WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling high-level behavior

  1. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Centrifuge model tests and proposal for simple evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, bentonite will be used as buffer materials in high-level nuclear waste disposal. In the softened buffer material with the infiltration of various properties of under ground water, if the container deeply sinks, the decrease of the thickness of the buffer materials may lose the required abilities. Therefore, it is very important to consider settlement of container. In this study, influences of distilled water and artificial seawater on the settlement of the container were investigated and a simple evaluation method for settlement of the container was proposed. The following findings were obtained from this study. (1) Under the distilled water, amount of settlement decreases exponentially as dry density becomes larger. (2) While the amount of settlement of container under the 10% artificial seawater was almost equal to the one in the distilled water, the container was floating under the 100% artificial seawater. (3) The simple evaluation method for settlement of container was proposed based on the diffuse double layer theory, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the results of several experiments. (author)

  2. Leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1987-03-01

    The author's work in the study on the leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were summarized. The subjects described are (1) leach rates at high temperatures, (2) effects of cracks on leach rates, (3) effects of flow rate on leach rates, and (4) an in-situ burial test in natural groundwater. In the following section, the leach rates obtained by various experiments were summarized and discussed. (author)

  3. Aeon: Synthesizing Scheduling Algorithms from High-Level Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Jean-Noël; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    This paper describes the aeon system whose aim is to synthesize scheduling algorithms from high-level models. A eon, which is entirely written in comet, receives as input a high-level model for a scheduling application which is then analyzed to generate a dedicated scheduling algorithm exploiting the structure of the model. A eon provides a variety of synthesizers for generating complete or heuristic algorithms. Moreover, synthesizers are compositional, making it possible to generate complex hybrid algorithms naturally. Preliminary experimental results indicate that this approach may be competitive with state-of-the-art search algorithms.

  4. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification

  5. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  6. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78 ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  7. Phase behavior and radiation effects in high level waste class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.

    1977-02-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that detailed and reproducible data can be obtained for complex waste glasses. For the major glass composition examined, thermal treatment was shown to cause formation of several crystalline phases which contribute to an increased leachability. Although not discussed in detail here, Zn 2 SiO 4 formation results in microcracking due to a thermal expansion mismatch with the glass matrix, and SrMoO 4 has a higher leachability than the glass matrix. The temperature dependence describing equilibrium concentrations of these two phases and a qualitative understanding of ingrowth kinetics have been established, hence conditions necessary to eliminate their formation during processing and early storage, are known. Radiation damage effects, when extrapolated to long times, suggest energy storage of approximately 50 cal/gram and either positive or negative density changes occur (depending on the glass composition) in the 1 percent range. No radiation damage-related changes of serious concern have been found for homogeneous glasses by 244 Cm doping experiments now approaching a simulated damage time of approximately 10 3 years (for UO 2 fuel wastes). More work is needed concerning heterogeneous damage which will occur in devitrified glasses. As a final point, the complications with respect to understanding behavior of polyphase systems with respect to either radiation damage or leaching behavior, are self evident. Homogeneous glasses with improved leach resistance, and thermal and radiation stability are clear objectives for future glass development

  8. Ontology-Based High-Level Context Inference for Human Behavior Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Villalonga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the automatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based method that combines low-level primitives of behavior, namely activity, locations and emotions, unprecedented to date, to intelligently derive more meaningful high-level context information. The paper contributes with a new open ontology describing both low-level and high-level context information, as well as their relationships. Furthermore, a framework building on the developed ontology and reasoning models is presented and evaluated. The proposed method proves to be robust while identifying high-level contexts even in the event of erroneously-detected low-level contexts. Despite reasonable inference times being obtained for a relevant set of users and instances, additional work is required to scale to long-term scenarios with a large number of users.

