low rolling temperature and ultra-fast cooling technology was used, for the purpose of controlling the transformation of the microstructure. The microstructure of the steel plate was controlled to be the mixed microstructure of low carbon bainite and ferrite. Large amount of oxide particles dispersed in the microstructure of steel, which had a positive effects on the mechanical property and welding performance of the steel. The mechanical property of the steel plate was excellent and the value of longitudinal Akv at -60 °C is more than 200 J. The toughness of WM and HAZ were excellent after the steel plate was welded with a large heat input of 100-250 kJ/cm. The steel plate processed by mentioned above can meet the requirement of large heat input welding.

  15. Development of glass/glass-ceramics materials and devices and their micro-structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Sarkar, Arjun; Shingarvelan, Shobha; Kumar, Rakesh; Ananathanarayan, Arvind; Shrikhande, V.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Materials and devices based on glass and glass-ceramics (GCs) find applications in various high pressure and vacuum applications. We have prepared different glasses/glass-ceramics with requisite thermal expansion coefficient, electrical, vacuum and wetting characteristics to fabricate hermetic seals with different metals/alloys as well as components for these applications. Some of these are, SiO 2 -Na 2 O-K 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -B 2O3 (BS) for matched type of seal fabricated with Kovar alloy, SiO 2 -Na 2 O-K 2 O-BaO-PbO(LS) for fabrication of compressive type seals with stainless steel and SS 446 alloys, P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -BaO-PbO(NAP) for fabrication of matched type of seal with relatively low melting metals/alloys like AI/Cu-Be and Li 2 O-ZnO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 -Na 2 O (LZS) and Lithium aluminium silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics to fabricate matched and compression types feedtroughs/conductivity probes Magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) machinable glass-ceramics is another development for high voltage and ultra high vacuum applications. Micro-structural studies have been carried out on these materials to understand the mechanism of their behaviour and have also been deployed in various systems and plants in DAE. (author)

  16. Cryo-SEM studies of latex/ceramic nanoparticle coating microstructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Scriven, L E; Francis, Lorraine F

    2007-12-15

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development of composite coatings prepared from dispersions of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (approximately 30 nm) or indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (approximately 40 nm) and latex particles (polydisperse, D(v): approximately 300 nm). Cryo-SEM images of ATO/latex dispersions as-frozen show small clusters of ATO and individual latex particles homogeneously distribute in a frozen water matrix. In contrast, cryo-SEM images of ITO/latex dispersions as-frozen show ITO particles adsorb onto latex particle surfaces. Electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged ATO and negatively charged latex particles stabilizes the ATO/latex dispersion, whereas in ITO/latex dispersion, positively charged ITO particles are attracted onto surfaces of negatively charged latex particles. These results are consistent with calculations of interaction potentials from past research. Cryo-SEM images of frozen and fractured coatings reveal that both ceramic nanoparticles and latex become more concentrated as drying proceeds; larger latex particles consolidate with ceramic nanoparticles in the interstitial spaces. With more drying, compaction flattens the latex-latex particle contacts and shrinks the voids between them. Thus, ceramic nanoparticles are forced to pack closely in the interstitial spaces, forming an interconnected network. Finally, latex particles partially coalesce at their flattened contacts, thereby yielding a coherent coating. The research reveals how nanoparticles segregate and interconnect among latex particles during drying.

  17. Microstructure Development During Sintering of TiC-Ni3A1 Cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-Ni(sub 3)Al cermets are under development for application in diesel engines because of desirable physical properties and wear resistance. Powder compacts with binder contents from 30-50 vol.% were fabricated by pressureless sintering under vacuum followed by low gas pressure isostatic pressing. Increasing the Ni(sub 3)Al content improved densification when using prealloyed powders as expected. However, when the Ni(sub 3)Al was formed by in-situ reaction synthesis of Ni and NiAl, densification decreased with higher binder contents. The final microstructure consisted of a ''core-rim'' structure with TiC cores surrounded by (Ti,W)C rims. In some cases, Ni and Al were also observed in the peripheral region of the rim structure. Grain sizes of the TiC increased with binder content and temperature. Preferred orientation of the Ni(sub 3)Al binder phase was observed due to very large grain sizes on the order of millimeters

  18. Microstructural development in NiAl/Ni-Si-B/Ni transient liquid phase bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, W.F.; Orel, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based investigation of microstructural development during transient liquid phase bonding of near-stoichiometric NiAl to commercial purity nickel is presented in this article. The work described employed Ni-4.5 wt pct Si-3.2 wt pct B (BNi-3) melt-spun interlayers. The precipitation of both Ni-Al based phases and borides within the joint and adjacent substrate regions is discussed. The article considers martensite formation (within the NiAl substrate) and the precipitation of L1 2 type phases (both within the joint and at the interface with the NiAl substrate). The relative roles of the two substrate materials (NiAl and Ni) in the isothermal resolidification process are identified. The preferential formation of Ni 3 B boride phases in the Ni substrate near the original location of the Ni substrate-joint interface is discussed and contrasted with the absence of similar events in the NiAl substrate

  19. Evolution of phase microstructure during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1985-11-01

    The phase microstructure of alloys is frequently severely altered during irradiation. Sluggish precipitation reactions including precipitation coarsening are accelerated by irradiation-enhanced diffusion. Radiation-induced segregation redistributes existing precipitate phases within the microstructure, induces precipitation of nonequilibrium phases and affects the composition of phases in multicomponent alloys. The displacement process causes disordering of ordered alloys and frequently amorphization, especially in intermetallic compounds, at low temperature. Although a good qualitative understanding of the basic process involved, i.e., displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation exists, methods for detailed quantitative modeling of the evolution of the microstructure of alloys remain to be developed

  20. A Geometric Approach to Modeling Microstructurally Small Fatigue Crack Formation. 2; Simulation and Prediction of Crack Nucleation in AA 7075-T651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhalter, Jake D.; Littlewood, David J.; Christ, Robert J., Jr.; Veilleux, M. G.; Bozek, J. E.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Maniatty, Antionette M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop further a framework for computationally modeling microstructurally small fatigue crack growth in AA 7075-T651 [1]. The focus is on the nucleation event, when a crack extends from within a second-phase particle into a surrounding grain, since this has been observed to be an initiating mechanism for fatigue crack growth in this alloy. It is hypothesized that nucleation can be predicted by computing a non-local nucleation metric near the crack front. The hypothesis is tested by employing a combination of experimentation and nite element modeling in which various slip-based and energy-based nucleation metrics are tested for validity, where each metric is derived from a continuum crystal plasticity formulation. To investigate each metric, a non-local procedure is developed for the calculation of nucleation metrics in the neighborhood of a crack front. Initially, an idealized baseline model consisting of a single grain containing a semi-ellipsoidal surface particle is studied to investigate the dependence of each nucleation metric on lattice orientation, number of load cycles, and non-local regularization method. This is followed by a comparison of experimental observations and computational results for microstructural models constructed by replicating the observed microstructural geometry near second-phase particles in fatigue specimens. It is found that orientation strongly influences the direction of slip localization and, as a result, in uences the nucleation mechanism. Also, the baseline models, replication models, and past experimental observation consistently suggest that a set of particular grain orientations is most likely to nucleate fatigue cracks. It is found that a continuum crystal plasticity model and a non-local nucleation metric can be used to predict the nucleation event in AA 7075-T651. However, nucleation metric threshold values that correspond to various nucleation governing mechanisms must be calibrated.

  1. Polycarbonate as an Elasto-Plastic Material Model for Simulation of the Microstructure Hot Imprint Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Šakalys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal imprint process of polymer micro-patterning is widely applied in areas such as manufacturing of optical parts, solar energy, bio-mechanical devices and chemical chips. Polycarbonate (PC, as an amorphous polymer, is often used in thermoforming processes because of its good replication characteristics. In order to obtain replicas of the best quality, the imprint parameters (e.g., pressure, temperature, time, etc. must be determined. Therefore finite element model of the hot imprint process of lamellar periodical microstructure into PC has been created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The mathematical model of the hot imprint process includes three steps: heating, imprinting and demolding. The material properties of amorphous PC strongly depend on the imprint temperature and loading pressure. Polycarbonate was modelled as an elasto-plastic material, since it was analyzed below the glass transition temperature. The hot imprint model was solved using the heat transfer and the solid stress-strain application modes with thermal contact problem between the mold and polycarbonate. It was used for the evaluation of temperature and stress distributions in the polycarbonate during the hot imprint process. The quality of the replica, by means of lands filling ratio, was determined as well.

  2. COMPUTER MODELING OF THE ROLLING TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES INFLUENCE ON MICROSTRUCTURE OF EUTECTOID COLONIES OF ROD PEARLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnection between the parameters of the rolled wire production technology and characteristics of its microstructure is shown. The correlation interconnections between the characteristics of the rolled wire microstructure, calculated by method of image processing, and technology of its receipt in conditions of RUP «BMZ» are determined. 

  3. Correlation between 2D and 3D flow curve modelling of DP steels using a microstructure-based RVE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazani, A.; Mukherjee, K.; Quade, H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W.

    2013-01-01

    A microstructure-based approach by means of representative volume elements (RVEs) is employed to evaluate the flow curve of DP steels using virtual tensile tests. Microstructures with different martensite fractions and morphologies are studied in two- and three-dimensional approaches. Micro sections of DP microstructures with various amounts of martensite have been converted to 2D RVEs, while 3D RVEs were constructed statistically with randomly distributed phases. A dislocation-based model is used to describe the flow curve of each ferrite and martensite phase separately as a function of carbon partitioning and microstructural features. Numerical tensile tests of RVE were carried out using the ABAQUS/Standard code to predict the flow behaviour of DP steels. It is observed that 2D plane strain modelling gives an underpredicted flow curve for DP steels, while the 3D modelling gives a quantitatively reasonable description of flow curve in comparison to the experimental data. In this work, a von Mises stress correlation factor σ 3D /σ 2D has been identified to compare the predicted flow curves of these two dimensionalities showing a third order polynomial relation with respect to martensite fraction and a second order polynomial relation with respect to equivalent plastic strain, respectively. The quantification of this polynomial correlation factor is performed based on laboratory-annealed DP600 chemistry with varying martensite content and it is validated for industrially produced DP qualities with various chemistry, strength level and martensite fraction.

  4. Modelling the continuous cooling transformation diagram of engineering steels using neural networks. Part II. Microstructure and hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, P.J. van der; Wang, J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Sietsma, J.; Zwaag, S. van der [Delft Univ. of Technology, Lab. for Materials Science (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    The neural network model of Van der Wolk et al. (2002) describes the effect of composition on the phase regions of the continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram, yet does not consider the fractions of microstructural components and the hardness data that are often quoted in CCT diagrams. In the present paper, the construction of two more neural network models, one for the fractions of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite in the microstructure, and one for the hardness after cooling, using the data of 338 and 412 diagrams, respectively. The accuracy of each model was found to be similar to the expected experimental error; moreover, the models were found to be mutually consistent, although they have been constructed independently. Furthermore, the trends in these properties for alloying elements can be quantified with the models, and are largely in line with metallurgical expectations. (orig.)

  5. Application of a Microstructure-Based ISV Plasticity Damage Model to Study Penetration Mechanics of Metals and Validation through Penetration Study of Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangqing Dou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A developed microstructure-based internal state variable (ISV plasticity damage model is for the first time used for simulating penetration mechanics of aluminum to find out its penetration properties. The ISV damage model tries to explain the interplay between physics at different length scales that governs the failure and damage mechanisms of materials by linking the macroscopic failure and damage behavior of the materials with their micromechanical performance, such as void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Within the continuum modeling framework, microstructural features of materials are represented using a set of ISVs, and rate equations are employed to depict damage history and evolution of the materials. For experimental calibration of this damage model, compression, tension, and torsion straining conditions are considered to distinguish damage evolutions under different stress states. To demonstrate the reliability of the presented ISV model, that model is applied for studying penetration mechanics of aluminum and the numerical results are validated by comparing with simulation results yielded from the Johnson-Cook model as well as analytical results calculated from an existing theoretical model.

  6. Quantification of microstructural features in α/β titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiley, J.; Searles, T.; Lee, E.; Kar, S.; Banerjee, R.; Russ, J.C.; Fraser, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical properties of α/β Ti alloys are closely related to their microstructure. The complexity of the microstructural features involved makes it rather difficult to develop models for predicting properties of these alloys. Developing predictive rules-based models for α/β Ti alloys requires a huge database consisting of quantified microstructural data. This in turn requires the development of rigorous stereological procedures capable of quantifying the various microstructural features of interest imaged using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. In the present paper, rigorous stereological procedures have been developed for quantifying four important microstructural features in these alloys: thickness of Widmanstaetten α laths, colony scale factor, prior β grain size, and volume fraction of Widmanstaetten α laths

  7. Effect of treatment temperature on the microstructure of asphalt binders: insights on the development of dispersed domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, I; Masad, E; Bhasin, A

    2016-04-01

    This paper offers important insights on the development of the microstructure in asphalt binders as a function of the treatment temperature. Different treatment temperatures are useful to understand how dispersed domains form when different driving energies for the mobility of molecular species are provided. Small and flat dispersed domains, with average diameter between 0.02 and 0.70 μm, were detected on the surface of two binders at room temperature, and these domains were observed to grow with an increase in treatment temperature (up to over 2 μm). Bee-like structures started to appear after treatment at or above 100°C. Moreover, the effect of the binder thickness on its microstructure at room temperature and at higher treatment temperatures was investigated and is discussed in this paper. At room temperature, the average size of the dispersed domains increased as the binder thickness decreased. A hypothesis that conciliates current theories on the origin and development of dispersed domains is proposed. Small dispersed domains (average diameter around 0.02 μm) are present in the bulk of the binder, whereas larger domains and bee-like structures develop on the surface, following heat treatment or mechanical disturbance that reduces the film thickness. Molecular mobility and association are the key factors in the development of binder microstructure. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Three-dimensional microstructure-based micromechanical modeling for TC6 titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guoju; Shi, Ran [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing 100081 (China); Fan, Qunbo, E-mail: fanqunbo@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing 100081 (China); Xia, Yumeng; Zhang, Hongmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Materials Under Shock and Impact, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-02-08

    A new in-depth evaluation of the micromechanical response of TC6 (Ti–6Al–1.5Cr–2.5Mo–0.5Fe–0.3Si) titanium alloy subjected to uniaxial tensile loading is performed based on micromechanical modeling. This evaluation includes reconstruction of the three-dimensional annealed microstructure (annealing at 800 °C for 2 h, then air cooled) of the alloy via dual-energy micro-computed tomography. In addition, constitutive relations of the constituent phases were determined via synchrotron-based in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction and a self-consistent model as well as nanoindentation tests combined with finite element modeling. The results revealed that the stress concentration was translated from the primary α phase to the secondary α phase, then to the β phase. Moreover, the stress generated was re-transferred to the primary α phase when the strain was increased from 0.00 to 0.05. This transfer is indicative of crack initiation in the primary α grains.

  9. Linking natural microstructures with numerical modeling of pinch-and-swell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Max; Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    For a variety of geological problems, the change from homogeneous to localized deformation and the establishment of steady-state conditions are equally important. Here, we show that pinch-and-swell structures are ideal candidates for the study of the switch in deformation style and mechanism during ductile creep. We present an interdisciplinary approach to the onset of pinch-and-swell structures and to the flow conditions during pre- to post-localization stages in ductile rocks. For this reason, naturally boudinaged calcite veins, embedded in a calc-mylonite, and their microfabrics were investigated quantitatively. Remnants of slightly deformed calcite hosts build up the swells, showing twinning and minor dislocation glide as crystal plastic deformation mechanisms which are accompanied by subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR). Towards the pinches, we find a gradient of severe grain size reduction through progressive SGR, developing a characteristic dislocation creep crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Along this gradient, the finest recrystallized calcite grains appear randomly oriented, expressed by a "smearing-out" of the CPO and missing systematics of misorientation angles in the most extended areas. We interpret this microstructure as a switch from dislocation dominated creep to grain boundary sliding processes. Further, we show that the onset of boudinage is independent on both the original orientation and grain size of calcite hosts. We implemented these microstructural observations into a layered elasto-visco-plastic finite element framework, tracing variations in grain size (Peters et al., 2015). We base the microstructural evolution on thermo-mechanical-chemical principles and end-member flow laws (Herwegh et al., 2014). The simulated pinch-and-swell structures indicate that low strain rates in the swells favor dislocation creep, whereas accelerated rates provoke continuous grain size reduction allowing strain accommodation by diffusion creep

  10. Continuous media with microstructure

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses the extension of classical continuum models. To the first class addressed belong various thermodynamic models of multicomponent systems, and to the second class belong primarily microstructures created by phase transformations.

  11. The relevance of grain dissection for grain size reduction in polar ice: insights from numerical models and ice core microstructure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martyn R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka

    2017-09-01

    The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modelling and analysed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser). Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighbouring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modelling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be used to

  12. The Relevance of Grain Dissection for Grain Size Reduction in Polar Ice: Insights from Numerical Models and Ice Core Microstructure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Steinbach

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modeling and analyzed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser. Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighboring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modeling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be

  13. New droplet model developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.; Moeller, P.; Treiner, J.; Weiss, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    A brief summary is given of three recent contributions to the development of the Droplet Model. The first concerns the electric dipole moment induced in octupole deformed nuclei by the Coulomb redistribution. The second concerns a study of squeezing in nuclei and the third is a study of the improved predictive power of the model when an empirical ''exponential'' term is included. 25 refs., 3 figs

  14. Effect of microstructure on the impact toughness of high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, I.

    2014-07-01

    One of the major challenges in the development of new steel grades is to get increasingly high strength combined with a low ductile brittle transition temperature and a high upper shelf energy. This requires the appropriate microstructural design. Toughness in steels is controlled by different microstructural constituents. Some of them, like inclusions, are intrinsic while others happening at different microstructural scales relate to processing conditions. A series of empirical equations express the transition temperature as a sum of contributions from substitutional solutes, free nitrogen, carbides, pearlite, grain size and eventually precipitation strengthening. Aimed at developing a methodology that could be applied to high strength steels, microstructures with a selected degree of complexity were produced at laboratory in a Nb-microalloyed steel. As a result a model has been developed that consistently predicts the Charpy curves for ferrite-pearlite, bainitic and quenched and tempered microstructures using as input data microstructural parameters. This model becomes a good tool for microstructural design. (Author)

  15. Probabilistic Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  16. A simple model for the microstructural evolution of solids under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, P.P.; Martin, G.

    1982-01-01

    The coupled evolutions of the void and dislocation populations in crystals under high-temperature irradiation are studied by a simple heuristic theoretical approach: rate equations are used for describing both defect concentrations and microstructural variables, and the trajectories of the point representative of the microstructure in the appropriate state space are studied. Qualitatively different microstructural evolutions are found depending on the irradiation flux and temperature. Non-trivial behaviours are revealed such as: transient swelling, effect of cold work on the incubation dose for swelling, large dose divergence of evolutions which looked similar at low dose (which should result in large swelling heterogeneities) and radiation-enhanced sintering. (author)

  17. RSMASS system model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  18. Microstructural characterization and finite element modeling of AZ31 magnesium alloys welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Segarra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it has been studied how the microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy can be affected by the thermic cycles produced by welding processes, trying to modeling by element finite software the thermic cycles in this material. The AZ31 samples tested were welded using Gas Tugsten Arc Welding (GTAW and different filler materials. For this investigation, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, and finite elements method software has been used. This work indicates in one hand that in this type of alloys the microconstituyentes are Al-Mn o Al-Mn-Mg compounds, the presence of β-phase cannot be found at room temperature in this research at room, on the other hand the obtained simulation models indicate that the recrystallization takes place in the areas which reach maximum temperatures around 550 °C, this value is also the limit of the dissolution area for the Al-Mn o Al-Mn-Mg precipitated particles which are very likely to act as inhibitors of the corrosion in NaCl electrolytes.

  19. Microstructure-sensitive modelling of dislocation creep in polycrystalline FCC alloys: Orowan theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo-Nava, E.I., E-mail: eg375@cam.ac.uk; Rae, C.M.F.

    2016-01-10

    A new approach for modelling dislocation creep during primary and secondary creep in FCC metals is proposed. The Orowan equation and dislocation behaviour at the grain scale are revisited to include the effects of different microstructures such as the grain size and solute atoms. Dislocation activity is proposed to follow a jog-diffusion law. It is shown that the activation energy for cross-slip E{sub cs} controls dislocation mobility and the strain increments during secondary creep. This is confirmed by successfully comparing E{sub cs} with the experimentally determined activation energy during secondary creep in 5 FCC metals. It is shown that the inverse relationship between the grain size and dislocation creep is attributed to the higher number of strain increments at the grain level dominating their magnitude as the grain size decreases. An alternative approach describing solid solution strengthening effects in nickel alloys is presented, where the dislocation mobility is reduced by dislocation pinning around solute atoms. An analysis on the solid solution strengthening effects of typical elements employed in Ni-base superalloys is also discussed. The model results are validated against measurements of Cu, Ni, Ti and 4 Ni-base alloys for wide deformation conditions and different grain sizes.

  20. Development of microstructure during sintering and aluminium exposure of titanium diboride ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Gunnar

    1997-12-31

    In the production of aluminium, much less energy need be consumed if an inert, wetted cathode is present in the electrolysis cell. Titanium diboride, TiB{sub 2}, is easily wetted and does not readily dissolve in liquid aluminium, but it degrades, probably because aluminium penetrates into it during electrolysis. This degradation is linked to impurities present in the TiB{sub 2} after sintering. This thesis studies the sintering process and how aluminium penetrates into the material. High-purity, high-density TiB{sub 2} compacts were made by hot pressing at 50 MPa in an argon atmosphere at 1790-1960 {sup o}C. Samples were made with different impurity additions. These samples were exposed to liquid aluminium at 980 {sup o}C for 24 hours. All samples were penetrated, but the amount and appearance depended on the sintering aid used. Unlike the other samples, pure TiB{sub 2} was easily penetrated by metallic aluminium because of the open porosity and microcracks of this material. Grain boundary penetration was common among the samples. Differences in penetration behaviour between grain boundaries are probably due to differences in grain boundary energy. But no relation to segregants or boundary misorientation was found. The orientation of grain boundary planes and de-wetting of thin films upon cooling may explain the observed microstructure development. The samples sintered with Ti addition suffered extensive penetration despite their high densities. The grain boundaries of these samples became faceted and contained thicker films of metallic aluminium, presumably because of increased solubility due to iron segregations. All secondary phases present in the grain junctions after sintering, except from the B{sub 4}C phase, reacted with the penetrated aluminium. This did not cause swelling and cracking, as has been suggested by other authors. 101 refs., 48 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Microstructure evolution of irradiated tungsten: Crystal effects in He and H implantation as modelled in the Binary Collision Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, M.; Ortiz, C.J.; Becquart, C.S.; Domain, C.; Sarkar, U.; Debacker, A.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to develop an understanding of the evolution of W microstructure the conditions the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as well as the DEMOnstration Power Plan (DEMO), and modelling techniques can be very helpful. In this paper, the Binary Collision Approximation of Molecular Dynamics as implemented in the Marlowe code is used to model the slowing down of atomic helium and hydrogen on tungsten in the 1-100 keV range. The computed helium and Frenkel Pairs (FP) distributions are then used as input for the simulation of isochronal annealing experiments with an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) model. Parameterisation is discussed in a companion paper to this one. To model inelastic energy losses beyond the Lindhard regime, a new module has been implemented in the Marlowe code which is presented here, along with a discussion on various parameters of the model important in the modelling of channelled trajectories. For a given total inelastic stopping cross section, large differences in low energy channelling ranges are identified depending on whether inelastic energy loss is considered to be purely continuous or to also occur during the atomic collisions. In polycrystals, the channelling probability is shown to be significant over the whole range of slowing down energies considered. Channelling together with short replacement sequences has the effect of reducing the FP production efficiency by more than a factor two in polycrystalline as compared with an hypothetical structureless tungsten. This has a crucial effect on the helium isochronal desorption spectra predicted by the OKMC simulations. Those predicted with structureless tungsten are at variance with experiment, due to the overestimation of He trapping on the radiation induced defects.

