WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling human knowledge

  1. Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Model as Servicable Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

    A project called `Open life matrix' is not only a research activity but also real problem solving as an action research. This concept is realized by large-scale data collection, probabilistic causal structure model construction and information service providing using the model. One concrete outcome of this project is childhood injury prevention activity in new team consist of hospital, government, and many varieties of researchers. The main result from the project is a general methodology to apply probabilistic causal structure models as servicable knowledge for action research. In this paper, the summary of this project and future direction to emphasize action research driven by artificial intelligence technology are discussed.

  2. Using a human cognition model in the creation of collaborative knowledge visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tera Marie; Ribarsky, William

    2008-04-01

    This paper explores the basis and usefulness of a predictive model for the architecture of data and knowledge visualizations based on human higher-cognition, including human tendencies in reasoning heuristics and cognitive biases. The strengths and weakness of would-be human and computer collaborators are explored, and a model framework is outlined and discussed.

  3. Designing a Model for Knowledge Socialization Using Sociability Processes of Human Resource Management: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, K.; Babaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a model for knowledge socialization using sociability processes of human resources through an applied research approach. Two types of participants participated in this study. The first type included academic and industrial experts; the second type included employees and managers of Ansar Bank. Ten experts were asked to identify criteria and weigh the identified criteria. Using simple random sampling, the sample size was estimated at 207. Field and archival studies were use...

  4. Knowledge Management, Human Resource Management, and Higher Education: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peggy D.; Brewer, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the importance of knowledge management, the challenges facing organizations, and the important human resource management activities involved in assuring the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. Higher business education plays an important role in preparing students to assume the knowledge management and human resource…

  5. Designing a Model for Knowledge Socialization Using Sociability Processes of Human Resource Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rezaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for knowledge socialization using sociability processes of human resources through an applied research approach. Two types of participants participated in this study. The first type included academic and industrial experts; the second type included employees and managers of Ansar Bank. Ten experts were asked to identify criteria and weigh the identified criteria. Using simple random sampling, the sample size was estimated at 207. Field and archival studies were used to collect data. Validity and reliability of the distributed questionnaire were confirmed by organizational experts. Using theoretical literature and surveying experts, 18 criteria were identified of which 12 criteria (desirable and joyful workplace, management and leadership support in sociability process, training courses, transparency in working relations, team work, organizational trustful climate, job description and job knowledge, tangible incentives, participatory system, informal technique, defined career path, individual values aligned with organizational value were selected by screening for prioritization and analysis. Fuzzy AHP and structural equation modelling based on partial least squares were used for prioritization and weighting. Fuzzy AHP model showed that desirable workplace (0.163, participatory systems and brainstorming (0.149, transparency in working relations (0.114, and informal techniques (0.111 gained the highest weights; finally, PLS model showed that all 12 identified criteria were effective on socialization of knowledge management.

  6. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  7. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidimma Odira Okeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial capital asset context is proposed. Affirming Fayolle, Gailly, and Lassa-Clerc conceptual affinity that entrepreneurship education share with learning theories and entrepreneurship pedagogical content knowledge were conceptualized to suggest some practical realism guidelines of what insightful philosophy of teaching entrepreneurship need to achieve. With direct synthesis of relevant literature, propositions relating to entrepreneurship pedagogic structure along with the institutional connectedness and associated dimensions of entrepreneurship pedagogic assessment outcome were postulated. Also, the paper proposes the need for further assessment of specific forms of pedagogic impact on entrepreneurial human capital asset.

  8. Human Knowledge Resources and Interorganizational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.M. Ibrahim (Mohammed); P.M.A. Ribbers (Piet); B.W.M. Bettonvil

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses how human knowledge resources affect capabilities and subsequently attainment of operational and strategic benefits. We test a conceptual model using data from two qualitative case studies and a quantitative field study. The findings indicate that human knowledge

  9. Human resource management practices stimulating knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matošková Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The major goal of the paper was to develop a theoretical framework that conceptualizes the indirect impact on human resource management practice on knowledge sharing in the organization. In the current competitive environment, the ability to use knowledge assets and to continuously renovate it is required for organizational success. Therefore, the field of human resource management should dedicate great effort to understanding how to enhance the knowledge flows within the organization. Theoretical indications were provided about HRM practices that influence the quality and quantity of knowledge sharing within an organization. Further, a conceptual model of relations between HRM practices and factors influencing knowledge sharing within an organization was introduced. It is supposed that HRM practices have direct impacts on personality traits of employees, organizational culture, characteristics of managers, and instruments used for knowledge sharing. Subsequently, these factors have direct effects on the perceived intensity of knowledge sharing. The paper offers 12 testable propositions for the indirect relation between HRM practices and knowledge sharing in the organization. The suggested model could assist future research to examine the influence of HRM practices upon managing knowledge is a more complex way. Via a theoretical contribution to the debate on the influence on HRM practices upon managing knowledge, the study contributes to further research development in this field.

  10. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  11. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  12. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    .A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design...... Knowledge involved in the product generation process and therefore modelled in a PDS unit and four viewpoint models. Further, product domain knowledge model consists of four types of basic product domain knowledge and product family knowledge. They are considered as necessary and sufficient to support...

  13. Human Sexuality: Faculty Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Karen Lee

    1976-01-01

    A knowledge of human sexuality is necessary in order to answer inquiries from patients regarding their sexual problems. A survey of faculty knowledge levels in the area of human sexuality reveals that more attention should be given to teaching human sexuality as part of the nursing curriculum. (EC)

  14. HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN A KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Human Capital Management, Knowledge Management,. Competencies Management, Scientific Research .... science and technology, but also knowledge of practice required to create economic value (Stam & Garnsey),. In figure ..... Malaysian hotel industry». The journal of human resources and adult learning ...

  15. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan MT; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid CJ; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Özdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook-Il; Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Finally, taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  16. Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of Human African Trypanosomiasis among residents of Kachia grazing reserve, Kachia local government area, Kaduna state, ... Knowledge of HAT was scored 0-5 and categorized good (3-5) and poor (0-2) based on score, predisposition to risk of HAT as exposure to ≥two risk factors and, ...

  17. HOLISTIC MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE WORKER AND MARKET KNOWLEDGE VENTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telemtaev Marat Makhmetovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.

  18. Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html

  19. Knowledge Management Practices for Development - Slovak Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aferdita Dervishi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and its management, innovation and technology are key elements for economic growth and sustainable development in technology and globalization era. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of best practices of knowledge management in Slovakia, a$ empting to present a model that may serve to improve access to knowledge management and technology in Albania. This paper analyses practices of research & development, intellectual capital, the link between knowledge, innovation and technology transfer and trends of economic development in Slovakia. This study has used the qualitative method, supported on secondary source of data. From the assessment perspective, the findings are believable that investing on intellectual capital and managing knowledge properly, stable effects on the development of economy, industry and other fields is reached. Knowledge is managed by higher scientific institutions supported by the state. Today, in Slovakia are operating the most powerful companies. Albanians possess human capital that may face the difficult technological challenges and innovations. Both, Albania and Kosovo governments need to create a more coherent and national access to knowledge management and innovation through the establishment of National Council of Science, Knowledge and Technology Transfer.

  20. Robustness of a Distributed Knowledge Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kühn; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge management based on symmetric incentives is rarely found in literature. A knowledge exchange model relies upon a double loop knowledge conversion with symmetric incentives in a network. The model merges specific knowledge with knowledge from other actors into a decision support system...

  1. Knowledge Growth: Applied Models of General and Individual Knowledge Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkina, Galina Iu.; Bakanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the mathematical models of the growth and accumulation of scientific and applied knowledge since it is seen as the main potential and key competence of modern companies. The problem is examined on two levels--the growth and evolution of objective knowledge and knowledge evolution of a particular individual. Both processes are…

  2. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  3. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

    2006-04-01

    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  4. Importance of Knowledge Management in Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Human resource management and knowledge management: • In human resource management - important to identify crucial knowledge base on which competitiveness of company depends → according this ensure appropriate development of human resources. • Era of so-called knowledge economy - only individual and organizational knowledge could give competitive advantage. • From operational perspective, knowledge management - systematic processes by which an organization identifies, creates, captures, acquires, shares and increase knowledge

  5. THE INFLUENCE MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION ON KNOWLEDGE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Valentyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence model of knowledge representation and training character testing in MOODLE on progress of students has been investigated in the article. The knowledge representation in the form of graphs and frames is able to raise the level of knowledge significantly. The using of the animation (in Flash and SketchUp leads to better memorization of information owing subconscious reaction of students. The testing of students in training conditions of e-learning platform MOODLE makes more active the programme of the intellectual curiosity that is the function of the brain.

  6. Towards Modeling False Memory With Computational Knowledge Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin; Kohanyi, Emma

    2017-01-01

    One challenge to creating realistic cognitive models of memory is the inability to account for the vast common-sense knowledge of human participants. Large computational knowledge bases such as WordNet and DBpedia may offer a solution to this problem but may pose other challenges. This paper explores some of these difficulties through a semantic network spreading activation model of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task. In three experiments, we show that these knowledge bases only capture a subset of human associations, while irrelevant information introduces noise and makes efficient modeling difficult. We conclude that the contents of these knowledge bases must be augmented and, more important, that the algorithms must be refined and optimized, before large knowledge bases can be widely used for cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Modular knowledge systems accelerate human migration in asymmetric random environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Deem, Michael W

    2016-12-01

    Migration is a key mechanism for expansion of communities. In spatially heterogeneous environments, rapidly gaining knowledge about the local environment is key to the evolutionary success of a migrating population. For historical human migration, environmental heterogeneity was naturally asymmetric in the north-south (NS) and east-west (EW) directions. We here consider the human migration process in the Americas, modelled as random, asymmetric, modularly correlated environments. Knowledge about the environments determines the fitness of each individual. We present a phase diagram for asymmetry of migration as a function of carrying capacity and fitness threshold. We find that the speed of migration is proportional to the inverse complement of the spatial environmental gradient, and in particular, we find that NS migration rates are lower than EW migration rates when the environmental gradient is higher in the NS direction. Communication of knowledge between individuals can help to spread beneficial knowledge within the population. The speed of migration increases when communication transmits pieces of knowledge that contribute in a modular way to the fitness of individuals. The results for the dependence of migration rate on asymmetry and modularity are consistent with existing archaeological observations. The results for asymmetry of genetic divergence are consistent with patterns of human gene flow. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuhao; Chi, Shaohui; Hu, Kaiyan; Chen, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge and application of model play an important role in students' development of modeling ability and scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated Chinese chemistry teachers' knowledge and application of models. Data were collected through test questionnaire and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result indicated…

  9. COGMIR: A computer model for knowledge integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.X.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explores some aspects of knowledge integration, namely, accumulation of scientific knowledge and performing analogical reasoning on the acquired knowledge. Knowledge to be integrated is conveyed by paragraph-like pieces referred to as documents. By incorporating some results from cognitive science, the Deutsch-Kraft model of information retrieval is extended to a model for knowledge engineering, which integrates acquired knowledge and performs intelligent retrieval. The resulting computer model is termed COGMIR, which stands for a COGnitive Model for Intelligent Retrieval. A scheme, named query invoked memory reorganization, is used in COGMIR for knowledge integration. Unlike some other schemes which realize knowledge integration through subjective understanding by representing new knowledge in terms of existing knowledge, the proposed scheme suggests at storage time only recording the possible connection of knowledge acquired from different documents. The actual binding of the knowledge acquired from different documents is deferred to query time. There is only one way to store knowledge and numerous ways to utilize the knowledge. Each document can be represented as a whole as well as its meaning. In addition, since facts are constructed from the documents, document retrieval and fact retrieval are treated in a unified way. When the requested knowledge is not available, query invoked memory reorganization can generate suggestion based on available knowledge through analogical reasoning. This is done by revising the algorithms developed for document retrieval and fact retrieval, and by incorporating Gentner's structure mapping theory. Analogical reasoning is treated as a natural extension of intelligent retrieval, so that two previously separate research areas are combined. A case study is provided. All the components are implemented as list structures similar to relational data-bases.

  10. Robustness of a Distributed Knowledge Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In globalizing competitive markets knowledge exchangebetween business organizations requires incentivemechanisms to ensure tactical purposes while strategicpurposes are subject to joint organization and otherforms of contractual obligations. Where property ofknowledge (e.g. patents and copyrights......) and contractbasedknowledge exchange do not obtain networkeffectiveness because of prohibitive transaction costs inreducing uncertainty, we suggest a robust model for peerproduced knowledge within a distributed setting. Thepeer produced knowledge exchange model relies upon adouble loop knowledge conversion...... with symmetricincentives in a network since the production of actorspecific knowledge makes any knowledge appropriationby use of property rights by the actors irrelevant. Withoutproperty rights in knowledge the actor network generatesopportunity for incentive symmetry over a period of time.The model merges specific...

  11. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  12. A Knowledge Generation Model via the Hypernetwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the statistical properties of the network on the knowledge diffusion has been extensively studied. However, the structure evolution and the knowledge generation processes are always integrated simultaneously. By introducing the Cobb-Douglas production function and treating the knowledge growth as a cooperative production of knowledge, in this paper, we present two knowledge-generation dynamic evolving models based on different evolving mechanisms. The first model, named “HDPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the hyperdegree preferential attachment mechanisms. The second model, named “KSPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the knowledge stock preferential attachment mechanisms. We investigate the effect of the parameters on the total knowledge stock of the two models. The hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model can be theoretically analyzed by the mean-field theory. The analytic result indicates that the hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model obeys the power-law distribution and the exponent is . Furthermore, we present the distributions of the knowledge stock for different parameters . The findings indicate that our proposed models could be helpful for deeply understanding the scientific research cooperation. PMID:24626143

  13. Properties of the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian Knowledge Tracing is used very widely to model student learning. It comes in two different forms: The first form is the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing "hidden Markov model" which predicts the probability of correct application of a skill as a function of the number of previous opportunities to apply that skill and the model…

  14. Visualization study of operators' plant knowledge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Tarou; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear plants are typically very complicated systems and are required extremely high level safety on the operations. Since it is never possible to include all the possible anomaly scenarios in education/training curriculum, plant knowledge formation is desired for operators to enable thein to act against unexpected anomalies based on knowledge base decision making. The authors have been conducted a study on operators' plant knowledge model for the purpose of supporting operators' effort in forming this kind of plant knowledge. In this report, an integrated plant knowledge model consisting of configuration space, causality space, goal space and status space is proposed. The authors examined appropriateness of this model and developed a prototype system to support knowledge formation by visualizing the operators' knowledge model and decision making process in knowledge-based actions with this model on a software system. Finally the feasibility of this prototype as a supportive method in operator education/training to enhance operators' ability in knowledge-based performance has been evaluated. (author)

  15. Liberal Education Reconsidered: Cultivating Humanity in the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunsook

    2014-01-01

    In the knowledge society, there is a conflict between "education for profit" and "education for humanity." Education for profit is needed for students' economic survival and success in the knowledge economy. Education for humanity is needed for their existential lives worthy of human beings. This paper deals with the…

  16. A semiotically oriented cognitive model of knowledge representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, József István

    2008-01-01

    This thesis introduces a model for knowledge representation as a sign recognition process, on the basis of an analysis of the properties of cognitive activity. By offering a logical account of this model, the existence of a `naive' logic underlying human information processing is revealed, which in

  17. Knowledge Management System Model for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Yousif; Monamad, Roshayu

    2017-01-01

    Based on the literature of knowledge management (KM), this paper reports on the progress of developing a new knowledge management system (KMS) model with components architecture that are distributed over the widely-recognised socio-technical system (STS) aspects to guide developers for selecting the most applicable components to support their KM…

  18. Knowledge models as agents of meaninful learning and knowledge creation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín María González García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 172 952 USAL 7 2 1122 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The educational change that pushes the current context requires a shift in the unfortunately predominant positivist-behaviourist model that favours mechanical      memoristic learning, ideal breeding ground for the existence and maintenance of conceptual errors, to another cognitive-constructivist that stimulates meaningful learning to allow students to build and master knowledge, therefore to be more creative and critical. We present here a model of knowledge where students construct new knowledge as a result of significant learning. Students play an active role, learning not only about the product, but also about the process itself (meta-cognition. We also show how to promote teacher activity primarily in order to create the conditions that facilitate the student to transform the information in useful, substantive knowledge, to be  incorporated in his knowledge structure and in his long-term memory. Finally, we provide elements to measure what the student knows and to assess how their cognitive structure has changed regarding their ancient knowledge; that is, to assess the necessary conceptual change.

  19. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  20. A knowledge management model for graduate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bustos Farías

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a model for administrative knowledge management for the Graduate Support Division of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN. This administrative unit is important because it is responsible for managing the institution’s academic services at graduate level. A qualitative methodology was used based on in-depth interviews with graduate-level directors, experts in knowledge management and members of the institution. The results obtained support the use of administrative management tools based on Information Technology (IT, such as the design of a comprehensive dashboard, and the proposal that knowledge management processes be automated with digital repositories. The model identifies factors such as the relationships between people, technology, administrative knowledge and knowledge management processes, and is formed with innovative administrative contributions.

  1. Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed to tangibles such as goods, services or production processes. The rise of the knowledge economy has seen a proliferation of information and communication technologies, coupled with greater organizational complexity, the growth of virtual and global organizations and rapid change. This in turn requires drastic change within HRM to respond to changing demands of the knowledge economy.

  2. Paradigms of knowledge management with systems modelling case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Krishna Nath

    2016-01-01

    This book has been written by studying the knowledge management implementation at POWERGRID India, one of the largest power distribution companies in the world. The patterns which have led to models, both hypothesized and data-enabled, have been provided. The book suggests ways and means to follow for knowledge management implementation, especially for organizations with multiple business verticals to follow. The book underlines that knowledge is both an entity and organizational asset which can be managed. A holistic view of knowledge management implementation has been provided. It also emphasizes the phenomenological importance of human resource parameters as compared to that of technological parameters. Various hypotheses have been tested to validate the significant models hypothesized. This work will prove useful to corporations, researchers, and independent professionals working to study or implement knowledge management paradigms.

  3. CRESST Human Performance Knowledge Mapping System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Gregory K; Michiuye, Joanne K; Brill, David G; Sinha, Ravi; Saadat, Farzad; de Vries, Linda F; Delacruz, Girlie C; Bewley, William L; Baker, Eva L

    2002-01-01

    .... This report presents a review of knowledge mapping scoring methods and current online mapping systems, and the overall design, functionality, scoring, usability testing, and authoring capabilities of the CRESST system...

  4. Bridging the gap between human knowledge and machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos ALVARADO-PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, great amount of data is being created by several sources from academic, scientific, business and industrial activities. Such data intrinsically contains meaningful information allowing for developing techniques, and have scientific validity to explore the information thereof. In this connection, the aim of artificial intelligence (AI is getting new knowledge to make decisions properly. AI has taken an important place in scientific and technology development communities, and recently develops computer-based processing devices for modern machines. Under the premise, the premise that the feedback provided by human reasoning -which is holistic, flexible and parallel- may enhance the data analysis, the need for the integration of natural and artificial intelligence has emerged. Such an integration makes the process of knowledge discovery more effective, providing the ability to easily find hidden trends and patterns belonging to the database predictive model. As well, allowing for new observations and considerations from beforehand known data by using both data analysis methods and knowledge and skills from human reasoning. In this work, we review main basics and recent works on artificial and natural intelligence integration in order to introduce users and researchers on this emergent field. As well, key aspects to conceptually compare them are provided.

  5. Information modelling and knowledge bases XXV

    CERN Document Server

    Tokuda, T; Jaakkola, H; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    Because of our ever increasing use of and reliance on technology and information systems, information modelling and knowledge bases continue to be important topics in those academic communities concerned with data handling and computer science. As the information itself becomes more complex, so do the levels of abstraction and the databases themselves. This book is part of the series Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, which concentrates on a variety of themes in the important domains of conceptual modeling, design and specification of information systems, multimedia information modelin

  6. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  7. Representing Knowledge: Assessment of Creativity in Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemits, Birut Irena

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment for university students in the humanities has been in an essay format, but this has changed extensively in the last decade. Assessments now may entail auditory and visual presentations, films, mind-maps, and other modes of communication. These formats are outside the established conventions of humanities and may be…

  8. Automated Human Screening for Detecting Concealed Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Nathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Screening individuals for concealed knowledge has traditionally been the purview of professional interrogators investigating a crime. But the ability to detect when a person is hiding important information would be of high value to many other fields and functions. This dissertation proposes design principles for and reports on an implementation…

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following study is to identify HIV related knowledge, risk perceptions and practices among married women of reproductive age ... random sampling was followed wherein four districts, representing each ecological zone were selected in the first stage. .... ethical committee of University Grants Commission, Nepal. Results.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus needlestick injury: knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge of HIV transmission and of post exposure management, following an HIVinfected needlestick injury, in a population of Nigerian anaesthetists. Subjects and Method: A cross-sectional, prospective assessment was conducted voluntarily in anaesthetists at an annual healthcare ...

  11. Modelling students' knowledge organisation: Genealogical conceptual networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Nousiainen, Maija

    2018-04-01

    Learning scientific knowledge is largely based on understanding what are its key concepts and how they are related. The relational structure of concepts also affects how concepts are introduced in teaching scientific knowledge. We model here how students organise their knowledge when they represent their understanding of how physics concepts are related. The model is based on assumptions that students use simple basic linking-motifs in introducing new concepts and mostly relate them to concepts that were introduced a few steps earlier, i.e. following a genealogical ordering. The resulting genealogical networks have relatively high local clustering coefficients of nodes but otherwise resemble networks obtained with an identical degree distribution of nodes but with random linking between them (i.e. the configuration-model). However, a few key nodes having a special structural role emerge and these nodes have a higher than average communicability betweenness centralities. These features agree with the empirically found properties of students' concept networks.

  12. Disciplinary knowledge production and interdisciplinary humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Emmeche, Claus

    2016-01-01

    The chapter offers an introduction to this volume on frontier research in the humanities. It frames recent discussions on research governance, public value of research, and the heterogeneous nature of the humanities within the overall context of international research policy and initiatives to in...... epistemic cultures are identified. However, actual interdisciplinary collaboration often starts bottom-up, with researchers self-organizing to find collaborators outside their own speciality....

  13. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  14. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    =current) and cited as : Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria. Funmilayo F. Adejuyigbe , Balogun R. Balogun , Adekemi. O. Sekoni and ...

  15. Human Resource Management in the Enhancement Processes of Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Didi Sundiman

    2017-01-01

    This research explored Human Resource Management (HRM) in enhancement processes of knowledge management. This research explored how HRM practice enhanced the operational of knowledge management. Data were collected by a survey by interviewing 12 informants from Small and Medium Enterprise (SME). The results show that HRM practice gives initiative in the enhancement process of the knowledge management strategy applied to the company. It can be concluded that each sub-component of HRM affects t...

  16. Effect of training on knowledge about cervical cancer and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of training on knowledge about cervical cancer and Human Papiloma Virus vaccine among health care personnel in Benin City. ... This study assessed the effect of training on health care workers' knowledge of HPV, its relationship with cervical cancer and the role of HPV vaccine in prevention. Methods: This ...

  17. Personality psychology : Domains of knowledge about human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Randy J.; Buss, David M.; Wismeijer, Andreas; Song, John; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    Using a unique organizational framework that emphasizes six domains of knowledge about human nature, Personality Psychology presents an accessible, contemporary look at personality as a collection of interrelated topics and themes. The book focuses on the scientific basis of our knowledge about

  18. Human capital management in a knowledge economy: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aims to examine the existence of the human capital management through competencies and knowledge management approach in Scientific Research Centers within knowledge based economy. The study was applied to the case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria, such as: (CREAD, CRSTRA, CDTA, ...

  19. Towards an Integrative Model of Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Heslop, Ben

    This paper aims to contribute towards the advancement of an efficient architecture of a single market for knowledge through the development of an integrative model of knowledge transfer. Within this aim, several points of departure can be singled out. One, the article builds on the call...... of the European Commission to improve the European market for KT between research institutions and industry. Two, various barriers exist that hinder efficient KT in Europe, especially in transition economies that recently joined the EU where the issues of restructuring higher education, building trust between...... business and academia, and implementing the respective legislature are enduring. The research objectives were to explore (i) the process of knowledge transfer in universities, including the nature of tensions, obstacles and incentives, (ii) the relationships between key stakeholders in the KT market...

  20. Human Resource Management in the Enhancement Processes of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Sundiman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explored Human Resource Management (HRM in enhancement processes of knowledge management. This research explored how HRM practice enhanced the operational of knowledge management. Data were collected by a survey by interviewing 12 informants from Small and Medium Enterprise (SME. The results show that HRM practice gives initiative in the enhancement process of the knowledge management strategy applied to the company. It can be concluded that each sub-component of HRM affects the components of knowledge management, and HRM is highly influential and has a positive effect on quality management processes and vice versa in the work environment.

  1. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  2. Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  3. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...... for the induced headache and migraine. Perspectives are discussed....

  4. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  5. Modeling the Individual Within the Group: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Constructing knowledge with others is fundamental for all human activity, and many disciplines have sought to understand how the individual, other people, and the context, all influence collaborative knowledge construction, be it individual or group knowledge. The goal of this Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches is to present an analytical model of the relations of the individual to the group in situations of collaborative knowledge construction. The model is inspired by the work of Levinso...

  6. Data-Driven Methods to Diversify Knowledge of Human Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Crivelli, Carlos; Wheatley, Thalia

    2018-01-01

    Psychology aims to understand real human behavior. However, cultural biases in the scientific process can constrain knowledge. We describe here how data-driven methods can relax these constraints to reveal new insights that theories can overlook. To advance knowledge we advocate a symbiotic approach that better combines data-driven methods with theory. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking person perception and person knowledge in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, Inez M.; Downing, Paul E.; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothe...

  8. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  9. Knowledge-Based Environmental Context Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, P. R.; Challou, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    As we move from the oil-age to an energy infrastructure based on renewables, the need arises for new educational tools to support the analysis of geophysical phenomena and their behavior and properties. Our objective is to present models of these phenomena to make them amenable for incorporation into more comprehensive analysis contexts. Starting at the level of a college-level computer science course, the intent is to keep the models tractable and therefore practical for student use. Based on research performed via an open-source investigation managed by DARPA and funded by the Department of Interior [1], we have adapted a variety of physics-based environmental models for a computer-science curriculum. The original research described a semantic web architecture based on patterns and logical archetypal building-blocks (see figure) well suited for a comprehensive environmental modeling framework. The patterns span a range of features that cover specific land, atmospheric and aquatic domains intended for engineering modeling within a virtual environment. The modeling engine contained within the server relied on knowledge-based inferencing capable of supporting formal terminology (through NASA JPL's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Technology (SWEET) ontology and a domain-specific language) and levels of abstraction via integrated reasoning modules. One of the key goals of the research was to simplify models that were ordinarily computationally intensive to keep them lightweight enough for interactive or virtual environment contexts. The breadth of the elements incorporated is well-suited for learning as the trend toward ontologies and applying semantic information is vital for advancing an open knowledge infrastructure. As examples of modeling, we have covered such geophysics topics as fossil-fuel depletion, wind statistics, tidal analysis, and terrain modeling, among others. Techniques from the world of computer science will be necessary to promote efficient

  10. neXtProt: a knowledge platform for human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Lydie; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Britan, Aurore; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula D; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gaudet, Pascale; Gleizes, Anne; Masselot, Alexandre; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos

    2012-01-01

    neXtProt (http://www.nextprot.org/) is a new human protein-centric knowledge platform. Developed at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), it aims to help researchers answer questions relevant to human proteins. To achieve this goal, neXtProt is built on a corpus containing both curated knowledge originating from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase and carefully selected and filtered high-throughput data pertinent to human proteins. This article presents an overview of the database and the data integration process. We also lay out the key future directions of neXtProt that we consider the necessary steps to make neXtProt the one-stop-shop for all research projects focusing on human proteins.

  11. Knowledge-based geometric modeling in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A wider application of IT-based solutions, such as configuration systems and the implementation of modeling standards, has facilitated the trend to produce mass customized products to support inter alia the specification process of the increasing product variety. However, not all industries have...... realized the full potential of using product and process modelling tools as well as the implementation of configuration systems to support their business processes. Especially in the building industry, where Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturers provide complex custom tailored products, up to now, often...... a considerably high amount of their recourses is required for designing and specifying the majority of their product assortment. As design decisions are hereby based on knowledge and experience about behaviour and applicability of construction techniques and materials for a predefined design situation, smart...

  12. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Acceptability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and has been implicated in over 70% of cases of cervical cancer. This study assessed the knowledge of HPV infection and acceptability of HPV vaccination among nursing students in Benin City. Methodology: A ...

  13. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical ...

  14. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-21

    May 21, 2011 ... This study was undertaken to assess the level of knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among doctors in Federal Medical Centre, Gombe, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Ethical committee approval for the conduct of the study was obtained.

  15. Applying Knowledge on Collagen of CLRI: In Human Health Care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Applying Knowledge on Collagen of CLRI: In Human Health Care. India's first natural immunogenic sterile biological skin cover for burns and wounds. An ideal skin substitute for the management of 1st & 2nd degree non-infected burns, 3rd degree burns. Kollagen ...

  16. Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: knowledge, attitude and uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is implicated in the cause of cervical cancer which is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. HPV vaccination is a primary prevention toolagainst HPV infection, thus the need to assess the knowledge, attitude and uptake of HPV vaccination among female ...

  17. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: A Nigerian pilot study. O Nnodu, L Erinosho, M Jamda, O Olaniyi, R Adelaiye, L Lawson, F Odedina, F Shuaibu, T Odumuh, N Isu, H Imam, O Owolabi, N Yaqub, A Zamani ...

  18. Knowledge of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccines, and opinions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and perception of Nigerian Obstetricians and Gynaecologists towards human papilloma virus vaccine use in Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst participants that attended the 42nd Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria. The findings ...

  19. Knowledge, belief and the teacher | Mbae | Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Knowledge, belief and the teacher. J.G Mbae. Abstract. No Abstract.

  20. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers important issue of knowledge management and human reosurce management together from a strategic perspective. Theories of strategic management acknowledge the importance of internal activities, capabilities as a potential for competitive advantage. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the resource-based view paper shows both how HR systems may contribute to sustained competitive advantage by facilitating the development and utilization of organizational competencies and how HR systems may be the source of competitive vulnerability by contributing to the destruction of organizational competencies and/or preventing the utilization of those competencies. If the organization wishes to achieve competitive advantage on the basis of knowledge, a corresponding approach is needed when it comes to knowledge management. The process of knowledge and information dissemination must be carefully designed, encouraged, carried out, and supervised accordingly.

  1. HUMAN CAPITAL’S IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burja Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet the desiderata expressed by the implementation of knowledge-based economy, companies must reconsider development strategies and must facilitate the shift from a management largely based on resource consumption to knowledge-based management. In this view, the importance of the human factor increases, becoming a precious resource that creates value and competitiveness. This paper shows the interaction between company performance and human capital, exemplifying this aspect through a case study based on a regression model in Romanian software companies. The obtained results show the strong connection between company performance, expressed by net income, and the quality of the human capital, synthesized by labour productivity.