  9. Ontology-Based High-Level Context Inference for Human Behavior Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Lee, Sungyoung; Banos, Oresti

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the automatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based method that combines low-level primitives of behavior, namely activity, locations and emotions, unprecedented to date, to intelligently derive more meaningful high-level context information. The paper contributes with a new open ontology describing both low-level and high-level context information, as well as their relationships. Furthermore, a framework building on the developed ontology and reasoning models is presented and evaluated. The proposed method proves to be robust while identifying high-level contexts even in the event of erroneously-detected low-level contexts. Despite reasonable inference times being obtained for a relevant set of users and instances, additional work is required to scale to long-term scenarios with a large number of users. PMID:27690050

  10. Development of analytical model for condensation of vapor mixture of nitric acid and water affected volatilized ruthenium behavior in accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of reprocessed high level liquid waste at fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    An accident of evaporation to dryness by boiling of high level liquid waste is postulated as one of the severe accidents caused by the loss of cooling function at a fuel reprocessing plant. In this case, continuous vaporing of nitric acid and water leads to increase Ru volatilization in liquid waste temperature over 120degC at later boiling and dry out phases. It has been observed at the experiments with actual and synthetic liquid waste that some amount of Ru volatilizes and transfers into condensed nitric acid solution at those phases. The nitric acid and water vapor flowing from waste tank are expected to condense at compartments of actual facilities building. The volatilized Ru could transfer into condensed liquid. It is key issues for quantifying the amount of transferred Ru through the facility building to simulate these thermodynamic and chemical behaviors. An analytical model has been proposed in this report based on the condensation mechanisms of nitric acid and water in vapor-liquid equilibria. It has been also carried out for the proposed model being feasible to formulate the activity coefficients and to review the thermodynamic properties of nitric acid solution. Practicability of the proposed analytical model has been shown successfully through the feasibility study with simulation of an experiment result. (author)

  11. High-level PC-based laser system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael S.

    1991-05-01

    Since the inception of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) there have been a multitude of comparison studies done in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness and relative sizes of complementary, and sometimes competitive, laser weapon systems. It became more and more apparent that what the systems analyst needed was not only a fast, but a cost effective way to perform high-level trade studies. In the present investigation, a general procedure is presented for the development of PC-based algorithmic systems models for laser systems. This procedure points out all of the major issues that should be addressed in the design and development of such a model. Issues addressed include defining the problem to be modeled, defining a strategy for development, and finally, effective use of the model once developed. Being a general procedure, it will allow a systems analyst to develop a model to meet specific needs. To illustrate this method of model development, a description of the Strategic Defense Simulation - Design To (SDS-DT) model developed and used by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is presented. SDS-DT is a menu-driven, fast executing, PC-based program that can be used to either calculate performance, weight, volume, and cost values for a particular design or, alternatively, to run parametrics on particular system parameters to perhaps optimize a design.

  12. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  13. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  14. Requirements for High Level Models Supporting Design Space Exploration in Model-based Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Steven P.; Bonnema, G. Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during detailed design. In this paper, we define requirements for a high level model that is firstly driven by key systems engineering challenges present in industry and secondly connects to several formal and d...

  15. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  16. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive

  17. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  18. 3D Shape Modeling Using High Level Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana

    features like thorns, bark and scales. Presented here is a simple method for easy modeling, transferring and editing that kind of texture. The method is an extension of the height-field texture, but incorporates an additional tilt of the height field. Related to modeling non-heightfield textures, a part...... of my work involved developing feature-aware resizing of models with complex surfaces consisting of underlying shape and a distinctive texture detail. The aim was to deform an object while preserving the shape and size of the features.......The goal of this Ph.D. project is to investigate and improve the methods for describing the surface of 3D objects, with focus on modeling geometric texture on surfaces. Surface modeling being a large field of research, the work done during this project concentrated around a few smaller areas...

  19. Experiment planning using high-level component models at W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewerentz, Marc; Spring, Anett; Bluhm, Torsten; Heimann, Peter; Hennig, Christine; Kühner, Georg; Kroiss, Hugo; Krom, Johannes G.; Laqua, Heike; Maier, Josef; Riemann, Heike; Schacht, Jörg; Werner, Andreas; Zilker, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Introduction of models for an abstract description of fusion experiments. ► Component models support creating feasible experiment programs at planning time. ► Component models contain knowledge about physical and technical constraints. ► Generated views on models allow to present crucial information. - Abstract: The superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is a fusion device, which is capable of steady state operation. Furthermore W7-X is a very complex technical system. To cope with these requirements a modular and strongly hierarchical component-based control and data acquisition system has been designed. The behavior of W7-X is characterized by thousands of technical parameters of the participating components. The intended sequential change of those parameters during an experiment is defined in an experiment program. Planning such an experiment program is a crucial and complex task. To reduce the complexity an abstract, more physics-oriented high-level layer has been introduced earlier. The so-called high-level (physics) parameters are used to encapsulate technical details. This contribution will focus on the extension of this layer to a high-level component model. It completely describes the behavior of a component for a certain period of time. It allows not only defining simple value ranges but also complex dependencies between physics parameters. This can be: dependencies within components, dependencies between components or temporal dependencies. Component models can now be analyzed to generate various views of an experiment. A first implementation of such an analyze process is already finished. A graphical preview of a planned discharge can be generated from a chronological sequence of component models. This allows physicists to survey complex planned experiment programs at a glance.