  2. Microstructure evolution of irradiated tungsten: Crystal effects in He and H implantation as modelled in the Binary Collision Approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, M., E-mail: mhou@ulb.ac.b [Physique des Solides Irradies et des Nanostructures CP234, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bd du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ortiz, C.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Becquart, C.S. [Unite Materiaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Domain, C. [EDF-R and D Departement MMC, Les Renardieres, F-77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Sarkar, U. [Physics Department, Assam University, Silchar (India); Debacker, A. [Unite Materiaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    It is important to develop an understanding of the evolution of W microstructure the conditions the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as well as the DEMOnstration Power Plan (DEMO), and modelling techniques can be very helpful. In this paper, the Binary Collision Approximation of Molecular Dynamics as implemented in the Marlowe code is used to model the slowing down of atomic helium and hydrogen on tungsten in the 1-100 keV range. The computed helium and Frenkel Pairs (FP) distributions are then used as input for the simulation of isochronal annealing experiments with an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) model. Parameterisation is discussed in a companion paper to this one. To model inelastic energy losses beyond the Lindhard regime, a new module has been implemented in the Marlowe code which is presented here, along with a discussion on various parameters of the model important in the modelling of channelled trajectories. For a given total inelastic stopping cross section, large differences in low energy channelling ranges are identified depending on whether inelastic energy loss is considered to be purely continuous or to also occur during the atomic collisions. In polycrystals, the channelling probability is shown to be significant over the whole range of slowing down energies considered. Channelling together with short replacement sequences has the effect of reducing the FP production efficiency by more than a factor two in polycrystalline as compared with an hypothetical structureless tungsten. This has a crucial effect on the helium isochronal desorption spectra predicted by the OKMC simulations. Those predicted with structureless tungsten are at variance with experiment, due to the overestimation of He trapping on the radiation induced defects.

  3. Development of Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture in a Double-Sided Friction Stir Welded Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, S.; Wynne, B. P.; Baker, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture has been investigated in double-sided friction stir welded microalloyed steel, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure analyses show that the center of stirred zone reached a temperature between Ac1 and Ac3 during FSW, resulting in a dual-phase austenitic/ ferritic microstructure. The temperatures in the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the overlapped area between the first and second weld pass did not exceed the Ac1. The shear generated by the rotation probe occurs in austenitic/ferritic phase field where the austenite portion of the microstructure is transformed to a bainitic ferrite, on cooling. Analysis of crystallographic textures with regard to shear flow lines generated by the probe tool shows the dominance of simple shear components across the whole weld. The austenite texture at Ac1 - Ac3 is dominated by the B { {1bar{1}2} }D2 { {11bar{2}} }< 111rangle simple shear texture components. The formation of ultrafine equiaxed ferrite with submicron grain size has been observed in the overlapped area between the first and second weld pass. This is due to continuous dynamic strain-induced recrystallization as a result of simultaneous severe shear deformation and drastic undercooling.

  4. Strength and Stiffness Development in Soft Soils: A FESEM aided Soil Microstructure Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ho, M. H.; Bai, X.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    This paper opens with an overview of the debatable definition of soft soil that goes beyond a (CH) organic / inorganic clay and OH peat to include weakly cemented periglacial deposits of loess and alike. It then outlines the findings obtained from stiffness test on cement-stabilised soft clay. The findings are complemented with a microstructure viewpoint obtained using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Research also comprised of making cylindrical stabilised clay samples, prepared in the laboratory with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. The samples were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and observations were also made of its microstructure using the FESEM. The impact of the soil microstructure on the stiffness result was studied both with the stabilized soil and also of some of the natural undisturbed loess soils. Sustainability aspect and the potential of the use of rubber chips and sand as additives to cement stabilisation are also discussed. The overall test results indicated that rubber chips and sand contributed to the improvement in unconfined compressive strength (qu). The derogatory influence of moisture on the stiffness of the stabilised clay was studied simultaneously. SEM micrographs are presented that show bonding of cement, rubber chips/ sand and soft clay, granular units and aggregated / agglomerated units in loess. The paper concludes with observations on the dependence of soil microstructure on the soil strength and deformability and even collapsibility of the loess. Current practices adopted as engineering solutions to these challenging soils are outlined.

  5. Development of non-dendritic microstructures in AA6061 cast billets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.-D.; Chadwick, T.A.; Bryant, J.D. [Reynolds Metals Co., Chester, VA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Non-dendritic structures have been shown to have many advantages over conventional, dendritic structures in castable aluminum alloys. Examples include high structural integrity, reduced porosity, excellent formability and enhanced near net-shape forming capability. Non-dendritic materials are characterized by an equiaxed, globularized grain structure. Previous work has focused on the application of these structures in traditional casting alloys such as A356 and A357, and on the processing of these alloys during semi-solid forming and squeeze casting. There is considerably less information on the impact of non-dendritic microstructures upon solid state deformation, and the use of such microstructures in the processing of traditional wrought aluminum alloys. In this paper, we will present our recent work in casting non-dendritic AA6061 alloy using different techniques, and discuss the effects of cast structure on deformation behavior during solid state processing at elevated temperatures. Cast microstructures were modified during direct chill casting using three different methods: magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) agitation, mechanical stirring, and high loadings of grain refiner. A detailed microstructure characterization will be presented and discussed in terms of structural integrity, grain morphology, and their effects on deformation in the solid state. (orig.)

  6. The effect of actinides on the microstructural development in a metallic high-level nuclear waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D. D., Jr.; Sinkler, W.; Abraham, D. P.; Richardson, J. W., Jr.; McDeavitt, S. M.

    1999-10-25

    Waste forms to contain material residual from an electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory. One of these waste forms contains waste stainless steel (SS), fission products that are noble to the process (e.g., Tc, Ru, Pd, Rh), Zr, and actinides. The baseline composition of this metallic waste form is SS-15wt.% Zr. The metallurgy of this baseline alloy has been well characterized. On the other hand, the effects of actinides on the alloy microstructure are not well understood. As a result, SS-Zr alloys with added U, Pu, and/or Np have been cast and then characterized, using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction, to investigate the microstructural development in SS-Zr alloys that contain actinides. Actinides were found to congregate non-uniformally in a Zr(Fe,Cr,Ni){sub 2+x} phase. Apparently, the actinides were contained in varying amounts in the different polytypes (C14, C15, and C36) of the Zr(Fe,Cr,Ni){sub 2+x} phase. Heat treatment of an actinide-containing SS-15 wt.% Zr alloy showed the observed microstructure to be stable.

  7. Fatigue crack initiation in nickel-based superalloys studied by microstructure-based FE modeling and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work stage I crack initiation in polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys is investigated by analyzing anisotropic mechanical properties, local stress concentrations and plastic deformation on the microstructural length scale. The grain structure in the gauge section of fatigue specimens was characterized by EBSD. Based on the measured data, a microstructure-based FE model could be established to simulate the strain and stress distribution in the specimens during the first loading cycle of a fatigue test. The results were in fairly good agreement with experimentally measured local strains. Furthermore, the onset of plastic deformation was predicted by identifying shear stress maxima in the microstructure, presumably leading to activation of slip systems. Measurement of plastic deformation and observation of slip traces in the respective regions of the microstructure confirmed the predicted slip activity. The close relation between micro-plasticity, formation of slip traces and stage I crack initiation was demonstrated by SEM surface analyses of fatigued specimens and an in-situ fatigue test in a large chamber SEM.

  8. Effect of microstructure on strain localization in a 7050 aluminum alloy: Comparison of experiments and modeling for various textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Alberto W.; Nicolas, Andrea [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, 701 W. Stadium Ave, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2045 (United States); Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sangid, Michael D., E-mail: msangid@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, 701 W. Stadium Ave, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2045 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Microstructure attributes are responsible for heterogeneous deformation and strain localization. In this study, the relation between residual strain fields and microstructure is examined and assessed by means of experiments and crystal plasticity modeling. The microstructure of rolled aluminum alloys (AA) in the 7050-T7451 condition was experimentally obtained with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis along the rolling direction (L-T orientation), across the rolling direction (T-L orientation), and transverse to the rolling direction (T-S orientation). Each of these sections was also patterned using a novel microstamping procedure, to allow for strain mapping by digital image correlation (DIC). The measured microstructures were in turn used as input of an elasto-viscoplastic crystal plasticity formulation based on fast Fourier transforms (EVP-FFT). Comparisons between the strain maps obtained experimentally by the concurrent DIC-EBSD method and the EVP-FFT simulations were made for the three sections, corresponding to the initial textures. The comparisons showed that the predicted levels of strain concentration were reasonable for all three specimens from a statistical perspective, which is important to properly describe and predict the strains within an ensemble of components; however the spatial match with the actual strain fields needs improvement.

  9. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  10. A modeling of radiation induced microstructural evolution under applied stress in austenitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Katoh, Yutai; Kohno, Yutaka

    1996-10-01

    Effects of applied stress on interstitial type Frank loop evolution at early stages of irradiation were investigated by both numerical calculation and irradiation experiments. In the experimental part of this work, microstructural inspection has been made by transmission electron microscopy with a special emphasis on Frank loops and perfect loops on every {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane. The results of the TEM observation revealed that Frank loop concentration on a {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane increased as the resolved normal stress to a {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane increased and that small perfect loops were more likely produced on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes where larger resolved shear stress was applied. The model of a stress effect on Frank loop unfaulting was provided, which is triggered by nucleation of a Shockley partial dislocation loop in a Frank loop, was proposed. The results of the numerical calculation was successful to predict the strong dependence of Frank loop concentration on the resolved normal stress to {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane, which was the characteristic feature seen in the irradiation experiments. (author)

  11. Effect of Bainitic Microstructure on Ballistic Performance of Armour Steel Weld Metal Using Developed High Ni-Coated Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, A. K.; Das, H.; Reddy, G. M.; Ghosh, M.; Nandy, S.; Pal, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    Welding of armour steel has gained significant importance during the past few years as recent civilian and military requirements demand weld metal properties matching with base metal having good ballistic performance along with high strength and toughness at - 40 °C as per specification. The challenge of armour steel welding therefore lies in controlling the weld metal composition which is strongly dependent on welding electrode/consumables, resulting in desired weld microstructure consisting of lower bainite along with retained austenite. The performance of butt-welded armour steel joints produced by the developed electrodes was evaluated using tensile testing, ballistic testing, impact toughness at room temperature and subzero temperature. Microstructures of weld metals are exclusively characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy with selected area diffraction pattern. Experimental results show that weld metal with relatively lower carbon, higher manganese and lower nickel content was attributed to lower bainite with film type of retained austenite may be considered as a most covetable microstructure for armour steel weld metal.

  12. Effect of Bainitic Microstructure on Ballistic Performance of Armour Steel Weld Metal Using Developed High Ni-Coated Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, A. K.; Das, H.; Reddy, G. M.; Ghosh, M.; Nandy, S.; Pal, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    Welding of armour steel has gained significant importance during the past few years as recent civilian and military requirements demand weld metal properties matching with base metal having good ballistic performance along with high strength and toughness at - 40 °C as per specification. The challenge of armour steel welding therefore lies in controlling the weld metal composition which is strongly dependent on welding electrode/consumables, resulting in desired weld microstructure consisting of lower bainite along with retained austenite. The performance of butt-welded armour steel joints produced by the developed electrodes was evaluated using tensile testing, ballistic testing, impact toughness at room temperature and subzero temperature. Microstructures of weld metals are exclusively characterized by x-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy with selected area diffraction pattern. Experimental results show that weld metal with relatively lower carbon, higher manganese and lower nickel content was attributed to lower bainite with film type of retained austenite may be considered as a most covetable microstructure for armour steel weld metal.

  13. Rectenna thermal model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiramangalam, Murall; Alden, Adrian; Speyer, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Deploying rectennas in space requires adapting existing designs developed for terrestrial applications to the space environment. One of the major issues in doing so is to understand the thermal performance of existing designs in the space environment. Toward that end, a 3D rectenna thermal model has been developed, which involves analyzing shorted rectenna elements and finite size rectenna element arrays. A shorted rectenna element is a single element whose ends are connected together by a material of negligible thermal resistance. A shorted element is a good approximation to a central element of a large array. This model has been applied to Brown's 2.45 GHz rectenna design. Results indicate that Brown's rectenna requires redesign or some means of enhancing the heat dissipation in order for the diode temperature to be maintained below 200 C above an output power density of 620 W/sq.m. The model developed in this paper is very general and can be used for the analysis and design of any type of rectenna design of any frequency.

  14. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  15. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}(FLiBe) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Guiqiu, E-mail: guiqiuzheng@gmail.com [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); He, Lingfeng [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Fall, ID (United States); Carpenter, David [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructural developments in the near-surface regions of AISI 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) salt have been investigated with the goal of using this material for the construction of the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). Tests were conducted in molten FLiBe salt (melting point: 459 °C) at 700 °C in graphite crucibles and 316 stainless steel crucibles for exposure duration of up to 3000 h. Corrosion-induced microstructural changes in the near-surface regions of the samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS capabilities. Intergranular corrosion attack in the near-surface regions was observed with associated Cr depletion along the grain boundaries. High-angle grain boundaries (15–180°) were particularly prone to intergranular attack and Cr depletion. The depth of attack extended to the depths of 22 μm after 3000-h exposure for the samples tested in graphite crucible, while similar exposure in 316 stainless steel crucible led to the attack depths of only about 11 μm. Testing in graphite crucibles led to the formation of nanometer-scale Mo{sub 2}C, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particle phases in the near-surface regions of the material. The copious depletion of Cr in the near-surface regions induced a γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNi{sub x}) transformation. Based on the microstructural analysis, a thermal diffusion controlled corrosion model was developed and experimentally validated for predicting long-term corrosion attack depth.

  16. Developing Ultra-small Scale Mechanical Testing Methods and Microstructural Investigation Procedures for Irradiated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosemann, Peter; Kaoumi, Djamel

    2018-04-02

    -beam irradiations have been utilized for decades to foster the understanding of materials’ behavior under radiation, and significant efforts at comparing ion-beam irradiations to neutron irradiations are ongoing [1]. While extensive microstructural and chemical characterizations of neutron-irradiated and ion-irradiated materials are essential to the understanding of the underlying physics of materials’ degradation in nuclear environments, the ultimate test is the mechanical performance of a material under the anticipated condition, since it is the final criterion for a material to be accepted for use in a specific nuclear component. Again, standard, large-scale, bulk evaluations are key for the licensing of materials in a specific component, but additional, more basic scientific testing can accelerate the process by targeting specific areas of interest. Small-scale mechanical testing has been applied on nuclear materials for decades [2]. Traditionally the driving forces to use non-standard-size samples are the limited space in reactors, the availability of new alloys, and a reduction in radioactive-materials volume. Shear punch testing [3,5], sub-sized micro tensile testing [4], sub-sized compact tension and charpy testing [6,7], micro bulge testing [8], and micro hardness testing [3] have been used. Small-scale mechanical testing also allows the targeting of specific regions of interest, be they single grains to evaluate a specific deformation mechanism [9], grain boundaries, heat-affected zones in welds, or any other specific critical area of interest. With further reducing of the sample size, it also holds the promise to obtain quantitative data from ion-beam irradiations and to compare such data to the microstructural changes observed. Over the last few decades, a number of small-scale mechanical characterization techniques have been developed and utilized for irradiated materials. In addition to the above-mentioned sample test techniques at the mm and sub mm length scale

  17. Phase transitions and steady-state microstructures in a two-temperature lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Sabra, Mads Christian; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2000-01-01

    The nonequilibrium, steady-state phase transitions and the structure of the different phases of a two-dimensional system with two thermodynamic temperatures are studied via a simple lattice-gas model with mobile active impurities ("hot/cold spots'') whose activity is controlled by an external drive...... on the temperatures, microstructured phases of both lamellar and droplet symmetry arise, described by a length scale that is determined by the characteristic temperature controlling the diffusive motion of the active impurities....

  18. Model for the interaction between interface migration and carbon diffusion during annealing of martensite-austenite microstructures in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santofimia, M.J.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite and interface migration during annealing of martensite-austenite microstructures is modeled, assuming the same chemical potential of carbon in martensite and austenite at the interface and allowing the motion of the phase interface when a free-energy difference occurs. The simulations show that the motion of the martensite-austenite interface can be significant and can takes place in either direction

  19. Surface chemistry and microstructural analysis of CexZr1-xO2-y model catalyst surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Alan E.; Schulz, Kirk H.

    2003-01-01

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are widely used as promoters in automotive emissions control catalyst systems (three-way catalysts). The addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria improves the redox properties and the thermal stability, thereby increasing the catalyst efficiency and longevity. The surface composition and availability of surface oxygen of model ceria-zirconia catalyst promoters was considered to develop a reference for future catalytic reactivity studies. The microstructure was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the effect of zirconium substitution on crystalline structure and grain size. Additionally, the Ce/Zr surface atomic ratio and existence of Ce 3+ defect sites were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) for samples with different zirconium concentrations. The surface composition of the model systems with respect to cerium and zirconium concentration is representative of the bulk, indicating no appreciable surface species segregation during model catalyst preparation or exposure to ultrahigh vacuum conditions and analysis techniques. Additionally, the concentration of Ce 3+ defect sites was constant and independent of composition. The quantity of surface oxygen was unaffected by electron bombardment or prolonged exposure to ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Additionally, XRD analysis did not indicate the presence of additional crystalline phases beyond the cubic structure for compositions from 100 to 25 at.% cerium, although additional phases may be present in undetectable quantities. This analysis is an important initial step for determining surface reactions and pathways for the development of efficient and sulfur-tolerant automotive emissions control catalysts

  20. Microstructural evolution under high temperature irradiation: fundamental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Valentin, P.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the impossibility to propose theoretically established scaling laws for extrapolating microstructural evolutions to unknown irradiation conditions, a full modelization of microstructural evolution at the atomistic level cannot be avoided. We briefly review the main models available for describing: defect balance under irradiation, the nucleation of clusters of various types, the development of each of the components of the microstructure, synergistic effects among the latter. Attention is called on the problems which remain to be solved at each step. In particular, the swelling incubation phenomenon is just being studied from the fundamental viewpoint. A table of available relevant observations thereof is given. The existence of dose-rate thresholds accross which microstructural evolution undergoes a qualitative change is stressed. Such thresholds call for a detailed modelization of microstructural evolution in order to propose safe extrapolation techniques [fr

  1. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills

  2. Role of oxygen partial pressure in microstructural development and properties of YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.P.; Guttschow, R.; Dusek, J.T.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented for the effect of oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) on the sintered density and microstructure of YBCO superconductors. Extruded YBCO wires were sintered at 910C at different values of pO 2 . Generally, the density increased with decreasing pO 2 , and a density of 91% was achieved at pO 2 = 0.01 atm. Wires sintered at pO 2 = 0.01 atm had a fine microstructure with an average grain size of ∼3 μm and an average strength of 191 MPa. The high strength is due to the small grain size, which causes a decrease in residual tensile stress because of grain anisotropy

  3. Microstructure-sensitive flow stress modeling for force prediction in laser assisted milling of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a typical hard-to-machine material that requires thermally enhanced machining technology such as laser-assisted milling. Based upon finite element analysis, this study simulates the forces in the laser-assisted milling process of Inconel 718 considering the effects of grain growth due to γ' and γ" phases. The γ" phase is unstable and becomes the δ phase, which is likely to precipitate at a temperature over 750 °C. The temperature around the center of spot in the experiments is 850 °C, so the phase transformation and grain growth happen throughout the milling process. In the analysis, this study includes the microstructure evolution while accounting for the effects of dynamic recrystallization and grain growth through the Avrami model. The grain growth reduces the yield stress and flow stress, which improves the machinability. In finite element analysis (FEA, several boundary conditions of temperature varying with time are defined to simulate the movement of laser spot, and the constitutive model is described by Johnson-Cook equation. In experiments, this study collects three sets of cutting forces and finds that the predicted values are in close agreements with measurements especially in feed direction, in which the smallest error is around 5%. In another three simulations, this study also examines the effect of laser preheating on the cutting forces by comparison with a traditional milling process without laser assist. When the laser is off, the forces increase in all cases, which prove the softening effect of laser-assisted milling. In addition, when the axial depth of milling increases, the laser has a more significant influence, especially in axial direction, in which the force with laser is more than 18% smaller than the one without laser. Overall, this study validates the influence of laser-assisted milling on Inconel 718 by predicting the cutting forces in FEA.

  4. Evaluation of microstructural development in electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, A.; Wei, L.-Y.; Snis, A.; Lai, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the current work an investigation of the microstructures of EBM built Ti-6Al-4V test bars has been performed using OM, SEM, TEM and XRD. It has been found that the prior β phase, that formed during the initial solidification, possesses a column shaped morphology with growing direction parallel to built direction. Typical (α + β) structures namely Widmanstätten α platelets with rod-like β phase formed on the interfaces of the fine α grains, have been observed in the columnar prior β grains. Grain boundary α phase was found to be formed around the boundaries of the columnar prior β grains. Different phases present in the parts, especially the BCC β phases have been characterized. The TEM/EDX results indicate very high V composition in the β phase. Results of TEM/SAED and XRD also revealed that a superlattice structure could be present in the β phase. Phase transformation sequence is discussed according to the processing history and the microstructures observed. - Highlights: ► α + β and individual β phase is observed and characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. ► β-phase is identified as rod-like structure embedded in α matrix and platelets. ► Phase transformation sequence is discussed as per thermal history and microstructures.

  5. Microstructural development of cobalt ferrite ceramics and its influence on magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Yeop; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Kim, Myong-Ho; Suvorov, Danilo; Choi, Si-Young

    2013-11-01

    The microstructural evolution and its influence on magnetic properties in cobalt ferrite were investigated. The cobalt ferrite powders were prepared via a solid-state reaction route and then sintered at 1200 °C for 1, 2, and 16 h in air. The microstructures from sintered samples represented a bimodal distribution of grain size, which is associated with abnormal grain growth behavior. And thus, with increasing sintering time, the number and size of abnormal grains accordingly increased but the matrix grains were frozen with stagnant grain growth. In the sample sintered for 16 h, all of the matrix grains were consumed and the abnormal grains consequently impinged on each other. With the appearance of abnormal grains, the magnetic coercivity significantly decreased from 586.3 Oe (1 h sintered sample) to 168.3 Oe (16 h sintered sample). This is due to the magnetization in abnormal grains being easily flipped. In order to achieve high magnetic coercivity of cobalt ferrite, it is thus imperative to fabricate the fine and homogeneous microstructure.

  6. Pore-scale modeling and simulation of flow, transport, and adsorptive or osmotic effects in membranes: the influence of membrane microstructure

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.; Iliev, Oleg; Lakdawala, Z.; Leonard, K. H. L.; Printsypar, Galina

    2015-01-01

    typical microfiltration membrane using absorptive pore walls, and illustrate the effect of different microstructures on the reactive process. Such numerical modeling will aid manufacturers in optimizing operating conditions and designing efficient

  7. Microstructural characterization and model of hardening for the irradiated austenitic stainless steels of the internals of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokor, C.