  2. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  3. Knowledge Management Integration into Strategic Human Capital Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, Tony; Heler, David

    2014-01-01

    Leadership model philosophies: • Knowledge is fundamental – share it; • We are in the refueling outage business; • Cost effective does not necessarily mean cheap; • Working efficiently and event free; • Make conscious, informed decisions; • Excellence in Operational Focus; • Operations Leads the Station; • End of Licenses and Beyond 60; • Our Leadership Model - Our future

  4. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model developm......We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  5. Generalisation of language and knowledge models for corpus analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Loss, Anton

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes new look on language and knowledge modelling for corpus linguistics. Using ideas of Chaitin, a line of argument is made against language/knowledge separation in Natural Language Processing. A simplistic model, that generalises approaches to language and knowledge, is proposed. One of hypothetical consequences of this model is Strong AI.

  6. Relational Model Conflicts in Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Baalen (Peter); J. van Dalen (Jan); J. van Malsen (Jorina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe distributed nature of organizational knowledge makes that knowledge sharing an important factor for unlocking its potential value. In practice, however, people may have different motivations for not sharing knowledge with colleagues, which in part may be due to the relational

  7. Digital Humanities e Library and Information Science. Through the lens of knowledge organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Daquino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the methodology of Digital Humanities is related to the Library and Information Science practices. The aim is to disclose connections and shared approaches. In particular knowledge organization and ontologies, as a tool for formalizing knowledge, are the contact points. Data modeling is increasingly perceived as a need among communities, as it is related to research scope and content of both the domains: on the one hand in data preservation, and on the other, in interpretation.

  8. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Judy E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88% of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness.

  9. Applying the knowledge creation model to the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present-day society, the need to manage indigenous knowledge is widely recognised. However, there is a debate in progress on whether or not indigenous knowledge can be easily managed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of using knowledge management models like knowledge creation theory ...

  10. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  11. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  12. Semi-automated knowledge discovery: identifying and profiling human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Jonas; Elzinga, Paul; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.

    2012-11-01

    We propose an iterative and human-centred knowledge discovery methodology based on formal concept analysis. The proposed approach recognizes the important role of the domain expert in mining real-world enterprise applications and makes use of specific domain knowledge, including human intelligence and domain-specific constraints. Our approach was empirically validated at the Amsterdam-Amstelland police to identify suspects and victims of human trafficking in 266,157 suspicious activity reports. Based on guidelines of the Attorney Generals of the Netherlands, we first defined multiple early warning indicators that were used to index the police reports. Using concept lattices, we revealed numerous unknown human trafficking and loverboy suspects. In-depth investigation by the police resulted in a confirmation of their involvement in illegal activities resulting in actual arrestments been made. Our human-centred approach was embedded into operational policing practice and is now successfully used on a daily basis to cope with the vastly growing amount of unstructured information.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about human papillomavirus in educated adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio; Miranda Machado Pablo Andrés; Borre Arrieta Orlando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about Hu...

  14. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers important issue of knowledge management and human reosurce management together from a strategic perspective. Theories of strategic management acknowledge the importance of internal activities, capabilities as a potential for competitive advantage. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the resource-based view paper shows both how HR systems may contribute to sustained competitive advantage by facilitating the development and utilization of organi...

  15. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  16. Why Knowledge Modeling is Important for Business and for a Danish Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2011-01-01

    , and possibly other languages, so information must be freely retrievable and communicable in several languages. In this paper I will give examples of why knowledge modeling is important for businesses, and why knowledge modeling is a central part of the DanTermBank project, the aim of which is to lay......Businesses and organizations, including public authorities, have a growing need for organizing and handling large amounts of data. In order to manage complex knowledge, knowledge must be modeled and structured. One very powerful method used for structuring knowledge is the use of ontologies....... Businesses and organizations need efficient tools for building domain-specific ontologies and systems for managing knowledge. Most medium-sized and large Danish businesses and organizations operate in a bilingual or multilingual environment, where knowledge is transferred and stored in Danish and/or English...

  17. Knowledge management: Exploring the relationship between human capital and organisation structure capital

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Halak, A; Al-Karaghouli, W; Ghoneim, A; Koufopoulos, D

    2010-01-01

    Human capital and its impact on the organisation structure capital are of paramount importance in the modern business organisations. This research in progress, which investigates and analyses the role that human capital plays in the determination of the organisation structure capital. The study is based on wide spectrum of current literature, which presents theoretical and practical research on the subject of study. Knowledge Management (KM) is systematic process based on models and technolog...

  18. Knowledge Loss: A Defensive Model In Nuclear Research Organization Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Bin Sulaiman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of research based organization. It should be properly managed to ensure that any pitfalls of knowledge retention due to knowledge loss of both tacit and explicit is mitigated. Audit of the knowledge entities exist in the organization is important to identify the size of critical knowledge. It is very much related to how much know-what, know-how and know-why experts exist in the organization. This study conceptually proposed a defensive model for Nuclear Malaysia's organization memory and application of Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment (KLRA) as an important tool for critical knowledge identification. (author)

  19. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda T. Lwoga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.

  20. Australian study on public knowledge of human genetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, C; Charles, T; Samanek, A; O'Leary, P

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on public understanding of genetic concepts in the adult population of Western Australia. It explored knowledge of genetic risk of disease, inheritance, biology, determinism, and factors that predict relatively higher genetic knowledge within the general population. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 1,009 respondents. Most members of the Western Australian community are aware of basic genetic concepts and the link between genes, inheritance, and risk of disease. Significantly fewer understand the biological mechanisms underlying these concepts and there was some misconception around the meaning of 'increased genetic risk'. The odds of higher genetic knowledge (>19 out of 24 questions correct) were greater among those with 12 years or more education (OR = 3.0), those aged 18-44 years (OR = 2.3), women (OR = 2.0), those with annual household income of AUD 80,000 or more (OR = 1.8), and those who had talked with someone (OR = 1.7) or searched the internet (OR = 1.6) for information on genes and health. This study provides evidence of an association between social location and public knowledge of human genetic concepts related to health and disease. This is consistent with previous findings and raises questions about the acquisition of textbook genetics knowledge within socio-cultural contexts. The impact of misconceptions about genetic concepts on the uptake of preventive health behaviors requires further investigation, as does the level of genetics knowledge that is required to empower informed participation in individual and societal decisions about genetics and health. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Why Knowledge Modeling is Important for Business and for a Danish Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2011-01-01

    , and possibly other languages, so information must be freely retrievable and communicable in several languages. In this paper I will give examples of why knowledge modeling is important for businesses, and why knowledge modeling is a central part of the DanTermBank project, the aim of which is to lay...

  2. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING: A FOUNDATION FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bosilj-Vukšić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM is increasingly recognised as a strategic practice of knowledge-intensive companies, becoming an integral part of an organisation's strategy to improve business performance. This paper provides an overview of business process modelling applications and analyses the relationship between business process modelling and knowledge management projects. It presents the case study of Croatian leading banks and the insurance company, discussing its practical experience in conducting business process modelling projects and investigating the opportunity for integrating business process repository and organisational knowledge as the foundation for knowledge management system development.

  3. Robustness of a Distributed Knowledge Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In globalizing competitive markets knowledge exchangebetween business organizations requires incentivemechanisms to ensure tactical purposes while strategicpurposes are subject to joint organization and otherforms of contractual obligations. Where property ofknowledge (e.g. patents and copyrights...

  4. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  5. A knowledge-Induced Operator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Choudhury

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning systems are in the forefront of analytical investigation in the sciences. In the social sciences they occupy the study of complexity and strongly interactive world-systems. Sometimes they are diversely referred to as symbiotics and semiotics when studied in conjunction with logical expressions. In the mathematical sciences the methodology underlying learning systems with complex behavior is based on formal logic or systems analysis. In this paper relationally learning systems are shown to transcend the space-time domain of scientific investigation into the knowledge dimension. Such a knowledge domain is explained by pervasive interaction leading to integration and followed by continuous evolution as complementary processes existing between entities and systemic domains in world-systems, thus the abbreviation IIE-processes. This paper establishes a mathematical characterization of the properties of knowledge-induced process-based world-systems in the light of the epistemology of unity of knowledge signified in this paper by extensive complementarities caused by the epistemic and ontological foundation of the text of unity of knowledge, the prime example of which is the realm of the divine laws. The result is formalism in mathematical generalization of the learning phenomenon by means of an operator. This operator summarizes the properties of interaction, integration and evolution (IIE in the continuum domain of knowledge formation signified by universal complementarities across entities, systems and sub-systems in unifying world-systems. The opposite case of ‘de-knowledge’ and its operator is also briefly formalized.

  6. Human Adaptive Mechatronics and Human-System Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics in projects for mechatronics studies, which are 'Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM' and 'Human-System Modelling (HSM', are presented in this paper. The main research theme of the HAM project is a design strategy for a new intelligent mechatronics system, which enhances operators' skills during machine operation. Skill analyses and control system design have been addressed. In the HSM project, human modelling based on hierarchical classification of skills was studied, including the following five types of skills: social, planning, cognitive, motion and sensory-motor skills. This paper includes digests of these research topics and the outcomes concerning each type of skill. Relationships with other research activities, knowledge and information that will be helpful for readers who are trying to study assistive human-mechatronics systems are also mentioned.

  7. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Buta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.

  8. Identifikasi Informasi perguruan tinggi negeri dengan model knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Anwar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In theory and practice, knowledge management (knowledge management is part of the strategy implementation process. Knowledge management is a systematic action to identify, document, and distribute all Solving. The involvement of administrative management knowledge, both top level, middle, or bottom becomes a very important thing. Well in detecting the problem, generating solutions, evaluating the decision to apply the knowledge that has been tested as a product and service in the implementation of strategy. This activity can be used to make the issues become clearer and under proper supervision. Despite the heavy dotted knowledge management to “technology“, in this case the role of “man“ needs to be taken into account in order to complete the process of knowledge management integrating various angles between technology, human strategies through four areas to view. However, the hypothesis of cause and effect of the method can be used as a basis for understanding knowledge management and implementation.

  9. Enterprise human assets valuation with a special focuse on human assets valuation of a knowledge enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Filipová, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation focuses on the valuation of human assets for the purpose of business valuation. The introduction section contains, among others, search of knowledge about the human capital valuation including an identification of "empty spaces" in the business valuation theory in connection with the valuation of human assets. The main aim of the dissertation is the theoretical and experimental development of selected "empty spaces" which were divided into two levels - direct (separate) valua...

  10. MAS architecture and knowledge model for vehicles data communication

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel ADAM; Emmanuelle GRISLIN-LE STRUGEON; René MANDIAU

    2012-01-01

    Completely autonomous vehicles in traffic should allow to decrease the number of road accident victims greatly, and should allow gains in terms of performance and economy. Modelling the vehicles interaction, and especially knowledge sharing, is one of the main challenges to optimize traffic flow with autonomous vehicles. We propose in this paper a model of knowledge communication between mobile agents on a traffic network. The model of knowledge and of interaction enables to propagate new ...

  11. Learning style impact on knowledge gains in human patient simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnick, Mary Ann; Woo, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Human patient simulation (HPS) is a widely used method of teaching in nursing education. While it is believed that a student's learning style impacts knowledge gains in HPS, there is little evidence to support this. This study sought to determine the impact of learning style on knowledge gains after a heart failure (HF) simulation experience in pre-licensure nursing students. A convenience sample of four cohorts of prelicensure nursing students (n=161) were recruited from three Baccalaureate Schools of Nursing at the same point in their curriculum (age 25.7±6.6 years; gender=85.5% female) and participated in HPS using a HF simulation on a high-fidelity manikin. Learning style was assessed by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI) and pre- and post-HPS knowledge measured by parallel, validated, knowledge tests. The LSI identifies 4 learning styles, (Assimilating Diverging, Accommodating, and Converging). In some cases, learners present a balanced learning profile-an emphasis of all four equally. Statistical analysis consisted of t-tests and ANOVA. HF knowledge scores post-HPS compared to pre-HPS scores revealed a mean improvement of 7 points (plearning. Within group score increases between the pre-test and post-test were seen for the Assimilating (66.68±20.87 to 83.35±12.59; p=0.07), Diverging (61.95±11.08 to 69.86±12.33; pteaching methodology for nursing students identifying with most types of learning styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built...... and product related knowledge which should be or should not be included in the model. This demarcation will have a large influence on the structure of the IT systems (for example the configurator system, the CAD system or the PDM system). • The use of the framework can help achieve more structured models......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...

  13. A Behavioral Maturity Model to Establish Knowledge Management in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Fashami, C. S.; Babaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    Modern organizations need intangible assets such as organizational knowledge and human resources to gain competitive advantage in the market. Organizations can provide opportunities for behavioral maturity of managers to establish knowledge management. This study tries to develop a behavioral maturity model for managements to examine effectiveness of knowledge management. The study is conducted in Iran Insurance Company as an empirical case study. Twenty academic and organizational experts ar...

  14. The multidimensional model of knowledge management in the competitive enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays a successful flexible enterprise has an organization knowledge-based. In an era characterized by changes, globalization and competition, knowledge is without doubt the most important asset for a company to gain a competitive advantage. In the enterprise, there is an huge amount of information especially in textual documents. For obtaining specific goals it is necessary an intelligent and efficient management of enterprise knowledge. In this paper a multidimensional model of Knowledge Management, in the competitive enterprise, is analysed. Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge classification, unstructured information, information system, performance indicators

  15. HINT-KB: The human interactome knowledge base

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions are considered to play a significant role in many cellular processes. The identification of Protein-Protein interactions (PPIs) in human is an open research area. Many Databases, which contain information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data, have been developed. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://150.140.142.24:84/Default.aspx) which is a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, estimates a set of features of interest and computes a confidence score for every candidate protein interaction using a modern computational hybrid methodology. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  16. An integrative model of knowledge management and team work

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia; Mª Elena Zarate-Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Human Resource Management relevance in Knowledge Management has been studied in academic literature mostly from the point of view of recruitment, selection, wages and salaries and career development processes. We have found few publications that are focused in the behaviour of the group of people who generate, share and transfer that knowledge while working in a team. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework that describes the relation between knowledge management and team work,, integ...

  17. Linking person perception and person knowledge in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Capturing Knowledge In Order To Optimize The Cutting Process For Polyethylene Pipes Using Knowledge Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Ionela Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge management is a powerful instrument. Areas where knowledge - based modelling can be applied are different from business, industry, government to education area. Companies engage in efforts to restructure the database held based on knowledge management principles as they recognize in it a guarantee of models characterized by the fact that they consist only from relevant and sustainable knowledge that can bring value to the companies. The proposed paper presents a theoretical model of what it means optimizing polyethylene pipes, thus bringing to attention two important engineering fields, the one of the metal cutting process and gas industry, who meet in order to optimize the butt fusion welding process - the polyethylene cutting part - of the polyethylene pipes. All approach is shaped on the principles of knowledge management. The study was made in collaboration with companies operating in the field.

  19. Mathematical models of human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    To describe the human retina, due the absence of complete topographical data, mathematical models are required. The mathematical formula permits a relatively simple representation to explore the physical and optical characteristics of the retina, with particular parameters. Advanced mathematical models are applied for human vision studies, solid modelling and biomechanical behavior of the retina. The accurate modelling of the retina is important in the development of visual prostheses. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of researches for human retina modelling using mathematical models.

  20. Modeling and knowledge acquisition processes using case-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of acquisition and presentation of the organizational Process Knowledge has considered by many KM researches. In this research a model for process knowledge acquisition and presentation has been presented by using the approach of Case Base Reasoning. The validation of the presented model was evaluated by conducting an expert panel. Then a software has been developed based on the presented model and implemented in Eghtesad Novin Bank of Iran. In this company, based on the stages of the presented model, first the knowledge intensive processes has been identified, then the Process Knowledge was stored in a knowledge base in the format of problem/solution/consequent .The retrieval of the knowledge was done based on the similarity of the nearest neighbor algorithm. For validating of the implemented system, results of the system has compared by the results of the decision making of the expert of the process.

  1. Role of Human Knowledge and Communication on Operational Benefits Gained from Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. García-Alcaraz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma (SS is a production philosophy focused on human experiences and knowledge, aimed to minimize defects of products and services. The appropriate implementation of SS requires an education process, reliable data analysis, efficient didactic material, statistical techniques and human knowledge to improve communication and operational benefits. In this article, we present a structural equation model integrating those aspects as latent variables and relating them with ten hypotheses. Data for hypothesis validation were gathered among 301 manufacturing companies, and assessed using partial least squares (PLS to estimate direct, indirect, and total effects. As results, we found that access to reliable information, trusted analysis and knowledgeable management are crucial for SS implementation at the problem definition stage. Likewise, to execute and control SS projects, it is important to be trained in statistical techniques through clear didactic materials.

  2. Knowledge Management Portal: A Simplified Model to Help Decision Makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, I.; Hernandes Tabares, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a simplified model that could help the nuclear industry to keep the expertise of safeguards professionals in touch with the state of the art, and also to have available information in the Portal of Knowledge Management. It can also provide indicators and general data for decision makers. Authors have developed the concept based on their own experience through systems running in hydroelectric and gas fired plants, and one exclusive system that manage all courses in one University. It is under development a Portal of Knowledge Management for NPP dealing with information obtained of Strategic Plans, Budgets and Economics, Operation Performance, Maintenance and Surveillance Plans, Training and Education Programs, QA Programs, Operational Experience, Safety Culture, and Engineering of Human Factors. This model will provide indicators for decision makers. Training and education module is prepared according to profile of each individual and his attributes, tasks and capabilities, and training and education programmes. The system could apply self-assessment questionnaires; immersive learning using media (video) classes, and test applications using questions randomly selected from data bank, as well as could make applications to certificate people. All these data are analyzed and generate indicators about strongest and weakness points. Managers could have indication of individual's deficiency even though in training programmes on a real time basis. Another tool that could be applied to the model is the remote operation of supervision equipment. The model is developed using web-based tools, like ASP.NET encrypted by 128 bits, and web site https. Finally, it is important to stress that the model can be customized according to industry preference. (author)

  3. Online Knowledge-Based Model for Big Data Topic Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Taimoor; Durrani, Mehr; Khalid, Shehzad; Aziz, Furqan

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong machine learning (LML) models learn with experience maintaining a knowledge-base, without user intervention. Unlike traditional single-domain models they can easily scale up to explore big data. The existing LML models have high data dependency, consume more resources, and do not support streaming data. This paper proposes online LML model (OAMC) to support streaming data with reduced data dependency. With engineering the knowledge-base and introducing new knowledge features the learning pattern of the model is improved for data arriving in pieces. OAMC improves accuracy as topic coherence by 7% for streaming data while reducing the processing cost to half. PMID:27195004

  4. A Model for Resource Allocation Using Operational Knowledge Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Andreas N.; Bontis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to develop a business model that shows the impact of operational knowledge assets on intellectual capital (IC) components and business performance and use the model to show how knowledge assets can be prioritized in driving resource allocation decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative data were collected from 84…

  5. Representing Human Expertise by the OWL Web Ontology Language to Support Knowledge Engineering in Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Asia; Wang, Hai; Buckingham, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) often base their knowledge and advice on human expertise. Knowledge representation needs to be in a format that can be easily understood by human users as well as supporting ongoing knowledge engineering, including evolution and consistency of knowledge. This paper reports on the development of an ontology specification for managing knowledge engineering in a CDSS for assessing and managing risks associated with mental-health problems. The Galatean Risk and Safety Tool, GRiST, represents mental-health expertise in the form of a psychological model of classification. The hierarchical structure was directly represented in the machine using an XML document. Functionality of the model and knowledge management were controlled using attributes in the XML nodes, with an accompanying paper manual for specifying how end-user tools should behave when interfacing with the XML. This paper explains the advantages of using the web-ontology language, OWL, as the specification, details some of the issues and problems encountered in translating the psychological model to OWL, and shows how OWL benefits knowledge engineering. The conclusions are that OWL can have an important role in managing complex knowledge domains for systems based on human expertise without impeding the end-users' understanding of the knowledge base. The generic classification model underpinning GRiST makes it applicable to many decision domains and the accompanying OWL specification facilitates its implementation.

  6. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  7. Optimizing human-system interface automation design based on a skill-rule-knowledge framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Yenn, T.-C.; Yang, C.-W.

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the technological change that has occurred in complex systems within the past 30 years. The role of human operators in controlling and interacting with complex systems following the technological change was also investigated. Modernization of instrumentation and control systems and components leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, in which human operational performance must be considered in automated systems. The human-automation interaction can differ in its types and levels. A system design issue is usually realized: given these technical capabilities, which system functions should be automated and to what extent? A good automation design can be achieved by making an appropriate human-automation function allocation. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been published on how to achieve appropriate automation design with a systematic procedure. Further, there is a surprising lack of information on examining and validating the influences of levels of automation (LOAs) on instrumentation and control systems in the advanced control room (ACR). The study we present in this paper proposed a systematic framework to help in making an appropriate decision towards types of automation (TOA) and LOAs based on a 'Skill-Rule-Knowledge' (SRK) model. From the evaluating results, it was shown that the use of either automatic mode or semiautomatic mode is insufficient to prevent human errors. For preventing the occurrences of human errors and ensuring the safety in ACR, the proposed framework can be valuable for making decisions in human-automation allocation.

  8. Stochastic Models of Human Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.

  9. A Behavioral Maturity Model to Establish Knowledge Management in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Fashami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations need intangible assets such as organizational knowledge and human resources to gain competitive advantage in the market. Organizations can provide opportunities for behavioral maturity of managers to establish knowledge management. This study tries to develop a behavioral maturity model for managements to examine effectiveness of knowledge management. The study is conducted in Iran Insurance Company as an empirical case study. Twenty academic and organizational experts are selected for the study. Employees and managers of Iran Insurance Company are used to measure and test conceptual model (behavioral maturity of managers to establish knowledge management. Both interview and questionnaire tools are used to collect data. Fuzzy AHP and PLS methods are used to analyze the collected data. Fuzzy AHP results show that transformational leadership, human and social skills, knowledge orientation, emotional intelligence, trustful climate are identified as highly effective priorities.

  10. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  11. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  12. Barriers in Sustainable Knowledge Management Model in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper present a comprehensive model in education using the data base collected from 101 students from Turkey. The target group was students involved in academic life system. Results are used to design a model where education transfer of knowledge it is investigated in function of possible barriers as internal, external and knowledge management factors of influence in education selection and students vision for education development. As a conclusion, the evaluation of the barriers in sustainable knowledge management in education present a cross-educational model which seems to indicate its highly effective resource for environmental education focused on sustainability, and favours the development of knowledge, attitudes and future intentions of inspiring educational environment. The model can be useful on passing of knowledge from one generation to the next generation, managing succession and distributing the competencies and responsibilities to a repetitive change.

  13. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  14. Semantic projection: recovering human knowledge of multiple, distinct object features from word embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Grand, Gabriel; Blank, Idan Asher; Pereira, Francisco; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2018-01-01

    The words of a language reflect the structure of the human mind, allowing us to transmit thoughts between individuals. However, language can represent only a subset of our rich and detailed cognitive architecture. Here, we ask what kinds of common knowledge (semantic memory) are captured by word meanings (lexical semantics). We examine a prominent computational model that represents words as vectors in a multidimensional space, such that proximity between word-vectors approximates semantic re...

  15. Models, Metaphors and Symbols for Information and Knowledge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search indicates that Data, Information and Knowledge continue to be placed into a hierarchical construct where it is considered that information is more valuable than data and that information can be processed into becoming precious knowledge. Wisdom continues to be added to the model to further confuse the issue. This model constrains our ability to think more logically about how and why we develop knowledge management systems to support and enhance knowledge- intensive processes, tasks or projects. This paper seeks to summarise development of the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy, explore the extensive criticism of it and present a more logical (and accurate construct for the elements of intellectual capital when developing and managing Knowledge Management Systems.

  16. Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolong; Wang, Xiangqian; Li, Huizong; Jiang, Miaomiao

    2017-06-01

    The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. On the basis of analyzing the structures and internal relations of coal mining equipment knowledge, taking OWL as ontology construct language, the ontology model of coal mining equipment knowledge is built with the help of Protégé 4.3 software tools. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

  17. Frame model of knowledge in quality control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macherauskas, V.Yu.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a semiotic model for representation of data and knowledge in a system for supplying operational information to management personnel on the progress of a technological process, with the aim of enabling an analysis of deviations of product quality and formulation of recommendations to the technologists as to how to eliminate them. Since any knowledge of people that can be realistically utilized in machine systems is represented in natural language form, special languages for representation of knowledge, based on the concept of frames, are being developed for formation of semiotic models in computers. This article defines the frames, followed by a description of a mechanism of knowledge manipulation and of some aspects of realization of a frame model of knowledge. 9 references.

  18. Modelling Configuration Knowledge in Heterogeneous Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Männistö, Tomi; Ricci, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    the variability in such heterogeneous product families. Our approach is based on a framework that aims to cater for the different stakeholders involved in the modelling and management of the product family. The modelling approach is centred around the concepts of views, types and constraints and is illustrated...... by a motivation example. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, a prototype has been implemented for configuring a non-trivial heterogeneous product family.......Product configuration systems play an important role in the development of Mass Customisation. The configuration of complex product families may nowadays involve multiple design disciplines, e.g. hardware, software and services. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach for modelling...

  19. Using Partial Credit and Response History to Model User Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Inwegen, Eric G.; Adjei, Seth A.; Wang, Yan; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2015-01-01

    User modelling algorithms such as Performance Factors Analysis and Knowledge Tracing seek to determine a student's knowledge state by analyzing (among other features) right and wrong answers. Anyone who has ever graded an assignment by hand knows that some answers are "more wrong" than others; i.e. they display less of an understanding…

  20. Do Knowledge-Component Models Need to Incorporate Representational Competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina Angela

    2017-01-01

    Traditional knowledge-component models describe students' content knowledge (e.g., their ability to carry out problem-solving procedures or their ability to reason about a concept). In many STEM domains, instruction uses multiple visual representations such as graphs, figures, and diagrams. The use of visual representations implies a…

  1. Tacit knowledge in academia: a proposed model and measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Nancy; Insch, Gary S

    2005-11-01

    The authors propose a multidimensional model of tacit knowledge and develop a measure of tacit knowledge in academia. They discuss the theory and extant literature on tacit knowledge and propose a 6-factor model. Experiment 1 is a replication of a recent study of academic tacit knowledge using the scale developed and administered at an Israeli university (A. Somech & R. Bogler, 1999). The results of the replication differed from those found in the original study. For Experiment 2, the authors developed a domain-specific measure of academic tacit knowledge, the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale (ATKS), and used this measure to explore the multidimensionality of tacit knowledge proposed in the model. The results of an exploratory factor analysis (n=142) followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (n=286) are reported. The sample for both experiments was 428 undergraduate students enrolled at a large public university in the eastern United States. Results indicated that a 5-factor model of academic tacit knowledge provided a strong fit for the data.

  2. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  3. A New Model for the Organizational Knowledge Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lella, Luigi; Licata, Ignazio

    Actual organizations, in particular the ones which operate in evolving and distributed environments, need advanced frameworks for the management of the knowledge life cycle. These systems have to be based on the social relations which constitute the pattern of collaboration ties of the organization. We demonstrate here, with the aid of a model taken from the theory of graphs, that it is possible to provide the conditions for an effective knowledge management. A right way could be to involve the actors with the highest betweeness centrality in the generation of discussion groups. This solution allows the externalization of tacit knowledge, the preservation of knowledge and the raise of innovation processes.

  4. An integrative model of knowledge management and team work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Human Resource Management relevance in Knowledge Management has been studied in academic literature mostly from the point of view of recruitment, selection, wages and salaries and career development processes. We have found few publications that are focused in the behaviour of the group of people who generate, share and transfer that knowledge while working in a team. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework that describes the relation between knowledge management and team work,, integrating Nonaka and Takeuchi, Leonard- Barton and Heisig framework proposals, as well as to outline some reflexions for further researches.

  5. Evaluating Effect of Knowledge Management Strategy on Human Resource Management Performance Using BSC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mansoori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research provided a model for evaluating the effect of knowledge management strategy on human resource management performance in higher education institutes and academic libraries. This research was a descriptive survey. According to the research literature and expert opinions, in human resource level, 38 indicators were produced for evaluating KM, then these indicators were classified in 10 total factors in terms of balanced scorecard approach. The results of evaluating knowledge management in Yazd academic libraries showed that, this strategy on customer perspectives, internal processes, learning and growth perspective had a good performance. But in terms of financial and Labor productivity indicators and training programs it did not have a good outcome for Yazd academic libraries.

  6. Unleashing the power of human genetic variation knowledge: New Zealand stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yulong; Warren, James Roy; Day, Karen Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the challenges in using genetic information in health care and to identify opportunities for improvement. Taking a grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted with 48 participants to collect multiple stakeholder perspectives on genetic services in New Zealand. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) four service delivery models were identified in operation, including both those expected models involving genetic counselors and variations that do not route through the formal genetic service program; (2) multiple barriers to sharing and using genetic information were perceived, including technological, organizational, institutional, legal, ethical, and social issues; and (3) impediments to wider use of genetic testing technology, including variable understanding of genetic test utilities among clinicians and the limited capacity of clinical genetic services. Targeting these problems, information technologies and knowledge management tools have the potential to support key tasks in genetic services delivery, improve knowledge processes, and enhance knowledge networks. Because of the effect of issues in genetic information and knowledge management, the potential of human genetic variation knowledge to enhance health care delivery has been put on a "leash."

  7. Knowledge of human papillomavirus and the human papillomavirus vaccine in European adolescents: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, H; Jeve, YB; Sherman, SM; Moss, EL

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls in many European countries, however there is huge variation in vaccine uptake. METHODS: A mixed methods systematic review to ascertain the level of HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge that exists among European adolescents. Two electronic databases, Ovid Medline and PsychInfo, were searched from origin to September 2014. Meta-analysis was performed for the two primary outcome measures ('have you heard of HPV?' an...

  8. Regional knowledge economy development indicative planning system conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Davidovna Vaisman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the processes of Russian knowledge economy development, its progress on the regional level is taken as a theme, which determined the purpose of research: development of the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model. The methodological base of the research is the knowledge economy concept and supply and demand theory, the methods of comparative and system analysis and theoretical modeling; common generalization and classification methods and regression models are used in the work. As a result, we managed to create the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model, which includes the choice of the types of indicative plans and the justification for the complex of indicators according to the stated requirements to this complex. The model of supply and demand for knowledge dependency from the knowledge cost, allowing to determine the acceptable range for the indicators proceeding from the demand and supply levels and their interrelation, is developed. The obtained results may be used by the regional government authorities while planning the regional innovative development and consulting companies while making the proposals for this development

  9. Human mobility: Models and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Hugo; Barthelemy, Marc; Ghoshal, Gourab; James, Charlotte R.; Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Menezes, Ronaldo; Ramasco, José J.; Simini, Filippo; Tomasini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of extensive geolocated datasets related to human movement, enabling scientists to quantitatively study individual and collective mobility patterns, and to generate models that can capture and reproduce the spatiotemporal structures and regularities in human trajectories. The study of human mobility is especially important for applications such as estimating migratory flows, traffic forecasting, urban planning, and epidemic modeling. In this survey, we review the approaches developed to reproduce various mobility patterns, with the main focus on recent developments. This review can be used both as an introduction to the fundamental modeling principles of human mobility, and as a collection of technical methods applicable to specific mobility-related problems. The review organizes the subject by differentiating between individual and population mobility and also between short-range and long-range mobility. Throughout the text the description of the theory is intertwined with real-world applications.