  20. Connectionist Models and Parallelism in High Level Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    GRANT NUMBER(s) Jerome A. Feldman N00014-82-K-0193 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENt. PROJECT, TASK Computer Science...Connectionist Models 2.1 Background and Overviev % Computer science is just beginning to look seriously at parallel computation : it may turn out that...the chair. The program includes intermediate level networks that compute more complex joints and ones that compute parallelograms in the image. These

  1. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  2. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis Among High-Level Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulic Damir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success, doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc., sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency. The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping, and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  3. The Prevalence and Covariates of Potential Doping Behavior in Kickboxing; Analysis among High-Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Zenic, Natasa; Versic, Sime; Maric, Dora; Gabrilo, Goran; Jelicic, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The official reports on doping behavior in kickboxing are alarming, but there have been no empirical studies that examined this problem directly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and covariates of potential-doping-behavior, in kickboxing athletes. A total of 130 high-level kickboxing athletes (92 males, 21.37 ± 4.83 years of age, 8.39 ± 5.73 years of training experience; 38 women, 20.31 ± 2.94 years of age; 9.84 ± 4.74 years of training experience) completed questionnaires to study covariates and potential-doping behavior. The covariates were: sport factors (i.e. experience, success), doping-related factors (i.e. opinion about penalties for doping users, number of doping testing, potential-doping-behavior, etc.), sociodemographic variables, task- and ego-motivation, knowledge on sports nutrition, and knowledge on doping. Gender-based differences were established by independent t-tests, and the Mann-Whitney test. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to define the relationships between covariates and a tendency toward potential-doping behavior (positive tendency – neutral – negative tendency). The potential-doping behavior was higher in those athletes who perceived kickboxing as doping contaminated sport. The more experienced kickboxers were associated with positive intention toward potential-doping behavior. Positive intention toward potential-doping behavior was lower in those who had better knowledge on sports nutrition. The task- and ego-motivation were not associated to potential-doping behavior. Because of the high potential-doping-behavior (less than 50% of athletes showed a negative tendency toward doping), and similar prevalence of potential-doping behavior between genders, this study highlights the necessity of a systematic anti-doping campaign in kickboxing. Future studies should investigate motivational variables as being potentially related to doping behavior in younger

  4. Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Amoroso, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with supporting glass formulation development and process control strategies in key technical areas, relevant to the Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and related to high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Of specific interest is the development of predictive models for crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in HLW glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations. This report summarizes recent progress by researchers at SRNL towards developing a predicative tool for quantifying nepheline crystallization in HLW glass canisters using laboratory experiments. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the temperature regions over which nucleation and growth of nepheline occur in three simulated HLW glasses - two glasses representative of WTP projections and one glass representative of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) product. The DWPF glass, which has been studied previously, was chosen as a reference composition and for comparison purposes. Complementary quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy confirmed the validity of the methodology to determine nucleation and growth behavior as a function of temperature. The nepheline crystallization growth region was determined to generally extend from ~ 500 to >850 °C, with the maximum growth rates occurring between 600 and 700 °C. For select WTP glass compositions (high Al2O3 and B2O3), the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 600 °C, with the maximum nucleation rates occurring at ~ 530 °C. For the DWPF glass composition, the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 750 °C with the maximum nucleation rate occurring at ~ 640 °C. The nepheline growth at the peak temperature, as determined by XRD, was between 35 - 75 wt.% /hour. A maximum nepheline growth rate of ~ 0.1 mm/hour at 700 °C was measured for the DWPF