    2003-01-01

    The core internals of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) are composed of SA 304 stainless steel plates and CW 316 stainless steel bolts. These internals undergo a neutron flux at a temperature between 280 deg C and 380 deg C which modifies their mechanical properties. These modifications are due to the changes in the microstructure of these materials under irradiation which depend on flux, dose and irradiation temperature. We have studied, by Transmission Electron Microscopy, the microstructure of stainless steels SA 304, CW 316 and CW 316Ti irradiated in a mixed flux reactor (OSIRIS at 330 deg C between 0,8 dpa et 3,4 dpa) and in a fast breeder reactor at 330 deg C (BOR-60) up to doses of 40 dpa. Moreover, samples have been irradiated at 375 deg C in a fast breeder reactor (EBR-II) up to doses of 10 dpa. The microstructure of the irradiated stainless steels consists in faulted Frank dislocation loops in the [111] planes of austenitic, with a Burgers vector of [111]. It is possible to find some voids in the solution annealed samples irradiated at 375 deg C. The evolution of the dislocations loops and voids has been simulated with a 'cluster dynamic' model. The fit of the model parameters has allowed us to have a quantitative description of our experimental results. This description of the microstructure after irradiation was coupled together with a hardening model by Frank loops that has permitted us to make a quantitative description of the hardening of SA 304, CW 316 and CW 316Ti stainless steels after irradiation at a certain dose, flux and temperature. The irradiation doses studied grow up to 90 dpa, dose of the end of life of PWR internals. (author)

  8. Generalization of two-phase model with topology microstructure of mixture to Lagrange-Euler methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Alexei A Leonov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One of the mathematical models (hyperbolic type) for describing evolution of compressible two-phase mixtures was offered in [1] to deal with the following applications: interfaces between compressible materials; shock waves in multiphase mixtures; evolution of homogeneous two-phase flows; cavitation in liquids. The basic difficulties of this model was connected to discretization of the non-conservative equation terms. As result, the class of problems concerned with passage of shock waves through fields with a discontinuing profile of a volume fraction was not described by means of this model. A class of schemes that are able to converge to the correct solution of such problems was received in [2] due to a deeper analysis of two-phase model. The technique offered in [2] was implemented on a Eulerian grid via the Godunov scheme. In present paper the additional analysis of two-phase model in view of microstructure of an mixture topology is carried out in Lagrange mass coordinates. As result, the equations averaged over the set of all possible realizations for two-phase mixture are received. The numerical solution is carried out with use of PPM method [3] in two steps: at first - the equations averaged over mass variable are solved; on the second - the solution, found on the previous step, is re-mapped to a fixed Eulerian grid. Such approach allows to expand the proposed technique on two-dimensional (three-dimensional) case, as in the Lagrange variables the Euler equations system is split on two (three) identical subsystems, each of which describes evolution of considered medium in the given direction. The accuracy and robustness of the described procedure are demonstrated on a sequence of the numerical problems. References: (1). R. Saurel, R. Abgrall, A multiphase Godunov method for compressible multi-fluid and multiphase flows, J. Comput. Phys. 150 (1999) 425-467; (2). R. Saurel, R. Abgrall, Discrete equations for physical and

  9. Workshop Report: Linking Processing to Performance through Microstructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ..., and time-dependent property models. Other topics of interest included probabilistic aspects of property prediction, microstructurally informed constitutive modeling, microstructural evolution during processing, crystal plasticity...

  10. From Modeling to Fabrication of Double Side Microstructured Silicon Windows for Infrared Gas Sensing in Harsh Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, René; Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Kafka, Jan Robert

    2014-01-01

    (∅1") were manufactured. The windows show high temperature resistant sub-wavelength anti-reflective surface microstructures on both side faces. Thus, a peak transmittance of 100% for a defined main wavelength (5 μm) and more than 90 % average transmittance for the wavelength range of 5-7 μm......Commercial infrared windows used for gas sensing in the mid-IR range usually possess an anti-reflective coating. Those coatings can normally not withstand harsh environments, particularly not high temperatures. With a simple “3-step” fabrication process, high temperature resistant silicon windows...... was achieved. The modeling of the anti-reflective microstructures, their fabrication process and final transmittance analysis of the windows is discussed....

  11. Microstructure evolution and microstructure/mechanical properties relationships in alpha+beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunha

    In this study, the microstructural evolution of Timetal 550 was investigated. Timetal 550 showed two types of phase transformations (martensitic and nucleation and growth) depending on the cooling rate from the beta region. The alpha phase initially precipitated at the prior beta grain boundaries, and it had a Burgers OR with one of the adjacent grains. It was found that colonies could grow, even in the fast-cooled Timetal 550 sample, from the grain boundary alpha into the prior beta grain with which it exhibited the Burgers OR. Three orientation relationships were also found between alpha laths in the basketweave microstructure. Microhardness testing demonstrated that fast-cooled Timetal 550 samples with basketweave microstructure were harder than slowly-cooled samples with colony microstructure. Orientation-dependent deformation was found in the colony microstructure. Specifically, when the surface normal is perpendicular to the [0001] of alpha, the material deforms easily in the direction perpendicular to the [0001] of alpha. Fuzzy logic and Bayesian neural network models were developed to predict the room temperature tensile properties of Timetal 550. This involved the development of a database relating microstructural features to mechanical properties. A Gleeble 3800 thermal-mechanical simulator was used to develop various microstructures. Microstructural features of tensile-tested samples were quantified using stereological procedures. The quantified microstructural features and the tensile properties were used as inputs and outputs, respectively, for modeling the relationships between them. The individual influence of five microstructural features on tensile properties was determined using the established models. The microstructural features having the greatest impact on UTS and YS were the thickness of alpha laths and the width of grain boundary alpha layer, and the microstructural features having the greatest impact on elongation were the thickness of

  12. A diffusion model-free framework with echo time dependence for free-water elimination and brain tissue microstructure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Miguel; Gómez, Pedro A; Sperl, Jonathan I; Czisch, Michael; Sämann, Philipp G; Jones, Derek K; Menzel, Marion I; Menze, Bjoern H

    2018-03-23

    The compartmental nature of brain tissue microstructure is typically studied by diffusion MRI, MR relaxometry or their correlation. Diffusion MRI relies on signal representations or biophysical models, while MR relaxometry and correlation studies are based on regularized inverse Laplace transforms (ILTs). Here we introduce a general framework for characterizing microstructure that does not depend on diffusion modeling and replaces ill-posed ILTs with blind source separation (BSS). This framework yields proton density, relaxation times, volume fractions, and signal disentanglement, allowing for separation of the free-water component. Diffusion experiments repeated for several different echo times, contain entangled diffusion and relaxation compartmental information. These can be disentangled by BSS using a physically constrained nonnegative matrix factorization. Computer simulations, phantom studies, together with repeatability and reproducibility experiments demonstrated that BSS is capable of estimating proton density, compartmental volume fractions and transversal relaxations. In vivo results proved its potential to correct for free-water contamination and to estimate tissue parameters. Formulation of the diffusion-relaxation dependence as a BSS problem introduces a new framework for studying microstructure compartmentalization, and a novel tool for free-water elimination. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Modeling creep deformation of a two-phase TiAI/Ti3Al alloy with a lamellar microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Michael F.; Wert, John A.

    1994-10-01

    A two-phase TiAl/Ti3Al alloy with a lamellar microstructure has been previously shown to exhibit a lower minimum creep rate than the minimum creep rates of the constituent TiAl and Ti3Al single-phase alloys. Fiducial-line experiments described in the present article demonstrate that the creep rates of the constituent phases within the two-phase TiAl/Ti3Al lamellar alloy tested in compression are more than an order of magnitude lower than the creep rates of single-phase TiAl and Ti3Al alloys tested in compression at the same stress and temperature. Additionally, the fiducial-line experiments show that no interfacial sliding of the phases in the TiAl/Ti3Al lamellar alloy occurs during creep. The lower creep rate of the lamellar alloy is attributed to enhanced hardening of the constituent phases within the lamellar microstructure. A composite-strength model has been formulated to predict the creep rate of the lamellar alloy, taking into account the lower creep rates of the constituent phases within the lamellar micro-structure. Application of the model yields a very good correlation between predicted and experimentally observed minimum creep rates over moderate stress and temperature ranges.

  14. Phase-field modeling of microstructural pattern formation during directional solidification of peritectic alloys without morphological instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shing Lo, Tak; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis

    2001-01-01

    During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, two stable solid phases (parent and peritectic) grow competitively into a metastable liquid phase of larger impurity content than either solid phase. When the parent or both solid phases are morphologically unstable, i.e., for a small temperature gradient/growth rate ratio (G/v p ), one solid phase usually outgrows and covers the other phase, leading to a cellular-dendritic array structure closely analogous to the one formed during monophase solidification of a dilute binary alloy. In contrast, when G/v p is large enough for both phases to be morphologically stable, the formation of the microstructure becomes controlled by a subtle interplay between the nucleation and growth of the two solid phases. The structures that have been observed in this regime (in small samples where convection effects are suppressed) include alternate layers (bands) of the parent and peritectic phases perpendicular to the growth direction, which are formed by alternate nucleation and lateral spreading of one phase onto the other as proposed in a recent model [R. Trivedi, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26, 1 (1995)], as well as partially filled bands (islands), where the peritectic phase does not fully cover the parent phase which grows continuously. We develop a phase-field model of peritectic solidification that incorporates nucleation processes in order to explore the formation of these structures. Simulations of this model shed light on the morphology transition from islands to bands, the dynamics of spreading of the peritectic phase on the parent phase following nucleation, which turns out to be characterized by a remarkably constant acceleration, and the types of growth morphology that one might expect to observe in large samples under purely diffusive growth conditions

  15. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogsrud, Stine K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood.

  16. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory—A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M.; Tamnes, Christian K.; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood. PMID:29689058

  17. New developments in irradiation-induced microstructural evolution of austenitic alloys and their consequences on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.; Hamilton, M.L.; Dodd, R.A.; Porter, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of recent development in the study of radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of austenitic structural alloys that occur in fission reactors. The associated macroscopic consequences of these changes on both mechanical properties and dimensional stability are also reviewed. It is anticipated that some changes will occur in these phenomena as a result of the differences inherent in fission and fusion neutron spectra, but relevant data obtained to date do not indicate that the effects of helium and several other transmutation-related changes will be large. 78 refs., 12 figs

  18. Durability of cement-based materials: modeling of the influence of physical and chemical equilibria on the microstructure and the residual mechanical properties; Durabilite des materiaux cimentaires: modelisation de l'influence des equilibres physico-chimiques sur la microstructure et les proprietes mecaniques residuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E

    2004-09-15

    A large part of mechanical and durability characteristics of cement-based materials comes from the performances of the hydrated cement, cohesive matrix surrounding the granular skeleton. Experimental studies, in situ or in laboratory, associated to models, have notably enhanced knowledge on the cement material and led to adapted formulations to specific applications or particularly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, these models, developed for precise cases, do not permit to specifically conclude for other experimental conclusions. To extend its applicability domain, we propose a new evolutive approach, based on reactive transport expressed at the microstructure scale of the cement. In a general point of view, the evolution of the solid compounds of the cement matrix, by dissolutions or precipitations, during chemical aggressions can be related to the pore solution evolution, and this one relied to the ionic exchanges with the external environment. By the utilization of a geochemical code associated to a thermodynamical database and coupled to a 3D transport model, this approach authorizes the study of all aggressive solution. The approach has been validated by the comparison of experimental observations to simulated degradations for three different environments (pure water, mineralized water, seawater) and on three different materials (CEM I Portland cement with 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 water-to cement ratio). The microstructural approach permits also to have access to mechanical properties evolutions. During chemical aggressions, the cement matrix evolution is traduced in a microstructure evolution. This one is represented from 3D images similarly to the models developed at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A new finite-element model, validated on previous tests or models, evaluates the stiffness of the cement paste, using as a mesh these microstructures. Our approach identifies and quantifies the major influence of porosity and its spatial

  19. Predictive modeling of interfacial damage in substructured steels: application to martensitic microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresca, F.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic composite phases, like martensite present in conventional steels and new generation high strength steels exhibit microscale, locally lamellar microstructures characterized by alternating layers of phases or crystallographic variants. The layers can be sub-micron down to a few nanometers

  20. Phase-field modelling of microstructure formation during the solidification of continuously cast low carbon and HSLA steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, B.; Apel, M.; Santillana, B.; Eskin, D. G.

    2012-07-01

    Cracking in continuous casting of steels has been one of the main problems for decades. Many of the cracks that occur during solidification are hot tears. To better understand the factors leading to this defect, microstructure formation is simulated for a low carbon (LCAK) and two high strength low alloyed (HSLA) steel grades during the initial stage of the process where the first solidified shell is formed inside the mould and where breakouts typically occur. 2D simulation is performed using the multiphase-field software MICRESS [1], which is coupled to the thermodynamic database TCFE6 [2] and the mobility database MOB2 [2], taking into account all elements which may have a relevant effect on the mechanical properties and structure formation during or subsequent to solidification. The use of a moving-frame boundary condition allows travelling through the entire solidification history starting from the slab surface, and tracking the morphology changes during growth of the shell. A heterogeneous nucleation model is included to permit the description of morphological transitions between the initial solidification and the subsequent columnar growth region. Furthermore, a macroscopic one-dimensional temperature solver is integrated to account for the transient and nonlinear temperature field during the initial stage of continuous casting. The external heat flux boundary conditions for this process were derived from thermal process data of the industrial slab caster. The simulation results for the three steel grades have been validated by thickness measurements of breakout shells and microstructure observation of the corresponding grades. Furthermore, the primary dendrite spacing has been measured across the whole thickness of the shell and compared with the simulated microstructures. Significant microstructure differences between the steel grades are discussed and correlated with their hot-cracking behavior.

  1. Phase-field modelling of microstructure formation during the solidification of continuously cast low carbon and HSLA steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böttger, B; Apel, M; Santillana, B; Eskin, D G

    2012-01-01

    Cracking in continuous casting of steels has been one of the main problems for decades. Many of the cracks that occur during solidification are hot tears. To better understand the factors leading to this defect, microstructure formation is simulated for a low carbon (LCAK) and two high strength low alloyed (HSLA) steel grades during the initial stage of the process where the first solidified shell is formed inside the mould and where breakouts typically occur. 2D simulation is performed using the multiphase-field software MICRESS, which is coupled to the thermodynamic database TCFE6 and the mobility database MOB2, taking into account all elements which may have a relevant effect on the mechanical properties and structure formation during or subsequent to solidification. The use of a moving-frame boundary condition allows travelling through the entire solidification history starting from the slab surface, and tracking the morphology changes during growth of the shell. A heterogeneous nucleation model is included to permit the description of morphological transitions between the initial solidification and the subsequent columnar growth region. Furthermore, a macroscopic one-dimensional temperature solver is integrated to account for the transient and nonlinear temperature field during the initial stage of continuous casting. The external heat flux boundary conditions for this process were derived from thermal process data of the industrial slab caster. The simulation results for the three steel grades have been validated by thickness measurements of breakout shells and microstructure observation of the corresponding grades. Furthermore, the primary dendrite spacing has been measured across the whole thickness of the shell and compared with the simulated microstructures. Significant microstructure differences between the steel grades are discussed and correlated with their hot-cracking behavior.

  2. Microstructure development during thermomechanical treatment of Al-Mg-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinova Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of natural aging and 95% cold deformation on the microstructure evolution and aging characteristics in commercial Al - 1 mass % Mg2Si alloy subjected to thermomechanical treatment (TMT was examined. Transmission electron microscopy observations, tensile tests and electrical conductivity measurements were carried out in order to correlate microstructural features to properties on each TMT step. It was established that pre-aging at room temperature affected the morphology of dislocation structure induced by next cold deformation. The observed transition from cellular to homogenous dislocation distribution was explained by the different stability of zones produced by pre-aging of different duration. Natural aging suppressed recovery processes during post-deformation artificial aging, especially after prolonged storage after quenching and at lower aging temperature. It influenced the morphology of precipitates produced by post deformation artificial aging also. The overall effect of TMT involving prior-deformation natural aging in the scheme, on hardness, tensile properties and electrical conductivity is discussed based on experimental microstruture observations.

  3. Microstructure, Slip Systems and Yield Stress Anisotropy in Plastic Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; You, Ze Sheng; Lu, Lei

    The highly anisotropic microstructures in nanotwinned copper produced by electrodeposition provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate models for microstructurally induced mechanical anisotropy. A crystal plasticity model originally developed for the integration of deformation induced dislocatio...... boundaries with texture is applied to account for the effects of texture as well as twin and grain boundaries, providing good qualitative agreement with experimental yield stress and yield stress anisotropy data....

  4. Determination of microstructural parameters in damage models for ductile metals; Bestimmung von mikrostrukturellen Parametern in Schaedigungsmodellen fuer duktile Metalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steglich, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1999-07-01

    For the determination of material parameters in micromechanical damage models the mechanical behaviour of representative volume elements of a two-phase material has been investigated and the phase morphology quantified by microstructural analysis. The material parameters have been successfully correlated to microstructural quantities and a prediction of the damage behaviour of structures is performed. Special emphasis is given to the model of Gurson, Tvergaard and Needleman, which has been used to predict the macroscopic behaviour of smooth tensile test specimens and the fracture resistance curves of bending specimens for two different materials, a nodular cast iron and a particle reinforced aluminium compound. (orig.) [German] Zur Bestimmung der Materialparameter in mikromechanischen Schaedigungsmodellen werden repraesentative Strukturelemente eines Werkstoffes untersucht und die Morphologie eines zweiphasigen Gefueges durch quantitative Gefuegeanalyse beschrieben. Mit dieser Strategie gelingen eine Identifikation der im Modell enthaltenen Parameter sowie die Vorhersage des Versagensverhaltens von Strukturen. Als mikromechanisches Materialmodell wird hauptsaechlich das Modell von Gurson, Tvergaard und Needleman verwendet. Seine Anwendbarkeit zur Vorhersage des globalen Verhaltens von glatten Zugproben und zur Simulation von Risswiderstandskurven wird bei zwei verschiedenen Werkstoffen gezeigt, einen Gusseisen und einem Aluminium-Verbundwerkstoff. (orig.)

  5. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This report highlights the capabilities and procedure for high-resolution characterization of UMo fuels in PNNL. Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) fuel processing steps, from casting to forming final fuel, directly affect the microstructure of the fuel, which in turn dictates the in-reactor performance of the fuel under irradiation. In order to understand the influence of processing on UMo microstructure, microstructure characterization techniques are necessary. Higher-resolution characterization techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are needed to interrogate the details of the microstructure. The findings from TEM and APT are also directly beneficial for developing predictive multiscale modeling tools that can predict the microstructure as a function of process parameters. This report provides background on focused-ion-beam–based TEM and APT sample preparation, TEM and APT analysis procedures, and the unique information achievable through such advanced characterization capabilities for UMo fuels, from a fuel fabrication capability viewpoint.

  6. A Markov random field approach for microstructure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A; Nguyen, L; DeGraef, M; Sundararaghavan, V

    2016-01-01

    We test the notion that many microstructures have an underlying stationary probability distribution. The stationary probability distribution is ubiquitous: we know that different windows taken from a polycrystalline microstructure are generally ‘statistically similar’. To enable computation of such a probability distribution, microstructures are represented in the form of undirected probabilistic graphs called Markov Random Fields (MRFs). In the model, pixels take up integer or vector states and interact with multiple neighbors over a window. Using this lattice structure, algorithms are developed to sample the conditional probability density for the state of each pixel given the known states of its neighboring pixels. The sampling is performed using reference experimental images. 2D microstructures are artificially synthesized using the sampled probabilities. Statistical features such as grain size distribution and autocorrelation functions closely match with those of the experimental images. The mechanical properties of the synthesized microstructures were computed using the finite element method and were also found to match the experimental values. (paper)

  7. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in

  8. Development of microstructure and superconductivity of silver-clad Bi(2223) composite tapes in the process of heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.C.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study on the development of phase composition, microstructure and superconducting properties (critical temperature Tc and critical current density J c ) in silver-clad (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 composite tapes during the process of heat treatment has been conducted using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The correlation between the tape's high Tc phase purity, microstructure and superconducting properties at different heat treatment stages has been carefully analysed and explained. The results indicate that pure high Tc phase, high degree of grain alignment, high mass density and good connection between grains are all essential for superconducting tapes to carry a large current. With the optimized process parameters, a critical current density J c up to 32665 A cm -2 (corresponding critical current, 42.3 A) at 77 K and self-magnetic field for silver-clad (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 superconducting composite tapes has been achieved. (orig.)

  9. Microstructure development and texture evolution of aluminum multi-port extrusion tube during the porthole die extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.H. [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, D., E-mail: tangding@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Fang, W.L.; Li, D.Y.; Peng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Aluminum multi-port extrusion tube is processed by the porthole die extrusion and the internal tube walls are welded through the solid state metallurgical bonding. In order to observe the development of grains and their orientations under severe plastic deformation and solid state welding, the extrusion butt together with the die is quenched immediately after extrusion to preserve the grain structure in the processing. The forming histories of selected material points are obtained by analyzing the optical microscopy graph. The evolution of the microstructure along the forming path is characterized by electro backscattered diffraction. It is found that geometrical dynamic recrystallization happens in the process. Grains are elongated, scattered at the transition zone and shear intensive zone, and then pinched off when they are pushed out from the die orifice. The shear-type orientations are predominant at the surface layer on the longitudinal section of the tube web and have penetrated into the intermediate layer. The rolling-type orientations are formed at the central layer. Texture gradient through the thickness of the tube web is observed. And cube orientated grains are found at the seam weld region. - Highlights: •Microstructure of extrusion butt is preserved after the micro scale porthole die extrusion. •Grain morphology history along forming path is investigated. •Texture evolutions on three material flows are present. •Texture gradient exists on the longitudinal section of the internal wall of profile. •Rolling-type and cube textures are found at the solid state welding region.

  10. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J

    2014-04-01

    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

  11. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part II. Application to electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.; Klokkehaug, S.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation, a process model for electron beam (EB) welding of different grades of duplex stainless steels (i.e. SAF 2205 and 2507) has been developed. A number of attractive features are built into the original finite element code, including (1) a separate module for prediction of the penetration depth and distribution of the heat source into the plate, (2) adaptive refinement of the three-dimensional (3-D) element mesh for quick and reliable solution of the differential heat flow equation, and (3) special subroutines for calculation of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructure evolution. The process model has been validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from in situ thermocouple measurements and optical microscope examinations. Subsequently, its aptness to alloy design and optimization of welding conditions for duplex stainless steels is illustrated in different numerical examples and case studies pertaining to EB welding of tubular joints.

  12. Lower Length Scale Model Development for Embrittlement of Reactor Presure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chakraborty, Pritam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the lower-length-scale effort during FY 2016 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution, plasticity and fracture in reactor pressure vessel steels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation induced defect accumulation and irradiation enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. A crystal plasticity model to capture defect-dislocation interaction and a damage model for cleavage micro-crack propagation is also provided.

  13. Microstructural development under interrupted hot deformation and the mechanical properties of a cast Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhenyu [Educational Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Xuyue [Educational Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute for Materials Microstructure, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Yi; Zhang, Zhirou; Zhang, Duxiu; Li, Yi [Educational Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Sakai, Taku [UEC Tokyo (The University of Electro-Communications), Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Microstructural development under interrupted hot deformation of a cast Mg–Gd–Y–Zr alloy was investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) technology and the resultant mechanical properties were detected through tensile tests at room temperature. Ultrafine grains (UFGs) were remarkably developed under the condition of interrupted hot forging, resulting in an improvement of ambient mechanical properties. The basal texture was weakened by an effective increase of the volume fraction of UFGs under interrupted hot forging. These resulted in an improvement of tensile ductility with little or no drop in strength, i.e. the volume fraction of UFGs was raised from 30% to 70%, leading to an increase of the ambient tensile elongation from 15% to 23%.

  14. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate

  15. Selected sports talent development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vičar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmental model of sport participation, Csikszentmihalyi - The flow model of optimal expertise, Bailey and Morley - Model of talent development. Conclusion: Current models of sport talent development approach talent as dynamic phenomenon, varying in time. They are based in particular on the work of Simonton and his Emergenic and epigenic model and of Gagné and his Differentiated model of giftedness and talent. Balyi's model is characterised by its applicability and impications for practice. Côté's model highlights the role of family and deliberate play. Both models describe periodization of talent development. Csikszentmihalyi's flow model explains how the athlete acquires experience and develops during puberty based on the structure of attention and flow experience. Bailey and Morley's model accents the situational approach to talent and development of skills facilitating its growth.

  16. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28

    performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta

  17. Accounting for the Inhomogeneity of Deformation in Identification of Microstructure Evolution Model / Niejednorodność Odkształcenia W I Dentyfikacji Modelu Rozwoju Mikrostruktury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeliga D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of identification of microstructure evolution model on the basis of two-step compression test. Classical interpretation of this test assumes uniform fields of strains, stresses and temperatures in the deformation zone and calculates the coefficients in the model on the basis of force measurements in the second step. In the present paper the inverse approach was applied. Finite element (FE simulations of the compression test were performed and local values of microstructural parameters were determined accounting for the inhomogeneity of deformation. Objective function was formulated as the Euclid norm for the error between measured and calculated forces for various interpass times. Coefficients in the microstructure evolution model were determined by searching for the minimum of the objective function. Optimized model was validated in simulations of plane strain compression tests.