  10. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  11. Analysing Models as a Knowledge Technology in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    critical analytic literature on knowledge utilization and policy influence. A simple scheme based in this literature is drawn up to provide a framework for discussing the interface between urban transport planning and model use. A successful example of model use in Stockholm, Sweden is used as a heuristic......Models belong to a wider family of knowledge technologies, applied in the transport area. Models sometimes share with other such technologies the fate of not being used as intended, or not at all. The result may be ill-conceived plans as well as wasted resources. Frequently, the blame...... device to illuminate how such an analytic scheme may allow patterns of insight about the use, influence and role of models in planning to emerge. The main contribution of the paper is to demonstrate that concepts and terminologies from knowledge use literature can provide interpretations of significance...

  12. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on

  14. Assessing Implicit Knowledge in BIM Models with Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krijnen, Thomas; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    architects and engineers are able to deduce non-explicitly explicitly stated information, which is often the core of the transported architectural information. This paper investigates how machine learning approaches allow a computational system to deduce implicit knowledge from a set of BIM models.......The promise, which comes along with Building Information Models, is that they are information rich, machine readable and represent the insights of multiple building disciplines within single or linked models. However, this knowledge has to be stated explicitly in order to be understood. Trained...

  15. Knowledge Management through the Equilibrium Pattern Model for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine

    Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.

  16. The knowledge-based economy modeled, measured, simulated

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2006-01-01

    "Challenging, theoretically rich yet anchored in detailed empirical analysis, Loet Leydesdorff's exploration of the dynamics of the knowledge-economy is a major contribution to the field. Drawing on his expertise in science and technology studies, systems theory, and his internationally respected work on the 'triple helix', the book provides a radically new modelling and simulation of knowledge systems, capturing the articulation of structure, communication, and agency therein. This work will be of immense interest to both theorists of the knowledge-economy and practitioners in science policy." Andrew Webster Science & Technology Studies, University of York, UK

  17. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  18. Virtual knowledge : Experimenting in the humanities and the social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Paul; Beaulieu, Anne; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Wyatt, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Today we are witnessing dramatic changes in the way scientific and scholarly knowledge is created, codified, and communicated. This transformation is connected to the use of digital technologies and the virtualization of knowledge. In this book, scholars from a range of disciplines consider just

  19. Knowledge Management Status in Crisis Management Regarding Eiral Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Hosseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge is one of the most important assets of any organization and the importance of knowledge management in the information age is considered more than ever. Experts believe that organizational success or failures are associated with knowledge management. Both implicit and explicit knowledge management are so important in disaster management. The aim of this study is to determine the state of knowledge management in crisis management based on Earl Model. Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study that conducted on 115 persons out of 500 participants in Sixth Emergency Medicine Congress. These participants were selected randomly based on inclusion criteria. In this study, the questionnaire was designed based on Earl Knowledge management model in six categories (systemic, way mapping, processing, economical, organizational and locational. Its validity was confirmed by experts’ opinions and its reliability was calculated with internal consistency (Chronbach alpha: 0.86 based on pilot study with 14 samples. Results: Findings showed that most of the participants were women (56.6% with average age of 31-40 years old (0.49 and with Bachelor of Science and PhD degree (mean: 0.44. Moreover total mean of knowledge management was 16.25 and in any categories was as follow: Systemic (27.67, way mapping (33.21, processing (16.56, economical (3.56, organizational (6.59 and locational (9.98. Conclusion: Overall status of knowledge management was under average mean index and the least value belonged to economical category. It indicates that the authorities must attend in both aspects of tacit and explicit knowledge management in crisis management.

  20. Comprehensible knowledge model creation for cancer treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Ali, Taqdir; Lee, Sungyoung; Huh, Eui-Nam; Farooq Ahmad, Hafiz; Jamshed, Arif; Iqbal, Hassan; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas Hydari, Manzar

    2017-03-01

    A wealth of clinical data exists in clinical documents in the form of electronic health records (EHRs). This data can be used for developing knowledge-based recommendation systems that can assist clinicians in clinical decision making and education. One of the big hurdles in developing such systems is the lack of automated mechanisms for knowledge acquisition to enable and educate clinicians in informed decision making. An automated knowledge acquisition methodology with a comprehensible knowledge model for cancer treatment (CKM-CT) is proposed. With the CKM-CT, clinical data are acquired automatically from documents. Quality of data is ensured by correcting errors and transforming various formats into a standard data format. Data preprocessing involves dimensionality reduction and missing value imputation. Predictive algorithm selection is performed on the basis of the ranking score of the weighted sum model. The knowledge builder prepares knowledge for knowledge-based services: clinical decisions and education support. Data is acquired from 13,788 head and neck cancer (HNC) documents for 3447 patients, including 1526 patients of the oral cavity site. In the data quality task, 160 staging values are corrected. In the preprocessing task, 20 attributes and 106 records are eliminated from the dataset. The Classification and Regression Trees (CRT) algorithm is selected and provides 69.0% classification accuracy in predicting HNC treatment plans, consisting of 11 decision paths that yield 11 decision rules. Our proposed methodology, CKM-CT, is helpful to find hidden knowledge in clinical documents. In CKM-CT, the prediction models are developed to assist and educate clinicians for informed decision making. The proposed methodology is generalizable to apply to data of other domains such as breast cancer with a similar objective to assist clinicians in decision making and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  2. Semantic Technologies for Nuclear Knowledge Modelling and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Gladyshev, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA has been engaged in working with Member States to preserve and enhance nuclear knowledge, and in supporting wide dissemination of safety related technical and technological information enhancing nuclear safety. The knowledge organization systems (ontologies, taxonomies, thesauri, etc.) provide one of the means to model and structure a given knowledge domain. The significance of knowledge organization systems (KOS) has been greatly enhanced by the evolution of the semantic technologies, enabling machines to “understand” the concepts described in a KOS, and to use them in a variety of applications. Over recent years semantic technologies have emerged as efficient means to improve access to information and knowledge. The Semantic Web Standards play an important role in creating an infrastructure of interoperable data sources based on principles of Linked Data. The status of utilizing semantic technologies in the nuclear domain is shortly reviewed, noting that such technologies are in their early stage of adoption, and considering some aspects which are specific to nuclear knowledge management. Several areas are described where semantic technologies are already deployed, and other areas are indicated where applications based on semantic technologies will have a strong impact on nuclear knowledge management in the near future. (author

  3. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    in knowledge intensive work to establish productive and satisfying jobs by a case study of our own place of work: a university department. Testimonials from a young associate professor, a first line manager and the department manager lead us to identify some of the major challenges for ergonomics to comply...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed....

  4. Flexible Bayesian Human Fecundity Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungduk; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Pyper, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    Human fecundity is an issue of considerable interest for both epidemiological and clinical audiences, and is dependent upon a couple's biologic capacity for reproduction coupled with behaviors that place a couple at risk for pregnancy. Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to better model the conception probabilities by accounting for the acts of intercourse around the day of ovulation, i.e., during the fertile window. These models can be viewed in the framework of a generalized nonlinear model with an exponential link. However, a fixed choice of link function may not always provide the best fit, leading to potentially biased estimates for probability of conception. Motivated by this, we propose a general class of models for fecundity by relaxing the choice of the link function under the generalized nonlinear model framework. We use a sample from the Oxford Conception Study (OCS) to illustrate the utility and fit of this general class of models for estimating human conception. Our findings reinforce the need for attention to be paid to the choice of link function in modeling conception, as it may bias the estimation of conception probabilities. Various properties of the proposed models are examined and a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm was developed for implementing the Bayesian computations. The deviance information criterion measure and logarithm of pseudo marginal likelihood are used for guiding the choice of links. The supplemental material section contains technical details of the proof of the theorem stated in the paper, and contains further simulation results and analysis.

  5. Sustaining Knowledge Exchange and Research Impact in the Social Sciences and Humanities: Investing in Knowledge Broker Roles in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, Claire; Knight, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, higher education policy in the United Kingdom (UK) has increasingly focused on the impact of academic research. This has resulted in the emergence of specialist knowledge brokers within UK universities in the social sciences and humanities. Our empirical research identified a tension between the research impact agenda and the…

  6. Knowledge-base for the new human reliability analysis method, A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.E.; Wreathall, J.; Thompson, C.M., Drouin, M.; Bley, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the knowledge base for the application of the new human reliability analysis (HRA) method, a ''A Technique for Human Error Analysis'' (ATHEANA). Since application of ATHEANA requires the identification of previously unmodeled human failure events, especially errors of commission, and associated error-forcing contexts (i.e., combinations of plant conditions and performance shaping factors), this knowledge base is an essential aid for the HRA analyst

  7. Modelling biased human trust dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; Jaffry, S.W.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Within human trust related behaviour, according to the literature from the domains of Psychology and Social Sciences often non-rational behaviour can be observed. Current trust models that have been developed typically do not incorporate non-rational elements in the trust formation

  8. Human Resource Models: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    simulation models in which human performance plays an important part see, A.I. Siegel and J.J. Wolf , "Digital Behavioral Simulation--State-of-the-Art...atford and Petersen, Charles C., ’Mfaritine 421-439 Factors Adfecting Iberian Security," (Factores hbritimos Que "Northwestern University, Evanston

  9. MAS architecture and knowledge model for vehicles data communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel ADAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} Completely autonomous vehicles in traffic should allow to decrease the number of road accident victims greatly, and should allow gains in terms of performance and economy. Modelling the vehicles interaction, and especially knowledge sharing, is one of the main challenges to optimize traffic flow with autonomous vehicles. We propose in this paper a model of knowledge communication between mobile agents on a traffic network. The model of knowledge and of interaction enables to propagate new knowledge without overloading the system with a too large number of communications. For that, only the new knowledge is communicated, and two agents communicate the same knowledge only once. Moreover, in order to allow agents to update their knowledge (perceived or created, a notion of degradation is used. A simulator has been built to evaluate the proposal, before to implement it in mobile robots. Some results of the simulator are proposed in this article.

  10. MAS architecture and knowledge model for vehicles data communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René MANDIAU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} Completely autonomous vehicles in traffic should allow to decrease the number of road accident victims greatly, and should allow gains in terms of performance and economy. Modelling the vehicles interaction, and especially knowledge sharing, is one of the main challenges to optimize traffic flow with autonomous vehicles. We propose in this paper a model of knowledge communication between mobile agents on a traffic network. The model of knowledge and of interaction enables to propagate new knowledge without overloading the system with a too large number of communications. For that, only the new knowledge is communicated, and two agents communicate the same knowledge only once. Moreover, in order to allow agents to update their knowledge (perceived or created, a notion of degradation is used. A simulator has been built to evaluate the proposal, before to implement it in mobile robots. Some results of the simulator are proposed in this article.

  11. Teenagers’ knowledge of human sexuality and their views on teenage pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Kunene

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available There is concern about poor knowledge of human sexuality and a high rate of teenage pregnancies among Blacks. The primary aim of the study was to measure the knowledge that teenagers have on human sexuality and to identify the sources from which they obtain such knowledge. The secondary aim was to detect how teenagers perceive the teenage pregnancy problem and its consequences,

  12. The Relationship between Humanness and Knowledge Sharing in Malaysia Empirical Evidence from Malaysian Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona H. Boom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether there is a relationship between humanness and the willingness to share knowledge in Malaysia. Furthermore, the differences between the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnicities are researched for the presence of humanness and the willingness to share knowledge. Two hundred and fourteen respondents from privately owned companies participated in this research showing that there is a strong relationship between humanness and knowledge sharing. However, the differences between the three ethnicities are small, which is a surprising finding. It can be concluded that people-oriented managers (one of the ways to express humanness are more willing to share knowledge, and differences between ethnicities have no influence in this matter. From these results, it can be recommended to managers and organizations in Malaysia that they pay more attention and be aware of their management style.Stressing the humanness aspects more as they are described could improve the knowledge transfer within companies.

  13. Knowledge gobernanza model ah its applications in OTRIS. Two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno Campos, E.; Plaz Landela, R.; Albert Berenguer, J.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of I+D and knowledge transfer in European economies and in Technology and Innovation in Spain, is a key issue to achieve the Europe target for 2010 to become the European society of knowledge for growth. This article shows, with certain detail, the structure and functions of the MTT model used as a reference of processes needed to fulfil the mission of an OTRI and its function of knowledge transfer.Two concrete applications show the effectiveness and functionality of the model; CARTA and PRISMA applications are case studies of the MTT implementation process. They represent a first step through new developments that are being carried out in other OTRIS. (Author) 35 refs

  14. Advanced quality prediction model for software architectural knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris; Tang, Antony; Xu, Lai

    In the field of software architecture, a paradigm shift is occurring from describing the outcome of architecting process to describing the Architectural Knowledge (AK) created and used during architecting. Many AK models have been defined to represent domain concepts and their relationships, and

  15. Fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge for land suitability classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicat, R.S.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Nidumolu, U.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a case study, we demonstrate fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge (FK) for agricultural land suitability classification using GIS. Capture of FK was through rapid rural participatory approach. The farmer respondents consider, in order of decreasing importance, cropping season, soil color, soil

  16. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...

  17. Sharing architecture knowledge through models : quality and cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris

    In the field of software architecture, there has been a paradigm shift from describing structural information, such as components and connectors, to documenting architectural knowledge (AK), Such as design decisions and rationale. To this end, a series of industrial and academic domain models have

  18. Upper Secondary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Chemical Bonding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Anna; Drechsler, Michal; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown a growing interest in science teachers' professional knowledge in recent decades. The article focuses on how chemistry teachers impart chemical bonding, one of the most important topics covered in upper secondary school chemistry courses. Chemical bonding is primarily taught using models, which are key for understanding…

  19. Understanding the Codevelopment of Modeling Practice and Ecological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Eve

    2012-01-01

    Despite a recent focus on engaging students in epistemic practices, there is relatively little research on how learning environments can support the simultaneous, coordinated development of both practice and the knowledge that emerges from and supports scientific activity. This study reports on the co-construction of modeling practice and…

  20. A Proposed Model of Jazz Theory Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…

  1. zation of knowledge of condom use and modeling among military ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    less than high school education, those with high school and some college education were two times more likely to demonstrate ... knowledge of condom use and modeling among the Nigerian military personnel; as well as a direct correlation between education .... marijuana use, and attitude towards condom acquisition.

  2. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2015-10-01

    Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization's work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be identified using proper

  3. Knowledge-based support for design and operational use of human-machine interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1994-01-01

    The possibilities for knowledge support of different human user classes, namely operators, operational engineers and designers of human-machine interfaces, are discussed. Several human-machine interface functionalities are briefly explained. The paper deals with such questions as which type of knowledge is needed for design and operation, how to represent it, where to get it from, how to process it, and how to consider and use it. The relationships between design and operational use are thereby emphasised. (author)

  4. Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.; Robinson, C.; Jackson, D.; La Cruz, I. de; Zinger, I.; Avila, R.

    2010-10-01

    This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

  5. Insistent Dryland Narratives: Portraits of Knowledge about Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drylands in the West African Sahel region have, since the catastrophic drought event in the 1970s, been a focal point of interest in the cross field between environmental research, knowledge systems and policy intervention strategies. Major international institutions, agencies and conventions have played an important ...

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with HIV is an occupational risk to health care workers, especially doctors, during treatment of patients. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is effective in preventing potential HIV infection following accidental exposure. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of HIV ...

  7. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV ...

  8. Real-time expert systems and deep knowledge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1990-01-01

    To guide operators in normal and disturbed plant conditions expert systems are feasible. These, however, must be on-line and real-time systems. The knowledge contained in such a system cannot be represented in a 'classical' role-based manner. The paper describes problems and solutions with regard to process reference models as these are important in order to provide so-called deep-knowledge for the operators. The system described is being implemented and is meant to support both diagnosis and prediction

  9. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  10. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    performance is the slow adaption of the scientific system to the novel research technologies made available by the progress in the life sciences – rather than resistance of practitioners. We interpret the changes in the organization of medical research through the lenses of the theory of New Sciences, which......, coexists with the standard model of knowledge production in clinical medicine. Our comparison of the two approaches finds that Translational Research allows investigations across diverse and cognitively distant knowledge bases, thanks to the intensive use of research technologies that emerge from...

  11. The R Package bgmm : Mixture Modeling with Uncertain Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemys law Biecek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical supervised learning enjoys the luxury of accessing the true known labels for the observations in a modeled dataset. Real life, however, poses an abundance of problems, where the labels are only partially defined, i.e., are uncertain and given only for a subsetof observations. Such partial labels can occur regardless of the knowledge source. For example, an experimental assessment of labels may have limited capacity and is prone to measurement errors. Also expert knowledge is often restricted to a specialized area and is thus unlikely to provide trustworthy labels for all observations in the dataset. Partially supervised mixture modeling is able to process such sparse and imprecise input. Here, we present an R package calledbgmm, which implements two partially supervised mixture modeling methods: soft-label and belief-based modeling. For completeness, we equipped the package also with the functionality of unsupervised, semi- and fully supervised mixture modeling. On real data we present the usage of bgmm for basic model-fitting in all modeling variants. The package can be applied also to selection of the best-fitting from a set of models with different component numbers or constraints on their structures. This functionality is presented on an artificial dataset, which can be simulated in bgmm from a distribution defined by a given model.

  12. Linking knowledge and action through mental models of sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew; Lubell, Mark; Hillis, Vicken

    2014-09-09

    Linking knowledge to action requires understanding how decision-makers conceptualize sustainability. This paper empirically analyzes farmer "mental models" of sustainability from three winegrape-growing regions of California where local extension programs have focused on sustainable agriculture. The mental models are represented as networks where sustainability concepts are nodes, and links are established when a farmer mentions two concepts in their stated definition of sustainability. The results suggest that winegrape grower mental models of sustainability are hierarchically structured, relatively similar across regions, and strongly linked to participation in extension programs and adoption of sustainable farm practices. We discuss the implications of our findings for the debate over the meaning of sustainability, and the role of local extension programs in managing knowledge systems.

  13. Double-edged sword of interdisciplinary knowledge flow from hard sciences to humanities and social sciences: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meijun; Shi, Dongbo; Li, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) increasingly absorb knowledge from Hard Sciences, i.e., Science, Technology, Agriculture and Medicine (STAM), as testified by a growing number of citations. However, whether citing more Hard Sciences brings more citations to HSS remains to be investigated. Based on China's HSS articles indexed by the Web of Science during 1998-2014, this paper estimated two-way fixed effects negative binomial models, with journal effects and year effects. Findings include: (1) An inverse U-shaped curve was observed between the percentage of STAM references to the HSS articles and the number of citations they received; (2) STAM contributed increasing knowledge to China's HSS, while Science and Technology knowledge contributed more citations to HSS articles. It is recommended that research policy should be adjusted to encourage HSS researchers to adequately integrate STAM knowledge when conducting interdisciplinary research, as over-cited STAM knowledge may jeopardize the readability of HSS articles.

  14. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...... a framework for the knowledge transfer process from operations into engineering design that helps identifying and facing the challenges for such a transfer process. Methodology: The study was carried out as a case study in an offshore oil company. We used the empirical data collected through interviews...

  15. Does the knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-23

    most likely lymphatic) origin.1 In all its manifestations, i.e. classic or sporadic, iatrogenic or post-transplant, endemic or African, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related/human immunodeficiency virus ...

  16. International Business Models Developed Through Brokerage Knowledge and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolaj Hannesbo; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    This paper highlights theoretically and empirically international business model decisions in networks with knowledge sharing and value creation. The paper expands the conceptual in-ternational business model framework for technology-oriented companies to include the focal firm’s network role...... and strategic fit in a global embeddedness. The brokerage role in the in-ternationalization of a network is discussed from both a theoretical and empirical point of view. From a business model and social network analysis perspective, this paper will show how firms and network grow internationally through two...

  17. Zebrafish models for human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, H R

    2013-05-01

    For decades, the advancement of cancer research has relied on in vivo models for examining key processes in cancer pathogenesis, including neoplastic transformation, progression, and response to therapy. These studies, which have traditionally relied on rodent models, have engendered a vast body of scientific literature. Recently, experimental cancer researchers have embraced many new and alternative model systems, including the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The general benefits of the zebrafish model for laboratory investigation, such as cost, size, fecundity, and generation time, were quickly superseded by the discovery that zebrafish are amenable to a wide range of investigative techniques, many of which are difficult or impossible to perform in mammalian models. These advantages, coupled with the finding that many aspects of carcinogenesis are conserved in zebrafish as compared with humans, have firmly established a unique niche for the zebrafish model in comparative cancer research. This article introduces methods for generating cancer models in zebrafish and reviews a range of models that have been developed for specific cancer types.

  18. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  19. Dynamics of group knowledge production in facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    , the workshop. Drawing on the knowledge-perspective of group communication, we conducted a micro-level analysis of a transcript of a facilitated modelling workshop held with the management team of an Alternative Food Network in the UK. Our analysis suggests that facilitated modelling interactions can take......The term ‘facilitated modelling’ is used in the literature to characterise an approach to structuring problems, developing options and evaluating decisions by groups working in a model-supported workshop environment, and assisted by a facilitator. The approach involves an interactive process...... by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive...

  20. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in total, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  1. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, James

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in toto, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  2. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  3. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.; Koono, Zenya

    1994-01-01

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  4. Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thierry; Pengelly, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The results of past studies in Error Analysis in applied linguistics and the experiences of developers of intelligent tutoring systems in learner modelling have influenced our definition of a new structure, called an "applicable rule", that can be used to help diagnose and to represent a learner's performance in second language learning systems. Based on this structure a prototype interface has been designed to acquire the knowledge that it must contain. The results of experiments with this i...

  5. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  6. Unspoken Knowledge: Implicit Learning of Structured Human Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opacic, Tajana; Stevens, Catherine; Tillmann, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The sequencing of dance movements may be thought of as a grammar. We investigate implicit learning of regularities that govern sequences of unfamiliar, discrete dance movements. It was hypothesized that observers without prior experience with contemporary dance would be able to learn regularities that underpin structured human movement. Thirty-one…

  7. Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship and the Impact of Human Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address selected aspects of human capital in association with the entrepreneurial process in technology-based new ventures. Until recently, research investigating the founding of new businesses has mainly focused on the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs...

  8. Prior implicit knowledge shapes human threshold for orientation noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Bex, Peter J; Fiser, József

    2015-01-01

    Although orientation coding in the human visual system has been researched with simple stimuli, little is known about how orientation information is represented while viewing complex images. We show that, similar to findings with simple Gabor textures, the visual system involuntarily discounts or...

  9. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  10. A numerical model for blast injury of human thorax based on digitized visible human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Nie, Si-Bing; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Yi-He

    2017-12-04

    Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements. Simulation results showed that the apex of lungs was subjected to the largest stress in a blast. In order to verify this result, an animal experiment was performed on a dog. The animal experimental results was shown to have a same variation tendency with the calculation results based on our numerical model of human thorax, which made this model reliable for the blast injury research.

  11. Counseling and Human Sexuality: A Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Bill

    1980-01-01

    Presents a counseling and human sexuality course model that provides counselors with an information base in human sexuality and assists them in exploring the emotional aspects of sexuality. Human sexuality is a vital aspect of personal development. (Author)

  12. The Knowledge Supply Model: A Framework for Developing Education and Training in the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Jones, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The knowledge supply model depicts the dynamics of change and patterns of knowledge supply and demand in economic sectors. Its elements are knowledge characteristics, organizational specificity of knowlwege, value of knowledge, and level of suppliers' knowledge. Learning organizations can use the model to tailor products and servers to knowledge…

  13. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self–other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design. PMID:26644594

  15. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  17. Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reyes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

  18. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  19. Vicarious Learning from Human Models in Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was app...

  20. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  1. Diagnosis by integrating model-based reasoning with knowledge-based reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylander, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Our research investigates how observations can be categorized by integrating a qualitative physical model with experiential knowledge. Our domain is diagnosis of pathologic gait in humans, in which the observations are the gait motions, muscle activity during gait, and physical exam data, and the diagnostic hypotheses are the potential muscle weaknesses, muscle mistimings, and joint restrictions. Patients with underlying neurological disorders typically have several malfunctions. Among the problems that need to be faced are: the ambiguity of the observations, the ambiguity of the qualitative physical model, correspondence of the observations and hypotheses to the qualitative physical model, the inherent uncertainty of experiential knowledge, and the combinatorics involved in forming composite hypotheses. Our system divides the work so that the knowledge-based reasoning suggests which hypotheses appear more likely than others, the qualitative physical model is used to determine which hypotheses explain which observations, and another process combines these functionalities to construct a composite hypothesis based on explanatory power and plausibility. We speculate that the reasoning architecture of our system is generally applicable to complex domains in which a less-than-perfect physical model and less-than-perfect experiential knowledge need to be combined to perform diagnosis.

  2. Virtual pharmacokinetic model of human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sreevani; Murtomäki, Lasse

    2014-07-01

    A virtual pharmacokinetic 3D model of the human eye is built using Comsol Multiphysics® software, which is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model considers drug release from a polymer patch placed on sclera. The model concentrates on the posterior part of the eye, retina being the target tissue, and comprises the choroidal blood flow, partitioning of the drug between different tissues and active transport at the retina pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid boundary. Although most straightforward, in order to check the mass balance, no protein binding or metabolism is yet included. It appeared that the most important issue in obtaining reliable simulation results is the finite element mesh, while time stepping has hardly any significance. Simulations were extended to 100,000 s. The concentration of a drug is shown as a function of time at various points of retina, as well as its average value, varying several parameters in the model. This work demonstrates how anybody with basic knowledge of calculus is able to build physically meaningful models of quite complex biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge Based Characterization of Cross-Models Constraints to Check Design and Modeling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonn Zayas, David; Monceaux, Anne; Ait-Ameur, Yamine

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, complexity of systems frequently implies different engineering teams handling various descriptive models. Each team having a variety of expertise backgrounds, domain knowledge and modeling practices, the heterogeneity of the models themselves is a logical consequence. Therefore, even individually models are well managed; their diversity becomes a problem when engineers need to share their models to perform some overall validations. One way of reducing this heterogeneity is to take into consideration the implicit knowledge which is not contained in the models but it is cardinal to understand them. In a first stage of our research, we have defined and implemented an approach recommending the formalization of implicit knowledge to enrich models in order to ease cross- model checks. Nevertheless, to fill the gap between the specification of the system and the validation of a cross- model constraint, in this paper we suggest giving values to some relevant characteristics to reinforce the approach.

  4. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Wilson, David L., E-mail: dlw@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P{sub C}. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit

  5. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun; Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun; Wilson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P C . Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit and

  6. Development of a Prototype Model-Form Uncertainty Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties are generally classified as either aleatory or epistemic. Aleatory uncertainties are those attributed to random variation, either naturally or through manufacturing processes. Epistemic uncertainties are generally attributed to a lack of knowledge. One type of epistemic uncertainty is called model-form uncertainty. The term model-form means that among the choices to be made during a design process within an analysis, there are different forms of the analysis process, which each give different results for the same configuration at the same flight conditions. Examples of model-form uncertainties include the grid density, grid type, and solver type used within a computational fluid dynamics code, or the choice of the number and type of model elements within a structures analysis. The objectives of this work are to identify and quantify a representative set of model-form uncertainties and to make this information available to designers through an interactive knowledge base (KB). The KB can then be used during probabilistic design sessions, so as to enable the possible reduction of uncertainties in the design process through resource investment. An extensive literature search has been conducted to identify and quantify typical model-form uncertainties present within aerospace design. An initial attempt has been made to assemble the results of this literature search into a searchable KB, usable in real time during probabilistic design sessions. A concept of operations and the basic structure of a model-form uncertainty KB are described. Key operations within the KB are illustrated. Current limitations in the KB, and possible workarounds are explained.

  7. Deformable human body model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  8. A human neurodevelopmental model for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Trujillo, Cleber A; Freitas, Beatriz C; Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Herai, Roberto H; Yu, Diana X; Brown, Timothy T; Marchetto, Maria C; Bardy, Cedric; McHenry, Lauren; Stefanacci, Lisa; Järvinen, Anna; Searcy, Yvonne M; DeWitt, Michelle; Wong, Wenny; Lai, Philip; Ard, M Colin; Hanson, Kari L; Romero, Sarah; Jacobs, Bob; Dale, Anders M; Dai, Li; Korenberg, Julie R; Gage, Fred H; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric; Semendeferi, Katerina; Muotri, Alysson R

    2016-08-18

    Williams syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uncommon hypersociability and a mosaic of retained and compromised linguistic and cognitive abilities. Nearly all clinically diagnosed individuals with Williams syndrome lack precisely the same set of genes, with breakpoints in chromosome band 7q11.23 (refs 1-5). The contribution of specific genes to the neuroanatomical and functional alterations, leading to behavioural pathologies in humans, remains largely unexplored. Here we investigate neural progenitor cells and cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome and typically developing induced pluripotent stem cells. Neural progenitor cells in Williams syndrome have an increased doubling time and apoptosis compared with typically developing neural progenitor cells. Using an individual with atypical Williams syndrome, we narrowed this cellular phenotype to a single gene candidate, frizzled 9 (FZD9). At the neuronal stage, layer V/VI cortical neurons derived from Williams syndrome were characterized by longer total dendrites, increased numbers of spines and synapses, aberrant calcium oscillation and altered network connectivity. Morphometric alterations observed in neurons from Williams syndrome were validated after Golgi staining of post-mortem layer V/VI cortical neurons. This model of human induced pluripotent stem cells fills the current knowledge gap in the cellular biology of Williams syndrome and could lead to further insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the disorder and the human social brain.

  9. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  10. Knowledge-enhanced network simulation modeling of the nuclear power plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryver, J.C.; Palko, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Simulation models of the human operator of advanced control systems must provide an adequate account of the cognitive processes required to control these systems. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) prototype model was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamically integrating a cognitive operator model and a continuous plant process model (ARIES-P) to provide predictions of the total response of a nuclear power plant during upset/emergency conditions. The model consists of a SAINT network of cognitive tasks enhanced with expertise provided by a knowledge-based fault diagnosis model. The INTEROPS prototype has been implemented in both closed and open loop modes. The prototype model is shown to be cognitively relevant by accounting for cognitive tunneling, confirmation bias, evidence chunking, intentional error, and forgetting

  11. Modeling human comprehension of data visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haass, Michael Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Divis, Kristin Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This project was inspired by two needs. The first is a need for tools to help scientists and engineers to design effective data visualizations for communicating information, whether to the user of a system, an analyst who must make decisions based on complex data, or in the context of a technical report or publication. Most scientists and engineers are not trained in visualization design, and they could benefit from simple metrics to assess how well their visualization's design conveys the intended message. In other words, will the most important information draw the viewer's attention? The second is the need for cognition-based metrics for evaluating new types of visualizations created by researchers in the information visualization and visual analytics communities. Evaluating visualizations is difficult even for experts. However, all visualization methods and techniques are intended to exploit the properties of the human visual system to convey information efficiently to a viewer. Thus, developing evaluation methods that are rooted in the scientific knowledge of the human visual system could be a useful approach. In this project, we conducted fundamental research on how humans make sense of abstract data visualizations, and how this process is influenced by their goals and prior experience. We then used that research to develop a new model, the Data Visualization Saliency Model, that can make accurate predictions about which features in an abstract visualization will draw a viewer's attention. The model is an evaluation tool that can address both of the needs described above, supporting both visualization research and Sandia mission needs.