  5. Nucleation and crystal growth behavior of nepheline in simulated high-level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.; Amoroso, J.; Mcclane, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with supporting glass formulation development and process control strategies in key technical areas, relevant to the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and related to high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Of specific interest is the development of predictive models for crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in HLW glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations. This report summarizes recent progress by researchers at SRNL towards developing a predicative tool for quantifying nepheline crystallization in HLW glass canisters using laboratory experiments. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the temperature regions over which nucleation and growth of nepheline occur in three simulated HLW glasses - two glasses representative of WTP projections and one glass representative of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) product. The DWPF glass, which has been studied previously, was chosen as a reference composition and for comparison purposes. Complementary quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy confirmed the validity of the methodology to determine nucleation and growth behavior as a function of temperature. The nepheline crystallization growth region was determined to generally extend from ~ 500 to >850 °C, with the maximum growth rates occurring between 600 and 700 °C. For select WTP glass compositions (high Al2O3 and B2O3), the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 600 °C, with the maximum nucleation rates occurring at ~ 530 °C. For the DWPF glass composition, the nucleation range extended from ~ 450 to 750 °C with the maximum nucleation rate occurring at ~ 640 °C. The nepheline growth at the peak temperature, as determined by XRD, was between 35 - 75 wt.% /hour. A maximum nepheline growth rate of ~ 0.1 mm/hour at 700 °C was measured for the DWPF

  6. Behavior of radioactive iodine and technetium in the spray calcination of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, C.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-08-01

    The Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility (RLSWTF) was designed and built as a part of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program (now the High-Level Waste Process Development Program) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In this facility, which is installed in a radiochemical cell, small volumes of radioactive liquid wastes can be solidified, the process off gas can be analyzed, and the methods for decontaminating this off gas can be tested. Initial operations were completed with nonradioactive, simulated waste solutions (Knox, Siemens and Berger 1981). The first radioactive operations in this facility were performed with a simulated, commercial waste composition containing tracer levels of 99 Tc and 131 I. This report describes the facility and test operations and presents the results of the behavior of 131 I and 99 Tc during solidification of radioactive liquid wastes. During the spray calcination of commercial high-level liquid waste spiked with 99 Tc and 131 I, there was a 0.3 wt% loss of particulates, a 0.15 wt% loss of 99 Tc and a 31 wt% loss of 131 I past the sintered-metal filters. These filters and a venturi scrubber were very efficient in removing particulates and 99 Tc from the off-gas stream. Liquid scrubbers were not efficient in removing 131 I, as 25% of the total lost went to the building off-gas system. Therefore, solid adsorbents will be needed to remove iodine. For all future RLSWTF operations where iodine is present, a silver zeolite adsorber will be used

  7. Leach behavior of high-level borosilicate glasses under deep geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in high-level radioactive waste glass which is considered as the most practicable form of waste, and also is intended to be used in the disposal of national high-level radioactive waste in future. Leach theory of waste glass and the leach effects of ground water, metal barrier, buffer materials and rocks on the waste glass were reviewed. The leach of waste glass was affected by various factors such as composition, pH and Eh of ground water, temperature, pressure, radiation and humic acid. The crystallization, crack, weathering and the formation of altered phases of waste glass which is expected to occur in real disposal site were reviewed. The results of leaching in laboratory and in-situ were compared. The behaviors of radioactive elements leached from waste glass and the use of basalt glass for the long-term natural analogue of waste glass were also written in this report. The appraisal of durability of borosilicate waste glass as a waste media was performed from the known results of leach test and international in-situ tests were introduced. (author). 134 refs., 15 tabs., 24 figs

  8. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter

  9. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Solids formation behavior from simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron, nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium). (author)

  10. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai

    2014-01-01

    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  11. Behavior of radioactive iodine and technetium in the spray calcination of high-level waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. A.; Farnsworth, R. K.

    1981-08-01

    The Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility (RLSWTF) was designed and built as a part of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program (now the High-Level Waste Process Development Program) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In facility, installed in a radiochemical cell, is described in which installed in a radiochemical cell is described in which small volumes of radioactive liquid wastes can be solidified, the process off gas can be analyzed, and the methods for decontaminating this off gas can be tested. During the spray calcination of commercial high-level liquid waste spiked with Tc-99 and I-131 and 31 wt% loss of I-131 past the sintered-metal filters. These filters and venturi scrubber were very efficient in removing particulates and Tc-99 from the the off-gas stream. Liquid scrubbers were not efficient in removing I-131 as 25% of the total lost went to the building off-gas system. Therefore, solid adsorbents are needed to remove iodine. For all future operations where iodine is present, a silver zeolite adsorber is to be used.