  18. Microstructural Developments Leading to New Advanced High Strength Sheet Steels: A Historical Assessment of Critical Metallographic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, David K [CSM/ASPPRC; Thomas, Larrin S [CSM/ASPPRC; Taylor, Mark D [CSM/ASPPRC; De Moor, Emmanuel [CSM/ASPPRC; Speer, John G [CSM/ASPPRC

    2015-08-03

    In the past 30+ years significant advancements have been made in the development of higher strength sheet steels with improved combinations of strength and ductility that have enabled important product improvements leading to safer, lighter weight, and more fuel efficient automobiles and in other applications. Properties of the primarily low carbon, low alloy steels are derived through careful control of time-temperature processing histories designed to produce multiphase ferritic based microstructures that include martensite and other constituents including retained austenite. The basis for these developments stems from the early work on dual-phase steels which was the subject of much interest. In response to industry needs, dual-phase steels have evolved as a unique class of advanced high strength sheet steels (AHSS) in which the thermal and mechanical processing histories have been specifically designed to produce constituent combinations for the purpose of simultaneously controlling strength and deformation behavior, i.e. stress-strain curve shapes. Improvements continue as enhanced dual-phase steels have recently been produced with finer microstructures, higher strengths, and better overall formability. Today, dual phase steels are the primary AHSS products used in vehicle manufacture, and several companies have indicated that the steels will remain as important design materials well into the future. In this presentation, fundamental results from the early work on dual-phase steels will be reviewed and assessed in light of recent steel developments. Specific contributions from industry/university cooperative research leading to product improvements will be highlighted. The historical perspective provided in the evolution of dual-phase steels represents a case-study that provides important framework and lessons to be incorporated in next generation AHSS products.

  19. Selected sports talent development models

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Vičar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports talent in the Czech Republic is generally viewed as a static, stable phenomena. It stands in contrast with widespread praxis carried out in Anglo-Saxon countries that emphasise its fluctuant nature. This is reflected in the current models describing its development. Objectives: The aim is to introduce current models of talent development in sport. Methods: Comparison and analysing of the following models: Balyi - Long term athlete development model, Côté - Developmen...

  20. Reactive sintering and microstructure development of tungsten carbide-AISI 304 stainless steel cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, C.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CEMUC-Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, F.J. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Senos, A.M.R., E-mail: anamor@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-06-01

    Sintering of WC-stainless steel (SS) composites within a typical binder range from 6 up to 15 wt% SS was investigated through constant heating rate dilatometry, in vacuum conditions, complemented by differential thermal analysis and by the study of the high temperature wetting behavior of SS on WC. The densification starts ∼900 °C with a typical densification curve for all compositions, where three distinct regions are discernible: the first one with a slow densification rate, followed by a second region where a sharp increase in the densification rate up to a maximum value dependent on the binder amount is observed and, finally, a third one with a slowdown of the densification rate until the end of the thermal cycle. The attained final density at 1450 °C is dependent on the binder amount, increasing proportionally to its initial content. The final microstructure presents a normal grain size distribution and appreciable amounts of eta-phase, besides the major WC phase and residual iron rich phase. The reactive densification behavior and the role of the liquid phase are interpreted accordingly with structural and kinetic data. - Highlights: • Sintering of WC-AISI304 composites starts ∼900 °C and involves three stages. • Densification is largely dominated by a reactive liquid phase sintering process. • Eta-phase constitutes a transient liquid phase during sintering. • Sintering cycles are dependent on the initial binder content.

  1. Basic research of developed the evaluation model of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Shibata, M.; Sato, H.; Ueno, K.

    2003-07-01

    For the better understanding of mass transport property of the buffer material of the high-level radioactive waste disposal, the unified method of molecular dynamics simulations (MD) and homogenization analysis (HA) method and model were developed. Interaction of atoms and multi-body potential model which needed in MD calculation was improved. Na-smectite surface and water molecule system were calculated by MD, the structure of water molecule, viscosity of water nearby the Na-smectite surface and distribution of diffusion coefficient of which were estimated. According to the results of the MD calculation, first water layer adjacent to Na-smectite surface was structured, and about 1nm thick diffuse layer was observed in which viscosity of water in higher than ordinary water. Structure modeling for Na-smectite including edge was also discussed. The HA analysis needs the results of the micro-scale properties from MD calculation and the microstructure of the field, i.e. microstructure of buffer material. Microstructure of compacted Na-smectite were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of the simplified observation results, the equation was formulated that the external pore size was expressed as a function of the number of clay layers and dry density. Using MD simulation results and pore structure model, diffusion coefficient of water molecule in compacted Na-smectite were calculated by the unified MD/HA analysis method. For this analysis Multi-scale HA method which can handle for porous media consists of various scale particles was developed. Calculated diffusion coefficient of water was in agreement with the results of diffusion experiment of triturated water (HTO). Regarding solute diffusion through compacted bentonite, experimental results are accumulated and discussed. Modelling frameworks for diffusion and sorption of ion were also developed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of ferritic alloy Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo after neutron irradiation: Microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1986-10-01

    As part of a program to provide a data base on the bainitic alloy Fe-2-1/4-1Mo for fusion energy applications, microstructural examinations are reported for nine specimen conditions for 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel which had been irradiated by fast neutrons over the temperature range 390 to 510 0 C. Void swelling is found following irradiation at 400 0 C to 480 0 C. Concurrently dislocation structure and precipitation developed. Peak void swelling, void density, dislocation density and precipitate number density formed at the lowest temperature, approximately 400 0 C, whereas mean void size, and mean precipitate size increased with increasing irradiation temperature. The examination results are used to provide interpretation of in-reactor creep, density change and post irradiation tensile behavior

  3. Microstructure refinement and mechanical properties improvement by developing IAF on inclusions in Ti–Al complex deoxidized HSLA steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, M.; Wang, X.H.; Hu, Z.Y.; Wang, K.P.; Yang, C.W.; Li, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on microstructure refinement in Ti–Al complex deoxidized low alloy structural steel by developing IAF on inclusions. The goal was to establish more determined relation between Ti, Al in steel and the produced microstructures. In steel sample with Ti and Al contents of 0.0035% and 0.0004%, respectively, IAF was well developed by inclusions characterized by TiO_x–MnO oxide cores enwrapped by (MnO–SiO_2–Al_2O_3)–MnS or (MnO–SiO_2)–MnS surface layers. With the rise of Ti and Al contents, IAF volume decreased greatly because of different inclusion chemistry, TiO_x + MnS, TiO_x–Al_2O_3 or Al_2O_3, which inhibit the formation of IAF. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out for optimal Ti and Al contents in steel to target inclusions with proper chemistry for nucleating IAF. These laboratorial findings were successfully applied and reproducibly observed in pilot trials. It was indicated that low temperature impact toughness at 0 °C and − 20 °C of the produced medium plate was effectively improved despite lower Ti contents than common process, which was very meaningful in saving the cost of high Ti content steels. - Highlights: • IAF volume showed close relationship to Ti or Al contents. • To target IAF, there is no need to add too many titanium alloys. • Optimal Ti and Al were about 0.0020–0.0060% and 0.0005–0.0020%, respectively. • Impact toughness of steel plate at 0 °C and − 20 °C was successfully improved.

  4. Multi-scale modeling of elasto-plastic response of SnAgCu lead-free solder alloys at different ageing conditions: Effect of microstructure evolution, particle size effects and interfacial failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, Milad; Cugnoni, Joel, E-mail: joel.cugnoni@epfl.ch; Botsis, John

    2016-04-20

    In microelectronics applications, SnAgCu lead-free solder joints play the important role of ensuring both the mechanical and electrical integrity of the components. In such applications, the SnAgCu joints are subjected to elevated homologous temperatures for an extended period of time causing significant microstructural changes and leading to reliability issues. In this study, the link between the change in microstructures and deformation behavior of SnAgCu solder during ageing is explained by developing a hybrid multi-scale microstructure-based modeling approach. Herein, the SnAgCu solder alloy is seen as a three phase metal matrix composite in which Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} hard intermetallics play the role of reinforcements and Sn the role of a ductile matrix. The hardening of the Sn matrix due to fine intermetallics in the eutectic mixture is modeled by incorporating the mean field effects of geometrically necessary dislocations. Subsequently, a two level homogenization procedure based on micromechanical finite element (FE) models is used to capture the interactions between the different phases. For this purpose, tomographic images of microstructures obtained by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and synchrotron X-Ray in different ageing conditions are directly used to generate statistically representative volume elements (RVE) using 3D FE models. The constitutive behavior of the solder is determined by sequentially performing two scales of numerical homogenization at the eutectic level and then at the dendrite level. For simplification, the anisotropy of Sn as well as the potential recovery processes have been neglected in the modeling. The observed decrease in the yield strength of solder due to ageing is well captured by the adopted modeling strategy and allows explaining the different ageing mechanisms. Finally, the effects of potential debonding at the intermetallic particle-matrix interface as well as particle fracture on the overall strength of solder are

  5. Large-scale simulation of ductile fracture process of microstructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Rong; Wang Chaowei

    2011-01-01

    The promise of computational science in the extreme-scale computing era is to reduce and decompose macroscopic complexities into microscopic simplicities with the expense of high spatial and temporal resolution of computing. In materials science and engineering, the direct combination of 3D microstructure data sets and 3D large-scale simulations provides unique opportunity for the development of a comprehensive understanding of nano/microstructure-property relationships in order to systematically design materials with specific desired properties. In the paper, we present a framework simulating the ductile fracture process zone in microstructural detail. The experimentally reconstructed microstructural data set is directly embedded into a FE mesh model to improve the simulation fidelity of microstructure effects on fracture toughness. To the best of our knowledge, it is for the first time that the linking of fracture toughness to multiscale microstructures in a realistic 3D numerical model in a direct manner is accomplished. (author)

  6. A hybrid finite-element and cellular-automaton framework for modeling 3D microstructure of Ti–6Al–4V alloy during solid–solid phase transformation in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang

    2018-06-01

    Additive manufacturing such as selective laser sintering and electron beam melting has become a popular technique which enables one to build near-net-shape product from packed powders. The performance and properties of the manufactured product strongly depends on its material microstructure, which is in turn determined by the processing conditions including beam power density, spot size, scanning speed and path etc. In this paper, we develop a computational framework that integrates the finite element method (FEM) and cellular automaton (CA) simulation to model the 3D microstructure of additively manufactured Ti–6Al–4V alloy, focusing on the β → α + β transition pathway in a consolidated alloy region as the power source moves away from this region. Specifically, the transient temperature field resulted from a scanning laser/electron beam following a zig-zag path is first obtained by solving nonlinear heat transfer equations using the FEM. Next, a CA model for the β → α + β phase transformation in the consolidated alloy is developed which explicitly takes into account the temperature dependent heterogeneous nucleation and anisotropic growth of α grains from the parent β phase field. We verify our model by reproducing the overall transition kinetics predicted by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov theory under a typical processing condition and by quantitatively comparing our simulation results with available experimental data. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by generating large-field realistic 3D alloy microstructures for subsequent structure-sensitive micro-mechanical analysis. In addition, we employ our model to generate a wide spectrum of alloy microstructures corresponding to different processing conditions for establishing quantitative process-structure relations for the system.

  7. Processing-microstructure relationships in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers: Experimental and numerical modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun

    Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) are a class of promising engineering materials for high-demanding structural applications. Their excellent mechanical properties are highly correlated to the underlying molecular orientation states, which may be affected by complex flow fields during melt processing. Thus, understanding and eventually predicting how processing flows impact molecular orientation is a critical step towards rational design work in order to achieve favorable, balanced physical properties in finished products. This thesis aims to develop deeper understanding of orientation development in commercial TLCPs during processing by coordinating extensive experimental measurements with numerical computations. In situ measurements of orientation development of LCPs during processing are a focal point of this thesis. An x-ray capable injection molding apparatus is enhanced and utilized for time-resolved measurements of orientation development in multiple commercial TLCPs during injection molding. Ex situ wide angle x-ray scattering is also employed for more thorough characterization of molecular orientation distributions in molded plaques. Incompletely injection molded plaques ("short shots") are studied to gain further insights into the intermediate orientation states during mold filling. Finally, two surface orientation characterization techniques, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) are combined to investigate the surface orientation distribution of injection molded plaques. Surface orientation states are found to be vastly different from their bulk counterparts due to different kinematics involved in mold filling. In general, complex distributions of orientation in molded plaques reflect the spatially varying competition between shear and extension during mold filling. To complement these experimental measurements, numerical calculations based on the Larson-Doi polydomain model

  8. Microstructural characterization of Y2O3 ODS-Fe-Cr model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Munoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Jenkins, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Two Fe-12 wt% Cr alloys, one containing 0.4 wt% Y 2 O 3 and the other Y 2 O 3 -free, have been produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing. These oxide dispersion strengthened and reference alloys were characterized both in the as-HIPed state and after tempering by transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography. The as-HIPed alloys exhibited the characteristic microstructure of lath martensite and contained a high density of dislocations. Small voids with sizes 3 C and M 23 C 6 carbides (M = Cr, Fe) probably as a result of C ingress during milling. After tempering at 1023 K for 4 h the microstructures had partially recovered. In the recovered regions, martensite laths were replaced by equiaxed grains in which M 23 C 6 carbides decorated the grain boundaries. In the ODS alloy nanoparticles containing Y were commonly observed within grains, although they were also present at grain boundaries and adjacent to large carbides.

  9. Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

    2014-06-01

    The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  10. Microstructural changes in cartilage and bone related to repetitive overloading in an equine athlete model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Sean M; Thambyah, Ashvin; Riggs, Christopher M; Firth, Elwyn C; Broom, Neil D

    2014-01-01

    The palmar aspect of the third metacarpal (MC3) condyle of equine athletes is known to be subjected to repetitive overloading that can lead to the accumulation of joint tissue damage, degeneration, and stress fractures, some of which result in catastrophic failure. However, there is still a need to understand at a detailed microstructural level how this damage progresses in the context of the wider joint tissue complex, i.e. the articular surface, the hyaline and calcified cartilage, and the subchondral bone. MC3 bones from non-fractured joints were obtained from the right forelimbs of 16 Thoroughbred racehorses varying in age between 3 and 8 years, with documented histories of active race training. Detailed microstructural analysis of two clinically important sites, the parasagittal grooves and the mid-condylar regions, identified extensive levels of microdamage in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone concealed beneath outwardly intact hyaline cartilage. The study shows a progression in microdamage severity, commencing with mild hard-tissue microcracking in younger animals and escalating to severe subchondral bone collapse and lesion formation in the hyaline cartilage with increasing age and thus athletic activity. The presence of a clearly distinguishable fibrous tissue layer at the articular surface immediately above sites of severe subchondral collapse suggested a limited reparative response in the hyaline cartilage. PMID:24689513

  11. Prediction of the behavior of structural materials under irradiation through modeling of the microstructure. Progress report, April 1, 1978-August 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1979-08-01

    The development of the radiation-induced microstructure occurs in several stages: formation of small defect clusters, formation of dislocation loops, nucleation and growth of voids, and regeneration of the dislocation network. With the exception of the latter, these processes can be modeled with rate equations of similar form. However, instead of using one rate equation for each defect cluster of a given size, the discrete formulation is transformed in a continuous one leading to Fokker-Planck equations. It is shown by comparing the steady-state nucleation rates of both formulations that the Fokker-Planck equation derived is the correct continuous description. A path-integral solution for the Fokker-Planck equation was derived to provide the basis for a numerical solution procedure, capable of dealing with the vastly different time scales involved in cluster formation, nucleation, and growth

  12. Development of microstructure of steel for thermal power generation: Razvoj mikrostrukture jekel za termično generacijo energije:

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilaqua, T.; Fujda, M.; Kuskulic, T.; Kvackaj, Tibor; Pokorny, I.; Weiss, M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure during the reheating and cooling of steel for thermal power generation was investigated. On the basis of the microstructure produced during cooling a CCT diagram is proposed Raziskan je bil razvoj mikrostrukture pri segrevanju in ohlajanju jekel za toplotno generacijo energije. Na podlagi mikrostrukture, ki je nastala pri ohlajanju, je bil predložen CCT-diagram.

  13. Microstructure-based approach for predicting crack initiation and early growth in metals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Puskar, Joseph David; Bartel, Timothy James; Dingreville, Remi P. M.; Foulk, James W., III; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2009-09-01

    Fatigue cracking in metals has been and is an area of great importance to the science and technology of structural materials for quite some time. The earliest stages of fatigue crack nucleation and growth are dominated by the microstructure and yet few models are able to predict the fatigue behavior during these stages because of a lack of microstructural physics in the models. This program has developed several new simulation tools to increase the microstructural physics available for fatigue prediction. In addition, this program has extended and developed microscale experimental methods to allow the validation of new microstructural models for deformation in metals. We have applied these developments to fatigue experiments in metals where the microstructure has been intentionally varied.

  14. Development of a Model Foamy Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v. Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun’s rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1. The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.

  15. High-Fidelity Microstructural Characterization and Performance Modeling of Aluminized Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiba, Graham D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Image processing and stereological techniques were used to characterize the heterogeneity of composite propellant and inform a predictive burn rate model. Composite propellant samples made up of ammonium perchlorate (AP), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), and aluminum (Al) were faced with an ion mill and imaged with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray tomography (micro-CT). Properties of both the bulk and individual components of the composite propellant were determined from a variety of image processing tools. An algebraic model, based on the improved Beckstead-Derr-Price model developed by Cohen and Strand, was used to predict the steady-state burning of the aluminized composite propellant. In the presented model the presence of aluminum particles within the propellant was introduced. The thermal effects of aluminum particles are accounted for at the solid-gas propellant surface interface and aluminum combustion is considered in the gas phase using a single global reaction. In conclusion, properties derived from image processing were used directly as model inputs, leading to a sample-specific predictive combustion model.

  16. TASK 7 DEMONSTRATION OF THAMES FOR MICROSTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Bullard, J.; Stutzman, P.; Snyder, K.; Garboczi, E.

    2010-03-29

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and realible set of tools to reduce the uncertainty in predicting the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications that are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions over extended time frames. One of these tools, the responsibility of NIST, is THAMES (Thermodynamic Hydration and Microstructure Evolution Simulator), which is being developed to describe cementitious binder microstructures and calculate important engineering properties during hydration and degradation. THAMES is designed to be a 'micro-probe', used to evaluate changes in microstructure and properties occurring over time because of hydration or degradation reactions in a volume of about 0.001 mm{sup 3}. It will be used to map out microstructural and property changes across reaction fronts, for example, with spatial resolution adequate to be input into other models (e.g., STADIUM{reg_sign}, LeachSX{trademark}) in the integrated CBP package. THAMES leverages thermodynamic predictions of equilibrium phase assemblages in aqueous geochemical systems to estimate 3-D virtual microstructures of a cementitious binder at different times during the hydration process or potentially during degradation phenomena. These virtual microstructures can then be used to calculate important engineering properties of a concrete made from that binder at prescribed times. In this way, the THAMES model provides a way to calculate the time evolution of important material properties such as elastic stiffness, compressive strength, diffusivity, and permeability. Without this model, there would be no way to update microstructure and properties for the barrier materials considered as they are exposed to the environment, thus greatly increasing the uncertainty of long-term transport predictions. This Task 7 report demonstrates the current capabilities of THAMES. At the start of the CBP

  17. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling microstructure of incudostapedial joint and the effect on cochlear input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Wang, Xuelin

    2015-12-01

    The incudostapedial joint (ISJ) connects the incus to stapes in human ear and plays an important role for sound transmission from the tympanic membrane (TM) to cochlea. ISJ is a synovial joint composed of articular cartilage on the lenticular process and stapes head with the synovial fluid between them. However, there is no study on how the synovial ISJ affects the middle ear and cochlear functions. Recently, we have developed a 3-dimensinal finite element (FE) model of synovial ISJ and connected the model to our comprehensive FE model of the human ear. The motions of TM, stapes footplate, and basilar membrane and the pressures in scala vestibule and scala tympani were derived over frequencies and compared with experimental measurements. Results show that the synovial ISJ affects sound transmission into cochlea and the frequency-dependent viscoelastic behavior of ISJ provides protection for cochlea from high intensity sound.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe–14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe–14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y 2 O 3 powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe–14%Cr and Fe–14%Cr–0.3%Y 2 O 3 (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe–14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe–14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS

  20. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe–14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Leguey, T., E-mail: leguey@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe–14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe–14%Cr and Fe–14%Cr–0.3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe–14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe–14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS.

  1. Development of microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Co-Cr-Mo alloy rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Manami; Sato, Nanae; Yamanaka, Kenta; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuramoto, Koji; Chiba, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of a cold-swaged Ni-free Co-Cr-Mo alloy for biomedical applications. A Co-28Cr-6Mo-0.14N-0.05C (mass%) alloy rod was processed by cold swaging, with a reduction in area of 27.7%, and then annealed at 1173-1423K for various periods up to 6h. The duplex microstructure of the cold-swaged rod consisted of a face-centered cubic γ-matrix and hexagonal closed-packed ε-martensite developed during cold swaging. This structure transformed nearly completely to the γ-phase after annealing and many annealing twin boundaries were observed as a result of the heat treatment. A small amount of the ε-phase was identified in specimens annealed at 1173K. Growth of the γ-grains occurred with increasing annealing time at temperatures ≥1273K. Interestingly, the grain sizes remained almost unchanged at 1173K and a very fine grain size of approximately 8μm was obtained. The precipitation that occurred during annealing was attributed to the limited grain coarsening during heat treatment. Consequently, the specimens treated at this temperature showed the highest tensile strength and lowest ductility among the specimens prepared. An elongation-to-failure value larger than 30% is sufficient for the proposed applications. The other specimens treated at higher temperatures possessed similar tensile properties and did not show any significant variations with different annealing times. Optimization of the present rod manufacturing process, including cold swaging and interval annealing heat treatment, is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Porous media modeling and micro-structurally motivated material moduli determination via the micro-dilatation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J.; Ramézani, H.; Sardini, P.; Kondo, D.; Ponson, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present contribution, the porous material modeling and micro-structural material parameters determination are scrutinized via the micro-dilatation theory. The main goal is to take advantage of the micro-dilatation theory which belongs to the generalized continuum media. In the first stage, the thermodynamic laws are entirely revised to reach the energy balance relation using three variables, deformation, porosity change and its gradient underlying the porous media as described in the micro-dilatation theory or so-called void elasticity. Two experiments over cement mortar specimens are performed in order to highlight the material parameters related to the pore structure. The shrinkage due to CO2 carbonation, porosity and its gradient are calculated. The extracted values are verified via 14C-PMMA radiographic image method. The modeling of swelling phenomenon of Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) is studied later on. This issue is performed via the crystallization pressure application using the micro-dilatation theory.

  4. Models for Sustainable Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2008-01-01

    The chapter presents a model for integrated cross-cultural knowledge building and entrepreneurship. In addtion, narrative and numeric simulations methods are suggested to promote a further development and implementation of the model in China.......The chapter presents a model for integrated cross-cultural knowledge building and entrepreneurship. In addtion, narrative and numeric simulations methods are suggested to promote a further development and implementation of the model in China....