  12. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-04-01

    Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time. Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work. Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  13. Virtual NC machine model with integrated knowledge data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, Sofija; Dukovski, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The concept of virtual NC machining was established for providing a virtual product that could be compared with an appropriate designed product, in order to make NC program correctness evaluation, without real experiments. This concept is applied in the intelligent CAD/CAM system named VIRTUAL MANUFACTURE. This paper presents the first intelligent module that enables creation of the virtual models of existed NC machines and virtual creation of new ones, applying modular composition. Creation of a virtual NC machine is carried out via automatic knowledge data saving (features of the created NC machine). (Author)

  14. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  15. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Falcone

    Full Text Available We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  16. School nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of role as opinion leader, and professional practice regarding human papillomavirus vaccine for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine. We used a cross-sectional design by recruiting members from the National Association of School Nurses. All participants (N = 505) were e-mailed a survey designed for this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested direct and indirect effects. Overall, school nurses had knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and positive attitudes toward the vaccine. They had less-than-enthusiastic perceptions of their role as opinion leaders regarding the vaccine and implemented few activities related to providing vaccine information. The model revealed a good fit (χ(2)=20.238 [df=8, prole as opinion leaders. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. Epigenetic mechanisms in microbial members of the human microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Natacha; AlJahdali, Nesreen; Vo, Nguyen; Carbonero, Franck

    2016-09-01

    The human microbiota and epigenetic processes have both been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. However, there is extremely scarce information on epigenetic modulation of microbiota members except for a few pathogens. Mainly DNA adenine methylation has been described extensively in modulating the virulence of pathogenic bacteria in particular. It would thus appear likely that such mechanisms are widespread for most bacterial members of the microbiota. This review will present briefly the current knowledge on epigenetic processes in bacteria, give examples of known methylation processes in microbial members of the human microbiota and summarize the knowledge on regulation of host epigenetic processes by the human microbiota.

  18. Estimation of intellectual capital in the European Union using a knowledge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado Peña

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model aimed at measuring intellectual capital as the potential knowledge of a country and apply it to the European Union. The method consists of activating accountable expenses, assumed to generate knowledge. In order to do so, efficiency indicators are used, derived from a summary of variables of structural, human and technological capitals by means of factor analysis. The results of this study for the EU25 in 2006 explain why Northern Europe has greater intellectual capital potential. They are more productive, as they manage and apply new technologies better. In human capital, Eastern countries have strong potential. The paper concludes that, at the conceptual level, this information should be used to design convergence policies and balanced development strategies to ensure economic growth.

  19. A Knowledge Tree Model and Its Application for Continuous Management Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Bao, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Gui-Jun

    This chapter analyzes the relationship of organizational knowledge and brings forward that organizational knowledge consists of three layers: core knowledge, structural knowledge, and implicit knowledge. According to the principle of knowledge maps, a dynamic management model of organizational knowledge based on knowledge tree is introduced and the definition of the value of knowledge node is given so that the quantitative management on knowledge is realized, which lays a foundation for performance evaluation of knowledge management. We also carefully study the application of knowledge tree in service quality management of hospital organizations and management innovation process and give the example of cooperation in endoscopic surgery to establish a knowledge tree about operational cooperation degree, which states the principle of organizational knowledge management and the knowledge innovation process of continuous management improvement.

  20. Designing a Knowledge Management System for Distributed Activities: A Human Centered Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best describe...

  1. Knowledge management: from ignorance to truth or the dikw model extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturza Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management may be treated both narrowly and broadly. The understanding of the nature of knowledge, including its classification, is important for improving knowledge management. There are distinguished 6 forms of knowledge: ignorance, data, information, knowledge, wisdom and truth (an extended and original version of the DIKW model.

  2. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: FROM IGNORANCE TO TRUTH OR THE DIKW MODEL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturza Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management may be treated both narrowly and broadly. The understanding of the nature of knowledge, including its classification, is important for improving knowledge management. There are distinguished 6 forms of knowledge: ignorance, data, information, knowledge, wisdom and truth (an extended and original version of the DIKW model.

  3. Managing nuclear knowledge: Strategies and human resource development. Summary of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear industry is knowledge based, similar to other highly technical industries, and relies heavily on the accumulation of knowledge. Recent trends such as workforce ageing and declining student enrolment numbers, and the risk of losing accumulated knowledge and experience, have drawn attention to the need for better management of nuclear knowledge. In 2002 the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution on nuclear knowledge, which was reiterated in 2003; the resolution emphasized the importance of nuclear knowledge and information management and urged both the IAEA and Member States to strengthen their activities and efforts in this regard. Consequently, the International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management: Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development, which was held on 7-10 September 2004 in Saclay, was organized by the IAEA and the Government of France through the Commissariat a l'energie atomique in cooperation with the European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, European Atomic Forum, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, World Council of Nuclear Workers, World Nuclear University and European Association of Information Services. The conference was attended by 250 experts, scientists and officials from 54 Member States and nine international organizations, giving the conference a very broad representation of the nuclear sector. The objective of the conference was to reach a clear and common understanding of the issues related to nuclear knowledge management for sustaining knowledge and expertise in nuclear science and technology and to define a strategic framework for developing IAEA cross-cutting knowledge management activities. The conference provided a forum for professionals and decision makers in the nuclear sector, comprising industry, government and academia, as well as professionals in the knowledge management and information technology sectors. Based on the results of the conference, the key insights, lessons learned

  4. Introducing serendipity in a social network model of knowledge diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Serendipity as a control mechanism for knowledge diffusion in social network. • Local communication enhanced in the periphery of a network. • Prevalence of hub nodes in the network core mitigated. • Potential disruptive effect on network formation of uncontrolled serendipity. - Abstract: In this paper, we study serendipity as a possible strategy to control the behavior of an agent-based network model of knowledge diffusion. The idea of considering serendipity in a strategic way has been first explored in Network Learning and Information Seeking studies. After presenting the major contributions of serendipity studies to digital environments, we discuss the extension to our model: Agents are enriched with random topics for establishing new communication according to different strategies. The results show how important network properties could be influenced, like reducing the prevalence of hubs in the network’s core and increasing local communication in the periphery, similar to the effects of more traditional self-organization methods. Therefore, from this initial study, when serendipity is opportunistically directed, it appears to behave as an effective and applicable approach to social network control.

  5. Modeling Knowledge Resource Selection in Expert Librarian Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAUFMAN, David R.; MEHRYAR, Maryam; CHASE, Herbert; HUNG, Peter; CHILOV, Marina; JOHNSON, Stephen B.; MENDONCA, Eneida

    2011-01-01

    Providing knowledge at the point of care offers the possibility for reducing error and improving patient outcomes. However, the vast majority of physician’s information needs are not met in a timely fashion. The research presented in this paper models an expert librarian’s search strategies as it pertains to the selection and use of various electronic information resources. The 10 searches conducted by the librarian to address physician’s information needs, varied in terms of complexity and question type. The librarian employed a total of 10 resources and used as many as 7 in a single search. The longer term objective is to model the sequential process in sufficient detail as to be able to contribute to the development of intelligent automated search agents. PMID:19380912

  6. Knowledge, perception and attitude towards human papillomavirus among pre-university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Beng; Yee, Choy Mun; Shan, Lim Pei; Teik, Chew Kah; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.

  7. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  8. The Structure of Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge: Model Equivalence and Validity Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Mincic, Melissa; Graling, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A theory-based 2-factor structure of preschoolers' emotion knowledge (i.e., recognition of emotional expression and understanding of emotion-eliciting situations) was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Compared to 1- and 3-factor models, the 2-factor model showed a better fit to the data. The model was found to be…

  9. Status study of knowledge management in universities and to provide a suitable model (Case Study: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Mustafa; Asadi, M. Mahdi

    2010-05-01

    During the past two decades to increase the volume of information and knowledge in organizations and the necessity of effective use of it in Organizational decisions is led to the emerging phenomenon of knowledge management. Knowledge management, including all the ways the organization manage their knowledge assets that include how collection, storage, transfer, deployment, update and create knowledge. Universities that type of knowledge based organizations are important sources of knowledge and therefore can be considered as strategic in universities and higher education centers of knowledge management will be more important. In this research The status of knowledge management in universities and a case study of Mashhad University are checked are the problems and challenges are identified and finally as for the features, requirements and conditions to implement a model for universities and deployment of knowledge management is presented in it.Therefore, basic research problem is: the status of knowledge management in universities and the case Mashhad University is how and which model for implementation and deployment of knowledge management is recommended? Importance and necessity of research topicare: Knowledge management experts in the emergence of knowledge management consider four major factors:1) passing the material tangible assets dominated era to the domination of capital in non-palpable, nonetheless organizations. 2) increase the extraordinary volume of information, the electronic storage and increased access to information 3) risk to the story of institutional knowledge due to retirement or exit from the crew 4) become more specialized activities in the organization 5) the emergence of knowledge based organizations and incidence of the most important capital is its knowledge. Knowledge management solutions focus on the entire system, including organization, human resources and technology in the take-the most important tools for solving problems and

  10. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  11. Crowd Human Behavior for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-06

    Crowd Human Behavior for Modeling and Simulation Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. & Gordon Cooke, MEME Target Behavioral Response Laboratory, ARDEC...TYPE Conference Presentation 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Crowd Human Behavior for Modeling and Simulation...34understanding human behavior " and "model validation and verification" and will focus on modeling and simulation of crowds from a social scientist???s

  12. Mechanistic Modeling Reveals the Critical Knowledge Gaps in Bile Acid-Mediated DILI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, J L; Yang, K; Brouwer, K L R; Siler, S Q; Stahl, S H; Ambroso, J L; Baker, D; Watkins, P B; Howell, B A

    2014-07-09

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition has been proposed to be an important mechanism for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Modeling can prioritize knowledge gaps concerning bile acid (BA) homeostasis and thus help guide experimentation. A submodel of BA homeostasis in rats and humans was constructed within DILIsym, a mechanistic model of DILI. In vivo experiments in rats with glibenclamide were conducted, and data from these experiments were used to validate the model. The behavior of DILIsym was analyzed in the presence of a simulated theoretical BSEP inhibitor. BSEP inhibition in humans is predicted to increase liver concentrations of conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and sulfate-conjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) while the concentration of other liver BAs remains constant or decreases. On the basis of a sensitivity analysis, the most important unknowns are the level of BSEP expression, the amount of intestinal synthesis of LCA, and the magnitude of farnesoid-X nuclear receptor (FXR)-mediated regulation.

  13. Rasmussen's model of human behavior in laparoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S; Alwayn, I; Hosman, R J A W; Stassen, H G

    2003-08-01

    Compared to aviation, where virtual reality (VR) training has been standardized and simulators have proven their benefits, the objectives, needs, and means of VR training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) still have to be established. The aim of the study presented is to introduce Rasmussen's model of human behavior as a practical framework for the definition of the training objectives, needs, and means in MIS. Rasmussen distinguishes three levels of human behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behaviour. The training needs of a laparoscopic novice can be determined by identifying the specific skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior that is required for performing safe laparoscopy. Future objectives of VR laparoscopy trainers should address all three levels of behavior. Although most commercially available simulators for laparoscopy aim at training skill-based behavior, especially the training of knowledge-based behavior during complications in surgery will improve safety levels. However, the cost and complexity of a training means increases when the training objectives proceed from the training of skill-based behavior to the training of complex knowledge-based behavior. In aviation, human behavior models have been used successfully to integrate the training of skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior in a full flight simulator. Understanding surgeon behavior is one of the first steps towards a future full-scale laparoscopy simulator.

  14. Biomechanical Modeling of the Human Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast- Induced Neurotrauma,” Frontiers in Neurology 3, 30 (2012). 13. R. A. Bauman, G. Ling...modeling, of both humans and animals , has gained momentum for the investigation of traumatic brain injury. These models require both accurate geometric...between model predictions and experimental data. This report details model calibration for all materials identified in models of a human head and

  15. MODEL KNOWLEDGE SHARING BERBASIS KOMPETENSI: STUDI KASUS BIRO KEPEGAWAIAN PADA SEBUAH INSTITUSI PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Muliahati

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge organisasi paling banyak berupa knowledge tersirat (tacit knowledge yang tersimpan di pemikiran (otak pegawai dan diperlukan dalam aktivitas-aktivitas organisasi, karenanya knowledge tersirat pegawai sebuah organisasi/perusahaan merupakan aset yang berharga. Namun, banyak perusahaan yang tidak mengetahui potensi knowledge tersembunyi pegawainya. Akibatnya, ketika seorang pegawai yang memiliki knowledge meninggalkan perusahaan maka perusahaan akan kehilangan knowledge pegawai tersebut. Selain itu, perusahaan juga tidak dapat mengidentifikasi pegawai yang memiliki kompetensi teknikal yaitu pegawai yang memiliki knowledge dan menjadi referensi knowledge bagi pegawai lainnya, sehingga potensi pengetahuan dan keahlian pegawai tersebut tidak dapat dimanfaatkan secara maksimal oleh perusahaan yang akhirnya akan berpengaruh pada karir pegawai tersebut yang cenderung tidak meningkat. Keadaan tersebut kini menjadi masalah yang harus segera diselesaikan oleh Biro Kepegawaian (Rowai pada sebuah institusi pemerintah. Rowai harus dapat mengetahui siapa saja pegawainya yang memiliki knowledge. Knowledge tersirat yang dimiliki oleh pegawai dan masih berada di kepala masing-masing dapat terlihat jika mereka secara bersama-sama melakukan suatu pekerjaan atau kegiatan di mana di dalamnya terdapat proses knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing itu sendiri dianggap sebagai hubungan sosial antar orang dan dapat dimodelkan sebagai jejaring hubungan (network of relationships. Model jejaring knowledge sharing dapat diketahui dengan cara memeriksa struktur dari relasi sosial knowledge sharing di dalam perusahaan dengan menggunakan Social Network Analysis (SNA. SNA dapat mendukung knowledge sharing dengan fokus pada berbagai penggunaan inti dari pengelolaan knowledge (knowledge management, salah satunya adalah mengidentifikasi kepakaran dan knowledge pribadi. Penelitian ini menggunakan SNA untuk mengidentifikasi model knowledge sharing berbasis kompetensi di Rowai

  16. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention.

  17. German medical students' interest in and knowledge about human sexuality in 1972 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Jopt, Konstantin; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer

    2014-08-01

    During the 1970s, a growing number of medical schools began to recognize the importance of medical education concerning human sexuality. Currently, most medical schools provide at least some instruction in human sexuality. In light of this development, the present study aimed to compare the interest in and knowledge about human sexuality of medical students from two different time periods. The answers to a self-constructed questionnaire of 236 students in 1972 were compared with those of 259 students in 2012. Students were asked whether they were interested in education regarding human sexuality and which specific topics they felt should be included in the medical curriculum. The students' knowledge in the following domains was assessed: sexual development, sexual behavior, sexual physiology and psychology, and sexual medicine. The two cohorts were compared with regard to those specific sexuality-related topics in which the students were most and least interested in. Furthermore, the number of correct responses to the knowledge questions was compared. While in 1972, 99.2% of the students were interested in medical education about human sexuality, in 2012, 80.3% showed an interest. The connection of disorders from different medical disciplines with sexuality was rated as most interesting by both the students from 1972 and 2012. Medical students from 2012 gave 50.3% correct answers to the knowledge questions, whereas students from 1972 correctly answered 46.3% of the questions. Although interest in education concerning human sexuality has decreased, the majority of students view it as an important topic. Nevertheless, medical students still lack knowledge about important aspects of human sexuality (e.g., psychosexual development and relative safety of different contraceptives). Therefore, more time should be dedicated to education concerning human sexuality and its cultural, societal, and health aspects in particular. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Linking Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management via Commitment to Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuimet Karin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM, organisational (safety culture and knowledge management literature through developing the linkage and relationship among them. The article suggests that the HRM concepts and frameworks could play an important role in the safety knowledge exchange within the organisation. The research method includes exploratory case studies, interviews and evaluation questionnaires in order to clarify how HRM practices are adopted for safety management systems.

  19. Linking Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management via Commitment to Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Kuimet, K; Järvis, M; Virovere, A; Hartšenko, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM), organisational (safety) culture and knowledge management literature through developing the linkage and relationship among them. The article suggests that the HRM concepts and frameworks could play an important role in the safety knowledge exchange within the organisation. The research method includes exploratory case studies, interviews and evaluation questionnaires in order to clarify how HRM practices are adop...

  20. Axiological epistemology and transdisciplinary knowledge: cognitive strategies for recognition and cultivation of the human deep quality and the sacred dimension of existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Néstor Osorio García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of the current European societies, which are made possible through the production of scientific knowledge and technical, is simple in its formulation. They are societies in constant knowledge creation.  Given socio-economic and working conditions, implemented from the neo-liberal model of society, the abstract knowledge, associated with the profit of a few over the many, is leading the cultural logic of knowledge societies, without any axiological hesitation, That is to say, without postulating and discerning common goals and values ​​that can motivate human beings to live for the human journey. Thus, the current European societies, but not only them, are knowledge societies, (because they live in the continuous creation of technical and scientific knowledge. At the same time, companies are axiologically dismantled. They are societies that do not have been axiologically oriented. If humanity does not recover and increase this constitutive dimension, may not be feasible in human form. Our reflection presents a proposal for an axiological epistemology (M. Corbi and the proposal of a transdisciplinary knowledge (B. Nicolescu as "devices" that explicitly cultivated, can prevent human collapse in knowledge societies.

  1. The Motivational Knowledge Management Model: proposal to apply it in the library sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López-Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In professional environments, attention paid to aspects such as supervisory styles, interpersonal relationships and workers eagerness can have a positive impact on employee motivation and, consequently, on their performance and well-being. To achieve this, knowledge management models such as those presented here can be applied. This model generates diagnoses of motivation and recommendations for improvement, both systematically and scientifically. Consequently, it is especially useful for managers and human resource departments. The proposed model can be adapted to different kinds of professional groups, including those in library and documentation services. The suitability, reliability and usefulness of the proposed model have been empirically checked through case studies with 92 students and 166 professionals. The positive results allow us to conclude that the model is effective and useful for assessing and improving motivation.

  2. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  3. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven JM

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at http://www.bcgsc.ca/bioinfo/software.

  4. How does objective and subjective human papillomavirus knowledge affect information-seeking intentions and source preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manika, Danae; Stout, Patricia A; Golden, Linda L; Mackert, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of objective (factual information) and subjective knowledge (an individual's self-assessment of how much knowledge they have) on information-seeking intentions and source preferences. It explores the human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge inequalities in groups of young adults age 18-26 years with and without vaccinations and diagnosis, and different demographics/socio-economic and perceptions of health status. Higher subjective HPV knowledge leads to greater information-seeking intentions from family/friends and mass media but not from health professionals and the Internet. Objective HPV knowledge did not matter for information seeking. The important role of demographics/socio-economic and perceived health status is also discussed.

  5. A Knowledge Modeling Method for Computer Graphics Design & Production Based on Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most critical stages of CG (Computer Graphics industry, CG design & production needs the support of professional knowledge and practice experience of multidisciplinary. With the outstanding performance in knowledge sharing, integration and reuse, knowledge modeling could increase greatly the efficiency, reduce the cost and avoid repeated error in CG design & production. However, knowledge modeling of CG design & production differs greatly from those of other fields. On the one hand, it is similar to physical product design, which involves great deal of tacit knowledge such as modeling skills, reasoning knowledge and so on. On the other hand, as film, CG design & production needs a lot of unstructured description information. The heterogeneity between physical product and film makes knowledge modeling more complicated. Thus a systematic knowledge modelling method based on Ontology is proposed to aid CG design & production in this paper. CG animation knowledge is capture and organized from viewpoint of three aspects: requirements and design and production. The knowledge are categorized into static and dynamic knowledge, and Ontology is adopted to construct a hierarchic model to organize the knowledge, so as to offer a uniform communication semantic foundations for designers from different fields. Based on animation script, the CG design task model is proposed to drive the organization and management of different knowledge involved in CG design & production. Finally, we apply this method in the knowledge modeling of naked-eye animation design and production to illustrate effectiveness of this method.

  6. LINKING HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO DRIVE MEASURABLE RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia‐Maria\tBORDEIANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the human resources are seen as a very valuable asset to achieve long-term performance. Today we understand that every employee is required to learn throughout life, so to acquire new knowledge, to process such knowledge and possibly disseminate expertise with other members of the organization. The theory on human resources in various organizations has changed over time; recommendations have become more numerous, but there is no consensus on the subject. In other words, the permanent change which defines the competitive environment of business remains a type of constant when analysing the efficiency of human resources within companies; inter-individual relations (formal and informal and the values to which each employee relates remains crucial for any theoretical construction in this area. Principles and strategies applied by organizations yesterday could prove their inefficiency today; human resource strategies in organizations today should include a separate subcomponent, we believe, i.e. knowledge management (KM strategy. This is because the competitive advantage obtained or maintained by the company depends today, in large proportion, on the type, quality and value of knowledge possessed by the organization. Therefore, organizational strategy and thus the strategy of acquisition, developing and rewarding of human resources (HR should take into account this reality from the global environment. Moreover, in the current knowledge-driven economy, organizations must know how to develop and implement knowledge-based strategies to drive measurable business results. The goal of this paper is to describe a potential relation between the overall company strategy, HR strategy and KM strategy.

  7. Evaluation, Use, and Refinement of Knowledge Representations through Acquisition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Generative approaches to language have long recognized the natural link between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition. The basic idea is that the knowledge representations provided by Universal Grammar enable children to acquire language as reliably as they do because these representations highlight the…

  8. Knowledge Management Models And Their Utility To The Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although indigenous knowledge is key to the development of sub Saharan Africa and the preservation of its societal memory, it is fast disappearing due to a variety of reasons. One of the strategies that may assist in the management and preservation of indigenous knowledge is the utilization of knowledge management ...

  9. Applying the knowledge creation model to the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    acquired mainly through the socialising and externalising skills and experiences of employees for the benefit of ... shared among employees who might be interested in increasing their knowledge and learning new skills. ... reduces the entropy of total knowledge by structuring and integrating new created knowledge into the.

  10. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  11. MECHANISMS OF GROWTH AND TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN AND INTELLECTUAL POTENTIALS IN CORPORATION OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Lanskaya D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the mechanisms of growth, transformation of human and intellectual potentials in the corporation capitals, and also the mechanisms of fixing of their carriers in a corporation for the purpose of ensuring growth of competitive force of corporation of knowledge economy; in particular, we have investigated basic mechanisms of interaction of owners of human and intellectual capitals with a vertical of the economic power of corporation and the mechanism of an intellectual ren...

  12. International conference on nuclear knowledge management: Strategies, information management and human resource development. Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is knowledge based, similar to other highly technical industries, and relies heavily on the accumulation of knowledge. Recent trends such as workforce ageing and declining student enrolment numbers, and the risk of losing accumulated knowledge and experience, have drawn attention to the need for better management of nuclear knowledge. In 2002 the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution on nuclear knowledge, which was reiterated in 2003; the resolution emphasized the importance of nuclear knowledge and information management and urged both the IAEA and Member States to strengthen their activities and efforts in this regard. Consequently, the International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management: Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development, which was held on 7-10 September 2004 in Saclay, was organized by the IAEA and the Government of France through the Commissariat a l'energie atomique in cooperation with the European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, European Atomic Forum, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, World Council of Nuclear Workers, World Nuclear University and European Association of Information Services. The conference was attended by 250 experts, scientists and officials from 54 Member States and nine international organizations, giving the conference a very broad representation of the nuclear sector. The objective of the conference was to reach a clear and common understanding of the issues related to nuclear knowledge management for sustaining knowledge and expertise in nuclear science and technology and to define a strategic framework for developing IAEA cross-cutting knowledge management activities. The conference provided a forum for professionals and decision makers in the nuclear sector, comprising industry, government and academia, as well as professionals in the knowledge management and information technology sectors. The unedited papers are presented in this report

  13. Nurse Knowledge Exchange Plus: Human-Centered Implementation for Spread and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mike; Heisler, Scott; Fahey, Linda; McGinnis, Juli; Whiffen, Teri L

    2015-07-01

    Kaiser Permanente implemented a new model of nursing communication at shift change-in the bedside nursing report known as the Nurse Knowledge Exchange (NKE) in 2004-but noted variations in its spread and sustainability across medical centers five years later. The six core elements of NKEplus were as follows: team rounding in the last hour before shift changes, pre-shift patient assignments that limit the number of departing nurses at shift change, unit support for uninterrupted bedside reporting, standardization for report and safety check formats, and collaboration with patients to update in-room care boards. In January 2011 Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC; Pasadena) began implementing NKEplus in 125 nursing units across 14 hospitals, with the use of human-centered design principles: creating shared understanding of the need for change, minimum specifications, and customization by frontline staff. Champion teams on each nursing unit designed and pilot tested unit-specific versions of NKEplus for four to eight weeks. Implementation occurred in waves and proceeded from medical/surgical units to specialty units. Traditional performance improvement strategies of accountability, measurement, and management were also applied. By the end of 2012, 100% of the 64 medical/surgical units and 47 (77.0%) of the 61 specialty units in KPSC medical centers implemented NKEplus-as had all but 1 of the specialty units by May 2013. The mean KPSC score on the NKEplus nursing behavior bundle improved from 65.9% in 2010 to 71.3% in the first quarter of 2014. The mean KPSC Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) score for nurse communication improved from 73.1% in 2010 to 76.4% in the first quarter of 2014 (p Human-centered implementation appeared to help spread a new model of nursing handoffs and change the culture of professional nursing practice related to shift change.

  14. How students learn to coordinate knowledge of physical and mathematical models in cellular physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Matthew

    This dissertation explores the Knowledge in Pieces (KiP) theory to account for how students learn to coordinate knowledge of mathematical and physical models in biology education. The KiP approach characterizes student knowledge as a fragmented collection of knowledge elements as opposed to stable and theory-like knowledge. This dissertation sought to use this theoretical lens to account for how students understand and learn with mathematical models and representations, such as equations. Cellular physiology provides a quantified discipline that leverages concepts from mathematics, physics, and chemistry to understand cellular functioning. Therefore, this discipline provides an exemplary context for assessing how biology students think and learn with mathematical models. In particular, the resting membrane potential provides an exemplary concept well defined by models of dynamic equilibrium borrowed from physics and chemistry. In brief, membrane potentials, or voltages, "rest" when the electrical and chemical driving forces for permeable ionic species are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. To assess students' understandings of this concept, this dissertation employed three studies: the first study employed the cognitive clinical interview to assess student thinking in the absence and presence of equations. The second study employed an intervention to assess student learning and the affordances of an innovative assessment. The third student employed a human-computer-interaction paradigm to assess how students learn with a novel multi-representational technology. Study 1 revealed that students saw only one influence--the chemical gradient--and that students coordinated knowledge of only this gradient with the related equations. Study 2 revealed that students benefited from learning with the multi-representational technology and that the assessment detected performance gains across both calculation and explanation tasks. Last, Study 3 revealed how students

  15. On scaling of human body models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human body is not an unique being, everyone is another from the point of view of anthropometry and mechanical characteristics which means that division of the human body population to categories like 5%-tile, 50%-tile and 95%-tile from the application point of view is not enough. On the other hand, the development of a particular human body model for all of us is not possible. That is why scaling and morphing algorithms has started to be developed. The current work describes the development of a tool for scaling of the human models. The idea is to have one (or couple of standard model(s as a base and to create other models based on these basic models. One has to choose adequate anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters that describe given group of humans to be scaled and morphed among.

  16. Computer modeling of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.

  17. Models of knowledge management in Russian institutions: social and psychological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestik Timofei Aleksandrovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents socio-psychological analysis of five knowledge management models used in Russian institutions: knowledge management in projects, virtual expert groups, competence centers, knowledge management via organization development and open innovations. Special attention is given to the consequences of transition to network-based knowledge management.

  18. A Survey of Student Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Civil Liberties and Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, John; Echols, Jr., Frank

    1980-01-01

    This study reveals that Canadian secondary school students' knowledge of civil liberties and human rights laws is inadequate and that their attitudes are negative and inconsistent. Items on the survey include freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; right to counsel; access to a public facility; right of employment; and rental accommodation.…

  19. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  20. Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

  1. International Researcher Mobility and Knowledge Transfer in the Social Sciences and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coey, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This article explores knowledge outcomes of international researcher mobility in the social sciences and humanities. Looking in particular at international experiences of longer durations in the careers of European PhD graduates, it proposes a threefold analytical typology for understanding the links between the modes, durations, and outcomes of…

  2. Beliefs and Knowledge about the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine among Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa; Weinstein, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess male undergraduate students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and intentions to receive the HPV vaccination. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Method: A sample of 116 male undergraduate students from a university in the Midwestern USA completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects…

  3. Enabling Integrated Decision Making for Electronic-Commerce by Modelling an Enterprise's Sharable Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    An enterprise model, a computational model of knowledge about an enterprise, is a useful tool for integrated decision-making by e-commerce suppliers and customers. Sharable knowledge, once represented in an enterprise model, can be integrated by the modeled enterprise's e-commerce partners. Presents background on enterprise modeling, followed by…

  4. Human resource management and unit performance in knowledge-intensive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Rebecca R; Collins, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the potential value of a targeted system of human resource (HR) practices, we explore the unique effects of a relationship-oriented HR system and the more commonly studied high commitment HR system on unit performance in the context of knowledge-intensive work. We develop theoretical arguments suggesting that the high commitment HR system contributes to unit performance through its positive effects on employees' collective organizational commitment, general and firm-specific human capital, and access to knowledge. We argue that the relationship-oriented HR system contributes to unit performance through its positive effects on employees' collective access to knowledge by fostering a social context and interpersonal exchange conditions which support employees' ongoing access to knowledge flows within and outside their unit and broader organization. Based on unit-level data collected from a matched sample of employees and managers in 128 units in the science and engineering division of a large hydroelectric power organization, our results suggest that the targeted, relationship-oriented HR system is related to firm performance and may complement a broader, high commitment approach to managing knowledge workers. Specifically, the positive relationship between the high commitment HR system and unit performance is mediated by employees' collective organizational commitment, firm-specific human capital, and access to knowledge in other organizational units; whereas the positive relationship between the relationship-oriented HR system and unit performance is mediated by units' access to knowledge within the unit, in other units, and outside the organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Human Performance Models of Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Byrne, Michael D.; Deutsch, Stephen; Lebiere, Christian; Leiden, Ken; Wickens, Christopher D.; Corker, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Five modeling teams from industry and academia were chosen by the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program to develop human performance models (HPM) of pilots performing taxi operations and runway instrument approaches with and without advanced displays. One representative from each team will serve as a panelist to discuss their team s model architecture, augmentations and advancements to HPMs, and aviation-safety related lessons learned. Panelists will discuss how modeling results are influenced by a model s architecture and structure, the role of the external environment, specific modeling advances and future directions and challenges for human performance modeling in aviation.