  5. 3D collagen fibrillar microstructure guides pancreatic cancer cell phenotype and serves as a critical design parameter for phenotypic models of EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Puls

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest cancers, is characterized by high rates of metastasis and intense desmoplasia, both of which are associated with changes in fibrillar type I collagen composition and microstructure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, a critical step of metastasis, also involves a change in extracellular matrix (ECM context as cells detach from basement membrane (BM and engage interstitial matrix (IM. The objective of this work was to develop and apply an in-vitro three-dimensional (3D tumor-ECM model to define how ECM composition and biophysical properties modulate pancreatic cancer EMT. Three established pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC lines were embedded within 3D matrices prepared with type I collagen Oligomer (IM at various fibril densities to control matrix stiffness or Oligomer and Matrigel combined at various ratios while maintaining constant matrix stiffness. Evaluation of cell morphology and protein expression at both the cellular- and population-levels revealed a spectrum of matrix-driven EMT phenotypes that were dependent on ECM composition and architecture as well as initial PDAC phenotype. In general, exposure to fibrillar IM was sufficient to drive EMT, with cells displaying spindle-shaped morphology and mesenchymal markers, and non-fibrillar BM promoted more epithelial behavior. When cultured within low density Oligomer, only a subpopulation of epithelial BxPC-3 cells displayed EMT while mesenchymal MiaPaCa-2 cells displayed more uniform spindle-shaped morphologies and mesenchymal marker expression. Interestingly, as IM fibril density increased, associated changes in spatial constraints and matrix stiffness resulted in all PDAC lines growing as tight clusters; however mesenchymal marker expression was maintained. Collectively, the comparison of these results to other in-vitro tumor models highlights the role of IM fibril microstructure in guiding EMT heterogeneity and showcases the potential

  6. AxTract: Toward microstructure informed tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Gabriel; Daducci, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Whittingstall, Kevin; Deriche, Rachid; Wassermann, Demian; Descoteaux, Maxime

    2017-11-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography has become the tool of choice to probe the human brain's white matter in vivo. However, tractography algorithms produce a large number of erroneous streamlines (false positives), largely due to complex ambiguous tissue configurations. Moreover, the relationship between the resulting streamlines and the underlying white matter microstructure characteristics remains poorly understood. In this work, we introduce a new approach to simultaneously reconstruct white matter fascicles and characterize the apparent distribution of axon diameters within fascicles. To achieve this, our method, AxTract, takes full advantage of the recent development DW-MRI microstructure acquisition, modeling, and reconstruction techniques. This enables AxTract to separate parallel fascicles with different microstructure characteristics, hence reducing ambiguities in areas of complex tissue configuration. We report a decrease in the incidence of erroneous streamlines compared to the conventional deterministic tractography algorithms on simulated data. We also report an average increase in streamline density over 15 known fascicles of the 34 healthy subjects. Our results suggest that microstructure information improves tractography in crossing areas of the white matter. Moreover, AxTract provides additional microstructure information along the fascicle that can be studied alongside other streamline-based indices. Overall, AxTract provides the means to distinguish and follow white matter fascicles using their microstructure characteristics, bringing new insights into the white matter organization. This is a step forward in microstructure informed tractography, paving the way to a new generation of algorithms able to deal with intricate configurations of white matter fibers and providing quantitative brain connectivity analysis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5485-5500, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Implications of defect clusters formed in cascades on free defect generation and microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1992-12-01

    A large fraction of the defects produced by irradiation with energetic neutrons or heavy ions originates in cascades. Not only increased recombination of vacancy and interstitial defects but also significant clustering of like defects occur. Both processes reduce the number of point defects available for long range migration. Consequences of defect clustering in cascades will be discussed in a semi-quantitative form with the aid of calculations using a very simplified model: Quasi-steady-state distributions of immobile vacancy and/or interstitial clusters develop which, in turn, can become significant sinks for mobile defects, and, therefore reduce their lifetime. Although cluster sinks will cause segregation and, potentially, precipitation of second phases due to local changes of composition, the finite lifetime of clusters will not lead to lasting, local compositional changes. A transition from highly dense interstitial and vacancy cluster distributions to the void swelling regime occurs when the thermal evaporation of vacancies from small vacancy clusters becomes significant at higher temperatures. Unequal clustering of vacancies and interstitials leads to an imbalance of their fluxes of in the matrix and, hence, to unequal contributions to atom transport by interstitials and by vacancies even in the quasi-steady state approximation

  8. Differential microstructural alterations in rat cerebral cortex in a model of chronic mild stress depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Kroenke, Christopher D; Wiborg, Ove

    2018-01-01

    , hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, which form an interconnected system known as the stress circuit. Most studies have focused only on this circuit, however, some studies indicate that manipulation of sensory and motor systems may impact genesis and therapy of mood disorders and therefore...... anisotropy in the resilient group. Neurite density was not found to be significantly higher in any cortical ROIs in the stress group compared to control, although axonal density is higher in the stress groups. We also report significant thinning of motor cortex (MC) in both stress groups......-MRI) to assess cortical microstructure in stressed (anhedonic and resilient) and control animals. MRI is followed by immunohistochemistry to substantiate the d-MRI findings. We find significantly lower extracellular diffusivity in auditory cortex (AC) of stress groups and a significantly higher fractional...

  9. Multiscale modelling of solidification microstructures, including microsegregation and microporosity, in an Al-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.D.; Chirazi, A.; Atwood, R.C.; Wang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Phase transition phenomena in metallic alloys involve complex physical processes occurring over a wide range of temporal, spatial and energy scales. Multiscale modelling is a powerful methodology for understanding these complex systems. In this paper, a multiscale model of grain and pore formation is presented during solidification. At the microscale, a combined stochastic-deterministic approach based on the cellular automata method is used to solve multicomponent diffusion in a three-phase system (liquid, solid and gas), simulating the nucleation and growth of both grains and pores. The impingement of the growing pores upon the developing solid is also solved to predict the tortuous shape of the porosity, a critical factor for fatigue properties. The micromodel is coupled with a finite element method (FEM) solution of the macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow in industrial castings through the temperature and pressure fields. The result model was used to investigate the influence of local solidification time, hydrogen content, local metallostatic pressure and alloy composition upon the predicted grain structure and pore morphology. Comparison of the model predictions to both laboratory and industrial scale castings are presented

  10. Microstructural Development in a TRIP-780 Steel Joined by Friction Stir Welding (FSW: Quantitative Evaluations and Comparisons with EBSD Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Perez Medina

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work describes the effect of FSW on the result microstructure in the stir zone (SZ, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ, heat affected zone (HAZ and base metal (BM of a TRIP-780 steel. X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM and EBSD were used for determinations retained austenite (RA in the SZ, It was found that the amount of RA developed in SZ was relatively large, (approximately 11% to 15%. In addition, recrystallization and the formation of a grain texture were resolved using EBSD. During FSW, the SZ experienced severe plastic deformation which lead to an increase in the temperature and consequently grain recrystallization. Moreover, it was found that the recrystallized grain structure and relatively high martensite levels developed in the SZ lead to a significant drop in the mechanical properties of the steel. In addition, microhardness profiles of the welded regions indicated that the hardness in both the SZ and TMAZ were relatively elevated confirming the development of martensite in these regions. In particular, to evaluate the mechanical strength of the weld, lap shear tensile test was conducted; exhibited the fracture zone in the SZ with shear fracture with uniformly distributed elongation shear dimples.

  11. Strategies for developing competency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Anne F; Tondora, Janis; Hoge, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    There is an emerging trend within healthcare to introduce competency-based approaches in the training, assessment, and development of the workforce. The trend is evident in various disciplines and specialty areas within the field of behavioral health. This article is designed to inform those efforts by presenting a step-by-step process for developing a competency model. An introductory overview of competencies, competency models, and the legal implications of competency development is followed by a description of the seven steps involved in creating a competency model for a specific function, role, or position. This modeling process is drawn from advanced work on competencies in business and industry.

  12. A microstructural study of SAFOD gouge from actively creeping San Andreas Fault zone; Implications for shear localization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, E. D.; Hadizadeh, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    The prevailing models of shear localization in fault gouges are mainly based on experimental aggregates that necessarily neglect the effects of chemical and mechanical maturation with time. The SAFOD cores have provided a chance to test whether cataclasis as a deformation mechanism and factors such as porosity and particle size, critical in some existing shear localization models continue to be critical in mature gouges. We studied a core sample from 3194m MD in the SAFOD phase 3, which consists of intensely foliated shale-siltstone cataclasites in contact with less deformed shale. Microstructures were studied in 3 perpendicular planes with reference to foliation using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, X-ray fluorescence mapping, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The cataclastic foliation, recognizable at length scales >100 μm, is primarily defined by bands of clay gouge with distinct microstructure, clay content, and porosity. Variations in elemental composition and porosity of the clay gouge were measured continuously across the foliation. Prominent features within the foliation bands include lens-shaped clusters of highly brecciated and veined siltstone fragments, pyrite smears, and pyrite-cemented cataclasites. The microstructural relations and chemical data provide clear evidence of multiple episodes of veining and deformation with some possibility of relative age determination for the episodes. There is evidence of syn-deformation hydrothermal changes including growth and brittle shear of pyrite, alteration of host shale clays to illite-smectite clays and Fe-rich smectite. Evidence of grain-boundary corrosion of non-clay mineral fragments suggests pressure solution creep. The gouge porosity estimates varied from 0-18% (about 3% in less deformed shale) with the highest value in the bands with abundant siltstone fragments. The banding is mechanically significant since it pervasively segregates the gouge into

  13. Microstructural imaging of human neocortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Luke J; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2018-03-24

    The neocortex of the human brain is the seat of higher brain function. Modern imaging techniques, chief among them magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allow non-invasive imaging of this important structure. Knowledge of the microstructure of the neocortex has classically come from post-mortem histological studies of human tissue, and extrapolations from invasive animal studies. From these studies, we know that the scale of important neocortical structure spans six orders of magnitude, ranging from the size of axonal diameters (microns), to the size of cortical areas responsible for integrating sensory information (centimetres). MRI presents an opportunity to move beyond classical methods, because MRI is non-invasive and MRI contrast is sensitive to neocortical microstructure over all these length scales. MRI thus allows inferences to be made about neocortical microstructure in vivo, i.e. MRI-based in vivo histology. We review recent literature that has applied and developed MRI-based in vivo histology to probe the microstructure of the human neocortex, focusing specifically on myelin, iron, and neuronal fibre mapping. We find that applications such as cortical parcellation (using R 1 maps as proxies for myelin content) and investigation of cortical iron deposition with age (using R 2 * maps) are already contributing to the frontiers of knowledge in neuroscience. Neuronal fibre mapping in the cortex remains challenging in vivo, but recent improvements in diffusion MRI hold promise for exciting applications in the near future. The literature also suggests that utilising multiple complementary quantitative MRI maps could increase the specificity of inferences about neocortical microstructure relative to contemporary techniques, but that further investment in modelling is required to appropriately combine the maps. In vivo histology of human neocortical microstructure is undergoing rapid development. Future developments will improve its specificity, sensitivity, and

  14. Cohesive zone model for intergranular slow crack growth in ceramics: influence of the process and the microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero de la Osa, M; Olagnon, C; Chevalier, J; Estevez, R; Tallaron, C

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic polycrystals are prone to slow crack growth (SCG) which is stress and environmentally assisted, similarly to observations reported for silica glasses. The kinetics of fracture are known to be dependent on the load level, the temperature and the relative humidity. In addition, evidence is available on the influence of the microstructure on the SCG rate with an increase in the crack velocity with decreasing the grain size. Crack propagation takes place beyond a load threshold, which is grain size dependent. We present a cohesive zone model for the intergranular failure process. The methodology accounts for an intrinsic opening that governs the length of the cohesive zone and allows the investigation of grain size effects. A rate and temperature-dependent cohesive model is proposed (Romero de la Osa M, Estevez R et al 2009 J. Mech. Adv. Mater. Struct. 16 623–31) to mimic the reaction–rupture mechanism. The formulation is inspired by Michalske and Freiman's picture (Michalske and Freiman 1983 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66 284–8) together with a recent study by Zhu et al (2005 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 53 1597–623) of the reaction–rupture mechanism. The present investigation extends a previous work (Romero de la Osa et al 2009 Int. J. Fracture 158 157–67) in which the problem is formulated. Here, we explore the influence of the microstructure in terms of grain size, their elastic properties and residual thermal stresses originating from the cooling from the sintering temperature down to ambient conditions. Their influence on SCG for static loadings is reported and the predictions compared with experimental trends. We show that the initial stress state is responsible for the grain size dependence reported experimentally for SCG. Furthermore, the account for the initial stresses enables the prediction of a load threshold below which no crack growth is observed: a crack arrest takes place when the crack path meets a region in compression

  15. COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Monendra Grover; Rajesh Kumar; Tapan Kumar Mondal; S. Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Genetic erosion is a serious problem and computational models have been developed to prevent it. The computational modeling in this field not only includes (terrestrial) reserve design, but also decision modeling for related problems such as habitat restoration, marine reserve design, and nonreserve approaches to conservation management. Models have been formulated for evaluating tradeoffs between socioeconomic, biophysical, and spatial criteria in establishing marine reserves. The percolatio...

  16. Fracture mechanics and microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, M.G.; Morrell, R.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on defects in ceramics, and the consequences of their presence for the application of fracture mechanics theories are reviewed. The complexities of microstructures, especially the multiphase nature, the crystallographic anisotropy and the resultant anisotropic physical properties, and the variation of microstructure and surface finish from point to point in real components, all lead to considerable uncertainties in the actual performance of any particular component. It is concluded that although the concepts of fracture mechanics have been and will continue to be most useful for the qualitative explanation of fracture phenomena, the usefulness as a predictive tool with respect to most existing types of material is limited by the interrelation between material microstructure and mechanical properties. At present, the only method of eliminating components with unsatisfactory mechanical properties is to proof-test them, despite the fact that proof-testing itself is limited in ability to cope with changes to the component in service. The aim of the manufacturer must be to improve quality and consistency within individual components, from component to component, and from batch to batch. The aim of the fracture specialist must be to study longer-term properties to improve the accuracy of behaviour predictions with a stronger data base. Materials development needs to concentrate on obtaining defect-free materials that can be translated into more-reliable products, using our present understanding of the influence of microstructure on strength and toughness

  17. Spindle-shaped Microstructures: Potential Models for Planktonic Life Forms on Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Walsh, Maud M.; Sugitani, Kenichiro; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Spindle-shaped, organic microstructures ("spindles") are now known from Archean cherts in three localities (Figs. 1-4): The 3 Ga Farrel Quartzite from the Pilbara of Australia [1]; the older, 3.3-3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, also from the Pilbara of Australia [2]; and the 3.4 Ga Kromberg Formation of the Barberton Mountain Land of South Africa [3]. Though the spindles were previously speculated to be pseudofossils or epigenetic organic contaminants, a growing body of data suggests that these structures are bona fide microfossils and further, that they are syngenetic with the Archean cherts in which they occur [1-2, 4-10]. As such, the spindles are among some of the oldest-known organically preserved microfossils on Earth. Moreover, recent delta C-13 study of individual spindles from the Farrel Quartzite (using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry [SIMS]) suggests that the spindles may have been planktonic (living in open water), as opposed to benthic (living as bottom dwellers in contact with muds or sediments) [9]. Since most Precambrian microbiotas have been described from benthic, matforming communities, a planktonic lifestyle for the spindles suggests that these structures could represent a segment of the Archean biosphere that is poorly known. Here we synthesize the recent work on the spindles, and we add new observations regarding their geographic distribution, robustness, planktonic habit, and long-lived success. We then discuss their potential evolutionary and astrobiological significance.

  18. Application of Bayesian neural network modeling to characterize the interrelationship between microstructure and mechanical property in alpha+beta-titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduri, Santhosh K.

    Titanium alloys, especially alpha+beta titanium alloys are used extensively in the aerospace industry because of their attractive balance of properties. The mechanical properties of these materials are very much sensitive to their microstructure. Microstructure in these alloys can be controlled essentially through alloy composition and various thermomechanical processing routes. Microstructures in these alloys are characterized in terms of size, distribution and volume fraction of both alpha (HCP crystal structure) and beta (BCC crystal structure) phases. The above-mentioned features can coexist and span different length scales. The interrelationships between the microstructure and mechanical properties are characterized qualitatively in the literature. Physics based models are difficult to implement due to the presence of a wide variety of microstructural features with different length scales and mutual interaction of these features. The modeling of such properties is much more complex when composition is added as an additional degree of freedom. In this work neural network models with a Bayesian framework have been employed to characterize the microstructure and mechanical property interrelationships in alpha+beta Ti alloys based on Ti-xAl-yV (4.76 alpha+beta Ti alloys based on Ti-xAl-yV (4.76alloys are subjected to various heat treatments and thermomechanical processing conditions such as beta annealing and alpha+beta processing to obtain a range of microstructure and mechanical properties. The important microstructural features in alpha+beta processed alpha+beta titanium alloys are equiaxed alpha grain size, volume fraction of equiaxed alpha grains, width of the alpha lamellae in transformed beta matrix and important features in beta heat treated alpha+beta titanium alloys are size of alpha colony, width of the alpha lamellae, prior beta grain size, volume fraction of colony and grain boundary alpha thickness. A database is populated with the above

  19. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  20. Surface functionalization of a polymeric lipid bilayer for coupling a model biological membrane with molecules, cells, and microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Mizutani, Kazuyuki; Saito, Makoto; Okazaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa

    2013-02-26

    We describe a stable and functional model biological membrane based on a polymerized lipid bilayer with a chemically modified surface. A polymerized lipid bilayer was formed from a mixture of two diacetylene-containing phospholipids, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DiynePC) and 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DiynePE). DiynePC formed a stable bilayer structure, whereas the ethanolamine headgroup of DiynePE enabled functional molecules to be grafted onto the membrane surface. Copolymerization of DiynePC and DiynePE resulted in a robust bilayer. Functionalization of the polymeric bilayer provided a route to a robust and biomimetic surface that can be linked with biomolecules, cells, and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. Biotin and peptides were grafted onto the polymeric bilayer for attaching streptavidin and cultured mammalian cells by molecular recognition, respectively. Nonspecific adsorption of proteins and cells on polymeric bilayers was minimum. DiynePE was also used to attach a microstructure made of an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxan: PDMS) onto the membrane, forming a confined aqueous solution between the two surfaces. The microcompartment enabled us to assay the activity of a membrane-bound enzyme (cyochrome P450). Natural (fluid) lipid bilayers were incorporated together with membrane-bound proteins by lithographically polymerizing DiynePC/DiynePE bilayers. The hybrid membrane of functionalized polymeric bilayers and fluid bilayers offers a novel platform for a wide range of biomedical applications including biosensor, bioassay, cell culture, and cell-based assay.

  1. Evaluation of ferritic alloy Fe-2-1/4Cr-1Mo after neutron irradiation - microstructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1984-05-01

    Microstructural examinations are reported for nine specimen conditions of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel which had been irradiated by fast neutrons over the temperature range 390 to 510 0 C. Two heats of material were involved, each with a different preirradiation heat treatment, one irradiated to a peak fluence of 5.1 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or 24 dpa and the other to 2.4 x 10 23 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or 116 dpa. Void swelling is found following irradiation at 400 0 C in both conditions and to 480 0 C in the higher fluence conditions. Concurrently dislocation structure and precipitation formed. Peak void swelling, void density, dislocation density and precipitate number density developed at the lowest temperature, approx. 400 0 C, whereas mean void size, and mean precipitate size increased with increasing irradiation temperature. The examination results are used to provide interpretation of in-reactor creep, density change and post irradiation tensile behavior

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 welded by fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Banglong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Guoliang, E-mail: glqin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Meng, Xiangmeng; Ji, Yang; Zou, Yong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lei, Zhen [Harbin Welding Institute, Harbin 150028 (China)

    2014-11-03

    The newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 was for the first time joined by laser beam welding in order to meet the ever-increased long-term requirements of aerospace, aviation and armament industries. The weld appearance, microstructure, solute segregation, precipitate behavior, and their relationships with mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated. Sound joints with no crack and a few small porosities are obtained under appropriate heat inputs. As a result of heterogeneous nucleation involving the effect of Zr and Li, a non-dendritic equiaxed zone forms between partially melted zone and fusion zone. The crystal morphologies in fusion zone vary from columnar dendrite to equiaxed dendrite, with the increase of constitutional supercooling. Solute segregation leads to the variations of Cu content in grain interior and boundary, as well as the weak ability of re-precipitation of fusion zone. Most precipitates in the base metal dissolve during welding, and fusion zone contains a decreased quantity of δ′, β′, θ′, and T{sub 1}. The ultimate tensile strength of laser welded joints is 83.4% of that of the base metal, and can meet the application requirements from related industries, but the ductility still needs to be improved. Welding defects and loss of solid solution/precipitation hardened structure lead to the degradation of mechanical properties. Tensile fracture occurs in weld with the brittle intergranular dominated mode and premature failure occurs and extends in the equiaxed zone.

  3. The irradiation-induced microstructural development and the role of γ' on void formation in Ni-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takahiko; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Masaoka, Isao; Takahashi, Heishichiro; Takeyama, Taro; Ohnuki, Soumei; Osanai, Hisashi

    1984-05-01

    The microstructural development for Inconel X-750, N1-13 at%A1, and Ni-11.5 at%Si alloys during irradiation was investigated. These alloys were previously heat-treated at temperatures of 723-1073 K, and γ' precipitates were produced. Irradiation was performed in a high voltage electron microscope (1000 kV) in the temperature range 673-823 K. In the case of solution-treated Inconel, interstitial dislocation loops were formed initially, while voids were nucleated after longer times. When the Inconel specimen containing a high number density of small γ' was irradiated, dislocation loops were formed in both the matrix and precipitate-matrix interface. The loops formed on the interface scarcely grew during irradiation. On the other hand, for the Ni-Al alloy fine γ' nucleated during irradiation, the large γ' precipitated by pre-aging, dissolved. A similar resolution process was also observed in Ni-Si alloy. Furthermore, in the Ni-Si alloy precipitates of γ' formed preferentially at interstitial dislocation loops and both specimen surfaces.

  4. The irradiation induced microstructural development and the role of γ' on void formation in Ni-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.; Nakata, K.; Masaoka, I.; Takahashi, H.; Takeyama, T.; Ohnuki, S.; Osanai, H.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructural development for Inconel X-750, Ni-13 at% Al, and Ni-11.5 at% Si alloys during irradiation was investigated. These alloys were previously heat-treated at temperatures of 723-1073 K, and γ' precipitates were produced. Irradiation was performed in a high voltage electron microscope in the temperature range 627-823 K. In the case of solution-treated Inconel, interstitial dislocation loops were formed initially, while voids were nucleated after longer times. When the Inconel specimen containing a high number density of small γ' was irradiated, dislocation loops were formed in both the matrix and precipitate-matrix interface. The loops formed on the interface scarcely grew during irradiation. On the other hand, for the Ni-Al alloy fine γ' nucleated during irradiation, the large γ' precipitated by pre-aging, dissolved. A similar resolution process was also observed in Ni-Si alloy. Furthermore, in the Ni-Si alloy precipitates of γ' formed preferentially at interstitial dislocation loops and both specimen surfaces. (orig.)

  5. Microstructure taxonomy based on spatial correlations: Application to microstructure coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Tony; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-01-01

    To build materials knowledge, rigorous description of the material structure and associated tools to explore and exploit information encoded in the structure are needed. These enable recognition, categorization and identification of different classes of microstructure and ultimately enable to link structure with properties of materials. Particular interest lies in the protocols capable of mining the essential information in large microstructure datasets and building robust knowledge systems that can be easily accessed, searched, and shared by the broader materials community. In this paper, we develop a protocol based on automated tools to classify microstructure taxonomies in the context of coarsening behavior which is important for long term stability of materials. Our new concepts for enhanced description of the local microstructure state provide flexibility of description. The mathematical description of microstructure that capture crucial attributes of the material, although central to building materials knowledge, is still elusive. The new description captures important higher order spatial information, but at the same time, allows down sampling if less information is needed. We showcase the classification protocol by studying coarsening of binary polymer blends and classifying steady state structures. We study several microstructure descriptions by changing the microstructure local state order and discretization and critically evaluate their efficacy. Our analysis revealed the superior properties of microstructure representation is based on the first order-gradient of the atomic fraction.

  6. Microstructure evolution and texture development in a friction stir-processed AISI D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Vieira, M. T.; Jafarian, H. R.

    2014-02-01

    Crystallographic texture developments during friction stir processing (FSP) of AISI D2 tool were studied with respect to grain sizes in different tool rotation rates. Comparison of the grain sizes in various rotation rates confirmed that grain refinement occurred progressively in higher rotation rates by severe plastic deformation. It was found that the predominant mechanism during FSP should be dynamic recovery (DRV) happened concurrently with continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) caused by particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN). The developed shear texture relates to the ideal shear textures of D1 and D2 in bcc metals. The prevalence of highly dense arrangement of close-packed planes of bcc and the lowest Taylor factor showed the lowest compressive residual stress which is responsible for better mechanical properties compared with the grain-precipitate refinement.

  7. Short intergranular cracks in the piecewise anisotropic continuum model of the microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Kovse, I.

    2001-01-01

    Computational algorithms aiming at modeling and visualization of the initiation and growth of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (e.g., in the steam generator tubes) on the grain-size scale have already been proposed [6]. The main focus of the paper is given to the influence of randomly oriented neighboring grains on the microscopic stress fields at crack tips. The incompatibility strains, which develop along the boundaries of randomly oriented anisotropic grains, are shown to influence the local stress fields at crack tips significantly. Special attention has been paid to the implementation and comparison of different numerical methods estimating the local stress fields at crack tips, aiming at optimizing the computational time and the numerical accuracy of the results. The limited number of calculations indicate that the anisotropic arrangement of grains with local incompatibility strains causes on average about 10% (plane strain) and 26% (plane stress) higher J-integral values at the crack tips than expected from the calculations in the isotropic case.(author)

  8. Microstructure modeling and crystal plasticity simulations for the evaluation of fatigue crack initiation in α-iron specimen including an elliptic defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briffod, Fabien, E-mail: briffod@rme.mm.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Enoki, Manabu

    2017-05-17

    In this study, fatigue crack initiation in pure α-iron is investigated through a microstructure-sensitive framework. At first, synthetic microstructures are modeled based on an anisotropic tessellation that accounts for the information of the grains morphology extracted from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Low-cycle fatigue experiments under strain-controlled conditions are conducted in order to calibrate a crystal plasticity model and a J{sub 2} model including isotropic and kinematic hardening. A critical plane fatigue indicator parameter (FIP) based on the Tanaka-Mura model is then presented to evaluate the location and quantify the driving force for the formation of a crack. The FIP is averaged over several potential crack paths within each grain defined by the intersection between a given slip plane and the plane of the model thus accounting for both the lattice orientation and morphology of the grain. Several fatigue simulations at various stress amplitudes are conducted using a sub-modeling technique for the attribution of boundary conditions on the polycrystalline aggregate models including an elliptic defect. The influence of the microstructure attributes and stress level on the location and amplitude of the FIP are then quantified and discussed.

  9. Friction stir welding process and material microstructure evolution modeling in 2000 and 5000 series of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalavarthy, Harshavardhan

    Interactions between the rotating and advancing pin-shaped tool (terminated at one end with a circular-cylindrical shoulder) with the clamped welding-plates and the associated material and heat transport during a Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process are studied computationally using a fully-coupled thermo-mechanical finite-element analysis. To surmount potential numerical problems associated with extensive mesh distortions/entanglement, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation was used which enabled adaptive re-meshing (to ensure the continuing presence of a high-quality mesh) while allowing full tracking of the material free surfaces. To demonstrate the utility of the present computational approach, the analysis is applied to the cases of same-alloy FSW of two Aluminum-alloy grades: (a) AA5083 (a solid-solution strengthened and strain-hardened/stabilized Al-Mg-Mn alloy); and (b) AA2139 (a precipitation hardened quaternary Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy). Both of these alloys are currently being used in military-vehicle hull structural and armor systems. In the case of non-age-hardenable AA5083, the dominant microstructure evolution processes taking place during FSW are extensive plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization of highly-deformed material subjected to elevated temperatures approaching the melting temperature. To account for the competition between plastic-deformation controlled strengthening and dynamic-recrystallization induced softening phenomena during the FSW process, the original Johnson-Cook strain- and strain-rate hardening and temperature-softening material strength model is modified in the present work using the available recrystallization-kinetics experimental data. In the case of AA2139, in addition to plastic deformation and dynamic recrystallization, precipitates coarsening, over-aging, dissolution and re-precipitation had to be also considered. Limited data available in the open literature pertaining to the kinetics of the aforementioned

  10. Microstructural Analysis of the Oxidation Products of Metallic Alloys According to the HALOX Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Micco, G.

    2001-01-01

    This publication is a first stage in the development of an oxidation process of the fissile material, from spent nuclear fuel elements of research reactors, containing molybdenum.The oxidation of molybdenum powder with air at elevated temperatures (375-500 o C) has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.The results show that the only product was MoO 3 in two different phases: Monoclinic and Orthorhombic.MoO 2 and non-stoichiometric molybdenum oxide such as Mo 4 O 1 1 were not evidenced in any of the Mo oxidation steps. By monitoring the time required for the complete oxidation of Mo at different conditions of temperature and pressure, a rate equation has been determined for the whole process. The activation energy and the pressure and degree of reaction dependence, has been calculated.This values remain constant trough out the complete reaction

  11. Microstructure, texture and colour development during crust formation on whole muscle chicken fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S

    2013-01-01

    1. The development of crust during a 22-min period was evaluated in an oven, and in previously cooked-in-bag products (no crust) placed in an oven for 10 min. The oven-roasted products started to develop a thin (2-4 μm) crust layer after 4 min. At that point, the colour of the fillets turned white but no browning was observed. As roasting time increased, crust thickness and shear force increased, the product turned brown and eventually black at certain spots. 2. Light microscopy revealed the shrinking of muscle fibres close to the surface, as they also lost water. At a certain point, tears between the different layers started to appear. The inner muscle fibres also progressively shrank and the spaces between them increased. Microscopy of cook-in-bag products revealed no crust formation during heating. Upon moving to the oven, crust started to form but was much faster compared with the other products. 3. Cook-in-the-bag samples showed a higher rate of cook loss during the first 12 min (to internal 70°C) compared with oven heating. This could have been due to the fast heating rate in water and/or no crust formation. 4. White colour was fully formed on water-cooked fillets within 2 min (L* = 83), while it was gradually forming on oven-roasted samples (max L* of 79 after 12 min). 5. Shear force measurements showed an increase in both treatments up to 18 min, with a decrease thereafter (when dry crust started to crack).

  12. MEANS 2: Microstructure- and Micromechanism-Sensitive Property Models for Advanced Turbine Disk and Blade Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollock, Tresa M; Mills, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    .... A model for the novel microtwinning regime. Modeling at the ab initio, atomistic and phase field levels is providing insight into the activation parameters associated with the observed deformation mechanisms...

  13. Microstructure Evolution and Texture Development in a Cu-8.5%AT. AL Material Subjected to Hydrostatic Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowska D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate microstructure and texture evolution of two single crystals and polycrystal of Cu-8.5%at.Al material. All of mentioned samples were deformed by HE to achieve true strain ε = 1.17. For microstructure analyzes observations by transmission electron microscope (STEM were done. Crystalline size for samples after SPD were determine using XRD method. The global texture measurements were done using Bruker D8 Discover diffractometer equipped in Cr radiation. Microstructure investigations revealed nanocrystalline structure in single crystals with initial orientations and and polycrystalline Cu-8.5%at.Al material after SPD. The global texture measurements have shown the stability of initial orientation of Cu-8.5%at.Al single crystal after HE, whereas the same SPD process strongly brakes up the orientation Cu-8.5%at. Al single crystal.

  14. Development of the Integrated Hydrogen Production System Using Micro-structured Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung Min Sohn; Young Chang Byun; Jun Yeon Cho; Youngwoon Kwon; Jaehoon Choe

    2006-01-01

    A plate-type integrated fuel processor, which consisted of three different micro-reactors which were a reformer with combustor, two heat exchangers and an evaporator with combustor, was developed for the hydrogen production as feed of over 100 W-grade PEMFC. The methanol steam reforming was chosen in our fuel processor to produce highly pure hydrogen. Our system could be operated without any external electric heat supply. Hydrogen which might come from off gas was used as the combustion fuel at initial stage and methanol was used during the steam reaction. Cu/Zn/Al 2 O 3 and Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalysts were chosen for steam reforming of methanol and the combustion and coated on microchannel-patterned stainless steel sheets. The performance of the fuel processor was tested for long-term use. The integrated system was operated consistently with methanol conversion of over 80.0 mol% at 300 C for 20 hrs without deactivation of catalyst. The maximum composition of hydrogen and production rate on dry basis was about 70 % and 1.7 L/min, respectively. The efficiency of our system was calculated based on the LHV of methanol and hydrogen. Overall thermal efficiency of our fuel processor was 59.5 % and thermal power of hydrogen was about 300 W. (authors)

  15. The effect of inhomogeneity of microstructure on ducility in superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, A.; Dunne, F.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element cell models have been developed to represent inhomogeneous grain size fields that occur in commercial Ti-6Al-4V. The models are used to investigate the influence of microstructure on superplastic stress-strain behaviour, inhomogeneity of deformation, and on ductility in superplastic deformation. It is shown that increasing the level of initial microstructural inhomogeneity leads to increasing flow stress for given strain, and that the microstructural inhomogeneity leads to inhomogeneous deformation. As superplasticity proceeds, the level of microstructural inhomogeneity diminishes, but the inhomogeneity itself is preserved during the deformation. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of microstructure leads to strain localisation which increases in severity with deformation until material necking and failure occur. Increasing the initial microstructural inhomogeneity is shown to lead to a decrease in ductility, but the effect diminishes for grain size ranges in excess of 30 μm. An empirical relationship is presented that relates the ductility to the initial grain size range through a power law. (orig.)

  16. Lawsonite Microstructures and Fabric Development at the Slab-Mantle Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornash, K.; Whitney, D.; Teyssier, C. P.; Seaton, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    Lawsonite is of critical importance to element and water cycling in subduction zones because it has a high H2O content, is stable at high pressures, and is a significant reservoir for trace elements in HP/LT rocks. In addition, the presence, abundance, and crystallographic orientation of lawsonite can affect the deformation and rheological behavior of subducted oceanic crust and sediments, and may influence the seismic properties of subducted slabs. The scarcity of unaltered lawsonite in HP/LT rocks exhumed to the Earth's surface, particularly in eclogite, however, has prevented an understanding of the deformation behavior of lawsonite and the factors controlling the development of fabrics in lawsonite, which are important for understanding the effects of lawsonite on the physical properties of subducted slabs. One of the few places in the world with unaltered lawsonite in eclogite and blueschist facies rocks is the Sivrihisar Massif, Turkey, which contains a coherent sequence of lawsonite-bearing metabasaltic and metasedimentary rocks that were metamorphosed and deformed at the slab-mantle interface (45 - 80 km), and therefore provide an opportunity to systematically compare lawsonite fabrics in rocks with different modal amounts of rheologically significant minerals (e.g., glaucophane, omphacite, quartz), integrated with information about lawsonite crystal size, compositional zoning patterns, shape, and twinning. Studies to date of lawsonite CPO from natural lawsonite-bearing rocks have resulted in two patterns: one is characterized by a concentration of [001] axes parallel to lineation and the other is characterized by a concentration of [001] axes perpendicular to foliation. We have documented the first type in metabasalt and the second in quartzite, but other researchers have documented both types in metabasalt. Regardless of variations in lawsonite CPO or rock type, omphacite and glaucophane CPO remain consistent. Quartz c-axis patterns vary in eclogite- and

  17. Cellular automaton modelling of ductile iron microstructure in the thin wall casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbelko, A A; Gurgul, D; Kapturkiewicz, W; Górny, M

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD) calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the ductile iron solidification in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration.

  18. China Changes the Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Rzeszotarska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the situation in the global economy. China's spectacular economic success has increased an interest in this country. The short time in which China moved on from the a poor agricultural country into a global economic power is admirable. China's model combines conflicted elements of different economic systems: the bureaucratic planning, island-capitalism, simple goods production and natural economy. The current development and transformation of the economy have brought about spectacular achievements and successes. However, the "the world's manufacturer" produces goods designed in other countries. In contrast, the modern idea is to build a modern and independent Chinese industry. The possibilities of the current model of economic development based on simple reserves and large statedriven infrastructure projects, which no longer drive the economy to the extent they previously did, dried out. Thus, the "Middle Kingdom" will have to compete against the rest of the world on quality and innovation. Therefore the development of the new model is a prerequisite to ensure progress in the future. Discussion on further development has been expedited in 2011, when it became abundantly clear that the Chinese economy would share the experience of the effects of the global crisis. The Chinese look at the challenges that the economy is facing realistically in thinking about the modern technology which begins to dominate the country. China is determined to become the leading technological superpower of the world. Today, many developing countries are looking towards China watching the development model implemented there with the hope of its adaptation in their economies. However, China is a unique entity. Therefore, it may be that adaptation of the Chinese model of development in other countries is not possible.

  19. Microstructure of a tribosphenic molar - comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ŠPOUTIL, František

    2010-01-01

    The proposed thesis concerns in the study of tribosphenic molar, the key apomorphy of mammalian clade, mainly in structure and development of its enamel coat. As the main model species served us European vespertilionid bat Myotis myotis. The aims of this thesis are: (1) to describe structure and microstructure of enamel in tribosphenic molars in detail; (2) to compare it with unicuspid teeth of the same dentition; (3) to describe mineralization process and enamel maturation in insectivorous d...

  20. Microstructure and crystallographic preferred orientation of polycrystalline microgarnet aggregates developed during progressive creep, recovery, and grain boundary sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, M.A.; Prior, D.J.; Moecher, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and electron backscatter diffraction methods have been used to examine a broad range of garnet microstructures within a high strain zone that marks the western margin of a major transpression zone in the southern New England Appalachians. Garnet accommodated variable states of finite strain, expressed as low strain porphyroclasts (Type 1), high strain polycrystalline aggregates (Type 2), and transitional morphologies (Type 3) that range between these end members. Type 1 behaved as rigid porphyroclasts and is characterized by four concentric Ca growth zones. Type 2 help define foliation and lineation, are characterized by three Ca zones, and possess a consistent bulk crystallographic preferred orientation of (100) symmetrical to the tectonic fabric. Type 3 show variable degrees of porphyroclast associated with aggregate, where porphyroclasts display complex compositional zoning that corresponds to lattice distortion, low-angle boundaries, and subgrains, and aggregate CPO mimics porphyroclast orientation. All aggregates accommodated a significant proportion of greenschist facies deformation through grain boundary sliding, grain rotation and impingement, and pressure solution, which lead to a cohesive behavior and overall strain hardening of the aggregates. The characteristic CPO could not have been developed in this manner, and was the result of an older phase of partitioned amphibolite facies dislocation creep, recovery including chemical segregation, and recrystallization of porphyroclasts. This study demonstrates the significance of strain accommodation within garnet and its affect on composition under a range of PT conditions, and emphasizes the importance of utilizing EBSD methods with studies that rely upon a sound understanding of garnet. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Solidification of AM and AZ magnesium alloys characterized by heat-transfer modeled thermal and calorimetric analysis and microsegregation study of directionally solidified microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, Djordje

    2008-05-09

    The micro-scale solidification of commercial Mg alloys of the AZ and AM series is in the focus of the present thesis. Two approaches of investigating solidification are implemented, complementary regarding temperature gradient and solidification rate, and also with respect to the generated microstructure. The first approach considers solidification under a negligible spatial temperature gradient. Here the solidification curves, i.e. fraction solid versus temperature, were determined by developing an improved heat-transfer modeling applicable on both differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) signals. The correlation between solidification enthalpy and fraction solid during solidification was tested in detail. A better evaluation of the measured DTA and DSC signals is attained through an independent measurement of the time constant as function of temperature for the applied equipment. A further improvement is achieved through a more impartial interpretation of the measured curves. Both improvements enable a better desmearing of measured signals and reduce the error induced by the operator. The novel tantalum encapsulation enabled appropriate handling of challenging Mg-alloys. The viability and limitations of thermal analysis in general to determine start and end of solidification of AZ magnesium alloys was also studied. The second approach is based on directional solidification in a high temperature gradient and at constant solidification rate, achieved by the Bridgman technique. The resulting dendritic microstructure and inherent microsegregation are studied in this work. The solute profiles, i.e. solute content versus solid phase fraction during solidification, are determined by an advanced treatment of the EPMA data. Problems that are demonstrated in this work are Al-loss and melt pollution due to reaction with typical sample container material made of unprotected steel. The development of an optimized boron nitride (BN

  2. Developments in Coastal Ocean Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Capabilities in modeling continental shelf flow fields have improved markedly in the last several years. Progress is being made toward the long term scientific goal of utilizing numerical circulation models to interpolate, or extrapolate, necessarily limited field measurements to provide additional full-field information describing the behavior of, and providing dynamical rationalizations for, complex observed coastal flow. The improvement in modeling capabilities has been due to several factors including an increase in computer power and, importantly, an increase in experience of modelers in formulating relevant numerical experiments and in analyzing model results. We demonstrate present modeling capabilities and limitations by discussion of results from recent studies of shelf circulation off Oregon and northern California (joint work with Newberger, Gan, Oke, Pullen, and Wijesekera). Strong interactions between wind-forced coastal currents and continental shelf topography characterize the flow regimes in these cases. Favorable comparisons of model and measured alongshore currents and other variables provide confidence in the model-produced fields. The dependence of the mesoscale circulation, including upwelling and downwelling fronts and flow instabilities, on the submodel used to parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence, is discussed. Analyses of model results to provide explanations for the observed, but previously unexplained, alongshore variability in the intensity of coastal upwelling, which typically results in colder surface water south of capes, and the observed development in some locations of northward currents near the coast in response to the relaxation of southward winds, are presented.

  3. A Testbed for Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Van der Tol, C.; Kornfeld, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon cycle and land-surface models used in global simulations need to be computationally efficient and have a high standard of software engineering. These models also make a number of scaling assumptions to simplify the representation of complex biochemical and structural properties of ecosystems. This makes it difficult to use these models to test new ideas for parameterizations or to evaluate scaling assumptions. The stripped down nature of these models also makes it difficult to "connect" with current disciplinary research which tends to be focused on much more nuanced topics than can be included in the models. In our opinion/experience this indicates the need for another type of model that can more faithfully represent the complexity ecosystems and which has the flexibility to change or interchange parameterizations and to run optimization codes for calibration. We have used the SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes) model in this way to develop, calibrate, and test parameterizations for solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence, OCS exchange and stomatal parameterizations at the canopy scale. Examples of the data sets and procedures used to develop and test new parameterizations are presented.

  4. Micro-mechanical analysis and modelling of the behavior and brittle fracture of a french 16MND5 steel: role of microstructural heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, J.Ph.

    2006-10-01

    Reactor Pressure Vessel is the second containment barrier between nuclear fuel and the environment. Electricite de France's reactors are made with french 16MND5 low-alloyed steel (equ. ASTM A508 Cl.3). Various experimental techniques (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction...) are set up in order to characterize mechanical heterogeneities inside material microstructure during tensile testing at different low temperatures [-150 C;-60 C]. Heterogeneities can be seen as the effect of both 'polycrystalline' and 'composite' microstructural features. Interphase (until 150 MPa in average between ferritic and bainitic macroscopic stress state) and intra-phase (until 100 MPa in average between ferritic orientations) stress variations are highlighted. Modelling involves micro-mechanical description of plastic glide, mean fields models and realistic three-dimensional aggregates, all put together inside a multi-scale approach. Calibration is done on macroscopic stress-strain curves at different low temperatures, and modelling reproduces experimental stress heterogeneities. This modelling allows to apply a local micro-mechanical fracture criterion for crystallographic cleavage. Deterministic computations of time to fracture for different carbides random selection provide a way to express probability of fracture for the elementary volume. Results are in good agreement with hypothesis made by local approach to fracture. Hence, the main difference is that no dependence to loading nor microstructure features is supposed for probability of fracture on the representative volume: this dependence is naturally introduced by modelling. (author)

  5. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Ostergaard, Leif; Jakobsen, Rikke

    2007-09-01

    To understand the diffusion attenuated MR signal from normal and ischemic brain tissue in order to extract structural and physiological information using mathematical modeling, taking into account the transverse relaxation rates in gray matter. We fit our diffusion model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each compartment. A global optimum was found from a wide range of parameter permutations using cluster computing. We also present simulations of cell swelling and changes of exchange rate and intracellular diffusion as possible cellular mechanisms in ischemia. Our model estimates an extracellular volume fraction of 0.19 in accordance with the accepted value from histology. The absolute apparent diffusion coefficient obtained from the model was similar to that of experiments. The model and the experimental results indicate significant differences in diffusion and transverse relaxation between the tissue compartments and slow water exchange. Our model reproduces the signal changes observed in ischemia via physiologically credible mechanisms. Our modeling suggests that transverse relaxation has a profound influence on the diffusion attenuated MR signal. Our simulations indicate cell swelling as the primary cause of the diffusion changes seen in the acute phase of brain ischemia. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    compartment. A global optimum was found from a wide range of parameter permutations using cluster computing. We also present simulations of cell swelling and changes of exchange rate and intracellular diffusion as possible cellular mechanisms in ischemia. RESULTS: Our model estimates an extracellular volume...... compartments and slow water exchange. Our model reproduces the signal changes observed in ischemia via physiologically credible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Our modeling suggests that transverse relaxation has a profound influence on the diffusion attenuated MR signal. Our simulations indicate cell swelling...... model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each...

  7. Efficiency of economic development models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Camelia Iacob

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world economy is becoming increasingly integrated. Integrating emerging economies of Asia, such as China and India increase competition on the world stage, putting pressure on the "actors" already existing. These developments have raised questions about the effectiveness of European development model, which focuses on a high level of equity, insurance and social protection. According to analysts, the world today faces three models of economic development with significant weight in the world: the European, American and Asian. This study will focus on analyzing European development model, and a brief comparison with the United States. In addition, this study aims to highlight the relationship between efficiency and social equity that occurs in each submodel in part of the European model, given that social and economic performance in the EU are not homogeneous. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze different indicators related to social equity and efficiency respectively, to observe the performance of each submodel individually. The article analyzes data to determine submodel performance according to social equity and economic efficiency.

  8. Solidification microstructure development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A majority of manufacturing processes involve melting and solidification of metals and ... In such a case (for example, chill casting), the solidification thickness (S) is ... (5). Here, LX is the system length scale in one dimension and DS is the solute diffusivity in solid. Thermal and solutal diffusivities are finite and usually very ...

  9. Cellular automaton modeling of ductile iron microstructure in the thin wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Burbelko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the globular eutectic solidification in 2D was designed. Proposed model is based on the Cellular Automaton Finite Differences (CA-FD calculation method. Model has been used for studies of the primary austenite and of globular eutectic grains growth during the solidification of the ductile iron with different carbon equivalent in the thin wall casting. Model takes into account, among other things, non-uniform temperature distribution in the casting wall cross-section, kinetics of the austenite and graphite grains nucleation, and non-equilibrium nature of the interphase boundary migration. Solidification of the DI with different carbon equivalents was analyzed. Obtained results were compared with the solidification path calculated by CALPHAD method.

  10. Characterizing ingestive behavior through licking microstructure: Underlying neurobiology and its use in the study of obesity in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2018-02-01

    Ingestive behavior is controlled by multiple distinct peripheral and central physiological mechanisms that ultimately determine whether a particular food should be accepted or avoided. As rodents consume a fluid they display stereotyped rhythmic tongue movements, and by analyzing the temporal distribution of pauses of licking, it is possible through analyses of licking microstructure to uncover dissociable evaluative and motivational variables that contribute to ingestive behavior. The mean number of licks occurring within each burst of licking (burst and cluster size) reflects the palatability of the consumed solution, whereas the frequency of initiating novel bouts of licking behavior (burst and cluster number) is dependent upon the degree of gastrointestinal inhibition that accrues through continued fluid ingestion. This review describes the analysis of these measures within a context of the behavioral variables that come to influence the acceptance or avoidance of a fluid, and the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie alterations in the temporal distribution of pauses of licks. The application of these studies to models of obesity in animals is also described. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Semiconductors and semimetals epitaxial microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Gossard, Arthur C

    1994-01-01

    Newly developed semiconductor microstructures can now guide light and electrons resulting in important consequences for state-of-the-art electronic and photonic devices. This volume introduces a new generation of epitaxial microstructures. Special emphasis has been given to atomic control during growth and the interrelationship between the atomic arrangements and the properties of the structures.Key Features* Atomic-level control of semiconductor microstructures* Molecular beam epitaxy, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition* Quantum wells and quantum wires* Lasers, photon(IR)detectors, heterostructure transistors

  12. Experimental microstructures MOX fuels elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotta, M.J.; Dubois, S.; Lechelle, J.; Sornay, P.