  6. Animal models for human genetic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharif Sons

    to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their ... disturbances (including anxiety and depression) ..... Leibovici M, Safieddine S, Petit C (2008). Mouse models for human hereditary deafness. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 84:385-429. Levi YF, Meiner Z, Canello T, Frid K, Kovacs GG, Budka H, Avrahami.

  7. Knowledge about human papillomavirus and prevention of cervical cancer among women of Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena E Roik

    Full Text Available Knowledge about cervical cancer (CC risk factors and benefits of CC prevention motivates women to participate in its screening. However, several studies show that there is a significant knowledge deficit worldwide about human papillomavirus (HPV. The current study explores the level of knowledge about HPV and CC prevention in the context of sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of women who visited an antenatal clinic in Arkhangelsk, Russia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Arkhangelsk, which seats the administrative center of Arkhangelsk County, Northwest Russia. It included women who consulted a gynecologist for any reason between January 1, 2015 and April 30, 2015, were residents of Arkhangelsk, 25 to 65 years of age and sexually active (N = 300. Student's t-test for continuous variables and Pearson's χ2 test for categorical variables were used in the comparisons of women grouped as having either poor or sufficient knowledge. Linear regression analysis was also employed.The level of knowledge about HPV and CC prevention was associated with education, parity, age of initiating of intercourse, and sources of information. After adjustment, women with university education were more likely to have higher knowledge about HPV and CC prevention compared to those with lower education.We observed that most participants had a sufficient level of knowledge. Educational gaps were identified that potentially could be used to tailor interventions in CC prevention.

  8. Presenting Knowledge Management Implementation Model with Fuzzy Approach in Information Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of modern sciences and more competitive becoming environment in the technology era, knowledge management is being counted as one of the most important stable competitive advantages of technology oriented organizations. This matter is of higher importance in high technology organizations, especially those active in information technology field due to their unique identity. This way, knowledge management has been already shifted to one of the most important priorities of such organizations that in case of not identifying, applying, recording and creating that knowledge, the organization is inevitable to pay fortunesto revive the knowledge gone. The purpose of this research is presenting a comprehensive knowledge management implementation model in information technology industry. Therefore, the measures of the suggested research’s model were identified by studying identical researches and projects done in knowledge management and information technology sector and also through consultation with the experts. This way, a questionnaire was designed in two parts and distributed among experts in the understudied organizations. The research’s data were analyzed through T Test and Binomial Test through fuzzy approach due to the constraints presented by the Lickert scale. The research findings demonstrate that the stages of knowledge management implementation model in information technology sector include knowledge evaluation, knowledge leverage, knowledge planning, knowledge culture, knowledge strategies, knowledge management processes, suitable knowledge infrastructures, knowledge organization and knowledge presentation. There also exist actions in each stage that effect successful implementation of the mentioned stages.

  9. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...

  10. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    .... Initiated in 2004 at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the SACOT knowledge engineering research project is currently investigating, developing and validating innovative natural language processing (NLP...

  11. From data to knowledge : A method for modeling hospital logistic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.

    When modeling or redesigning a process, the knowledge-management perspective is seldomly used. Using the knowledge categorization developed by van Heusden and Jorna, we propose a knowledge.-management perspective to provide a strategy for modeling and redesigning a business process. As an

  12. The Knowledge Development Model: Responding to the Changing Landscape of Learning in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nan B.

    2017-01-01

    Society's relationship to knowledge and what is considered to be factual is changing. Effective teaching models focused on leveraging strategic control of the knowledge from teachers to learners in virtual learning environments are critical to insuring a positive path is charted. The Knowledge Development Model serves as the guide for determining…

  13. Hubungan antara Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI, Commitment, Competence, Leadership, Government Policy, Human Capital, dan Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, tomaintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technologylearning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for country’s development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy,and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model isas follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence oncompetitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationshipof KTI and competitive advantage.

  14. The Role of Human Resource Management Practice Mediated by Knowledge Management (Study on companies from ICT sector, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Klacmer Calopa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the role of human resources management (HRM in the process of knowledge management (KM in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector in Croatia.In order to succeed, companies must prevent the loss of knowledge. Therefore, they must recognize the importance of human resources as the main factor of business. Only knowledge management enables knowledge sharing.Furthermore, applications of information technology (IT in the field of HRM can prevent the loss of knowledge and arise the transfer of knowledge among employees.For the purpose of this paper, a survey regarding human resource and knowledge management in IT companies is conducted in order to analyze the structure of HR and the importance of knowledge sharing in an organization.

  15. Critical review of activated sludge modeling: state of process knowledge, modeling concepts, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauduc, H; Rieger, L; Oehmen, A; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Comeau, Y; Héduit, A; Vanrolleghem, P A; Gillot, S

    2013-01-01

    This work critically reviews modeling concepts for standard activated sludge wastewater treatment processes (e.g., hydrolysis, growth and decay of organisms, etc.) for some of the most commonly used models. Based on a short overview on the theoretical biochemistry knowledge this review should help model users to better understand (i) the model concepts used; (ii) the differences between models, and (iii) the limits of the models. The seven analyzed models are: (1) ASM1; (2) ASM2d; (3) ASM3; (4) ASM3 + BioP; (5) ASM2d + TUD; (6) Barker & Dold model; and (7) UCTPHO+. Nine standard processes are distinguished and discussed in the present work: hydrolysis; fermentation; ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHO) growth; autotrophic nitrifying organisms (ANO) growth; OHO & ANO decay; poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage; polyphosphate (polyP) storage; phosphorus accumulating organisms PAO) growth; and PAO decay. For a structured comparison, a new schematic representation of these processes is proposed. Each process is represented as a reaction with consumed components on the left of the figure and produced components on the right. Standardized icons, based on shapes and color codes, enable the representation of the stoichiometric modeling concepts and kinetics. This representation allows highlighting the conceptual differences of the models, and the level of simplification between the concepts and the theoretical knowledge. The model selection depending on their theoretical limitations and the main research needs to increase the model quality are finally discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of Australian veterinarians to animal abuse and human interpersonal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, P C; Gullone, E

    2005-10-01

    A survey of Australian veterinarians was undertaken to assess their amount of knowledge about, and their attitudes towards animal abuse, human violence and the link between the two. Results from the 185 respondents to a questionnaire that was either mailed out or hand delivered revealed a wide variety of definitions and attitudes towards abuse, with the majority of veterinarians recognising the link between human and animal abuse. The overwhelming majority of veterinarians believed that they should intervene in some way when confronted with either animal or human abuse, although most felt ill-equipped to deal with suspected human abuse. Almost 20% of cases of animal abuse had associated suspected or known human abuse. It is suggested that veterinarians need more resources made available to them to be able to deal more effectively with these situations.

  17. A survey of epistemology and its implications on an organisational information and knowledge management model

    OpenAIRE

    Kor, AL; Orange, G

    2008-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper which aims to integrate various epistemologies from the philosophical, knowledge management, cognitive science, and educational perspectives. From a survey of knowledge-related literature, we have collated diverse views of knowledge. This is followed by categorising as well as ascribing attributes to the different types of knowledge. We have developed a novel Organisational Information and Knowledge Management Model which seeks to clarify the distinctions between i...

  18. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Capoccia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken husbandry to assess how they relate to risk of disease acquisition, hypothesizing that certain practices associated with a lower knowledge base may heighten the risk. This study used a survey distributed via social media to examine the self-reported knowledge base of individuals involved in chicken husbandry as they relate to beliefs and behaviors associated with the care of these animals. These results identify key factors that may heighten the risk of disease transmission and demonstrate that an increased knowledge base could act to lessen this risk.

  19. Designing a Trust Evaluation Model for Open-Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Qiu, Qin; Yu, Shengquan; Tahir, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The openness of open-knowledge communities (OKCs) leads to concerns about the knowledge quality and reliability of such communities. This confidence crisis has become a major factor limiting the healthy development of OKCs. Earlier studies on trust evaluation for Wikipedia considered disadvantages such as inadequate influencing factors and…

  20. Empirical Modelling of Inter-organizational Knowledge Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haghighi Talab, A.

    2017-01-01

    Open innovation, knowledge co-creation, and research joint ven-tures, unified under the term 'inter-organizational knowledge collaboration', are discussed in various fields of innovation man-agement to ultimately shape inno-vation strategy of the organiza-tions and the innovation policy.

  1. Modeling Social Influences in a Knowledge Management Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Giacomo; Maresca, Paolo; Nota, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The issue of knowledge management in a distributed network is receiving increasing attention from both scientific and industrial organizations. Research efforts in this field are motivated by the awareness that knowledge is more and more perceived as a primary economic resource and that, in the context of organization of organizations, the…

  2. Using the SECI knowledge management model and other tools to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to preserve indigenous knowledge systems is widely recognised. However, there is much debate over whether or not tacit indigenous knowledge can be easily managed. The debate is exacerbated by the fact that some scholars have even argued that, what meets the eye in an indigenous context is only the tip of ...

  3. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Implementing a Technology-Supported Model for Cross-Organisational Learning and Knowledge Building for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammets, Kairit; Pata, Kai; Laanpere, Mart

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed using the elaborated learning and knowledge building model (LKB model) derived from Nonaka and Takeuchi's knowledge management model for supporting cross-organisational teacher development in the temporarily extended organisations composed of universities and schools. It investigated the main LKB model components in the context…

  5. Human Centered Hardware Modeling and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian Damon; Lawrence, Brad; Stelges, Katrine; Henderson, Gena

    2013-01-01

    In order to collaborate engineering designs among NASA Centers and customers, to in clude hardware and human activities from multiple remote locations, live human-centered modeling and collaboration across several sites has been successfully facilitated by Kennedy Space Center. The focus of this paper includes innovative a pproaches to engineering design analyses and training, along with research being conducted to apply new technologies for tracking, immersing, and evaluating humans as well as rocket, vehic le, component, or faci lity hardware utilizing high resolution cameras, motion tracking, ergonomic analysis, biomedical monitoring, wor k instruction integration, head-mounted displays, and other innovative human-system integration modeling, simulation, and collaboration applications.

  6. neXtProt: organizing protein knowledge in the context of human proteome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Pascale; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gleizes, Anne; Pereira, Mario; Zahn-Zabal, Monique; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

    2013-01-04

    About 5000 (25%) of the ~20400 human protein-coding genes currently lack any experimental evidence at the protein level. For many others, there is only little information relative to their abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interactions, or cellular functions. The aim of the HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP, www.thehpp.org ) is to collect this information for every human protein. HPP is based on three major pillars: mass spectrometry (MS), antibody/affinity capture reagents (Ab), and bioinformatics-driven knowledge base (KB). To meet this objective, the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) proposes to build this catalog chromosome-by-chromosome ( www.c-hpp.org ) by focusing primarily on proteins that currently lack MS evidence or Ab detection. These are termed "missing proteins" by the HPP consortium. The lack of observation of a protein can be due to various factors including incorrect and incomplete gene annotation, low or restricted expression, or instability. neXtProt ( www.nextprot.org ) is a new web-based knowledge platform specific for human proteins that aims to complement UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ( www.uniprot.org ) with detailed information obtained from carefully selected high-throughput experiments on genomic variation, post-translational modifications, as well as protein expression in tissues and cells. This article describes how neXtProt contributes to prioritize C-HPP efforts and integrates C-HPP results with other research efforts to create a complete human proteome catalog.

  7. LncRNAWiki: harnessing community knowledge in collaborative curation of human long non-coding RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, L.

    2014-11-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open-content and publicly editable and aimed at community-based curation and collection of information on human lncRNAs. Current related databases are dependent primarily on curation by experts, making it laborious to annotate the exponentially accumulated information on lncRNAs, which inevitably requires collective efforts in community-based curation of lncRNAs. Unlike existing databases, lncRNAWiki features comprehensive integration of information on human lncRNAs obtained from multiple different resources and allows not only existing lncRNAs to be edited, updated and curated by different users but also the addition of newly identified lncRNAs by any user. It harnesses community collective knowledge in collecting, editing and annotating human lncRNAs and rewards community-curated efforts by providing explicit authorship based on quantified contributions. LncRNAWiki relies on the underling knowledge of scientific community for collective and collaborative curation of human lncRNAs and thus has the potential to serve as an up-to-date and comprehensive knowledgebase for human lncRNAs.

  8. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang-yang; Liu, Zhi-hua; Li, Le; Cai, Heng-ling; Wan, Yan-ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among high school students and to provide a basis for health education on HPV infection for high school students in China. A questionnaire on HPV awareness and knowledge was administered to 900 high school students in Xiangtan City of Hunan Province in China by layer cluster sampling. A total of 848 anonymous valid questionnaires were received from volunteers who completed the questionnaire correctly. Only 10.1% had heard of HPV, and of those only 18.6% knew that HPV could lead to cervical cancer. Single factor analysis indicated that home address, age, grade, academic achievement, sex history, gender, father's education level and mother's education level were impact factors for HPV knowledge of high school students. Multiple regression analysis showed 4 independent risk factors associated with HPV knowledge: academic achievement, sex history, gender, and mother's education level. The limited knowledge came primarily from television and radio broadcasts (59.3%), the Internet (57.0%), parents (25.6%), medical workers (20.9%), and teachers (18.6%). High school students lack HPV knowledge, which is affected by multiple factors. Targeted health education of all sorts must be provided. Both schools and families are responsible for reinforcing HPV education provided to high school students.

  9. Ethnogeological Cultural Model of Karst Derived from Traditional Knowledge in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Semken, S. C.; Brandt, E.

    2017-12-01

    Ethnogeology is the scientific study of human relationships with and knowledge of the Earth system, and is typically investigated within the context of a specific culture. Many indigenous and local systems of environmental and place knowledge incorporate empirical observations and culturally framed interpretations of geological features and processes. Ethnogeological interpretations may differ from those of conventional mainstream geoscience, but they are validated by their direct relevance to long-term cultural and environmental resilience and sustainability, typically in challenging environments. Ethnogeologic findings can enrich geoscientific knowledge bases for further research, and inform place-based geoscience education that has been shown to engage and enrich students from diverse underrepresented minority backgrounds. Ethnogeological research blends methods from field geology with methods from field ethnography: such as participant observation, free listing, participatory mapping, and cultural consensus analysis among other methods from rapid participatory assessment. We report here on an ongoing field study in Puerto Rico (PR) and the Dominican Republic (DR) on ethnogeological knowledge of karst topography, geology, and hydrogeology among local cultural indigenous communities such as the Boricua jíbaro and the Dominican campesino. Applied focused ethnographic fieldwork results suggest a good fit for the cultural consensus model about geological processes among culturally expert consultants in DR (4.604) and PR (4.669), as well as competence average with values of 0.552 and 0.628 respectively. This suggests the existence of a regional cultural model for the domain of karst that is shared between PR and DR populations that reside in or near karst terrain. Additional data in support of the cultural model include stories, analogies, and family history using participant observation, and participatory mapping.

  10. Omissions in managing knowledge in innovation processes or how to handle knowledge, humans and tasks : A semio-cognitive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cijsouw, R. S.; Jorna, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Charrel, PJ; Galarreta, D

    2007-01-01

    In organizations, innovation is a long-lasting process that is difficult to manage. Innovation is characterized by the use of new (combinations of) knowledge. Innovation, as knowledge creation, is also an activity of individuals. However, neither the individual nor knowledge is studied as

  11. MODELLING OF ECONOMIC GROWTH WITH LEARNING BY DOING AND KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Liashenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A generalized parametric model as a modified Romer model is considered. This model describes the dependence of the output of the index of knowledge available to the firm. Result of this paper is a family of models between the two extremes - the neoclassical model of decentralized type and nonstationary AK-model. The model assumes that all discoveries are unexpected by-products of the investment and that these discoveries instantly become common knowledge.

  12. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  13. Knowledge-driven computational modeling in Alzheimer's disease research: Current state and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Anastasio, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) follow a slowly progressing dysfunctional trajectory, with a large presymptomatic component and many comorbidities. Using preclinical models and large-scale omics studies ranging from genetics to imaging, a large number of processes that might be involved in AD pathology at different stages and levels have been identified. The sheer number of putative hypotheses makes it almost impossible to estimate their contribution to the clinical outcome and to develop a comprehensive view on the pathological processes driving the clinical phenotype. Traditionally, bioinformatics approaches have provided correlations and associations between processes and phenotypes. Focusing on causality, a new breed of advanced and more quantitative modeling approaches that use formalized domain expertise offer new opportunities to integrate these different modalities and outline possible paths toward new therapeutic interventions. This article reviews three different computational approaches and their possible complementarities. Process algebras, implemented using declarative programming languages such as Maude, facilitate simulation and analysis of complicated biological processes on a comprehensive but coarse-grained level. A model-driven Integration of Data and Knowledge, based on the OpenBEL platform and using reverse causative reasoning and network jump analysis, can generate mechanistic knowledge and a new, mechanism-based taxonomy of disease. Finally, Quantitative Systems Pharmacology is based on formalized implementation of domain expertise in a more fine-grained, mechanism-driven, quantitative, and predictive humanized computer model. We propose a strategy to combine the strengths of these individual approaches for developing powerful modeling methodologies that can provide actionable knowledge for rational development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. Development of these computational approaches is likely to

  14. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial...

  15. How Structure Shapes Dynamics: Knowledge Development in Wikipedia - A Network Multilevel Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halatchliyski, Iassen; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base. PMID:25365319

  16. How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia--a network multilevel modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iassen Halatchliyski

    Full Text Available Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base.

  17. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    , document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead...

  18. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Sources of Information and Adolescents' Knowledge and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; Shew, Marcia L; Zimet, Gregory D; Ding, Lili; Mullins, Tanya L K; Kahn, Jessica A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding where adolescents obtain information about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may be helpful in designing public health interventions promoting HPV vaccination. This study assessed the following: (1) exposure to specific sources of information about HPV vaccines, (2) self-reported helpfulness of these sources of information, and (3) whether the specific source of information was associated with knowledge and perceptions about HPV vaccines among adolescent girls. There were 339 adolescent girls (mean age = 16.8 years) recruited into the study. Television advertisements, the Internet, doctors/nurses, and mothers were the most frequently reported sources of vaccine information; more than 90% of participants who received information from these sources reported they were helpful. Adolescents who received information about HPV vaccines from television advertisements, the Internet, clinicians, and mothers had higher knowledge about HPV vaccines and more positive perceptions. Assuring the accuracy of messages from these sources will be essential, given their importance in influencing adolescents' knowledge and perceptions about HPV vaccines.

  19. Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Duka, Theodora

    2006-03-01

    Two seemingly contrary theories describe the learning mechanisms that mediate human addictive behaviour. According to the classical incentive theories of addiction, addictive behaviour is motivated by a Pavlovian conditioned appetitive emotional response elicited by drug-paired stimuli. Expectancy theory, on the other hand, argues that addictive behaviour is mediated by an expectancy of the drug imparted by cognitive knowledge of the Pavlovian (predictive) contingency between stimuli (S+) and the drug and of the instrumental (causal) contingency between instrumental behaviour and the drug. The present paper reviewed human-nicotine-conditioning studies to assess the role of appetitive emotional conditioning and explicit contingency knowledge in mediating addictive behaviour. The studies reviewed here provided evidence for both the emotional conditioning and the expectancy accounts. The first source of evidence is that nicotine-paired S+ elicit an appetitive emotional conditioned response (CR), albeit only in participants who expect nicotine. Furthermore, the magnitude of this emotional state is modulated by nicotine deprivation/satiation. However, the causal status of the emotional response in driving other forms of conditioned behaviour remains undemonstrated. The second source of evidence is that other nicotine CRs, including physiological responses, self-administration, attentional bias and subjective craving, are also dependent on participants possessing explicit knowledge of the Pavlovian contingencies arranged in the experiment. In addition, several of the nicotine CRs can be brought about or modified by instructed contingency knowledge, demonstrating the causal status of this knowledge. Collectively, these data suggest that human nicotine conditioned effects are mediated by an explicit expectancy of the drug coupled with an appetitive emotional response that reflects the positive biological value of the drug. The implication of this conclusion is that

  20. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  1. Mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banking in South Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well recognized. When maternal breast milk is not available in sufficient quantity, donor breast milk is recommended as an alternate source of nutrition, particularly in preterm and other high-risk infants. Australia lags behind the rest of the developed world in establishing and promoting human milk banks; there is no human milk bank in South Australia and little is known concerning mothers' perceptions of using human milk banks in that state. This study explored mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banks, to inform the development of human milk banking policies and guidelines in South Australia should a milk bank be established. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 mothers who were breastfeeding and/or had preterm or sick babies. In addition, 2 focus groups were conducted-1 with breastfeeding mothers as potential donors (n = 5) and the other with mothers of preterm or high-risk infants (n = 4)-to answer questions raised by early analysis of the individual interview data. Breastfeeding mothers, as potential donors, unanimously supported donating their breast milk to a human milk bank, provided it would be easy (especially if required to drop off milk) and not overly time consuming. Mothers of preterm or sick infants would use a human milk bank if they were assured the milk was safe and appropriate for their babies. Study participants would welcome having access to a human milk bank for both donating and receiving milk in South Australia.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BRETCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the paradigmatic changes of the current economic situation, in the context of post-modernism and its challenges, which reconsiders human society according to new criteria. One of the characteristics of post-modernism is the development of information and communication techniques, which allowed the occurrence of the „knowledge-based society” whose consequence is the effervescence of fast barrier-free knowledge, absolute freedom of debates, equality of opportunities before the virtual space, but also the relativisation of information, the increases of the danger of manipulation, misleading, or even falsification of the truth. New challenges occur thus in social life, and especially in the economic one, where the human factor becomes increasingly important for the evolution of society. In this context, education seems to play the decisive part, but an education focused on real values, where the truth and the ethics prevail before efficiency and performance.  

  3. The Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    needs to support such development through concepts and methods. This leads to a methodological approach that focuses on new artifacts to supplement and substitute existing artifacts. Through a design case, we develop the methodological approach and illustrate how the human–artifact model can be applied...... to analyze present artifacts and to design future ones. The model is used to structure such analysis and to reason about findings while providing leverage from activity theoretical insights on mediation, dialectics, and levels of activity....

  4. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  5. Applying the model of science knowledge for teaching about cell: an instrumental case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Susana Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research results from an Instrumental Case Study, based on the Professional Knowledge (PK Model, defined by Ball et al. (2008, 2009 for the area of Math. The Ball Modelserved as the basis for building the Model of Content Knowledge for ScienceTeaching, which was used to evaluate the teaching practice of two teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. The study seeks to understand, analyze and discuss the knowledge shown by teachers when dealing with the teaching unit “Cell: unity in the constitution of Living Beings”. Thus, we intend to identify the knowledge enabled teachers when teaching contentsassociated with cells in the classroom and understand how and why such knowledge is present or absent. To analyze the information emerging in the classroom, we use the Modeling Instrument of Monteiro et al. (2008, 2009, which allows the transcriptionof classes, line by line, splitting it into episodes and subepisodes. This division facilitates the identification of the dimensions of teacher's knowledge, according to the Model Knowledge for Science Teaching. As a result, it is clear that the most active knowledge is the Common Content Knowledge (CCK. Finally, the implication of the study for teachers is the awareness about professional knowledge (PK, and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK, the relationships between them, the Model Knowledge for Teaching Science and reflection in the process of teaching.

  6. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  7. The arhitecture of the human resources in management based on knowledge and the impact on reduncing unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Venera Todoruţ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this working paper I proposed to address/aproach issues of relationship and interdependence of human resources and management based on knowledges. I presented during the paper the new type of human resource management and new challenges which are noted in the current economic conjuncture and their influences on human resource management. We have also shown which is the new type of organizational culture and its impact on management based on knowledge. I focused also on the modalities how influence the management of human resources the management based on knowledge materialized in: the organization employee involvement, strong motivation and retention of employees in the firm based on knowledge, connection of management based on knowledges and the human resource management on the firm strategy, development of employees capacity and the intellectual capital, the creation and maintenance of learning practices widely used in business.

  8. Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoshita, M; Cagan, R L

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development. Flies offer rapid, efficient platforms by which novel classes of drugs can be identified as candidate anticancer leads. Further, we discuss the use of Drosophila as a platform to develop therapies for individual patients by modeling the tumor's genetic complexity. Drosophila provides both a classical and a novel tool to identify new therapeutics, complementing other more traditional cancer tools. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Capital Obsolescence: The Effects on Earnings Patterns of Engineers of the Expansion of Technical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, John Stirling, Jr.

    This study analyzes the impact on earnings of human-capital obsolescence, human-capital deterioration, unstructured on-the-job learning, and structured on-the-job learning. The study defines these four concepts, discusses their determinants, and analyzes the market mechanics by which each influences earning rates. A model is developed and adapted…

  10. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  11. A Model of the Temporal Dynamics of Knowledge Brokerage in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkinen, Janne I.

    2016-01-01

    I develop a conceptual model of the temporal dynamics of knowledge brokerage for sustainable development. Brokerage refers to efforts to make research and policymaking more accessible to each other. The model enables unbiased and systematic consideration of knowledge brokerage as part of policy evolution. The model is theoretically grounded in…

  12. More than Anecdotes: Fishers' Ecological Knowledge Can Fill Gaps for Ecosystem Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Ana Helena V; Carvalho, Adriana R; Angelini, Ronaldo; Christensen, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modeling applied to fisheries remains hampered by a lack of local information. Fishers' knowledge could fill this gap, improving participation in and the management of fisheries. The same fishing area was modeled using two approaches: based on fishers' knowledge and based on scientific information. For the former, the data was collected by interviews through the Delphi methodology, and for the latter, the data was gathered from the literature. Agreement between the attributes generated by the fishers' knowledge model and scientific model is discussed and explored, aiming to improve data availability, the ecosystem model, and fisheries management. The ecosystem attributes produced from the fishers' knowledge model were consistent with the ecosystem attributes produced by the scientific model, and elaborated using only the scientific data from literature. This study provides evidence that fishers' knowledge may suitably complement scientific data, and may improve the modeling tools for the research and management of fisheries.

  13. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    Reliable disease models are needed in order to improve quality of healthcare. This includes gaining better understanding of disease mechanisms, developing new therapeutic interventions and personalizing treatment. Up-to-date, the majority of our knowledge about disease states comes from in vivo...

  14. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to represent knowledge is often considered essential to build systems with reasoning capabilities. In computer science, a good solution often depends on a good representation. The first step in development of most computer applications is selection of a representation for the input, output, and intermediate results that the program will operate upon. For applications in artificial intelligence, this initial choice of representation is especially important. This is because the possible representational paradigms are diverse and the forcing criteria for the choice are usually not clear in the beginning. Yet, the consequences of an inadequate choice can be devastating in the later state of a project if it is discovered that critical information cannot be encoded within the chosen representational paradigm. Problems arise when designing representational systems to support any kind of Knowledge-Base System, that is a computer system that uses knowledge to perform some task. The general case of knowledge-based systems can be thought of as reasoning agents applying knowledge to achieve goals. Artificial Intelligence (AI) research involves building computer systems to perform tasks of perception and reasoning, as well as storage and retrieval of data. The problem of automatically perceiving large patterns in data is a perceptual task that begins to be important for many expert systems applications. Most of AI research assumes that what needs to be represented is known a priori; an AI researcher's job is just figuring out how to encode the information in the system's data structure and procedures. 10 refs

  15. Incorporation of human knowledge to the stock markets for improving forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Swarnava; Ordieres Meré, Joaquín Bienvenido

    2016-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explore the possibility to model human behavior and how it guides financial markets. According to Behavioral Finance theory the stock market ecosystem is influenced by the decision making of the individuals trading in it. The traders are heterogeneous in nature, with each group having their own belief and expectation. This thesis tries to answer the question Can human behavior and its responses to macroeconomic events be modelled and used as an indicator to predict pri...

  16. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  17. Identifying the public's knowledge and intention to use human cloning in Greek urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamalouka, Georgia; Soultatou, Pelagia; Papadakaki, Maria; Chatzifotiou, Sevasti; Tarlatzis, Basil; El Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2005-02-01

    The understanding of the public's knowledge on human cloning (HC) and its acceptability are considered important for the development of evidence-based policy making. The aim of this research study was to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic variables that affect the public's knowledge and intention to use HC in urban areas of Greece. Additionally, the possible association of religiousness with the knowledge and the intention to use HC were also investigated. Individual interviews were conducted with 1020 men and women of urban areas in Greece. Stratified random sampling was performed to select the respondents. Several scientists, experts in HC, evaluated the content of the instrument initially developed. The final questionnaire was consequently the result of a pilot study. Almost half of the respondents (51.5%) believed that "HC is a sort of in vitro fertilization" and 42.9% that "it has already been applied to human being." They were not aware that "the cloned fetus grows in the woman's uterus" (41.5%) and that "HC could regenerate human organs" (41.7%). The acceptability of human cloning for the cure of terminal diseases and transplantation need is very high (70.7% and 58.6%, respectively). The public's intention to have recourse to cloning on the grounds of "bringing" back to life a loved person or because of reproductive disorders was reported as desire by 35% and 32.5%, respectively. The occupational category (scientists, self-employed, and artists), the Intention to use HC, and the number of children are highly significant predictors of valid knowledge about HC. Low rates of church attendance appeared to relate with high reported Intention to use HC, and increasing scores of valid knowledge about HC increased the public's Intention to use HC. A number of specific demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and high scores of knowledge provide a persuasive justification in demonstrating intention toward HC. The current study suggests that these

  18. MODEL OF REGIONAL KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER: MAIN ACTORS, FRAMEWORK AND THEORY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla LEVITSKAIA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses potential mechanism of regional knowledge transfer in region with poorly developed innovation infrastructure (the Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova through interactions between regional major players of the Regional Innovation System - the educational and research institutions, small and medium enterprises (SMEs and local authorities. Solution of this problem can be found in modern studies of territories innovation development through the clustering processes. Through the empirical study - innovation potential analysis of local SMEs - we proposed advantage mechanism which focused on the one type of knowledge cluster – Innovation and Educational Cluster. The symbiosis of entrepreneurs, government agencies, educational institutions and business service providers with the regional core - University, allows to increasing exchange flows of innovative knowledge between all members of the cluster and distributing them to the entire region and beyond. The results and proposals of this study formed the basis of the “Program of increasing the innovation potential of Gagauz SMEs”.

  19. Human-robot cross-training: Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of a human team training strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos; Shah, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch roles to learn a shared plan for a collaborative task. We first present a computational formulation of the robot's interrole knowledge and show that it is quantitatively comparable to the human mental model. Based on this encoding, we formulate human-robot cross-training and e...

  20. Relating Successful Business Models to Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    There are a number of natural links between the fields of business models and knowledge management. The contemporary understanding of business models is that they are concerned with describing and analyzing the methods of value creation and the alternative ways of delivering use value to customers...... that are applied by organizations. Similarly, knowledge management also has intricate connections with mechanisms of value creation, through the structuring and improvement of knowledge processes in a given organization. Ensuring that the right knowledge is present is an important part of any business model...... innovation exercise. By applying the lens of intellectual capital, a natural link between business models and knowledge management is established. From this link, it is possible to structure and describe key characteristics. This paper accounts for the relationships between business models and knowledge...