    2000-01-01

    In order to propose a new MOX fuel, owning higher combustion rate, studies are realized at the CEA in collaboration with Cogema, EDF and Framatome. New microstructures of MOX are looked for around two approaches: the grains size and the plutonium distribution. These approaches are presented and discussed in this paper. The first one develops big grains microstructures obtained, either with anionic (sulfur), or cationic (Cr 2 O 3 ) additives. The second one concerns the CER-CER type composite microstructures. (A.L.B.)

  13. Towards modeling of cardiac micro-structure with catheter-based confocal microscopy: a novel approach for dye delivery and tissue characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Richard A; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2009-08-01

    This work presents a methodology for modeling of cardiac tissue micro-structure. The approach is based on catheter-based confocal imaging systems, which are emerging as tools for diagnosis in various clinical disciplines. A limitation of these systems is that a fluorescent marker must be available in sufficient concentration in the imaged region. We introduce a novel method for the local delivery of fluorescent markers to cardiac tissue based on a hydro-gel carrier brought into contact with the tissue surface. The method was tested with living rabbit cardiac tissue and applied to acquire three-dimensional image stacks with a standard inverted confocal microscope and two-dimensional images with a catheter-based confocal microscope. We processed these image stacks to obtain spatial models and quantitative data on tissue microstructure. Volumes of atrial and ventricular myocytes were 4901 +/- 1713 and 10 299 +/-3598 mum (3) (mean+/-sd), respectively. Atrial and ventricular myocyte volume fractions were 72.4 +/-4.7% and 79.7 +/- 2.9% (mean +/-sd), respectively. Atrial and ventricular myocyte density was 165 571 +/- 55 836 and 86 957 +/- 32 280 cells/mm (3) (mean+/-sd), respectively. These statistical data and spatial descriptions of tissue microstructure provide important input for modeling studies of cardiac tissue function. We propose that the described methodology can also be used to characterize diseased tissue and allows for personalized modeling of cardiac tissue.

  14. Multiscale model for microstructure evolution in multiphase materials: Application to the growth of isolated inclusions in presence of elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Danny; Lewis, Laurent J

    2006-09-01

    We present a multiscale model based on the classical lattice time-dependent density-functional theory to study microstructure evolution in multiphase systems. As a first test of the method, we study the static and dynamic properties of isolated inclusions. Three cases are explored: elastically homogeneous systems, elastically inhomogeneous systems with soft inclusions, and elastically inhomogeneous systems with hard inclusions. The equilibrium properties of inclusions are shown to be consistent with previous results: both homogeneous and hard inclusions adopt a circular shape independent of their size, whereas soft inclusions are circular below a critical radius and elliptic above. In all cases, the Gibbs-Thomson relation is obeyed, except for a change in the prefactor at the critical radius in soft inclusions. Under growth conditions, homogeneous inclusions exhibit a Mullins-Sekerka shape instability [W. Mullins and R. Sekerka, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 323 (1963)], whereas in inhomogeneous systems, the growth of perturbations follows the Leo-Sekerka model [P. Leo and R. Sekerka, Acta Metall. 37, 3139 (1989)]. For soft inclusions, the mode instability regime is gradually replaced by a tip-growing mechanism, which leads to stable, strongly out-of-equilibrium shapes even at very low supersaturation. This mechanism is shown to significantly affect the growth dynamics of soft inclusions, whereas dynamical corrections to the growth rates are negligible in homogeneous and hard inclusions. Finally, due to its microscopic formulation, the model is shown to automatically take into account phenomena caused by the presence of the underlying discrete lattice: anisotropy of the interfacial energy, anisotropy of the kinetics, and preferential excitation of shape perturbations commensurate with the rotational symmetry of the lattice.

  15. Linking growth to environmental histories in central Baltic young-of-the-year sprat, Sprattus sprattus : an approach based on otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, H.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Voss, R.

    2006-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed 'window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back-calculat......Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed 'window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back......-calculated days of first feeding (DFF), was narrow compared to the extended spawning season of sprat in the Baltic Sea (mean +/- SD = 22 June +/- 14.1 days) and indicated that only individuals born in summer survived until October 2002. Within the group of survivors, individuals born later in the season exhibited...

  16. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  17. Recent developments in multiperipheral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Tar, C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments do not provide all detailed information required in order to select among possible formulations of the multiperipheral model the correct one (''uniqueness problem''). There are at least three directions which lead away from the uniqueness problem. The first is simplified models with only enough complexity so as to satisfy the data approximately. The second involves invoking theoretical constraints which limit the theoretical flexibility of the model. The third and ultimate solution may be provided by the quark-gluon models or string models. The recent interest in the role of clusters in multiple production is a good illustration of the phenomenological problems facing multiperipheral models. The existence of clusters is certainly agreed upon, but for determination of their size directly from rapidity distributions the result so far depends on what one assumes about how they are produced. Theoretical work toward a unified picture of strong interactions has also led to some novel developments in multiperipheral models and the Regge pole theory. It is a problem now to choose between the more traditional picture of two vacuum singularities or the more novel approach which makes an effort to deal not merely with four-body amplitudes but in a more profound way, with multiple production processes which are related to them through unitarity

  18. Experimental characterisation and modelling of deformation- induced microstructure in an A6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyca, J F; Falahati, A; Kozeschnik, E

    2016-01-01

    For industry, the mechanical properties of a material in form of flow curves are essential input data for finite element simulations. Current practice is to obtain flow curves experimentally and to apply fitting procedures to obtain constitutive equations that describe the material response to external loading as a function of temperature and strain rate. Unfortunately, the experimental procedure for characterizing flow curves is complex and expensive, which is why the prediction of flow-curves by computer modelling becomes increasingly important. In the present work, we introduce a state parameter based model that is capable of predicting the flow curves of an A6061 aluminium alloy in different heat-treatment conditions. The model is implemented in the thermo-kinetic software package MatCalc and takes into account precipitation kinetics, subgrain formation, dynamic recovery by spontaneous annihilation and dislocation climb. To validate the simulation results, a series of compression tests is performed on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble 1500. (paper)

  19. Experimental characterisation and modelling of deformation- induced microstructure in an A6061 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyca, J. F.; Falahati, A.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-03-01

    For industry, the mechanical properties of a material in form of flow curves are essential input data for finite element simulations. Current practice is to obtain flow curves experimentally and to apply fitting procedures to obtain constitutive equations that describe the material response to external loading as a function of temperature and strain rate. Unfortunately, the experimental procedure for characterizing flow curves is complex and expensive, which is why the prediction of flow-curves by computer modelling becomes increasingly important. In the present work, we introduce a state parameter based model that is capable of predicting the flow curves of an A6061 aluminium alloy in different heat-treatment conditions. The model is implemented in the thermo-kinetic software package MatCalc and takes into account precipitation kinetics, subgrain formation, dynamic recovery by spontaneous annihilation and dislocation climb. To validate the simulation results, a series of compression tests is performed on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble 1500.

  20. Microstructural development from interdiffusion and reaction between U−Mo and AA6061 alloys annealed at 600° and 550 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, E., E-mail: Emmanuel.Perez@inl.gov [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Keiser, D.D., E-mail: dennis.keiser@inl.gov [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Sohn, Y.H., E-mail: yongho.sohn@ucf.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The U.S. Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program is developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al-alloy for use in research and test reactors. Monolithic fuel plates have local regions where the U−Mo fuel plate may come into contact with the Al-alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding. This results in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex microstructures with multiple phases. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples, U−7 wt%Mo, U−10 wt%Mo, and U−12 wt%Mo vs. AA6061, annealed at 600 °C for 24 h and at 550 °C for 1, 5, and 20 h, were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructural development and kinetics were compared to diffusion couples U−Mo vs. high purity Al and binary Al−Si alloys. The diffusion couples developed complex interaction regions where phase development was influenced by the alloying additions of the AA6061. - Highlights: • Diffusion couples of U−7Mo, U−10Mo, and U−12Mo vs. AA6061 were analyzed by SEM with XEDS. • The couples were annealed at 600 °C for 24 h and at 550 °C for 1, 5 and 20 h. • The interaction regions were more complex than those in diffusion couples of U−Mo vs. high purity Al and Al−Si alloys. • Analysis showed that the alloying additions of the AA6061 were present in the interaction regions. • Phase development was significantly influenced by the alloying additions of the AA6061.

  1. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.

    2006-09-01

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress (∼ 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a 0 , solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a 0 values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  2. Modeling the Anisotropic Reflectance of a Surface with Microstructure Engineered to Obtain Visible Contrast after Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luongo, Andrea; Falster, Viggo; Doest, Mads Emil Brix

    2017-01-01

    in previous work. The benefit of an analytical model like the one we provide is its potential to be used in computer vision for estimating the quality of a surface sample. The quality of a sample is indicated by the resemblance of camera-based contrast measurements with contrasts predicted for an idealized...

  3. A model for arterial adaptation combining microstructural collagen remodeling and 3D tissue growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machyshyn, I.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Ven, van de A.A.F.; Rongen, P.M.J.; Vosse, van de F.N.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term adaptation of soft tissues is realized through growth and remodeling (G&R). Mathematical models are powerful tools in testing hypotheses on G&R and supporting the design and interpretation of experiments. Most theoretical G&R studies concentrate on description of either growth or

  4. A microstructure-dependent model for fission product gas release and swelling in UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.; Hastings, I.J.

    1979-06-01

    A model for the release of fission gas from irradiated UO2 fuel is presented. It incorporates fission gas diffusion bubble and grain boundary movement,intergranular bubble formation and interlinkage. In addition, the model allows estimates of the extent of structural change and fuel swelling. In the latter, contributions of thermal expansion, densification, solid fission products, and gas bubbles are considered. When included in the ELESIM fuel performance code, the model yields predictions which are in good agreement with data from UO2 fuel elements irradiated over a range of water-cooled reactor conditions: linear power outputs between 40 and 120 kW/m, burnups between 10 and 300 MW.h/kg U and power histories including constant, high-to-low and low-to-high power periods. The predictions of the model are shown to be most sensitive to fuel power (temperature), the selection of diffusion coefficient for fission gas in UO2 and burnup. The predictions are less sensitive to variables such as fuel restraint, initial grain size and the rate of grain growth. (author)

  5. Microstructure-Based Computational Modeling of Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Micro/Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    automotive, defense, sport, civil, aerospace, health , etc.). Here, a combination of non-linear thermo-viscoelastic (Schapery’s non-linear...2001. Three-dimensional computational micro-mechanical model for woven fabric composites. Composite Structures 54, 489-496. Jacob, G.C., Starbuck

  6. The Modeling of Coupled Electromagnetic-Thermo-Mechanical Laser Interactions and Microstructural Behavior of Energetic Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    analytical Beer - Lambert absorption profile to model laser heating of pure energetic crystals without considering any EM wave propagation effects...temperature. These aggregates were studied using both an analytical distribution for laser heating following Beer - Lambert absorption and the full EM finite...surface (ysurface - y) and material absorption coefficient, α, following a Beer - Lambert absorption relation given by , = !()

  7. Microstructure oriented modelling of hierarchically perfused porous media for cerebral blood flow evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonar, Z.; Kochová, P.; Cimrman, R.; Witter, K.; Janáček, Jiří; Rohan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, č. 2011 (2011), s. 286-289 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture /6./. Brno, 28.06.2010-30.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : brain * perfusion * morphometry * microvessels * stereology * modelling Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  8. Model-based Estimation of High Frequency Jump Diffusions with Microstructure Noise and Stochastic Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    When analysing the volatility related to high frequency financial data, mostly non-parametric approaches based on realised or bipower variation are applied. This article instead starts from a continuous time diffusion model and derives a parametric analog at high frequency for it, allowing

  9. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of microstructure in gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser

    2012-01-01

    To predict the amount of different phases in gray cast iron by a finite difference model (FDM) on the basis of cooling rate (R), the volume fractions of total γ phase, graphite, and cementite were calculated. The results of phase composition were evaluated to find a proper correlation with cooling...

  10. Characterization of the hierarchical microstructure of a Ni-Al-Ti model alloy; Charakterisierung der hierarchischen Mikrostruktur einer Ni-Al-Ti Modell-Legierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Florian

    2014-02-28

    Phase separation of γ{sup '} precipitates determines the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys. Upon ageing, γ spheres form inside ordered (L1{sub 2}) γ{sup '} precipitates, undergo a morphological change to plates and finally split the γ{sup '} precipitates. To clarify the identity of the insufficiently characterized γ particles and to elucidate their influence on the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties, differently heat treated samples of a Ni-Al-Ti modell alloy were investigated from the micrometer to the atomic scale. The single crystalline cast material was broadly characterized by means of light and scanning electron microscopy, the laue method (back-reflection), differential scanning calorimetry as well as electron probe microanalysis. Dendritic segregations were found, whereas the dendrite cores show an enrichment in nickel and aluminum and in turn the interdendritic regions show an enrichment in titanium. An adequate combination of temperature and time was determined on the basis of quantitative analyses after different homogenization treatments. The evolution of the hierarchical microstructure was investigated on the nanometer scale by means of transmission electron microscopy and on the atomic scale with atom probe tomography. The combined analyses reveal that Ni-rich clusters form within the γ{sup '} precipitates during the early stages of phase separation. These Ni-rich clusters coalesce and thereby form γ spheres which undergo a morphological change to plates accompanied by a chemical evolution. In the beginning the γ spheres are located well within the metastable γ + γ{sup '} two-phase region and later, after the morphological change, achieve the equilibrium composition of the γ phase. Furthermore the involved energies were considered in order to elucidate the driving forces for the phase separation of γ{sup '} precipitates. A correlation between the

  11. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part I: Micro-structural characterization and geometric modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2014-01-01

    A computational strategy to predict the elastic properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites is proposed in this two-part paper. In Part I, the micro-structural characteristics of these nano-composites are discerned. These characteristics include networks/agglomerations of carbon nanotubes and thick polymer interphase regions between the nanotubes and the surrounding matrix. An algorithm is presented to construct three-dimensional geometric models with large amounts of randomly dispersed and aggregated nanotubes. The effects of the distribution of the nanotubes and the thickness of the interphase regions on the concentration of the interphase regions are demonstrated with numerical results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...... to describe such evolution. Two aspects of the growth of such inhomogeneities are discussed. Firstly, it is shown that a local variation in the sink densities of the various microstructural defects will tend to enhance the inhomogeneity rather than remove it. Secondly, such inhomogeneities will lead to point...... defect fluxes that result in a spatial growth of the inhomogeneous region, which will be stopped only when the microstructural density around this region becomes large. The results have important implications in the formation of denuded zones and void formation in metals....

  13. Numerical model to predict microstructure of the heat treated of steel elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In work the presented numerical models of tool steel hardening processes take into account thermal phenomena and phase transformations. Numerical algorithm of thermal phenomena was based on the Finite Elements Methods of the heat transfer equations. In the model of phase transformations, in simulations heating process continuous heating (CHT was applied, whereas in cooling process continuous cooling (CCT of the steel at issue. The phase fraction transformed (austenite during heating and fractions during cooling of ferrite, pearlite or bainite are determined by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formulas. The nescent fraction of martensite is determined by Koistinen and Marburger formula or modified Koistinen and Marburger formula. In the simulations of hardening was subject the fang lathe of cone (axisymmetrical object made of tool steel.

  14. Modeling the microstructurally dependent mechanical properties of poly(ester-urethane-urea)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P Daniel; Sycks, Dalton G; McGrath, Dominic V; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    Poly(ester-urethane-urea) (PEUU) is one of many synthetic biodegradable elastomers under scrutiny for biomedical and soft tissue applications. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of the experimental parameters on mechanical properties of PEUUs following exposure to different degrading environments, similar to that of the human body, using linear regression, producing one predictive model. The model utilizes two independent variables of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) type and copolymer crystallinity to predict the dependent variable of maximum tangential modulus (MTM). Results indicate that comparisons between PCLs at different degradation states are statistically different (p < 0.0003), while the difference between experimental and predicted average MTM is statistically negligible (p < 0.02). The linear correlation between experimental and predicted MTM values is R(2) = 0.75. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  15. Microstructure-based numerical modeling method for effective permittivity of ceramic/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Liisi; Honkamo, Johanna; Jantunen, Heli; Sihvola, Ari

    2005-05-01

    Effective permittivity was modeled and measured for composites that consist of up to 35vol% of titanium dioxide powder dispersed in a continuous epoxy matrix. The study demonstrates a method that enables fast and accurate numerical modeling of the effective permittivity values of ceramic/polymer composites. The model requires electrostatic Monte Carlo simulations, where randomly oriented homogeneous prism-shaped inclusions occupy random positions in the background phase. The computation cost of solving the electrostatic problem by a finite-element code is decreased by the use of an averaging method where the same simulated sample is solved three times with orthogonal field directions. This helps to minimize the artificial anisotropy that results from the pseudorandomness inherent in the limited computational domains. All the required parameters for numerical simulations are calculated from the lattice structure of titanium dioxide. The results show a very good agreement between the measured and numerically calculated effective permittivities. When the prisms are approximated by oblate spheroids with the corresponding axial ratio, a fairly good prediction for the effective permittivity of the mixture can be achieved with the use of an advanced analytical mixing formula.

  16. Supo Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-14

    This report describes the continuation of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Supo cooling system described in the report, Supo Thermal Model Development1, by Cynthia Buechler. The goal for this report is to estimate the natural convection heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of the system using the CFD results and to compare those results to remaining past operational data. Also, the correlation for determining radiolytic gas bubble size is reevaluated using the larger simulation sample size. The background, solution vessel geometry, mesh, material properties, and boundary conditions are developed in the same manner as the previous report. Although, the material properties and boundary conditions are determined using the appropriate experiment results for each individual power level.

  17. Development of the physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zunqi; Morsy, Samir

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Physical Model was developed during Program 93+2 as a technical tool to aid enhanced information analysis and now is an integrated part of the Department's on-going State evaluation process. This paper will describe the concept of the Physical Model, including its objectives, overall structure and the development of indicators with designated strengths, followed by a brief description of using the Physical Model in implementing the enhanced information analysis. The work plan for expansion and update of the Physical Model is also presented at the end of the paper. The development of the Physical Model is an attempt to identify, describe and characterize every known process for carrying out each step necessary for the acquisition of weapons-usable material, i.e., all plausible acquisition paths for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium (Pu). The overall structure of the Physical Model has a multilevel arrangement. It includes at the top level all the main steps (technologies) that may be involved in the nuclear fuel cycle from the source material production up to the acquisition of weapons-usable material, and then beyond the civilian fuel cycle to the development of nuclear explosive devices (weaponization). Each step is logically interconnected with the preceding and/or succeeding steps by nuclear material flows. It contains at its lower levels every known process that is associated with the fuel cycle activities presented at the top level. For example, uranium enrichment is broken down into three branches at the second level, i.e., enrichment of UF 6 , UCl 4 and U-metal respectively; and then further broken down at the third level into nine processes: gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, aerodynamic, electromagnetic, molecular laser (MLIS), atomic vapor laser (AVLIS), chemical exchange, ion exchange and plasma. Narratives are presented at each level, beginning with a general process description then proceeding with detailed

  18. Microstructure Hierarchical Model of Competitive e+-Ps Trapping in Nanostructurized Substances: from Nanoparticle-Uniform to Nanoparticle-Biased Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Ingram, Adam; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Baláž, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Microstructure hierarchical model considering the free-volume elements at the level of interacting crystallites (non-spherical approximation) and the agglomerates of these crystallites (spherical approximation) was developed to describe free-volume evolution in mechanochemically milled As 4 S 4 /ZnS composites employing positron annihilation spectroscopy in a lifetime measuring mode. Positron lifetime spectra were reconstructed from unconstrained three-term decomposition procedure and further subjected to parameterization using x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm. Intrinsic inhomogeneities due to coarse-grained As 4 S 4 and fine-grained ZnS nanoparticles were adequately described in terms of substitution trapping in positron and positronium (Ps) (bound positron-electron) states due to interfacial triple junctions between contacting particles and own free-volume defects in boundary compounds. Compositionally dependent nanostructurization in As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanocomposite system was imagined as conversion from o-Ps trapping sites to positron traps. The calculated trapping parameters that were shown could be useful to characterize adequately the nanospace filling in As 4 S 4 /ZnS composites.

  19. Modeling of nano-reinforced polymer composites: Microstructure effect on Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, R.D.; Zhou, H.W.; Wang, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    ” algorithm was developed in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface. In the computational studies, it was observed that the elastic modulus increases with the increasing the aspect ratio of nanoparticles. The thickness and properties of effective interface layers and the shape and degree of particles clustering have...

  20. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture

  1. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  2. MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPERCONDUCTING MGB(2).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHU,Y.; LI,Q.; WU,L.; VOLKOV,V.; GU,G.; MOODENBAUGH,A.R.

    2001-07-12

    Recently, Akimitsu and co-workers [1] discovered superconductivity at 39 K in the intermetallic compound MgB{sub 2}. This discovery provides a new perspective on the mechanism for superconductivity. More specifically, it opens up possibilities for investigation of structure/properties in a new class of materials. With the exceptions of the cuprate and C{sub 60} families of compounds, MgB{sub 2} possesses the highest superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}. Its superconductivity appears to follow the BCS theory, apparently being mediated by electron-phonon coupling. The coherence length of MgB{sub 2} is reported to be longer than that of the cuprates [2]. In contrast to the cuprates, grain boundaries are strongly coupled and current density is determined by flux pinning [2,3]. Presently, samples of MgB{sub 2} commonly display inhomogeneity and porosity on the nanoscale, and are untextured. In spite of these obstacles, magnetization and transport measurements show that polycrystalline samples may carry large current densities circulating across many grains [3,4]. Very high values of critical current densities and critical fields have been recently observed in thin films [5,6]. These attributes suggest possible large scale and electronic applications. The underlying microstructure can be intriguing, both in terms of basic science and in applied areas. Subsequent to the discovery, many papers were published [1-13], most dealing with synthesis, physical properties, and theory. There have yet been few studies of microstructure and structural defects [11, 14]. A thorough understanding of practical superconducting properties can only be developed after an understanding of microstructure is gained. In this work we review transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of sintered MgB{sub 2} pellets [14]. Structural defects, including second phase particles, dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries, are analyzed using electron diffraction, electron

  3. Effect of prior deformation on microstructural development and Laves phase precipitation in high-chromium stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Z-W; Chen, D; Kuo, J-C; Lin, D-Y

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of deformation on precipitation behaviour and microstructure change during annealing. Here, the prior deformation of high-chromium stainless steel was tensile deformation of 3%, 6% and 10%, and the specimens were then annealed at 700˚C for 10 h. The specimens were subsequently analyzed using backscattered electron image and electron backscattering diffraction measurements with SEM. Compared with the deformation microstructure, the grains revealed no preferred orientation. The precipitates of TiN and NbC were formed homogenously in the grain interior and at grain boundaries after annealing. Fine Laves phase precipitates were observed in grains and along subgrain boundaries as the deformation increased. Furthermore, the volume fraction of Laves phase increased, but the average particle diameter of precipitate was reduced as the deformation increased. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Effect of processing on the microstructural development in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Ranganathan, S.; Ojha, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    An Al 80 Fe 10 Si 6 alloy has been rapidly solidified using melt spinning, gas atomization and spray forming processes. The effect of processing techniques on the microstructural characteristics of the alloy has ben evaluated. The melt spun alloy has shown an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase surrounded by a rational approximant structure of the icosahedral phase. The rational approximant structure has been identified as a crystalline cubic silicide phase. The atomized powders have exhibited cellular and dendritic morphology depending on the size of particles. In addition, the second phase particles of the silicide phase are observed to decorate the cell boundaries and interdendritic regions. In contrast, the alloy processed by spray deposition has revealed an equiaxed solidification morphology with a uniform dispersion of find silicon phase inside the grain. The origin of the microstructure in the alloy processed by these techniques is discussed. The results are compared wherever possible with the commercially available Al-Fe-V-Si alloys

  5. Discrete microstructural cues for the attenuation of fibrosis following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, James R; Du, Kim T; Ayala, Perla; Fang, Qizhi; Sievers, Richard E; Chew, Patrick; Delrosario, Lawrence; Lee, Randall J; Desai, Tejal A

    2014-10-01

    Chronic fibrosis caused by acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiac dysfunction. We have developed a therapeutic materials strategy that aims to mitigate myocardial fibrosis by utilizing injectable polymeric microstructures to mechanically alter the microenvironment. Polymeric microstructures were fabricated using photolithographic techniques and studied in a three-dimensional culture model of the fibrotic environment and by direct injection into the infarct zone of adult rats. Here, we show dose-dependent down-regulation of expression of genes associated with the mechanical fibrotic response in the presence of microstructures. Injection of this microstructured material into the infarct zone decreased levels of collagen and TGF-β, increased elastin deposition and vascularization in the infarcted region, and improved functional outcomes after six weeks. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of these discrete anti-fibrotic microstructures and suggest a potential therapeutic materials approach for combatting pathologic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microstructure Optimization of Dual-Phase Steels Using a Representative Volume Element and a Response Surface Method: Parametric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2017-12-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels have received widespread attention for their low density and high strength. This low density is of value to the automotive industry for the weight reduction it offers and the attendant fuel savings and emission reductions. Recent studies on developing DP steels showed that the combination of strength/ductility could be significantly improved when changing the volume fraction and grain size of phases in the microstructure depending on microstructure properties. Consequently, DP steel manufacturers are interested in predicting microstructure properties and in optimizing microstructure design. In this work, a microstructure-based approach using representative volume elements (RVEs) was developed. The approach examined the flow behavior of DP steels using virtual tension tests with an RVE to identify specific mechanical properties. Microstructures with varied martensite and ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, carbon content, and morphologies were studied in 3D RVE approaches. The effect of these microstructure parameters on a combination of strength/ductility of DP steels was examined numerically using the finite element method by implementing a dislocation density-based elastic-plastic constitutive model, and a Response surface methodology to determine the optimum conditions for a required combination of strength/ductility. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with experimental results found in the literature. The developed methodology proves to be a powerful tool for studying the effect and interaction of key microstructural parameters on strength and ductility and thus can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions.

  7. Microstructural Modeling of Dynamic Intergranular and Transgranular Fracture Modes in Zircaloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zikry, M.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Ziaei, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In this time period, we have continued to focus on (i) refining the thermo-mechanical fracture model for zirconium (Zr) alloys subjected to large deformations and high temperatures that accounts for the cracking of ZrH and ZrH2 hydrides, (ii) formulating a framework to account intergranular fracture due to iodine diffusion and pit formation in grain-boundaries (GBs). Our future objectives are focused on extending to a combined population of ZrH and ZrH2 populations and understanding how thermo-mechanical behavior affects hydride reorientation and cracking. We will also refine the intergranular failure mechanisms for grain boundaries with pits.

  8. The development of microstructure during hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination treatment of sintered neodymium-iron-boron-type magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Harris, I.R.; Walton, A.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination (HDDR) process on scrap sintered neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) type magnets have been investigated. At each stage of the process, the microstructural changes have been studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points and then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. This process was accelerated at particle surfaces and at free surfaces produced by any cracks in the powder particles. However, the recombination reaction appeared to initiate randomly throughout the particles with no apparent preference for particle surfaces or internal cracks. During the hydrogenation of the grain boundaries and triple junctions, the disproportionation reaction was, however, affected by the much higher oxygen content of the sintered NdFeB compared with that of the as-cast NdFeB alloys. Throughout the entire HDDR reaction the oxidised triple junctions (from the sintered structure) remained unreacted and hence, remained in their original form in the fine recombined microstructure. This resulted in a very significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure and this could lend to improved consolidation in the recycled magnets. - Highlights: • Disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points. • Disproportionation then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. • Disproportionation was affected by the high oxygen content of sintered NdFeB. • Oxidised triple points remain unreacted in original form in final HDDR structure. • Significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure.

  9. The development of microstructure during hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination treatment of sintered neodymium-iron-boron-type magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Harris, I.R.; Walton, A., E-mail: a.walton@bham.ac.uk

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination (HDDR) process on scrap sintered neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) type magnets have been investigated. At each stage of the process, the microstructural changes have been studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points and then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. This process was accelerated at particle surfaces and at free surfaces produced by any cracks in the powder particles. However, the recombination reaction appeared to initiate randomly throughout the particles with no apparent preference for particle surfaces or internal cracks. During the hydrogenation of the grain boundaries and triple junctions, the disproportionation reaction was, however, affected by the much higher oxygen content of the sintered NdFeB compared with that of the as-cast NdFeB alloys. Throughout the entire HDDR reaction the oxidised triple junctions (from the sintered structure) remained unreacted and hence, remained in their original form in the fine recombined microstructure. This resulted in a very significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure and this could lend to improved consolidation in the recycled magnets. - Highlights: • Disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points. • Disproportionation then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. • Disproportionation was affected by the high oxygen content of sintered NdFeB. • Oxidised triple points remain unreacted in original form in final HDDR structure. • Significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure.

  10. Development of heat treated Zr-2.5 Wt% Nb pressure tube and its microstructural characterization using electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2010-01-01

    Two phase Zr-2.5 wt % Nb alloy is widely used for manufacture of pressure tubes for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). These tubes are used in cold worked and stress relieved (CWSRs) condition and are manufactured by cold drawing or pilgering routes. The microstructure of the CWSR tube is characterized with presence of discontinuous β phase stringers sandwiched between elongated α-phase. Pressure tube undergoes dimensional changes and micro structural deterioration under the reactor operating conditions of temperature, pressure and neutron flux. This limits the life of the component and the availability of the power reactors. There is renewed interest in increasing the life of the pressure tube by bringing about a change in the microstructure of Zr-2.5 Nb material using various thermo mechanical processes during its manufacturing. Heat treatment of this two-phase alloy has been understood to uniquely stabilize the microstructure, which prevents degradation, under in-reactor service condition. This paper illustrates various heat treatment cycles carried out at intermediate cold working stage. Heat treatment involves solutionization of the Zr-2.5 wt % Nb tube from different temperatures followed by two types of quenching process viz, gas quenching and water quenching. The OIM-TEM studies were carried out for characterization of final tube. The technique confirmed the presence of β-phase relatively enriched in Nb content. The resulting SEM microstructures after ageing treatment at different soaking temperatures and time have been presented. Mechanical properties of heat treated pressure tubes, both at room temperature and elevated temperature have been compared with conventional CWSR pressure tube used in PHWRs. (author)

  11. Microstructure based modelling of ductile fracture in quench-hardenable boron steel

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of fuel consumption and emissions by vehicle weight minimization constitute a major driving force for the development of new materials and manufacturing processes in the automotive industry. Simultaneously formed and quenched boron steel components have higher strength to weight ratio than conventional mild steel components. Additionally, hot formed components can be tailored to have regions with lower strength and higher ductility, improving their crash performance. This is often r...

  12. Reaustenitisation of steels with different initial microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Caballero, F.; Capdevila, C.; San Martin, D.; Garcia-de Andre, C.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years, physical mathematical models concerning continuous cooling and isothermal phase transformations valid for a wide range of steel have been attained. However, the modelling of continuous heating transformations has not undergone the same development than in cooling. This investigation concerns with the study and Modelization of continuous heating phase transformations to study the process which is generally referred to as austenitisation of the steel. Therefore, our main aim is to describe those processes which control the non-isothermal formation of austenite in steel with initial microstructures of ferrite and/or pearlite. (Author) 10 refs

  13. MEANS 2: Microstructure- and Micromechanism-Sensitive Property Models for Advanced Turbine Disk and Blade Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    f„„„,„ -L...-J..— - —I 1 / f+_—=p / —j \\-\\- 4A 14 4A»4 / 4A C4 M / »4.4C A4, «i »A OWOLC $-ISF s - csr !•» ’ML...Materials Society) Publications. 23. S . Ma, L. Carroll and T.M. Pollock, "Development of y Phase Stacking Faults during High Temperature Creep of Ru...into the design of advanced disk and blade systems 6. AUTHOR( S ) Michael J Mills 5. FUNDING NUMBERS FA9550-05-1-0135 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  14. Flexible fabrication of biomimetic compound eye array via two-step thermal reflow of simply pre-modeled hierarchic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengzhou; Li, Mujun; Shen, Lianguan; Qiu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Youquan

    2017-06-01

    A flexible fabrication method for the biomimetic compound eye (BCE) array is proposed. In this method, a triple-layer sandwich-like coating configuration was introduced, and the required hierarchic microstructures are formed with a simple single-scan exposure in maskless digital lithography. Taking advantage of the difference of glass transition point (Tg) between photoresists of each layer, the pre-formed hierarchic microstructures are in turn reflowed to the curved substrate and the BCE ommatidia in a two-step thermal reflow process. To avoid affecting the spherical substrate formed in the first thermal reflow, a non-contact strategy was proposed in the second reflow process. The measurement results were in good agreement with the designed BCE profiles. Results also showed that the fabricated BCE had good performances in optical test. The presented method is flexible, convenient, low-cost and can easily adapt to the fabrications of other optical elements with hierarchic microstructures.

  15. Synchronous changes of cortical thickness and corresponding white matter microstructure during brain development accessed by diffusion MRI tractography from parcellated cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eJeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical thickness (CT changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, especially fractional anisotropy (FA. We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 to 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, includeing Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46 and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for

  16. Microstructural development in multi-pass TIG welded F82H steels under dual-ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiwara, H.; Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kishimoto, H.; Tomohiro, M.; Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are the first candidate materials for blanket structural component. On fabricating blanket components, various joining technologies will be required, and it could be anticipated that some parts of the weldments will suffer from high-dose 14 MeV neutron irradiation. For example, the current Japanese water cooled test blanket module design has the weldment of the first wall and side wall at 25 mm from the surface. This will not be the case for TIER-TBM, but could be the critical issue if the same design is applied for DEMO blanket system. In this study, the effects of displacement damage and helium production on mechanical properties and microstructures of the multi-pass tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated. The welded joint used in this study is a multi-pass TIG weldment on 15-mm thick plates of F82H-IEA. The post weld heat treatment was carried out at 720 deg. C for 1 h. To obtain systematic and accurate information of the microstructural response under fusion environment, dual-ion irradiation was performed. 15 mm x 20 mm pieces which cover the whole TIG weldment were irradiated at 470 deg. C up to 20 dpa using 6.4 MeV Fe{sup +3} and/or energy-degraded 1.0 MeV He{sup +}. The damage rate was 1.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s, and the helium injection rate was 15 x 10{sup -3} appm He/s. After the irradiations, thin film samples were made from various regions of the weldment by focused ion beam (FIB) processor, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and hardness tests were performed. Microstructure and Vickers hardness profiles across base metal, heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ) were examined before irradiation experiments. The hardness measurements revealed that the maximum hardness was observed at the last pass region of FZ, and the softest region was in the middle of the FZ and HAZ region near the transformation line. In the microstructure study

  17. Microstructural Characterization of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS-Fe-Cr Model Alloy s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Castro, V.; Jenkins, M.L. [Oxford Univ., Dept. of Materials (United Kingdom); Leguey, T.; Mufioz, A.; Pareja, R.; Monge, M.A. [Madrid Univ. Carlos 3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels with Cr contents ranging between 9-12 wt% are promising candidates for use as structural materials in future fusion reactors. They are likely to be superior to austenitic steels because of their better thermal properties and higher swelling resistance. A major concern of these materials is their maximum service temperature, as this determines the overall efficiency of the reactor. It has been demonstrated that one way to increase this temperature is to homogeneously disperse hard nano-sized oxide particles, such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, into the steel matrix. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels produced by mechanical milling and hot isostatic pressing (HIP ) are considered as potential structural materials for fusion reactors. In Europe, efforts have been focused on the ODS-RAFM-9CrW steel EUROFER. These ODS steels show good tensile and creep properties, acceptable ductility, but poor impact properties. Microstructural characterization of real steels, especially of the structures of oxide/steel matrix interfaces which play an important role in the performance of the material, is a difficult task. In the present work we have fabricated and characterised a simpler model ODS system based on a Fe-Cr binary alloy, in the belief that this will help us better to understand complex ODS-RAFM steels. Two Fe-12wt% Cr batches, one containing 0.3 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the other Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} free have been produced by milling plus compaction by HIP. These materials are being characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and atom probe field ion microscopy. Results will be compared with those obtained for ODS-EUROFER produced under the same conditions. (authors)

  18. Elasto-plastic model for transversely isotropic Tournemire shale based on microstructure approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, H.; Evgin, E.; Fall, M.; Nguyen, T.S.; Labrie, D.; Barnichon, J.D.; Su, G.; Simon, R.

    2012-01-01

    order to express that relationship, based on the measured values obtained from cyclic tests. Typical modeling results are compared to experimental data

  19. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  20. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  1. Development models, unification and deterritorialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotelo Perez, I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to provide an overview of the development models and territorial organization from the perspective of the relationship between the urban environment, rururban and rural, in Spain. Therefore, once know and appreciate the conceptual and thematic approach, urban growth is studied in our country in recent decades, analyzing in detail the importance acquired and charges the legislative implementation of laws, plans and policies, both in the own urban growth and housing demand in the Spanish cities and, similarly, linking both to the price of housing, relating to the issue of rurbanization and rural. (Author)

  2. Mechanisms of microstructural changes of fuel under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.; Carlot, G.; Dorado, B.; Maillard, S.; Sabathier, C.; Martin, G.; Oh, J.Y.; Welland, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuels are subjected to high levels of radiation damage mainly due to the slowing of fission fragments, which results in substantial modifications of the initial fuel microstructure. Microstructure changes alter practically all engineering fuel properties such as atomic transport or thermomechanical properties so understanding these changes is essential to predicting the performance of fuel elements. Also, with increasing burn-up, the fuel drifts away from its initial composition as the fission process produces new chemical elements. Because nuclear fuels operate at high temperature and usually under high-temperature gradients, damage annealing, foreign atom or defect clustering and migration occur on multiple time and length scales, which make long-term predictions difficult. The end result is a fuel microstructure which may show extensive differences on the scale of a single fuel pellet. The main challenge we are faced with is, therefore, to identify the phenomena occurring on the atom scale that are liable to have macroscopic effects that will determine the microstructure changes and ultimately the life-span of a fuel element. One step towards meeting this challenge is to develop and apply experimental or modelling methods capable of connecting events that occur over very short length and timescales to changes in the fuel microstructure over engineering length and timescales. In the first part of this chapter, we provide an overview of some of the more important microstructure modifications observed in nuclear fuels. The emphasis is placed on oxide fuels because of the extensive amount of data available in relation to these materials under neutron or ion irradiation. When possible and relevant, the specifics of other types of fuels such as metallic or carbide fuels are alluded to. Throughout this chapter but more specifically in the latter part, we attempt to give examples of how modelling and experimentation at various scales can provide us with

  3. The microstructural origin of work hardening stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D. A.; Hansen, N.

    2018-01-01

    The strain evolution of the flow stress and work hardening rate in stages III and IV is explored by utilizing a fully described deformation microstructure. Extensive measurements by transmission electron microscopy reveal a hierarchical subdivision of grains by low angle incidental dislocation...... addition of the classical Taylor and Hall-Petch formulations. Model predictions agree closely with experimental values of flow stress and work hardening rate in stages III and IV. Strong connections between the evolutionary stages of the deformation microstructure and work hardening rates create a new...... (modern) basis for the classic problem of work hardening in metals and alloys. These connections lead the way for the future development of ultra high strength ductile metals produced via plastic deformation.(c) 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Representation of microstructural features and magnetic anisotropy of electrical steels in an energy-based vector hysteresis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jacques

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how the statistical distribution of pinning fields in a ferromagnetic material can be identified systematically from standard magnetic measurements, Epstein frame or Single Sheet Tester (SST. The correlation between the pinning field distribution and microstructural parameters of the material is then analyzed.

  5. Representation of microstructural features and magnetic anisotropy of electrical steels in an energy-based vector hysteresis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Kevin; Steentjes, Simon; Henrotte, François; Geuzaine, Christophe; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    This paper demonstrates how the statistical distribution of pinning fields in a ferromagnetic material can be identified systematically from standard magnetic measurements, Epstein frame or Single Sheet Tester (SST). The correlation between the pinning field distribution and microstructural parameters of the material is then analyzed.

  6. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.

  7. Insights into the annealing process of sol-gel TiO2 films leading to anatase development: The interrelationship between microstructure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; González-Leal, J. M.; Márquez, E.; Outón, J.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films, prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique on glass substrates, were inspected. After deposition, the films were annealed at several temperatures in the 400-850 °C range and the resulting nanostructured films were studied by different techniques showing that their structural and optical characteristics evolved significantly with the increased annealing temperature. The analysis of these results by the assumption of the Tauc Lorenz model and the use of Wemple-DiDomenico equation leads to a correlation between microstructural aspects and optical characteristics of the films. Thus, crystallization processes (nucleation, growth and phase transformation) and the evolution of films texture and thickness with increasing annealing temperatures are related with the variation of the refractive index, average gap and extinction coefficient during annealing. Finally, the free-carrier concentration in the films, estimated from the Spitzer-Fan model, ranged from 1.44 × 1019 cm-3 to 3.07 × 1019 cm-3 with the changing annealing temperature, which is in agreement with those obtained in similar anatase thin films from electrical measurement techniques.

  8. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, M; Kawalla, R; Rimnac, A; Bragin, S; Linzer, B; Warczok, P; Kozeschnik, E; Bernhard, C

    2016-01-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness. (paper)

  9. Microstructure development and properties of the AlCuFe quasicrystalline coating on near-{alpha} titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalewicz, T., E-mail: tmoskale@agh.edu.pl [Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL-30-059 Krakow, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30 (Poland); Kot, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, PL-30-059 Krakow, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30 (Poland); Wendler, B. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, PL-90 924 Lodz, ul. Stefanowskiego 1 (Poland)

    2011-11-01

    A protective quasicrystalline AlFeCu coating was deposited on TIMETAL 834 substrate by nonreactive magnetron sputtering in order to improve resistance of the alloy to oxidation. Microstructure characterisation of the substrate and the coating was performed by analytical scanning- and transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffractometry. Depending on annealing temperature and time, the deposited coating (2.7 {mu}m thick) has a different microstructure. The coating in Specimen 1 (annealed 600 deg. C/4 h in vacuum) consisted of two zones: outer, composed of Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases and inner, in which only quasicrystalline {psi} phase was present. The coating in Specimen 2 (annealed 600 deg. C/4 h + 700 deg. C/2 h in vacuum) was fully quasicrystalline and consisted of icosahedral {psi} phase. Both coatings exhibit higher microhardness than the substrate material. It was established that the applied surface treatment essentially improves oxidation resistance of the alloy tested at 750 deg. C during 250 h in static air. Sample weight gain was 60% lower than in the case of uncoated sample. Oxide scale spallation occurred for uncoated alloy while the coated one did not show any spallation. It was found that the very brittle scale formed during oxidation on the uncoated alloy was consisting of TiO{sub 2}, while that on the coated one consisted mainly of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. Development of microstructure and texture in Fe–26Mn–3Si–3Al alloy during cold-rolling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Ratuszek, Wiktoria; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Zielińska-Lipiec, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report evolution of microstructure and texture in the Fe–26Mn–3Si–3Al alloy during cold-rolling and annealing. • Mechanical twinning and martensitic transformation (γ → ε and γ → ε → α′) had occurred during cold-rolling. • The crystallographic relations between austenite γ and martensite ε have been ascertained. • During annealing the reverse martensite to austenite transformation occurred. - Abstract: Fe–26 wt.% Mn–3 wt.% Si–3 wt.% Al alloy was cast, forged, hot-rolled at temperatures between 1200 °C and 900 °C and cold-rolled with 5–66% reductions in thickness. The specimens which were cold-rolled 57% were annealed in the temperature range 500–750 °C. Microstructure and texture of this alloy, which has a low stacking fault energy, were evaluated after cold-rolling and after subsequent annealing, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that mechanical twinning and martensitic transformations (γ → ε and γ → ε → α′) took place during cold-rolling. The crystallographic Burgers relations {0 0 0 1}ε || {1 1 1}γ and 〈1 1 2 0〉ε || 〈1 1 0〉γ between martensite (ε) and austenite (γ), were found in the cold-rolled material. During annealing the reverse martensite to austenite transformation occurred

  11. Discrete Microstructural Cues for the Attenuation of Fibrosis Following Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Pinney, James R.; Du, Kim; Ayala, Perla; Fang, Qizhi; Sievers, Rich; Chew, Patrick; Delrosario, Lawrence; Lee, Randall J.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fibrosis caused by acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiac dysfunction. We have developed a therapeutic materials strategy that aims to mitigate myocardial fibrosis by utilizing injectable polymeric microstructures to mechanically alter the microenvironment. Polymeric microstructures were fabricated using photolithographic techniques and studied in a three-dimensional culture model of the fibrotic environment and by direct injection i...

  12. Microstructural and mechanical development and characterization of glass ionomer cements; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao microestrutural e mecanica de cimentos de ionomero de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, W.P.; Barbosa, R.C.; Castanha, E.M.M.; Barbosa, E. F.; Fook, M.V.L., E-mail: waldeniafreire@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are widely used in dentistry, indicated as a restorative material, cement for orthopedic and dental prostheses. However, there is need for development of new bone cements as alternative or replacement to current polymethylmethacrylate cements. Thus the aim of this research was develop of an experimental GIC and the mechanical and microstructural characterization of this composite; as a control group it was used a commercial GIC called Vidrion R (SS WHITE). These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties of the composites were measured by Vickers microhardness testing, flexural strength and compression. These cements were characterized as a semicrystalline; in FTIR spectra observed characteristic bands of these materials and microstructural studies of experimental GIC revealed that there was no proper interaction of the inorganic particles in the polymer matrix, whereas in the control group this interaction was effective resulting in greater homogeneity among its constituent phases. Experimental cement showed a higher value of microhardness in the control group, however, flexural strength of cement experimental cement was lower than the control group, and this behavior can possibly be attributed to inadequate interaction particle / matrix. In tests of compressive strength, experimental GIC showed resistance similar to that shown for control group after variation in the processing conditions of the material. (author)

  13. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part I: Micro-structural characterization and geometric modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Azdoud, Yan; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    A computational strategy to predict the elastic properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites is proposed in this two-part paper. In Part I, the micro-structural characteristics of these nano-composites are discerned

  14. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus

    2018-01-01

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging ...

  15. Three-dimensional visualization of the microstructure development of Sr-modified Al-15Si casting alloy using FIB-EsB tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpel, M.; Wanderka, N.; Murty, B.S.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    Unmodified and Sr-modified (after 5 and 120 min of melt holding) Al-15Si alloys were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam tomography using energy-selective backscattered electrons for imaging. The three-dimensional visualization of the microstructure provided not only the true morphology of the Al-Si eutectic and Fe-rich intermetallics, but also allowed us to estimate their volume fractions. The evolution of Fe-rich α-phase morphology in the unmodified alloy proceeded during eutectic growth according to a model proposed. In the unmodified alloy, only Fe-rich α-phase was found, whereas in the Sr-modified alloy after 5 min of melt holding, two morphologies of Fe-rich phases were observed, namely a Fe-rich α-phase and a Fe-rich δ-phase. Both phases segregated mainly at modified eutectic grain boundaries. After 120 min of melt holding, the eutectic microstructure is similar to the unmodified structure again and only the Fe-rich α-phase could be observed.

  16. Plasticity of nano-reinforced alloys for the claddings fuels of the fourth generation reactors: experimental and modeling approaches of the effect of microstructural parameters for the models alloys behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dade, Mickael

    2015-01-01