  1. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  2. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  3. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  4. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling Transfer of Knowledge in an Online Platform of a Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Danilo Marcello; Böttcher, Lena; Wilberg, Julian; Kammerl, Daniel; Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with knowledge as a relevant resource and factor for production has become increasingly important in the course of globalization. This work focuses on questions about transferring knowledge when many companies work together in a cluster of enterprises. We developed a model of this transfer based on the theory of clusters from the New Institutional Economics’ point of view and based on existing theories about knowledge and knowledge transfer. This theoretical construct is evaluated and...

  6. Research on Knowledge-Oriented Supply ChainRisk Management System Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yingchun Guo

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of supply chain risk management under the influences of knowledge, in this paper integrates basic theories and methods of knowledge management into the process of risk management, builds a knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management system model, and proposes relevant strategies, presenting references for practical application of knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management. By means of acquiring, storing, sharing, and transferring supply chain ri...

  7. A humanized mouse model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica E Calderon

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb is the second leading infectious cause of death worldwide and the primary cause of death in people living with HIV/AIDS. There are several excellent animal models employed to study tuberculosis (TB, but many have limitations for reproducing human pathology and none are amenable to the direct study of HIV/M.tb co-infection. The humanized mouse has been increasingly employed to explore HIV infection and other pathogens where animal models are limiting. Our goal was to develop a small animal model of M.tb infection using the bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT humanized mouse. NOD-SCID/γc(null mice were engrafted with human fetal liver and thymus tissue, and supplemented with CD34(+ fetal liver cells. Excellent reconstitution, as measured by expression of the human CD45 pan leukocyte marker by peripheral blood populations, was observed at 12 weeks after engraftment. Human T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, as well as natural killer cells and monocyte/macrophages were all observed within the human leukocyte (CD45(+ population. Importantly, human T cells were functionally competent as determined by proliferative capacity and effector molecule (e.g. IFN-γ, granulysin, perforin expression in response to positive stimuli. Animals infected intranasally with M.tb had progressive bacterial infection in the lung and dissemination to spleen and liver from 2-8 weeks post infection. Sites of infection in the lung were characterized by the formation of organized granulomatous lesions, caseous necrosis, bronchial obstruction, and crystallization of cholesterol deposits. Human T cells were distributed throughout the lung, liver, and spleen at sites of inflammation and bacterial growth and were organized to the periphery of granulomas. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential to use the humanized mouse as a model of experimental TB.

  8. Social Media Success for Academic Knowledge Sharing in Indonesia (Conceptual Model Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assegaff, Setiawan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how success is the social media as a tool for knowledge sharing among scholars in Indonesia. To evaluate the success of social media we develop a model base on Delone and McLeane IS Success Model. In this article, we would like discuss the process of developing the research model. In developing the model, we conduct literature review from knowledge management, social media and IS Success Model area from previous study. This study resulted in the social success model for academic knowledge sharing in Indonesia.

  9. Library service delivery, information literacy knowledge: a modelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge preservation, access to information and dissemination has rapidly changed the way people seek and use information. The study concluded that the application of IT will encourage self sufficiency in food production, good health and rapid development among the citizenry. Keywords: Library service delivery, ...

  10. A Knowledge base representing Porter's Five Forces Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. de Swaan Arons; Ph. Waalewijn

    1999-01-01

    textabstractStrategic Analysis and Planning is a field in which expertise and experience are key factors. In order to decide on strategic matters such as the competitive position of a company experts heavily lean on their ability to reason with uncertain or incomplete knowledge, or in other words on

  11. A statistical model of future human actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, G.

    1992-02-01

    A critical review has been carried out of models of future human actions during the long term post-closure period of a radioactive waste repository. Various Markov models have been considered as alternatives to the standard Poisson model, and the problems of parameterisation have been addressed. Where the simplistic Poisson model unduly exaggerates the intrusion risk, some form of Markov model may have to be introduced. This situation may well arise for shallow repositories, but it is less likely for deep repositories. Recommendations are made for a practical implementation of a computer based model and its associated database. (Author)

  12. Online Recognition of Daily Activities by Color-Depth Sensing and Knowledge Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim-Junior, Carlos Fernando; Gómez Uría, Alvaro; Strumia, Carola; Koperski, Michal; König, Alexandra; Negin, Farhood; Cosar, Serhan; Nghiem, Anh Tuan; Chau, Duc Phu; Charpiat, Guillaume; Bremond, Francois

    2017-06-29

    Visual activity recognition plays a fundamental role in several research fields as a way to extract semantic meaning of images and videos. Prior work has mostly focused on classification tasks, where a label is given for a video clip. However, real life scenarios require a method to browse a continuous video flow, automatically identify relevant temporal segments and classify them accordingly to target activities. This paper proposes a knowledge-driven event recognition framework to address this problem. The novelty of the method lies in the combination of a constraint-based ontology language for event modeling with robust algorithms to detect, track and re-identify people using color-depth sensing (Kinect ® sensor). This combination enables to model and recognize longer and more complex events and to incorporate domain knowledge and 3D information into the same models. Moreover, the ontology-driven approach enables human understanding of system decisions and facilitates knowledge transfer across different scenes. The proposed framework is evaluated with real-world recordings of seniors carrying out unscripted, daily activities at hospital observation rooms and nursing homes. Results demonstrated that the proposed framework outperforms state-of-the-art methods in a variety of activities and datasets, and it is robust to variable and low-frame rate recordings. Further work will investigate how to extend the proposed framework with uncertainty management techniques to handle strong occlusion and ambiguous semantics, and how to exploit it to further support medicine on the timely diagnosis of cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  14. Material Models for the Human Torso Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    ARL-TR-8338 ● Apr 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Material Models for the Human Torso Finite Element Model by Carolyn E...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8338 ● Apr 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Material Models for the...Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT

  15. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  16. A Model of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

  17. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  18. Knowledge brokering on emissions modelling in Strategic Environmental Assessment of Estonian energy policy with special reference to the LEAP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuldna, Piret, E-mail: piret.kuldna@seit.ee [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia); Peterson, Kaja [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia); Kuhi-Thalfeldt, Reeli [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia); Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2015-09-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) serves as a platform for bringing together researchers, policy developers and other stakeholders to evaluate and communicate significant environmental and socio-economic effects of policies, plans and programmes. Quantitative computer models can facilitate knowledge exchange between various parties that strive to use scientific findings to guide policy-making decisions. The process of facilitating knowledge generation and exchange, i.e. knowledge brokerage, has been increasingly explored, but there is not much evidence in the literature on how knowledge brokerage activities are used in full cycles of SEAs which employ quantitative models. We report on the SEA process of the national energy plan with reflections on where and how the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model was used for knowledge brokerage on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers. Our main suggestion is that applying a quantitative model not only in ex ante, but also ex post scenario modelling and associated impact assessment can facilitate systematic and inspiring knowledge exchange process on a policy problem and capacity building of participating actors. - Highlights: • We examine the knowledge brokering on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers in a full cycle of SEA. • Knowledge exchange process can evolve at any modelling stage within SEA. • Ex post scenario modelling enables systematic knowledge exchange and learning on a policy problem.

  19. Knowledge brokering on emissions modelling in Strategic Environmental Assessment of Estonian energy policy with special reference to the LEAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuldna, Piret; Peterson, Kaja; Kuhi-Thalfeldt, Reeli

    2015-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) serves as a platform for bringing together researchers, policy developers and other stakeholders to evaluate and communicate significant environmental and socio-economic effects of policies, plans and programmes. Quantitative computer models can facilitate knowledge exchange between various parties that strive to use scientific findings to guide policy-making decisions. The process of facilitating knowledge generation and exchange, i.e. knowledge brokerage, has been increasingly explored, but there is not much evidence in the literature on how knowledge brokerage activities are used in full cycles of SEAs which employ quantitative models. We report on the SEA process of the national energy plan with reflections on where and how the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model was used for knowledge brokerage on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers. Our main suggestion is that applying a quantitative model not only in ex ante, but also ex post scenario modelling and associated impact assessment can facilitate systematic and inspiring knowledge exchange process on a policy problem and capacity building of participating actors. - Highlights: • We examine the knowledge brokering on emissions modelling between researchers and policy developers in a full cycle of SEA. • Knowledge exchange process can evolve at any modelling stage within SEA. • Ex post scenario modelling enables systematic knowledge exchange and learning on a policy problem

  20. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  1. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. From theoretical model to practical use: an example of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Carsten Munch; Brynildsen, Grethe; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard; Larsen, Karin; Reierson, Inger Åse; Sommer, Irene; Stenholt, Britta

    2013-10-01

    To present a case of knowledge translation in nursing education and practice and discusses mechanisms relevant to bringing knowledge into action. The process of knowledge translation aspires to close the gap between theory and practice. Knowledge translation is a cyclic process involving both the creation and application of knowledge in several phases. The case presented in this paper is the translation of the Model of Practical Skill Performance into education and practice. Advantages and problems with the use of this model and its adaptation and tailoring to local contexts illustrate the cyclic and iterative process of knowledge translation. The cultivation of a three-sided relationship between researchers, educators, and clinical nurses was a major asset in driving the process of knowledge translation. The knowledge translation process gained momentum by replacing passive diffusion strategies with interaction and teamwork between stakeholders. The use of knowledge creates feedback that might have consequences for the refinement and tailoring of that same knowledge itself. With end-users in mind, several heuristics were used by the research group to increase clarity of the model and to tailor the implementation of knowledge to the users. This article illustrates the need for enduring collaboration between stakeholders to promote the process of knowledge translation. Translation of research knowledge into practice is a time-consuming process that is enhanced when appropriate support is given by leaders in the involved facilities. Knowledge translation is a time-consuming and collaborative endeavour. On the basis of our experience we advocate the implementation and use of a conceptual framework for the entire process of knowledge translation. More descriptions of knowledge translation in the nursing discipline are needed to inspire and advise in this process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  5. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: V. Quantitative properties of human collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Wazny, Kerri; Chan, Kit Yee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The CHNRI method for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component. It uses the collective opinion of a group of experts to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. It is difficult to compare the accuracy of human individual and collective opinions in predicting uncertain future outcomes before the outcomes are known. However, this limitation does not apply to existing knowledge, which is an important component underlying opinion. In this paper, we report several experiments to explore the quantitative properties of human collective knowledge and discuss their relevance to the CHNRI method. We conducted a series of experiments in groups of about 160 (range: 122-175) undergraduate Year 2 medical students to compare their collective knowledge to their individual knowledge. We asked them to answer 10 questions on each of the following: (i) an area in which they have a degree of expertise (undergraduate Year 1 medical curriculum); (ii) an area in which they likely have some knowledge (general knowledge); and (iii) an area in which they are not expected to have any knowledge (astronomy). We also presented them with 20 pairs of well-known celebrities and asked them to identify the older person of the pair. In all these experiments our goal was to examine how the collective answer compares to the distribution of students' individual answers. When answering the questions in their own area of expertise, the collective answer (the median) was in the top 20.83% of the most accurate individual responses; in general knowledge, it was in the top 11.93%; and in an area with no expertise, the group answer was in the top 7.02%. However, the collective answer based on mean values fared much worse, ranging from top 75.60% to top 95.91%. Also, when confronted with guessing the older of the two celebrities, the collective response was correct in 18/20 cases (90%), while the 8 most successful individuals among the

  6. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool......). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph...... of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks....

  7. Human models of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Proudfoot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a syndrome that is characterised by acute inflammation and tissue injury that affects normal gas exchange in the lungs. Hallmarks of ALI include dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary membrane resulting in increased vascular permeability, an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung and a local pro-coagulant state. Patients with ALI present with severe hypoxaemia and radiological evidence of bilateral pulmonary oedema. The syndrome has a mortality rate of approximately 35% and usually requires invasive mechanical ventilation. ALI can follow direct pulmonary insults, such as pneumonia, or occur indirectly as a result of blood-borne insults, commonly severe bacterial sepsis. Although animal models of ALI have been developed, none of them fully recapitulate the human disease. The differences between the human syndrome and the phenotype observed in animal models might, in part, explain why interventions that are successful in models have failed to translate into novel therapies. Improved animal models and the development of human in vivo and ex vivo models are therefore required. In this article, we consider the clinical features of ALI, discuss the limitations of current animal models and highlight how emerging human models of ALI might help to answer outstanding questions about this syndrome.

  8. Knowledge management: High energy physics as model case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The world-wide High Energy Physics (HEP) community has emerged as one of the major forces in developing new tools and concepts to enhance the overall quality of knowledge management and to support technological innovation in this field. Though joint research and academic activities in HEP represent a more than 50-years old tradition, collaboration in this field has changed over the decades. In coming years, bigger and more distributed than ever before collaborations, with several thousand physicists and engineers, will concentrate on fewer major HEP experiments. They will face unprecedented challenges to accomplish their work at the leading laboratories where large accelerators are being constructed. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of datasets to be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources to be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze information. During the last two decades, the Web was HEP community response to the new wave of scientific collaborations. Almost all data networking in the HEP community is today based on the Internet which has since grown into a global information highway. Currently, HEP community needs to attempt to progress beyond structure information towards automated knowledge management of scientific data which requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas. Together with computer scientists, HEP community recognised as a driving force, is extremely well positioned to continue this successful strategy with respect to the initiative to build 'the next generation internet'. Facing knowledge sharing, acquisition and organisation growing requirement, HEP scientists invented the preprint concept in order to facilitate and speed up access to the ongoing research development and results. Preprint archive has since become a global repository for research particularly in physics

  9. Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

  10. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  11. Investigating Informatics Teachers’ Initial Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Modeling and Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grgurina, Natasa; Barendsen, Erik; Suhre, Cor; van Veen, Klaas; Zwaneveld, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Computational science, comprised of modeling and simulation, is a new theme in the new 2019 Dutch secondary education informatics curriculum. To investigate the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on modeling and simulation, we interviewed ten informatics teachers and analyzed their PCK,

  12. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven van Eijl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics, but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4-10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these

  13. Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morecroft, J.D.W.; Van der Heijden, K.A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

  14. Systems modelling and the development of coherent cell biological knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, R.; Waarlo, A.J.; Boersma, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on educational design research concerning a learning and teaching strategy for cell biology in upper-secondary education introducing systems modelling as a key competence. The strategy consists of four modelling phases in which students subsequently develop models of freeliving

  15. The Triple Helix Model and the Knowledge-Based Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Meyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Triple Helix model of university-industry-government relations can be generalized from a neo-institutional model of networks of relations to a neo-evolutionary model of how three selection environments operate upon one another. Two selection mechanisms operating upon each other can mutually

  16. Knowledge transfer for learning robot models via local procrustes analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makondo, N

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning of robot kinematic and dynamic models from data has attracted much interest recently as an alternative to manually defined models. However, the amount of data required to learn these models becomes large when the number of degrees...

  17. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and perception towards human papillomavirus among university students in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mehmood Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study comprises a questionnaire-based survey regarding knowledge about human papillomavirus and its vaccine among students in different educational fields at public and private universities in the city of Lahore in Pakistan. A 26-item questionnaire was used to attain the objective of this study. The reliability of this tool was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (0.79 and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.827. The response rate to the survey was 78.0%, of whom the majority (74.9% were females and 308 (79% were single (median age=23 years. While assessing the respondents' knowledge about HPV, 223(57% students reported that they had already heard of HPV (human papillomavirus and nearly 215 (55% reported that HPV causes cervical cancer and can infect both men and women. Gender and field of study were two main factors found influencing the respondents' knowledge about HPV. Moreover, students' understanding about the mode of transmission of HPV was cursory: 40.51% said they did not know how HPV is transmitted, 133 (34.10% stated that HPV spreads through the exchange of bodily fluids, and 22 (5.64% selected cough/sneezing. In terms of prevention, 175 (44.87% students stated that HPV can be prevented by vaccination, 30.0% reported sexual abstinence, 21.54% using condoms, and nearly 5.38% disclosed use of antibiotics. Addressing the knowledge of students regarding HPV vaccine, nearly 53% stated there is no vaccine against HPV and almost 64% rejected the statement that HPV vaccine prevents cervical cancer. In addition, students reported that they will be more than willing to get vaccinated for HPV if their physician recommend them (RII=0.74 followed by parents (RII=0.69. The results of this study revealed a poor understanding among respondents about the health problems associated with HPV, its prevention, modes of transmission and arability of HPV vaccine in Pakistan. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Knowledge, Attitude

  20. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  1. Identification of walking human model using agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar; Racic, Vitomir

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of walking people with large vibrating structures, such as footbridges and floors, in the vertical direction is an important yet challenging phenomenon to describe mathematically. Several different models have been proposed in the literature to simulate interaction of stationary people with vibrating structures. However, the research on moving (walking) human models, explicitly identified for vibration serviceability assessment of civil structures, is still sparse. In this study, the results of a comprehensive set of FRF-based modal tests were used, in which, over a hundred test subjects walked in different group sizes and walking patterns on a test structure. An agent-based model was used to simulate discrete traffic-structure interactions. The occupied structure modal parameters found in tests were used to identify the parameters of the walking individual's single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mass-spring-damper model using 'reverse engineering' methodology. The analysis of the results suggested that the normal distribution with the average of μ = 2.85Hz and standard deviation of σ = 0.34Hz can describe human SDOF model natural frequency. Similarly, the normal distribution with μ = 0.295 and σ = 0.047 can describe the human model damping ratio. Compared to the previous studies, the agent-based modelling methodology proposed in this paper offers significant flexibility in simulating multi-pedestrian walking traffics, external forces and simulating different mechanisms of human-structure and human-environment interaction at the same time.

  2. Detailed clinical models: representing knowledge, data and semantics in healthcare information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William T F

    2014-07-01

    This paper will present an overview of the developmental effort in harmonizing clinical knowledge modeling using the Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs), and will explain how it can contribute to the preservation of Electronic Health Records (EHR) data. Clinical knowledge modeling is vital for the management and preservation of EHR and data. Such modeling provides common data elements and terminology binding with the intention of capturing and managing clinical information over time and location independent from technology. Any EHR data exchange without an agreed clinical knowledge modeling will potentially result in loss of information. Many attempts exist from the past to model clinical knowledge for the benefits of semantic interoperability using standardized data representation and common terminologies. The objective of each project is similar with respect to consistent representation of clinical data, using standardized terminologies, and an overall logical approach. However, the conceptual, logical, and the technical expressions are quite different in one clinical knowledge modeling approach versus another. There currently are synergies under the Clinical Information Modeling Initiative (CIMI) in order to create a harmonized reference model for clinical knowledge models. The goal for the CIMI is to create a reference model and formalisms based on for instance the DCM (ISO/TS 13972), among other work. A global repository of DCMs may potentially be established in the future.

  3. A qualitative model construction method of nuclear power plants for effective diagnostic knowledge generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinji; Endou, Akira; Kitamura, Yoshinobu; Sasajima, Munehiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichiro.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to construct a qualitative model of a nuclear power plant, in order to generate effective diagnostic knowledge. The proposed method is to prepare deep knowledge to be provided to a knowledge compiler based upon qualitative reasoning (QR). Necessity of knowledge compilation for nuclear plant diagnosis will be explained first, and conventionally-experienced problems in qualitative reasoning and a proposed method to overcome this problem is shown next, then a sample procedure to build a qualitative nuclear plant model is demonstrated. (author)

  4. Sustainability knowledge using “AKASA” model among architecture students from Klang Valley private universities, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Sivaraman; Faris Khamidi, Mohd; Sheng, Lee Xia; Salvi Mari, Tamil

    2017-12-01

    The study intend to investigate sustainability knowledge using “AKASA” model. This model comprises all the literacy level which is the awareness, knowledge, attitude, skills and action. 234 students from 5 selected private universities were surveyed using questionnaires. Students were specifically selected from year 2 and year 3 from private universities in Klang valley, Malaysia. The study intends to investigate the environmental literacy level specifically the knowledge variable. The parametric study was conducted with descriptive analysis and the results shows that the environmental knowledge is at high level compared to other environmental literacy variables among year 2, year 3 and combine year 2 and year 3.

  5. EO Model for Tacit Knowledge Externalization in Socio-Technical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Suresh Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: A vital business activity within socio-technical enterprises is tacit knowledge externalization, which elicits and explicates tacit knowledge of enterprise employees as external knowledge. The aim of this paper is to integrate diverse aspects of externalization through the Enterprise Ontology model. Background: Across two decades, researchers have explored various aspects of tacit knowledge externalization. However, from the existing works, it is revealed that there is no uniform representation of the externalization process, which has resulted in divergent and contradictory interpretations across the literature. Methodology\t: The Enterprise Ontology model is constructed step-wise through the conceptual and measurement views. While the conceptual view encompasses three patterns that model the externalization process, the measurement view employs certainty-factor model to empirically measure the outcome of the externalization process. Contribution: The paper contributes towards knowledge management literature in two ways. The first contribution is the Enterprise Ontology model that integrates diverse aspects of externalization. The second contribution is a Web application that validates the model through a case study in banking. Findings: The findings show that the Enterprise Ontology model and the patterns are pragmatic in externalizing the tacit knowledge of experts in a problem-solving scenario within a banking enterprise. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Consider the diverse aspects (what, where, when, why, and how during the tacit knowledge externalization process. Future Research:\tTo extend the Enterprise Ontology model to include externalization from partially automated enterprise systems.

  6. A knowledge representation meta-model for rule-based modelling of signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of cellular signalling pathways and their deregulation in disease states, such as cancer, is a large and extremely complex task. Indeed, these systems involve many parts and processes but are studied piecewise and their literatures and data are consequently fragmented, distributed and sometimes—at least apparently—inconsistent. This makes it extremely difficult to build significant explanatory models with the result that effects in these systems that are brought about by many interacting factors are poorly understood. The rule-based approach to modelling has shown some promise for the representation of the highly combinatorial systems typically found in signalling where many of the proteins are composed of multiple binding domains, capable of simultaneous interactions, and/or peptide motifs controlled by post-translational modifications. However, the rule-based approach requires highly detailed information about the precise conditions for each and every interaction which is rarely available from any one single source. Rather, these conditions must be painstakingly inferred and curated, by hand, from information contained in many papers—each of which contains only part of the story. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based meta-model, attuned to the representation of cellular signalling networks, which aims to ease this massive cognitive burden on the rule-based curation process. This meta-model is a generalization of that used by Kappa and BNGL which allows for the flexible representation of knowledge at various levels of granularity. In particular, it allows us to deal with information which has either too little, or too much, detail with respect to the strict rule-based meta-model. Our approach provides a basis for the gradual aggregation of fragmented biological knowledge extracted from the literature into an instance of the meta-model from which we can define an automated translation into executable Kappa programs.

  7. Data mining, knowledge discovery and data-driven modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomatine, D.P.; Velickov, S.; Bhattacharya, B.; Van der Wal, B.

    2003-01-01

    The project was aimed at exploring the possibilities of a new paradigm in modelling - data-driven modelling, often referred as "data mining". Several application areas were considered: sedimentation problems in the Port of Rotterdam, automatic soil classification on the basis of cone penetration

  8. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multicamera Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicamera networks are becoming complex involving larger sensing areas in order to capture activities and behavior that evolve over long spatial and temporal windows. This necessitates novel methods to process the information sensed by the network and visualize it for an end user. In this paper, we describe a system for modeling and on-demand visualization of activities of groups of humans. Using the prior knowledge of the 3D structure of the scene as well as camera calibration, the system localizes humans as they navigate the scene. Activities of interest are detected by matching models of these activities learnt a priori against the multiview observations. The trajectories and the activity index for each individual summarize the dynamic content of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed activities of real humans. In particular, the rendering framework is designed to handle large displays with a cluster of GPUs as well as reduce the cognitive dissonance by rendering realistic weather effects and illumination. We envision use of this system for immersive visualization as well as summarization of videos that capture group behavior.

  9. Analisis Model Pengukuran Human Capital dalam Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of human capital is not an easy to do because it is dynamic and always changing in accordance with the changing circumstances. Determination of dimensions and indicators of measurement needs to consider various factors such as situations and also the research scopes. This article has objectives to review the concepts, dimensions and measurement models of human capital. The research method used was literature study with a major reference source from current journal articles that discuss the measurement of human capital. Results of the study showed that basically the definition set forth in any dimension containing either explicitly or implicitly. In addition, the result indicated that there are three main categories of equality among researchers regarding the definition of human capital which emphasizes on: economic value/productivity, education, and abilities/competencies. The results also showed that the use of definitions, dimensions, and indicators for measurement of human capital depends on the situation, the scope of research, and the size of the organization. The conclusion of the study indicated that the measurement model and determination of dimensions and indicators of human capital measurement will determine the effectiveness of the measurement, and will have an impact on organizational performance.

  10. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutenedjian Mady, Carlos Eduardo; Silva Ferreira, Maurício; Itizo Yanagihara, Jurandir; Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  11. Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Attitude among Homeless Women of New York City Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Alcabes, Analena; Feldman, Rebecca; Garland, Victoria; Naderi, Ramesh; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Sckell, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has not been studied among homeless women in the United States. We assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV infection and the HPV vaccine among homeless women. We enrolled 300 homeless women age 19 to 65 residing in multiple New York City shelters from 2012 to 2014. We used a national survey to collect HPV data. Mean age was 44.7 ± 12.16 years. The majority were Black, heterosexual, and single; 50.6% were smokers. Almost all HPV knowledge and attitudes data were considerably below the national averages; 41.9% never heard of HPV. Only 36.5% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted disease; 41.5% knew that HPV causes cervical cancer; and only 19.5% and 17.3% received provider counseling regarding HPV testing and vaccine, respectively. Among participants, 65.4% reported that they would vaccinate their eligible daughters for HPV. Lower rates of up-to-date Pap tests were associated with a lack of knowledge regarding relationship between HPV and abnormal Pap test (p Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  13. The virtual class as a knowledge democratization model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayela Coto Chotto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the conceptualization and use of a virtual classroom in the course EIF-200 Fundamentos de Informática, first course in the Information Systems Engineering career of the Universidad Nacional of Costa Rica. The virtual classroom is seen as a complement to the class and is conceived as a space that allows to centralize teaching resources, thereby promoting the  democratization of knowledge among students and teachers. Furthermore, this concept of virtual classroom helps to reduce the culture of individualism, present many times in university teaching practices, and contributes to create new opportunities to learn from other colleagues within a culture of reflection, analysis and respectful dialogue aimed to improve the teaching practices.

  14. Models of the Human in Tantric Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne Wernicke; Flood, Gavin

    2019-01-01

    This research project explores the origins, developments and transformations of yogic models of the human (e.g. kuṇḍalinī yoga, the cakra system and ritual sex) in the tantric goddess traditions or what might be called Śāktism of medieval India. These Śākta models of esoteric anatomy originating...... in medieval ascetic traditions became highly influential in South Asia and were popularized in the West....

  15. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  16. USE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AS A FACTOR OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION HUMANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of educational projects get no further development primarily due to the lack of competent academic staff. It is not only the professional knowledge, abilities and skills, but also the ability to perceive educational innovations and ability to implement them. With regard to the mathematics education the most urgent is the problem of humanization, which appears in the ratio of scientific knowledge, national and cultural revival, issues of values and new type of education content. The problem of humanizing of mathematical education isexamined in the article, in particular in the field of training ofpedagogical personnels. As for the serve of mathematicalmaterial the language of formal logic, that is regulated by thesecond alarm system, is used, it results in the deficit ofinformation of the first alarm system, that is responsible forperception, imagination, supervision, experience. Logical isthe use of such methods serves of information, thatmaximally use both сигнальних systems of man. It issuggested one of directions of upgrading of educating tomathematics of future teachers except the traditionallanguage of formal logic to use the alternative languages ofserve of material : language of semantic networks, languageof the system of frames, language of productional.

  17. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Knowledge Discovery from POS Data using State Space Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadahiko; Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    The number of competing-brands changes by new product's entry. The new product introduction is endemic among consumer packaged goods firm and is an integral component of their marketing strategy. As a new product's entry affects markets, there is a pressing need to develop market response model that can adapt to such changes. In this paper, we develop a dynamic model that capture the underlying evolution of the buying behavior associated with the new product. This extends an application of a dynamic linear model, which is used by a number of time series analyses, by allowing the observed dimension to change at some point in time. Our model copes with a problem that dynamic environments entail: changes in parameter over time and changes in the observed dimension. We formulate the model with framework of a state space model. We realize an estimation of the model using modified Kalman filter/fixed interval smoother. We find that new product's entry (1) decreases brand differentiation for existing brands, as indicated by decreasing difference between cross-price elasticities; (2) decreases commodity power for existing brands, as indicated by decreasing trend; and (3) decreases the effect of discount for existing brands, as indicated by a decrease in the magnitude of own-brand price elasticities. The proposed framework is directly applicable to other fields in which the observed dimension might be change, such as economic, bioinformatics, and so forth.

  19. A model for reusing service knowledge based on an empirical case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Vianello, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of knowledge and information arising from the different phases of a product’s lifecycle is crucial for a company in order to achieve competitive advantage. This paper describes a case study from the oil industry investigating the transfer of knowledge within the service phase and also......, the mechanisms involved in the transfer of knowledge between service and design were investigated. Knowledge about changes, issues and improvements generated during service was found to be relevant to both groups; however, engineering designers were interested in knowledge of equipment at a component level...... whilst service engineers were more interested in obtaining an overview of the systems. The study showed that communication between the departments consisted prevalently of the service engineers pushing knowledge and information to the engineering designers. The reusing service knowledge (RSK) model...

  20. Knowledge Creation and Conversion in Military Organizations: How the SECI Model is Applied Within Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Lis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the knowledge creation and conversion processes in military organizations using the SECI model as a framework. First of all, knowledge creation activities in military organizations are identified and categorized. Then, knowledge socialization, externalization, combination and internalization processes are analyzed. The paper studies methods, techniques and tools applied by NATO and the U.S. Army to support the aforementioned processes. As regards the issue of knowledge socialization, counseling, coaching, mentoring and communities of practice are discussed. Lessons Learned systems and After Action Reviews illustrate the military approaches to knowledge externalization. Producing doctrines in the process of operational standardization is presented as a solution used by the military to combine knowledge in order to codify it. Finally, knowledge internalization through training and education is explored.

  1. A decade of human genome project conclusion: Scientific diffusion about our genome knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernanda; Góes, Andréa

    2016-05-06

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003. It aimed to sequence the whole human genome. Although it represented an advance in understanding the human genome and its complexity, many questions remained unanswered. Other projects were launched in order to unravel the mysteries of our genome, including the ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This review aims to analyze the evolution of scientific knowledge related to both the HGP and ENCODE projects. Data were retrieved from scientific articles published in 1990-2014, a period comprising the development and the 10 years following the HGP completion. The fact that only 20,000 genes are protein and RNA-coding is one of the most striking HGP results. A new concept about the organization of genome arose. The ENCODE project was initiated in 2003 and targeted to map the functional elements of the human genome. This project revealed that the human genome is pervasively transcribed. Therefore, it was determined that a large part of the non-protein coding regions are functional. Finally, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure emerged. The mechanistic functioning of the genome has been redrafted, revealing a much more complex picture. Besides, a gene-centric conception of the organism has to be reviewed. A number of criticisms have emerged against the ENCODE project approaches, raising the question of whether non-conserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Thus, HGP and ENCODE projects accomplished a great map of the human genome, but the data generated still requires further in depth analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:215-223, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Strategic Model for Implementing Knowledge Management in Libraries and Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Luciana Porumbeanu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In most fields of activity one can notice the trend towards knowledge-based organizations and towards flexible organizations that encourage innovation and change. In this context, knowledge management has become a fundamental process for all types of organizations in society. Libraries and information services are integral part of the knowledge system, these organizations being one of the forms that contribute to knowledge development. This article presents a strategic model for implementing knowledge management in libraries and information services, created on the basis of the results from theoretical researches and practical applications of this process in organizations from different countries and different fields of activity and keeping in mind the specific characteristics of libraries and information services. The model is based on five fundamental elements from which one should begin implementation of a knowledge management function in the organizations engaged in information transfer.

  3. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2016-11-18

    In this paper we study balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model proposed by Lucas and Moll [15] to model knowledge growth in an economy. Agents can either increase their knowledge level by exchanging ideas in learning events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial distribution of individuals with respect to their knowledge level satisfies a Pareto-tail condition. Furthermore we give first insights into the existence of such solutions if in addition to production and knowledge exchange the knowledge level evolves by geometric Brownian motion.

  4. Are animal models predictive for humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics.

  5. [Primate models of human viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I; Zamiatina, N A

    2006-01-01

    The paper summarizes the updates available in the literature and the authors' own data on the etiology of hepatitis, its models, and experimental studies on susceptible simian types. A comparative analysis of the etiological agents--the causative agents of simian and human hepatitis will give a better insight into the evolution of its viruses.

  6. Human driven transitions in complex model ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfoot, Mike; Newbold, Tim; Tittinsor, Derek; Purves, Drew

    2015-04-01

    Human activities have been observed to be impacting ecosystems across the globe, leading to reduced ecosystem functioning, altered trophic and biomass structure and ultimately ecosystem collapse. Previous attempts to understand global human impacts on ecosystems have usually relied on statistical models, which do not explicitly model the processes underlying the functioning of ecosystems, represent only a small proportion of organisms and do not adequately capture complex non-linear and dynamic responses of ecosystems to perturbations. We use a mechanistic ecosystem model (1), which simulates the underlying processes structuring ecosystems and can thus capture complex and dynamic interactions, to investigate boundaries of complex ecosystems to human perturbation. We explore several drivers including human appropriation of net primary production and harvesting of animal biomass. We also present an analysis of the key interactions between biotic, societal and abiotic earth system components, considering why and how we might think about these couplings. References: M. B. J. Harfoot et al., Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001841 (2014).

  7. Quality assessment of human behavior models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and efficient models of human behavior offer great potential in military and crisis management applications. However, little attention has been given to the man ner in which it can be determined if this potential is actually realized. In this study a quality assessment approach that

  8. Future of human models for crash analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    In the crash safety field mathematical models can be applied in practically all area's of research and development including: reconstruction of actual accidents, design (CAD) of the crash response of vehicles, safety devices and roadside facilities and in support of human impact biomechanical

  9. Optical models of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Thibos, Larry N

    2016-03-01

    Optical models of the human eye have been used in visual science for purposes such as providing a framework for explaining optical phenomena in vision, for predicting how refraction and aberrations are affected by change in ocular biometry and as computational tools for exploring the limitations imposed on vision by the optical system of the eye. We address the issue of what is understood by optical model eyes, discussing the 'encyclopaedia' and 'toy train' approaches to modelling. An extensive list of purposes of models is provided. We discuss many of the theoretical types of optical models (also schematic eyes) of varying anatomical accuracy, including single, three and four refracting surface variants. We cover the models with lens structure in the form of nested shells and gradient index. Many optical eye models give accurate predictions only for small angles and small fields of view. If aberrations and image quality are important to consider, such 'paraxial' model eyes must be replaced by 'finite model' eyes incorporating features such as aspheric surfaces, tilts and decentrations, wavelength-dependent media and curved retinas. Many optical model eyes are population averages and must become adaptable to account for age, gender, ethnicity, refractive error and accommodation. They can also be customised for the individual when extensive ocular biometry and optical performance data are available. We consider which optical model should be used for a particular purpose, adhering to the principle that the best model is the simplest fit for the task. We provide a glimpse into the future of optical models of the human eye. This review is interwoven with historical developments, highlighting the important people who have contributed so richly to our understanding of visual optics. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  10. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezenwa BN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization

  11. Human papillomavirus vaccines and cervical cancer: awareness, knowledge, and risk perception among Turkish undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfisch, Gülay; Güngör, İlkay; Uzun, Ece; Keskin, Özlem; Tencere, Zeliha

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness, knowledge, and risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines among undergraduate students in Turkey. The convenience sample of this descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of 605 undergraduate students in Istanbul University during a semester. Demographic characteristics of students, their reproductive health and lifestyle behaviors, and knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine were questioned using self-administered forms. The overall proportion of students who had heard about HPV infection was 48.8%, while the proportion of students who had heard of the HPV vaccine was 44.5%. Forty eight percent of females and 60% of males reported never having heard of the HPV. Only 45.7% of females had knowledge about HPV as a cause of genital warts, and 58.1% correctly indicated that HPV caused cervical cancer. The majority of students in both genders (>80%) knew that the infection is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse. Females were more concerned than males about having cervical/penile cancer associated with HPV in the future. Only 46.4% of females and 39% of males reported having heard of the HPV vaccine. The majority of the female and male students did not know who should get the HPV vaccine and when to get vaccinated. Among males, 25.8% reported that they would consider getting vaccinated (if available) and 38.4% intended to vaccinate their children. Turkish undergraduate students had a low to moderate level of knowledge regarding HPV infection and HPV vaccine. In order to increase awareness about HPV and develop positive behaviors, young people should be provided with accurate information through educational activities in the community and health care services.

  12. A diagnostic model for assessing the knowledge management practices of construction firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Serdar; Karaman, Erkan A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is rapidly becoming a key organizational capability for creating competitive advantage in the construction industry. The emergence of knowledge management as a key organizational capability for creating competitive advantage poses enormous challenges to executives of construction firms. This paper proposes a model for benchmarking the knowledge management practices of construction firms that can guide and assist construction business executives to meet these challenges. T...

  13. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  14. The Non-Human Primate Experimental Glaucoma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current strengths and weaknesses of the non-human primate (NHP) experimental glaucoma (EG) model through sections devoted to its history, methods, important findings, alternative optic neuropathy models and future directions. NHP EG has become well established for studying human glaucoma in part because the NHP optic nerve head (ONH) shares a close anatomic association with the human ONH and because it provides the only means of systematically studying the very earliest visual system responses to chronic IOP elevation, i.e. the conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucomatous damage. However, NHPs are impractical for studies that require large animal numbers, demonstrate spontaneous glaucoma only rarely, do not currently provide a model of the neuropathy at normal levels of IOP, and cannot easily be genetically manipulated, except through tissue-specific, viral vectors. The goal of this summary is to direct NHP EG and non-NHP EG investigators to the previous, current and future accomplishment of clinically relevant knowledge in this model. PMID:26070984

  15. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  16. The Longitudinal Study of Aging in Human Young Adults: Knowledge Gaps and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-02-01

    To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults. As one illustrative example, we describe an initial effort to study the pace of aging in a young-adult birth cohort by using repeated waves of biomarkers collected across the third and fourth decades to quantify the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (eg, pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic, and immune function). Findings provided proof of principle that it is possible to quantify individual variation in the pace of aging in young adults still free of age-related diseases. This article articulates research needs to improve longitudinal measurement of the pace of aging in young people, to pinpoint factors that slow or speed the pace of aging, to compare pace of aging against genomic clocks, to explain slow-aging young adults, and to apply pace of aging in preventive clinical trials of antiaging therapies. This article puts forward a research agenda to fill the knowledge gap concerning lifelong causes of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Rural-urban differences in human papillomavirus knowledge and awareness among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kahee A; Subramaniam, Divya S; Geneus, Christian J; Henderson, Emmett R; Dean, Caress A; Subramaniam, Dipti P; Burroughs, Thomas E

    2018-04-01

    Rural residents of the United States have higher HPV-associated cancer incidence and mortality, and suboptimal HPV vaccine uptake compared to urban residents. This study aimed to assess differences in knowledge and awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-associated cancers among rural and urban residents. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2017 on 10,147 respondents ages ≥18 years. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared urban/rural differences in knowledge and awareness of HPV, associated cancers, and HPV vaccine. Models were adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, census region, health insurance, regular provider, internet use, and personal history of cancer. Overall, 67.2% and 65.8% of urban residents were aware of HPV and HPV vaccine, respectively, compared to only 55.8% and 58.6% of rural residents. Adjusted models illustrated that compared to urban residents, rural residents were less likely to be aware of HPV (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.53-0.86) and HPV vaccine (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). Among those who were aware of HPV, rural residents were less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.84) and that HPV can be transmitted through sexual contact (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.56-0.94). No significant differences between rural and urban residents were noted for knowledge that HPV is transmitted sexually and that it causes oral, anal, and penile cancers. This study highlights significant rural health disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine compared to urban counterparts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Designers' models of the human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Breedin, Sarah D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding design models of the human-computer interface (HCI) may produce two types of benefits. First, interface development often requires input from two different types of experts: human factors specialists and software developers. Given the differences in their backgrounds and roles, human factors specialists and software developers may have different cognitive models of the HCI. Yet, they have to communicate about the interface as part of the design process. If they have different models, their interactions are likely to involve a certain amount of miscommunication. Second, the design process in general is likely to be guided by designers' cognitive models of the HCI, as well as by their knowledge of the user, tasks, and system. Designers do not start with a blank slate; rather they begin with a general model of the object they are designing. The author's approach to a design model of the HCI was to have three groups make judgments of categorical similarity about the components of an interface: human factors specialists with HCI design experience, software developers with HCI design experience, and a baseline group of computer users with no experience in HCI design. The components of the user interface included both display components such as windows, text, and graphics, and user interaction concepts, such as command language, editing, and help. The judgments of the three groups were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and Pathfinder. These methods indicated, respectively, how the groups categorized the concepts, and network representations of the concepts for each group. The Pathfinder analysis provides greater information about local, pairwise relations among concepts, whereas the cluster analysis shows global, categorical relations to a greater extent.

  19. Toward a Conceptual Model for Social Mechanisms Enabling Knowledge Sharing: Dynamic Relationships among Three Dimensions of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Jun

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is important because individual knowledge is not transformed into organizational knowledge until it is shared. The conceptual model presents how social factors create the conditions for effective knowledge sharing. It illustrates how three dimensions of social capital impact with each other and with knowledge sharing. Social…

  20. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  1. Toward a Model of Embodied Environmental Education: Perspectives from Theatre and Indigenous Knowledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests a model of embodied environmental education grounded in participant interviews, fieldwork, scholarly literature, and the author's own embodied relationship with the natural world. In this article, embodiment refers to a process that stems from Indigenous Knowledges and theatre. Although Indigenous Knowledges and theatre…

  2. A Conceptual Model for Teaching Critical Thinking in a Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Clifton

    2011-01-01

    Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…

  3. Symbiotic intelligence: Self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks, driven by human interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.; Joslyn, C.; Rocha, L.; Smith, S.; Kantor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rasmussen, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This work addresses how human societies, and other diverse and distributed systems, solve collective challenges that are not approachable from the level of the individual, and how the Internet will change the way societies and organizations view problem solving. The authors apply the ideas developed in self-organizing systems to understand self-organization in informational systems. The simplest explanation as to why animals (for example, ants, wolves, and humans) are organized into societies is that these societies enhance the survival of the individuals which make up the populations. Individuals contribute to, as well as adapt to, these societies because they make life easier in one way or another, even though they may not always understand the process, either individually or collectively. Despite the lack of understanding of the how of the process, society during its existence as a species has changed significantly, from separate, small hunting tribes to a highly technological, globally integrated society. The authors combine this understanding of societal dynamics with self-organization on the Internet (the Net). The unique capability of the Net is that it combines, in a common medium, the entire human-technological system in both breadth and depth: breadth in the integration of heterogeneous systems of machines, information and people; and depth in the detailed capturing of the entire complexity of human use and creation of information. When the full diversity of societal dynamics is combined with the accuracy of communication on the Net, a phase transition is argued to occur in problem solving capability. Through conceptual examples, an experiment of collective decision making on the Net and a simulation showing the effect of noise and loss on collective decision making, the authors argue that the resulting symbiotic structure of humans and the Net will evolve as an alternative problem solving approach for groups, organizations and society. Self

  4. Using Structured Knowledge Representation for Context-Sensitive Probabilistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. [24] J. Pearl, Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference, Cambridge University Press, 2000. [25] J. Piaget , Piaget’s theory ...Gopnik, C. Glymour, D. M. Sobel, L. E. Schulz, T. Kushnir, D. Danks, A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets, Psychological

  5. Knowledge Modeling for the Outcome of Brain Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Jillian E.

    Purpose: To build a model that will predict the survival time for patients that were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases using support vector machine (SVM) regression. Methods and Materials: This study utilized data from 481 patients, which were equally divided into training and validation datasets randomly. The SVM model used a Gaussian RBF function, along with various parameters, such as the size of the epsilon insensitive region and the cost parameter (C) that are used to control the amount of error tolerated by the model. The predictor variables for the SVM model consisted of the actual survival time of the patient, the number of brain metastases, the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores, prescription dose, and the largest planning target volume (PTV). The response of the model is the survival time of the patient. The resulting survival time predictions were analyzed against the actual survival times by single parameter classification and two-parameter classification. The predicted mean survival times within each classification were compared with the actual values to obtain the confidence interval associated with the model's predictions. In addition to visualizing the data on plots using the means and error bars, the correlation coefficients between the actual and predicted means of the survival times were calculated during each step of the classification. Results: The number of metastases and KPS scores, were consistently shown to be the strongest predictors in the single parameter classification, and were subsequently used as first classifiers in the two-parameter classification. When the survival times were analyzed with the number of metastases as the first classifier, the best correlation was obtained for patients with 3 metastases, while patients with 4 or 5 metastases had significantly worse results. When the KPS score was used as the first classifier, patients with a KPS score of 60 and

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and perception towards human papillomavirus among university students in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Buksh, Malik Allah; Rehman, Inayat Ur; Saleem, Ahsan

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study comprises a questionnaire-based survey regarding knowledge about human papillomavirus and its vaccine among students in different educational fields at public and private universities in the city of Lahore in Pakistan. A 26-item questionnaire was used to attain the objective of this study. The reliability of this tool was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (0.79) and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.827. The response rate to the survey was 78.0%, of whom the majority (74.9%) were females and 308 (79%) were single (median age=23 years). While assessing the respondents' knowledge about HPV, 223(57%) students reported that they had already heard of HPV (human papillomavirus) and nearly 215 (55%) reported that HPV causes cervical cancer and can infect both men and women. Gender and field of study were two main factors found influencing the respondents' knowledge about HPV. Moreover, students' understanding about the mode of transmission of HPV was cursory: 40.51% said they did not know how HPV is transmitted, 133 (34.10%) stated that HPV spreads through the exchange of bodily fluids, and 22 (5.64%) selected cough/sneezing. In terms of prevention, 175 (44.87%) students stated that HPV can be prevented by vaccination, 30.0% reported sexual abstinence, 21.54% using condoms, and nearly 5.38% disclosed use of antibiotics. Addressing the knowledge of students regarding HPV vaccine, nearly 53% stated there is no vaccine against HPV and almost 64% rejected the statement that HPV vaccine prevents cervical cancer. In addition, students reported that they will be more than willing to get vaccinated for HPV if their physician recommend them (RII=0.74) followed by parents (RII=0.69). The results of this study revealed a poor understanding among respondents about the health problems associated with HPV, its prevention, modes of transmission and arability of HPV vaccine in Pakistan. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Humans do not switch between path knowledge and landmarks when learning a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Patrick; Duchon, Andrew; Warren, William H; Tarr, Michael J

    2007-05-01

    Using a metric shortcut paradigm, we have found that like honeybees (Dyer in Animal Behaviour 41:239-246, 1991), humans do not seem to build a metric "cognitive map" from path integration. Instead, observers take novel shortcuts based on visual landmarks whenever they are available and reliable (Foo, Warren, Duchon, & Tarr in Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition 31(2):195-215, 2005). In the present experiment we examine whether humans, like ants (Wolf & Wehner in Journal of Experimental Biology 203:857-868, 2000), first use survey-type path knowledge, built up from path integration, and then subsequently shift to reliance on landmarks. In our study participants walked in an immersive virtual environment while head position and orientation were recorded. During training, participants learned two legs of a triangle with feedback: paths from Home to Red and Home to Blue. A configuration of colored posts surrounded the Red location. To test reliance on landmarks, these posts were covertly translated, rotated, or left unchanged during six probe trials. These probe trials were interspersed during the training procedure to measure changes over learning. Dependence on visual landmarks was immediate and sustained during training, and no significant learning effects were observed other than a decrease in hesitation time. Our results suggest that while humans have at least two distinct navigational strategies available to them, unlike ants, a computationally-simpler landmark strategy dominates during novel shortcut navigation.

  8. Rule-based knowledge acquisition method for promoter prediction in human and Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Lin; Tung, Chun-Wei; Liaw, Chyn; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and reliable identification of promoter regions is important when the number of genomes to be sequenced is increasing very speedily. Various methods have been developed but few methods investigate the effectiveness of sequence-based features in promoter prediction. This study proposes a knowledge acquisition method (named PromHD) based on if-then rules for promoter prediction in human and Drosophila species. PromHD utilizes an effective feature-mining algorithm and a reference feature set of 167 DNA sequence descriptors (DNASDs), comprising three descriptors of physicochemical properties (absorption maxima, molecular weight, and molar absorption coefficient), 128 top-ranked descriptors of 4-mer motifs, and 36 global sequence descriptors. PromHD identifies two feature subsets with 99 and 74 DNASDs and yields test accuracies of 96.4% and 97.5% in human and Drosophila species, respectively. Based on the 99- and 74-dimensional feature vectors, PromHD generates several if-then rules by using the decision tree mechanism for promoter prediction. The top-ranked informative rules with high certainty grades reveal that the global sequence descriptor, the length of nucleotide A at the first position of the sequence, and two physicochemical properties, absorption maxima and molecular weight, are effective in distinguishing promoters from non-promoters in human and Drosophila species, respectively.

  9. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  10. Re-using a Knowledge Base in Different Guideline Models: Experience in PRODIGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard W; Jones, Neill; Purves, Ian

    2002-01-01

    One of the main considerations of groups who develop guideline-based decision support systems is how to reuse a knowledge base across different guideline models. Without significant reuse, knowledge bases often have to be constructed virtually from scratch, resulting in vast duplication of effort and wastage of resource. We have successfully demonstrated a method within PRODIGY for migrating the current Release One knowledge base - designed for use within legacy computer systems - into a new knowledge base, the basis of a system designed to run on ‘state-of-the-art’ computer systems.

  11. Learning a Deep Model for Human Action Recognition from Novel Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Hossein; Mian, Ajmal; Shah, Mubarak

    2018-03-01

    Recognizing human actions from unknown and unseen (novel) views is a challenging problem. We propose a Robust Non-Linear Knowledge Transfer Model (R-NKTM) for human action recognition from novel views. The proposed R-NKTM is a deep fully-connected neural network that transfers knowledge of human actions from any unknown view to a shared high-level virtual view by finding a set of non-linear transformations that connects the views. The R-NKTM is learned from 2D projections of dense trajectories of synthetic 3D human models fitted to real motion capture data and generalizes to real videos of human actions. The strength of our technique is that we learn a single R-NKTM for all actions and all viewpoints for knowledge transfer of any real human action video without the need for re-training or fine-tuning the model. Thus, R-NKTM can efficiently scale to incorporate new action classes. R-NKTM is learned with dummy labels and does not require knowledge of the camera viewpoint at any stage. Experiments on three benchmark cross-view human action datasets show that our method outperforms existing state-of-the-art.

  12. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  13. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  14. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Computer Modeling of Human Delta Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dzimbova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of selective agonists of δ-opioid receptor as well as the model of interaction of ligands with this receptor is the subjects of increased interest. In the absence of crystal structures of opioid receptors, 3D homology models with different templates have been reported in the literature. The problem is that these models are not available for widespread use. The aims of our study are: (1 to choose within recently published crystallographic structures templates for homology modeling of the human δ-opioid receptor (DOR; (2 to evaluate the models with different computational tools; and (3 to precise the most reliable model basing on correlation between docking data and in vitro bioassay results. The enkephalin analogues, as ligands used in this study, were previously synthesized by our group and their biological activity was evaluated. Several models of DOR were generated using different templates. All these models were evaluated by PROCHECK and MolProbity and relationship between docking data and in vitro results was determined. The best correlations received for the tested models of DOR were found between efficacy (erel of the compounds, calculated from in vitro experiments and Fitness scoring function from docking studies. New model of DOR was generated and evaluated by different approaches. This model has good GA341 value (0.99 from MODELLER, good values from PROCHECK (92.6% of most favored regions and MolProbity (99.5% of favored regions. Scoring function correlates (Pearson r = -0.7368, p-value = 0.0097 with erel of a series of enkephalin analogues, calculated from in vitro experiments. So, this investigation allows suggesting a reliable model of DOR. Newly generated model of DOR receptor could be used further for in silico experiments and it will give possibility for faster and more correct design of selective and effective ligands for δ-opioid receptor.

  16. Human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnider Thomas W

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propofol is widely used for both short-term anesthesia and long-term sedation. It has unusual pharmacokinetics because of its high lipid solubility. The standard approach to describing the pharmacokinetics is by a multi-compartmental model. This paper presents the first detailed human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model for propofol. Methods PKQuest, a freely distributed software routine http://www.pkquest.com, was used for all the calculations. The "standard human" PBPK parameters developed in previous applications is used. It is assumed that the blood and tissue binding is determined by simple partition into the tissue lipid, which is characterized by two previously determined set of parameters: 1 the value of the propofol oil/water partition coefficient; 2 the lipid fraction in the blood and tissues. The model was fit to the individual experimental data of Schnider et. al., Anesthesiology, 1998; 88:1170 in which an initial bolus dose was followed 60 minutes later by a one hour constant infusion. Results The PBPK model provides a good description of the experimental data over a large range of input dosage, subject age and fat fraction. Only one adjustable parameter (the liver clearance is required to describe the constant infusion phase for each individual subject. In order to fit the bolus injection phase, for 10 or the 24 subjects it was necessary to assume that a fraction of the bolus dose was sequestered and then slowly released from the lungs (characterized by two additional parameters. The average weighted residual error (WRE of the PBPK model fit to the both the bolus and infusion phases was 15%; similar to the WRE for just the constant infusion phase obtained by Schnider et. al. using a 6-parameter NONMEM compartmental model. Conclusion A PBPK model using standard human parameters and a simple description of tissue binding provides a good description of human propofol kinetics. The major advantage of a

  17. More than Anecdotes: Fishers? Ecological Knowledge Can Fill Gaps for Ecosystem Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Ana Helena V.; Carvalho, Adriana R.; Angelini, Ronaldo; Christensen, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecosystem modeling applied to fisheries remains hampered by a lack of local information. Fishers? knowledge could fill this gap, improving participation in and the management of fisheries. Methodology The same fishing area was modeled using two approaches: based on fishers? knowledge and based on scientific information. For the former, the data was collected by interviews through the Delphi methodology, and for the latter, the data was gathered from the literature. Agreement betwee...

  18. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Young Asian Americans' knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Beverly J; Chilton, Janice A; Camingue, Pamela T; Hajek, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health disparity among Asian Americans, with cervical cancer rates of Vietnamese women being significantly higher than for the general US female population and low screening rates reported for Asian American females. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with young Vietnamese, Filipino, and Korean adults (ages 18-29) to collect information on knowledge, perceptions and sources of information regarding cervical cancer, Pap tests and the human papillomavirus. 16 Korean, 18 Vietnamese, and 18 Filipino (50% female) adults participated in the study. Many participants had never heard of HPV, cervical cancer and Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening rates were low for Korean and Vietnamese females and were influenced by moral beliefs and lack of awareness. Culturally relevant education materials that consider specific Asian ethnicity and language are needed to increase awareness of cervical cancer, Pap testing, and HPV among Asian American young adults.

  20. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Keskin Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable or not, which types of HPV the HPV vaccine prevents, the age groups HPV vaccine is administered, the opinions on HPV vaccine and sufficiency of public health, whether female students have underwent vaccination and if not what their drawbacks are.   Results: Mean age of the students participating in the study was 21±4 and 58 % of the patients were female. Out of 448 medical students, 60% of them did not know that HPV was a sexually transmitted disease. Only 55% students knew about the association of HPV with cervical cancer and 52% participants stated that HPV vaccine could not be preventive against cervical cancer. None of female students had been immunized and 67% of female students did not consider getting immunized. Among those who did not consider getting immunized, 70% said they had worries about the safety of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that the knowledge of medical students about HPV is satisfactory, however their knowledge about HPV vaccine, immunization status and desire to be immunized were little.

  1. Nigerian dental technology students and human immunodeficiency virus infection: knowledge, misconceptions and willingness to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Cc; Omili, Ma; Akeredolu, Pa

    2014-05-01

    The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection and willingness to care for HIV-infected patients among respondents in the lower class and those in upper class.

  2. Knowledge and Intention to Participate in Cervical Cancer Screening after the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca Anhang; Koshiol, Jill; Kobrin, Sarah; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background If women who receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine are unduly reassured about the cancer prevention benefits of vaccination, they may choose not to participate in screening, thereby increasing their risk for cervical cancer. This study assesses adult women’s knowledge of the need to continue cervical cancer screening after HPV vaccination, describes Pap test intentions of vaccinated young adult women, and evaluates whether knowledge and intentions differ across groups at greatest risk for cervical cancer. Methods Data were from the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which initiated data collection approximately 18 months after the first FDA approval of an HPV vaccine. We calculated associations between independent variables and the outcomes using chi-square tests. Results Of 1,586 female HINTS respondents ages 18 through 74, 95.6% knew that HPV-vaccinated women should continue to receive Pap tests. This knowledge did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity, education, income, or healthcare access. Among 1,101 female NHIS respondents ages 18 to 26 who had ever received a Pap test, the proportion (12.7%; n = 139) who reported receipt of the HPV vaccine were more likely than those not vaccinated to plan to receive a Pap test within three years (98.1% vs. 92.5%, pknowledge and intention to participate in Pap testing after HPV vaccination. The vast majority of young adult women who received the HPV vaccine within its first two years on the market intend to participate in cervical cancer screening in the near future. Future studies are needed to examine whether those vaccinated in adolescence will become aware of, and adhere to, screening guidelines as they become eligible. PMID:21473953

  3. KMsim: A Meta-modelling Approach and Environment for Creating Process-Oriented Knowledge Management Simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjewierden, Anjo Allert; Shostak, I.; Tsjernikova, Irina; de Hoog, Robert; Gómez Perez, A.; Benjamins, V.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to modelling process-oriented knowledge management (KM) and describes a simulation environment (called KMSIM) that embodies the approach. Since the beginning of modelling researchers have been looking for better and novel ways to model systems and to use

  4. Unsupervised knowledge structuring Application of Infinite Relational Models to the FCA visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual framework for learning an ontological structure of domain knowledge, which combines Jaccard similarity coefficient with the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) by (Kemp et al. 2006) and its extended model, i.e. the normal-Infinite Relational Model (n-IRM) by (Herlau et...

  5. Developing and investigating validity of a knowledge management game simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsjernikova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this research project were to develop a game simulation model which supports learning knowledge management in a game environment and to investigate the validity of that model. The validity of the model is approached from two perspectives: educational validity and representational

  6. Elementary Preservice Teachers' and Elementary Inservice Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the differences in knowledge of mathematical modeling between a group of elementary preservice teachers and a group of elementary inservice teachers. Mathematical modeling has recently come to the forefront of elementary mathematics classrooms because of the call to add mathematical modeling tasks in mathematics classes through…

  7. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  8. Relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour among adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting sexual health among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and safe sex behaviour were explored. The study collected data from 823 adolescent students at a junior college in Central Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Knowledge Scale, Sexual Attitudes Scale, and Safe Sex Behaviour Questionnaire and the demographic data were collected. The preliminary model fit criteria, overall model fit, and fit of internal structure of model was used to assess the sexual health model fit. Results revealed that sexual knowledge had a negative effect on sex attitudes and had no significant effect on safe sex behaviour. Adolescents with more sexual knowledge had less positive sexual attitudes and did not show increased practices of safe sex behaviour. No significant correlation was found between sexual knowledge and safe sex behaviour of adolescents. Improvements in sexual attitudes were found to be irrelevant to the promotion of safe sex behaviour of adolescents. In order to ensure safe sexual health, it is strongly suggested that adolescents learn to be responsible for their own behaviours and attitudes and obtain correct knowledge about their understandings and evaluations of sexuality.

  9. How is the Current Nano/Microscopic Knowledge Implemented in Model Approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The recent developments of experimental techniques have opened new opportunities and challenges for the modelling and simulation of clay materials, on various scales. In this communication, several aspects of the interaction between experimental and modelling approaches will be presented and dis-cussed. What levels of modelling are available depending on the target property and what experimental input is required? How can experimental information be used to validate models? What knowledge can modelling on different scale bring to the knowledge on the physical properties of clays? Finally, what can we do when experimental information is not available? Models implement the current nano/microscopic knowledge using experimental input, taking advantage of multi-scale approaches, and providing data or insights complementary to experiments. Future work will greatly benefit from the recent experimental developments, in particular for 3D-imaging on intermediate scales, and should also address other properties, e.g. mechanical or thermal properties. (authors)

  10. Model-based formalization of medical knowledge for context-aware assistance in laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Gärtner, Fabian; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    The increase of technological complexity in surgery has created a need for novel man-machine interaction techniques. Specifically, context-aware systems which automatically adapt themselves to the current circumstances in the OR have great potential in this regard. To create such systems, models of surgical procedures are vital, as they allow analyzing the current situation and assessing the context. For this purpose, we have developed a Surgical Process Model based on Description Logics. It incorporates general medical background knowledge as well as intraoperatively observed situational knowledge. The representation consists of three parts: the Background Knowledge Model, the Preoperative Process Model and the Integrated Intraoperative Process Model. All models depend on each other and create a concise view on the surgery. As a proof of concept, we applied the system to a specific intervention, the laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

  11. Applying a Knowledge Management Modeling Tool for Manufacturing Vision (MV) Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an empirical application of an experimental model for knowledge management within an organization, namely a case-based reasoning model for manufacturing vision development (CBRM). The model integrates the development process of manufacturing vision with the methodology of ca...... and extending the concept of MV while trying to lead the CBR methodology into a new domain by applying it in strategic management....... that the CBRM is supportive to the decision-making process of applying and augmenting organizational knowledge. It provides a new angle to tackle strategic management issues within the manufacturing system of a business operation. Explores a new proposition within strategic manufacturing management by enriching......This paper introduces an empirical application of an experimental model for knowledge management within an organization, namely a case-based reasoning model for manufacturing vision development (CBRM). The model integrates the development process of manufacturing vision with the methodology of case...

  12. Toward a Phase-Model of Global Knowledge Management Systems in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    -outperform competition and becomeleaders of the e-conomy'. Using examples from a number of large multinational companies thispaper proposes a phase model for the development of a global Knowledge Management Systemwith attention to pertinent policy and management issues in each stage.Keywords: Knowledge management system...... Management System. Although many companies have ManagementInformation Systems in place, this is only the first step in a knowledge-based company. Companiesthat understand and actively manage the process of designing, developing and advancing effectiveKMS' are likely to, in the words of Heinrich v. Pierer, `e......, phase-model, multinational corporation, managementactions...

  13. Progressing the state of knowledge on the human influence on hydrological droughts through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Bosman, Marianne; Wanders, Niko; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Human activities can have a large influence on changes in the hydrological system and hydrological extremes, more than climate variability and climate change in some cases. However, there are currently only a limited number of studies which aim to quantify the human impact on hydrological droughts. Here we present a synthesis study of existing and new results that aims to summarize and quantify the anthropogenic impact on hydrological drought from case studies and observations. By combining a large number of case studies, we allow conclusions to be drawn about the effects of different human activities. This work suggests ways forward to increase our understanding on how human activities are influencing drought characteristics; invaluable information for water resource management and adaptation. During this project, the impact of different human activities (e.g. water abstraction, reservoir building, urbanisation, etc) on drought frequency, duration and deficit has been calculated in a consistent manner, allowing for an improved understanding to how they have impacted droughts. This consistent methodology is a necessary element for this comparative hydrology exercise, yet we use one which is flexible and applicable to different case study set ups and data availability. The methodology used here depends on available observation data, with three possible approaches: i) paired catchment approach; ii) upstream-downstream comparison; iii) observation modelling framework. The synthesised results of the existing and new case studies cover a number of human activities, hydro-climatic and socio-economic contexts. In particular, we remove the climate dependency in the results by using case studies from multiple climatic regions, including UK, Italy, US, Australia, Mexico and Chile. For groundwater abstraction, it is clear across all the relevant case studies that abstraction activities worsen drought events. This is especially prominent in the deficit volumes, with nearly all

  14. Genome Modeling System: A Knowledge Management Platform for Genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachi Griffith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the Genome Modeling System (GMS, an analysis information management system capable of executing automated genome analysis pipelines at a massive scale. The GMS framework provides detailed tracking of samples and data coupled with reliable and repeatable analysis pipelines. The GMS also serves as a platform for bioinformatics development, allowing a large team to collaborate on data analysis, or an individual researcher to leverage the work of others effectively within its data management system. Rather than separating ad-hoc analysis from rigorous, reproducible pipelines, the GMS promotes systematic integration between the two. As a demonstration of the GMS, we performed an integrated analysis of whole genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing data from a breast cancer cell line (HCC1395 and matched lymphoblastoid line (HCC1395BL. These data are available for users to test the software, complete tutorials and develop novel GMS pipeline configurations. The GMS is available at https://github.com/genome/gms.

  15. Model Dinamik Penularan Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutimin, Sutimin; Imamudin, Imamudin

    2009-01-01

    -Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) adalah virus yang dapat merusak sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia Virus HIV dapat menyerang orang yang rentan ketika orang yang rentan itu melakukan kontak dengan penderita virus HIV hingga terinfeksi virus HIV pada akhirnya dapat menderita AIDS atau seropositif non-AIDS. Dengan asumsi-asumsi tentang penularan virus HIV dapat diformulasikan suatu model matematika tentang perpindahan antar orang-orang rentan ke infeksi HIV, penderita AIDS dan seropositif non-A...

  16. A Study on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Management Systems Adoption: Models Comparison Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chun Yeh; Ming-Shu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Using Linear Structural Relation model (LISREL model) as analysis method and technology acceptance model and decomposed theory of planned behavior as research foundation, this study approachesmainly from the angle of behavioral intention to examine the influential factors of 421 employees adopting knowledge management systems and in the meantime to compare the two method models mentioned on the top. According to the research, there is no, in comparison with technology acceptance model anddeco...

  17. Modeling human influenza infection in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radigan KA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn A Radigan,1 Alexander V Misharin,2 Monica Chi,1 GR Scott Budinger11Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 2Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Influenza is the leading cause of death from an infectious cause. Because of its clinical importance, many investigators use animal models to understand the biologic mechanisms of influenza A virus replication, the immune response to the virus, and the efficacy of novel therapies. This review will focus on the biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns that must be considered in pursuing influenza research, in addition to focusing on the two animal models – mice and ferrets – most frequently used by researchers as models of human influenza infection.Keywords: mice, ferret, influenza, animal model, biosafety

  18. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  19. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job.

  20. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  1. 基於XML之分散式模糊知識管理系統模式 An XML-based Distributed System Model of Fuzzy Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-cheng Lin

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available 無This paper focuses the attention on some issues of Web-based fuzzy knowledge management system. In the recent years, fuzzy theory has been an important research field of knowledge engineering. It provides a fundamental theory to deal with the linguistic information of human intelligence mathematically. On the other hand, the second-generation Web that based on XML technology is expected to extend the Internet beyond information delivery to knowledge management. To join together the advantages of both technologies, three major works are accomplished in this paper. First a distributed system model of fuzzy knowledge management based on XML technology is proposed. secondly, the structure of the fuzzy knowledge base is deeply analyzed for defining a fuzzy DTD. Finally, a prototype of DTD for creating fuzzy knowledge base by XML is developed.

  2. The Modeling and Simulation Catalog for Discovery, Knowledge and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, George F. III; Greenberg, Brandi; Daehler-Wilking, Richard; Hunt, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The DoD M&S Steering Committee has noted that the current DoD and Service's modeling and simulation resource repository (MSRR) services are not up-to-date limiting their value to the using communities. However, M&S leaders and managers also determined that the Department needs a functional M&S registry card catalog to facilitate M&S tool and data visibility to support M&S activities across the DoD. The M&S Catalog will discover and access M&S metadata maintained at nodes distributed across DoD networks in a centrally managed, decentralized process that employs metadata collection and management. The intent is to link information stores, precluding redundant location updating. The M&S Catalog uses a standard metadata schemas based on the DoD's Net-Centric Data Strategy Community of Interest metadata specification. The Air Force, Navy and OSD (CAPE) have provided initial information to participating DoD nodes, but plans on the horizon are being made to bring in hundreds of source providers.

  3. Knowledge management: Postgraduate Alternative Evaluation Model (MAPA in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Cristina Corrêa Igarashi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian stricto sensu postgraduate programs that include master and / or doctorate courses are evaluated by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. The evaluation method used by CAPES is recognized in national and international context. However, several elements of the evaluation method can be improved. For example: to consider programs diversity, heterogeneity and specificities; to reduce subjectivity and to explain how indicators are grouped into different dimensions to generate a final result, which is scoring level reached by a program. This study aims to analyze the evaluation process by CAPES, presenting questions, difficulties and objections raised by researchers. From the analysis, the study proposes an alternative evaluation model for postgraduate (MAPA - Modelo de Avaliação para Pós graduação Alternativo which incorporates fuzzy logic in result analysis to minimize limitations identified. The MAPA was applied in three postgraduate programs, allowing: (1 better understanding of procedures used for the evaluation, (2 identifying elements that need regulation, (3 characterization of indicators that generate local evaluation, (4 support in medium and long term planning.

  4. A model of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöhren, Kirstin; Höltje, Hans-Dieter

    2002-11-01

    The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor belongs to the family of rhodopsin like G-Protein Coupled Receptors. This subtype of muscarinic receptors is of special interest because it bears, aside from an orthosteric binding site, also an allosteric binding site. Based on the X-ray structure of bovine rhodopsin a complete homology model of the human M2 receptor was developed. For the orthosteric binding site point mutations and binding studies with different agonists and antagonists are available. This knowledge was utilized for an initial verification of the M2 model. Allosteric modulation of activity is mediated by structurally different ligands such as gallamine, caracurine V salts or W84 (a hexamethonium-derivative). Caracurine V derivatives with different affinities to M2 were docked using GRID-fields. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulations yielded different binding energies based on diverse electrostatic and lipophilic interactions. The calculated affinities are in good agreement to experimentally determined affinities.

  5. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working with a sys......The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...

  6. Towards a New Generation of Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Design and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno; Conant, Richard T.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Jones, James W.; Herrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Keating, Brian A.; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a "pre-competitive" space for model development to a "competitive space" for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.

  7. Development of knowledge models by linguistic analysis of lexical relationships in technical documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguela, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the problem of knowledge acquisition and structuring from technical texts, and the use of this knowledge in the development of models. The author presents the Cameleon method which aims at extracting binary lexical relationships from technical texts by identifying linguistic markers. The relevance of this method is assessed in the case of four different corpuses: a written technical corpus, an oral technical corpus, a corpus of texts of instructions, and a corpus of academic texts. The author reports the development of a model of representation of knowledge of a specific field by using lexical relationships. The method is then applied to develop a model used in document search within a knowledge management system [fr

  8. Modeling human neurological disorders with induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Yoichi; Okano, Hideyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells obtained by reprogramming technology are a source of great hope, not only in terms of applications in regenerative medicine, such as cell transplantation therapy, but also for modeling human diseases and new drug development. In particular, the production of iPS cells from the somatic cells of patients with intractable diseases and their subsequent differentiation into cells at affected sites (e.g., neurons, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes) has permitted the in vitro construction of disease models that contain patient-specific genetic information. For example, disease-specific iPS cells have been established from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, as well as from those with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A multi-omics analysis of neural cells originating from patient-derived iPS cells may thus enable investigators to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of neurological diseases that have heretofore been unknown. In addition, large-scale screening of chemical libraries with disease-specific iPS cells is currently underway and is expected to lead to new drug discovery. Accordingly, this review outlines the progress made via the use of patient-derived iPS cells toward the modeling of neurological disorders, the testing of existing drugs, and the discovery of new drugs. The production of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from the patients' somatic cells and their subsequent differentiation into specific cells have permitted the in vitro construction of disease models that contain patient-specific genetic information. Furthermore, innovations of gene-editing technologies on iPS cells are enabling new approaches for illuminating the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. In this review article, we outlined the current status of neurological diseases-specific iPS cell research and described recently obtained

  9. "The Human Condition" as social ontology: Hannah Arendt on society, action and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hannah Arendt is widely regarded as a political theorist who sought to rescue politics from "society," and political theory from the social sciences. This conventional view has had the effect of distracting attention from many of Arendt's most important insights concerning the constitution of "society" and the significance of the social sciences. In this article, I argue that Hannah Arendt's distinctions between labor, work, and action, as these are discussed in "The Human Condition" and elsewhere, are best understood as a set of claims about the fundamental structures of human societies. Understanding Arendt in this way introduces interesting parallels between Arendt's work and both classical and contemporary sociology. From this I draw a number of conclusions concerning Arendt's conception of "society," and extend these insights into two contemporary debates within contemporary theoretical sociology: the need for a differentiated ontology of the social world, and the changing role that novel forms of knowledge play in contemporary society as major sources of social change and order.

  10. Knowledge Co-production Strategies for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, P.

    2016-12-01

    The limited impact of scientific information on policy making and climate adaptation in North America has raised awareness of the need for new modeling strategies and knowledge transfer processes. This paper outlines the rationale for a new paradigm in water resources modeling and management, using examples from the USA and Canada. Principles include anticipatory modeling, complex system dynamics, decision making under uncertainty, visualization, capacity to represent and manipulate critical trade-offs, stakeholder engagement, local knowledge, context-specific activities, social learning, vulnerability analysis, iterative and collaborative modeling, and the concept of a boundary organization. In this framework, scientists and stakeholders are partners in the production and dissemination of knowledge for decision making, and local knowledge is fused with scientific observation and methodology. Discussion draws from experience in building long-term collaborative boundary organizations in Phoenix, Arizona in the USA and the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Canada. Examples of boundary spanning activities include the use of visualization, the concept of a decision theater, infrastructure to support social learning, social networks, and reciprocity, simulation modeling to explore "what if" scenarios of the future, surveys to elicit how water problems are framed by scientists and stakeholders, and humanistic activities (theatrical performances, art exhibitions, etc.) to draw attention to local water issues. The social processes surrounding model development and dissemination are at least as important as modeling assumptions, procedures, and results in determining whether scientific knowledge will be used effectively for water resources decision making.

  11. A dynamic model of human physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa; Kaplan, Carolyn; Oran, Elaine; Boris, Jay

    2010-11-01

    To study the systems-level transport in the human body, we develop the Computational Man (CMAN): a set of one-dimensional unsteady elastic flow simulations created to model a variety of coupled physiological systems including the circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and lymphatic systems. The model systems are collapsed from three spatial dimensions and time to one spatial dimension and time by assuming axisymmetric vessel geometry and a parabolic velocity profile across the cylindrical vessels. To model the actions of a beating heart or expanding lungs, the flow is driven by user-defined changes to the equilibrium areas of the elastic vessels. The equations are then iteratively solved for pressure, area, and average velocity. The model is augmented with valves and contractions to resemble the biological structure of the different systems. CMAN will be used to track material transport throughout the human body for diagnostic and predictive purposes. Parameters will be adjustable to match those of individual patients. Validation of CMAN has used both higher-dimensional simulations of similar geometries and benchmark measurement from medical literature.

  12. The Five Key Questions of Human Performance Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu

    2018-01-01

    Via building computational (typically mathematical and computer simulation) models, human performance modeling (HPM) quantifies, predicts, and maximizes human performance, human-machine system productivity and safety. This paper describes and summarizes the five key questions of human performance modeling: 1) Why we build models of human performance; 2) What the expectations of a good human performance model are; 3) What the procedures and requirements in building and verifying a human performance model are; 4) How we integrate a human performance model with system design; and 5) What the possible future directions of human performance modeling research are. Recent and classic HPM findings are addressed in the five questions to provide new thinking in HPM's motivations, expectations, procedures, system integration and future directions.

  13. Human reliability data collection and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The main purpose of this document is to review and outline the current state-of-the-art of the Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) used for quantitative assessment of nuclear power plants safe and economical operation. Another objective is to consider Human Performance Indicators (HPI) which can alert plant manager and regulator to departures from states of normal and acceptable operation. These two objectives are met in the three sections of this report. The first objective has been divided into two areas, based on the location of the human actions being considered. That is, the modelling and data collection associated with control room actions are addressed first in chapter 1 while actions outside the control room (including maintenance) are addressed in chapter 2. Both chapters 1 and 2 present a brief outline of the current status of HRA for these areas, and major outstanding issues. Chapter 3 discusses HPI. Such performance indicators can signal, at various levels, changes in factors which influence human performance. The final section of this report consists of papers presented by the participants of the Technical Committee Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  15. An empirically based model for knowledge management in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Shannon L; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) encompasses strategies, processes, and practices that allow an organization to capture, share, store, access, and use knowledge. Ideal KM combines different sources of knowledge to support innovation and improve performance. Despite the importance of KM in health care organizations (HCOs), there has been very little empirical research to describe KM in this context. This study explores KM in HCOs, focusing on the status of current intraorganizational KM. The intention is to provide insight for future studies and model development for effective KM implementation in HCOs. A qualitative methods approach was used to create an empirically based model of KM in HCOs. Methods included (a) qualitative interviews (n = 24) with senior leadership to identify types of knowledge important in these roles plus current information-seeking behaviors/needs and (b) in-depth case study with leaders in new executive positions (n = 2). The data were collected from 10 HCOs. Our empirically based model for KM was assessed for face and content validity. The findings highlight the paucity of formal KM in our sample HCOs. Organizational culture, leadership, and resources are instrumental in supporting KM processes. An executive's knowledge needs are extensive, but knowledge assets are often limited or difficult to acquire as much of the available information is not in a usable format. We propose an empirically based model for KM to highlight the importance of context (internal and external), and knowledge seeking, synthesis, sharing, and organization. Participants who reviewed the model supported its basic components and processes, and potential for incorporating KM into organizational processes. Our results articulate ways to improve KM, increase organizational learning, and support evidence-informed decision-making. This research has implications for how to better integrate evidence and knowledge into organizations while considering context and the role of

  16. Nationwide Survey of Knowledge and Health Beliefs regarding Human Papillomavirus among HPV-Vaccinated Female Students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Ping; Raja Muhammad Yusoff, Raja Nur Amalina; Edib, Zobaida; Sam, I-Ching; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The National HPV Immunization Programme, which offers free human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to teenaged female students, was launched in Malaysia in 2010. HPV vaccination paired with adequate knowledge about HPV infection provides the best protection against cervical cancer. To identify the level of knowledge and the health beliefs towards HPV and the HPV vaccine among HPV-vaccinated female students in Malaysia. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among 14 years old female students who had...

  17. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua eCheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with nonverbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children’s initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children’s compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

  18. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

  19. Knowledge of human papillomavirus vaccination and related factors among parents of young adolescents: a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zheng, Quan-Qing; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related knowledge and factors associated with the knowledge among parents of young adolescents in China. The study was based on data of a survey carried out in seven geographic regions of China. Parents of students in junior middle school were surveyed during parents' meetings. A total of 2895 parents were included in the analyses. Of parents, 38.3% responded with "yes" to more than three of the six knowledge questions, among whom only 4.5% of them correctly answered all six questions. Social benefit programs (41.3%), doctors and/or nurses (39.7%), and newspapers and/or magazines (36.5%) were selected as the top three sources of HPV-related knowledge. Mothers, parents who work in the health care sector, and parents with a higher annual income or with vaccination experience outside the expanded program on immunization showed a better knowledge base. Parents who consented to sex education for children or showed fear of cervical cancer were likely to have more HPV-related knowledge. In particular, the knowledge level of parents with prior consultation regarding HPV vaccines was higher. Parents of young adolescents in China possessed a low level of HPV vaccine-related knowledge. Findings highlight the need for tailored health education through different channels to improve HPV-related knowledge among parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the affective (emotional) connotations of settings' appearances. The kinesthetic aspect evaluates the available space in terms of its suitability to accommodate human movement patterns, as well as the postural and anthrometric changes due to microgravity. Finally, social logic concerns how the volume and geometry of available space either affirms or contravenes established social and organizational expectations for spatial arrangements. Here, the criteria include privacy, status, social power, and proxemics (the uses of space as a medium of social communication).

  1. Use of rodents as models of human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F Vandamme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in molecular biology have significantly increased the understanding of the biology of different diseases. However, these discoveries have not yet been fully translated into improved treatments for patients with diseases such as cancers. One of the factors limiting the translation of knowledge from preclinical studies to the clinic has been the limitations of in vivo diseases models. In this brief review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of rodent models that have been developed to simulate human pathologies, focusing in models that employ xenografts and genetic modification. Within the framework of genetically engineered mouse (GEM models, we will review some of the current genetic strategies for modeling diseases in the mouse and the preclinical studies that have already been undertaken. We will also discuss how recent improvements in imaging technologies may increase the information derived from using these GEMs during early assessments of potential therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that one of the values of using a mouse model is the very rapid turnover rate of the animal, going through the process of birth to death in a very short timeframe relative to that of larger mammalian species.

  2. Xenografted tissue models for the study of human endometrial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Satu; Zhu, Liyin; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging. Researchers, therefore, have developed alternative experimental in vivo models for the study of endometrial biology. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent developments and work on these in vivo endometrial research models. The in vivo recombinant tissue models in which wild-type endometrial cells are combined with endometrial cells from a gene-targeted mouse strain followed by xenografting to host mice have been critical in confirming the significance of paracrine signaling between the epithelium and stroma in the growth regulation of the endometrium. Additionally, these studies have uncovered differences between the mouse and human, emphasizing the need for the development of experimental models specifically of the human endometrium. Recently, xenotransplants of human endometrial fragments into the subcutaneous space of host mice and endometrial xenografts of dissociated and recombined epithelial and stromal cells beneath the kidney capsule of immunodeficient host mice have proven to be highly promising tools for in vivo research of endometrial functions. For the first time, the latter approach provides an immense opportunity for the application of genome engineering, such as targeted ablation of endometrial genes for example by using CRISPR/CAS9 system. This research will begin to elucidate the functional role of specific genes in this complex tissue. Another advantage of xenotransplantation and xenograft models of the human

  3. Applying a Knowledge Management Modeling Tool for Manufacturing Vision (MV) Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    that the CBRM is supportive to the decision-making process of applying and augmenting organizational knowledge. It provides a new angle to tackle strategic management issues within the manufacturing system of a business operation. Explores a new proposition within strategic manufacturing management by enriching...... and extending the concept of MV while trying to lead the CBR methodology into a new domain by applying it in strategic management.......This paper introduces an empirical application of an experimental model for knowledge management within an organization, namely a case-based reasoning model for manufacturing vision development (CBRM). The model integrates the development process of manufacturing vision with the methodology of case...

  4. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  5. A Model of an Expanded-Frame Hypermedia Knowledge-Base for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark J.; Wood, R. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Argues that current computer-based instruction does not exploit the instructional possibilities of computers. Critiques current models of computer-based instruction: behaviorist as too linear and constructivist as too unstructured. Offers a design model of Expanded-frame Hypermedia Knowledge-bases as an instructional approach allowing hypermedia…

  6. The Knowledge Building Paradigm: A Model of Learning for Net Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald

    2005-01-01

    In this article Donald Philip describes Knowledge Building, a pedagogy based on the way research organizations function. The global economy, Philip argues, is driving a shift from older, industrial models to the model of the business as a learning organization. The cognitive patterns of today's Net Generation students, formed by lifetime exposure…

  7. Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.

    Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

  8. A Model for Collaborative Working to Facilitate Knowledge Mobilisation in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Karen Elizabeth; Wallace, Annie; Crosland, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for collaborative working to facilitate knowledge mobilisation in public health. The model has been developed by university researchers who worked collaboratively with public health commissioners and strategic partners to evaluate a portfolio of short-term funded interventions to inform re-commissioning. Within this…

  9. Intellectual Capital Control: A Model Applied to the Management of Knowledge Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinícius Dias Jordão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge management (KM and intellectual capital (IC have been topics of great relevance in academia and business. However, the literature suggests that there is a research gap that need to be better understood deriving from the difficulties encountered by researchers and companies in manage, measure and control the intangible assets. The purpose of this article is to propose a theoretical-conceptual model to support the development of a control system to IC and KM. Accordingly it is discussed the design of the management control system (MCS and previous studies that supports the proposed model are analyzed. The study expands the understanding on the focal topic and helps to fill that research gap, showing that: (1 an adequate design of the MCS can contribute to the externalizing of part of the tacit knowledge, transforming it into explicit knowledge through acculturation of the members of the company; (2 the organizational culture helps to systematize and disseminate knowledge in the company; (3 the cultural control can help to integrate the knowledge, manage it and turn it into IC; and (4 the MCS can collaborate in the individual knowledge socialization process and in the collective knowledge institutionalization aiming to create value for companies.

  10. Decision tree based knowledge acquisition and failure diagnosis using a PWR loop vibration model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauernfeind, V.; Ding, Y.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical vibration model of the primary system of a 1300 MW PWR was used for simulating mechanical faults. Deviations in the calculated power density spectra and coherence functions are determined and classified. The decision tree technique is then used for a personal computer supported knowledge presentation and for optimizing the logical relationships between the simulated faults and the observed symptoms. The optimized decision tree forms the knowledge base and can be used to diagnose known cases as well as to include new data into the knowledge base if new faults occur. (author)

  11. Characteristics and Diffusion Model of the Individual Knowledge in the WeChat Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingzhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] According to the model of the individual knowledge diffusion, we conduct a behavior research and analyze the characteristics of that based on WeChat which is the most popular communication platform in China.[Method/process] By analyzing the methods of the diffusion on WeChat, we analyzed the characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion. [Result/conclusion]The characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion include real-time, short-term, speciality, friendship and transmission.

  12. A model to capture and manage tacit knowledge using a multiagent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Lilyam; Paggi, Horacio; Alonso, Fernando; López, Genoveva

    2014-10-01

    This article presents a model to capture and register business tacit knowledge belonging to different sources, using an expert multiagent system which enables the entry of incidences and captures the tacit knowledge which could fix them. This knowledge and their sources are evaluated through the application of trustworthy algorithms that lead to the registration of the data base and the best of each of them. Through its intelligent software agents, this system interacts with the administrator, users, with the knowledge sources and with all the practice communities which might exist in the business world. The sources as well as the knowledge are constantly evaluated, before being registered and also after that, in order to decide the staying or modification of its original weighting. If there is the possibility of better, new knowledge are registered through the old ones. This is also part of an investigation being carried out which refers to knowledge management methodologies in order to manage tacit business knowledge so as to make the business competitiveness easier and leading to innovation learning.

  13. University 3.0 as a Corporate Entity of Knowledge Economy: Models and Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The University 3.0 is established in higher education systems in developed countries, performing social missions of education, research, and knowledge commercialization. The purpose of the article is the study of the University 3.0 as a corporate entity of knowledge economy. For this purpose the author discloses the content its fundamental social and economic missions and models in the context of social reality and management policy; gives examples of scientific studies of the University 3.0 ...

  14. Caroli's Disease: Current Knowledge of Its Biliary Pathogenesis Obtained from an Orthologous Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caroli's disease belongs to a group of hepatic fibropolycystic diseases and is a hepatic manifestation of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD. It is a congenital disorder characterized by segmental saccular dilatations of the large intrahepatic bile duct and is frequently associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF. The most viable theory explaining its pathogenesis suggests that it is related to ductal plate malformation. The development of the polycystic kidney (PCK rat, an orthologous rodent model of Caroli's disease with CHF as well as ARPKD, has allowed the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and the therapeutic options for its treatment to be examined. The relevance of the findings of studies using PCK rats and/or the cholangiocyte cell line derived from them to the pathogenesis of human Caroli's disease is currently being analyzed. Fibrocystin/polyductin, the gene product responsible for ARPKD, is normally localized to primary cilia, and defects in the fibrocystin from primary cilia are observed in PCK cholangiocytes. Ciliopathies involving PCK cholangiocytes (cholangiociliopathies appear to be associated with decreased intracellular calcium levels and increased cAMP concentrations, causing cholangiocyte hyperproliferation, abnormal cell matrix interactions, and altered fluid secretion, which ultimately result in bile duct dilatation. This article reviews the current knowledge about the pathogenesis of Caroli's disease with CHF, particularly focusing on studies of the mechanism responsible for the biliary dysgenesis observed in PCK rats.

  15. Hybrid forecasting of chaotic processes: Using machine learning in conjunction with a knowledge-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jaideep; Wikner, Alexander; Fussell, Rebeckah; Chandra, Sarthak; Hunt, Brian R.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2018-04-01

    A model-based approach to forecasting chaotic dynamical systems utilizes knowledge of the mechanistic processes governing the dynamics to build an approximate mathematical model of the system. In contrast, machine learning techniques have demonstrated promising results for forecasting chaotic systems purely from past time series measurements of system state variables (training data), without prior knowledge of the system dynamics. The motivation for this paper is the potential of machine learning for filling in the gaps in our underlying mechanistic knowledge that cause widely-used knowledge-based models to be inaccurate. Thus, we here propose a general method that leverages the advantages of these two approaches by combining a knowledge-based model and a machine learning technique to build a hybrid forecasting scheme. Potential applications for such an approach are numerous (e.g., improving weather forecasting). We demonstrate and test the utility of this approach using a particular illustrative version of a machine learning known as reservoir computing, and we apply the resulting hybrid forecaster to a low-dimensional chaotic system, as well as to a high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaotic system. These tests yield extremely promising results in that our hybrid technique is able to accurately predict for a much longer period of time than either its machine-learning component or its model-based component alone.

  16. Determining and ranking dimensions of knowledge management implementation using Hicks model and fuzzy TOPSIS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was the age of an industry-based as well as knowledge-based economy. In a knowledge-based economy, knowledge plays an essential role to produce wealth compared with other tangible and physical assets. The purpose of this research is to identify and rank different aspects of knowledge management based on the Hicks model using the fuzzy TOPSIS technique for one of the most prestigious universities in Iran. The proposed model considers four main criteria of knowledge including creation, distribution, storage, and application along with 17 sub-criteria. The Chi-square correlation test indicates a positive and meaningful correlation between four mentioned criteria and knowledge management implementation. Using the fuzzy TOPSIS technique, the results also indicate that “Need for new and updated information and knowledge” was selected as the most important sub-criterion and “Sharing or distribution of knowledge” was selected as the most important main criterion on Hicks model.

  17. MOHAWC. Models of human activities in work contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehmer, B.; Andersen, H.B.

    1993-06-01

    The overall objective of the MOHAWC Action is to formulate and extend a unifying framework for cognitive studies of human agents coping with complex work domains. Central issues are methods for analysis and representation of knowledge about complex domains, analysis of cognitive control, mental models and heuristics applied in complex work domains, distributed decision making and forms of cooperative work, the role of tacit knowledge in agents' performance in complex work domains, and cognitive simulation methods for testing models of cognitive performance. The nature of computer mediated work and how such work should be designed and organised to be optimally effective and satisfying is considered. The focus is mainly on various forms of process industry, such as nuclear power and steel production. Dynamic decision making, where the decision-maker has to make a series of interdependent decisions under conditions where the state of the system with which he or she is working changes, both as a consequence of the decision maker's actions and autonomously, and where the decisions must be made in real time is analysed. MOHAWC taxonomy has played a central role as a framework for identifying important research problems and for integrating results. The Risoe team has contributed a major analysis of and illustration of how the MOHAWC taxonomy can be used in the design of interfaces. (AB) (97 refs.)

  18. Joint modeling of correlated binary outcomes: The case of contraceptive use and HIV knowledge in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Sun, Renyuan

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in statistical methods enable the study of correlation among outcomes through joint modeling, thereby addressing spillover effects. By joint modeling, we refer to simultaneously analyzing two or more different response variables emanating from the same individual. Using the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, we jointly address spillover effects between contraceptive use (CUC) and knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Jointly modeling these two outcomes is appropriate because certain types of contraceptive use contribute to the prevention of HIV and STDs and the knowledge and awareness of HIV and STDs typically lead to protection during sexual intercourse. In particular, we compared the differences as they pertained to the interpretive advantage of modeling the spillover effects of joint modeling HIV and CUC as opposed to addressing them separately. We also identified risk factors that determine contraceptive use and knowledge of HIV and STDs among women in Bangladesh. We found that by jointly modeling the correlation between HIV knowledge and contraceptive use, the importance of education decreased. The HIV prevention program had a spillover effect on CUC: what seemed to be impacted by education can be partially contributed to one’s exposure to HIV knowledge. The joint model revealed a less significant impact of covariates as opposed to both separate models and standard models. Additionally, we found a spillover effect that would have otherwise been undiscovered if we did not jointly model. These findings further suggested that the simultaneous impact of correlated outcomes can be adequately addressed for the commonality between different responses and deflate, which is otherwise overestimated when examined separately. PMID:29351328

  19. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  20. Dengue human infection models supporting drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Van, Vinh Chau Nguyen; Simmons, Cameron P

    2014-06-15

    Dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. There is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. Here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (DHIM) for drug development. A DHIM could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients with dengue in an endemic country. In addition, the DHIM would assist the conduct of intensive pharmacokinetic and basic research investigations and aid in determining optimal drug dosage. Furthermore, a DHIM could help establish proof of concept that chemoprophylaxis against dengue is feasible. The key challenge in developing the DHIM for drug development is to ensure the model reliably replicates the typical clinical and laboratory features of naturally acquired, symptomatic dengue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.