  12. Volatilization behavior of semivolatile elements in vitrification of high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi; Kato, Koh; Takahashi, Takeshi

    1991-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the volatilization of ruthenium, technetium, and selenium was observed in calcination experiments with simulated high-level liquid waste. Technetium and selenium were more volatile as calcining temperature increased. Ruthenium was less volatile when temperature exceeded 300degC. More than 80% of ruthenium that volatilized from room temperature to 500degC occurred between 200 and 300degC. A small amount of ruthenium volatilized above 300degC as well as below 135degC. (author)

  13. Numerical aspects of the modelling of the local effects of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, J.C.; Ventura, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical approximations adapted for the development of the computational models for the prediction of the effects of the emplacement of a high level waste repository are reviewed. The problems considered include: the thermal history of the rocky mass constituting the burial media, the flow of underground water and the associated migration of radionuclides in the same media. Results associated with verification of the implemented codes are presented. Their limitations and advantages are discussed. (Author) [es

  14. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  15. Corrosion models for predictions of performance of high-level radioactive-waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI Energy Services, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the US is to seal it in containers before emplacement in a geologic repository. A proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated for its suitability as a geologic repository. The containers will probably be made of either an austenitic or a copper-based alloy. Models of alloy degradation are being used to predict the long-term performance of the containers under repository conditions. The models are of uniform oxidation and corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking, and are applicable to worst-case scenarios of container degradation. This paper reviews several of the models.

  16. High level model predictive control for plug-and-play process control with stability guaranty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a method for designing a stabilizing high level model predictive controller for a hierarchical plug- and-play process is presented. This is achieved by abstracting the lower layers of the controller structure as low order models with uncertainty and by using a robust model predictive...... controller for generating the references for these. A simulation example, in which the actuators in a process control system are changed, is reported to show the potential of this approach for plug and play process control....

  17. Effect of coupling behavior on groundwater flow for geological disposal of radioactive high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the effects of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical phenomena in near-field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste on a vast groundwater flow system, a far-field analysis was simulated based on the results of the simulation of coupled phenomena in near-field using averaged tensor and heat flux. From the results of the coupled analyses of near-field and far-field it was clarified that groundwater flow system was influenced by coupled phenomena in near-field. Moreover, it can be said that groundwater flux into a disposal tunnel is regarded as a complement to safety assessment of a disposal because it strongly correlates with traveling time of groundwater. (author)

  18. High levels of wheel running protect against behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria Diaz, Laura; Siontas, Dora; Mendoza, Jose; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas

    2013-01-15

    Although there is no doubt that the direct action of stimulant drugs on the brain is necessary for sensitization to their behavioral stimulating effects, several experiments indicate that drug action is often not sufficient to produce sensitization. There is considerable evidence that many individual characteristics and experiential variables can modulate the behavioral and neural changes that are seen following repeated exposure to stimulant drugs. In the work presented here, we examined whether chronic wheel running would modulate behavioral sensitization to cocaine, and whether any such influence was contingent on individual differences in wheel running. We found that a 5- or 10-week experience with wheel running protects against behavioral sensitization to cocaine but only in animals with a natural tendency to run the most. Understanding the mechanism underlying the modulating effect of wheel running on behavioral sensitization may have important implications for future studies on the link between drug-induced behavioral and neural adaptations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrodynamic analysis and design of high-level radioactive waste disposal model penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visintini, L.; Mazazzi, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is studying in the framework of the NEA/OECD Internationally Co-ordinational Seabed Programme the feasibility of using deep ocean sedimentary geological formations as a final disposal medium for vitrified high level waste and fuel elements. At present, two options are being considered for the embedment of such wastes in the sediment column, drilling and free fall penetrators. In the second case, the high level waste would be contained in specially designed drums which would be placed into torpedo-shaped projectiles. These penetrators would then be launched from a semi-submersible platform or ship and allowed to fall freely through the water column (≅ 5 km depth) and to bury themselves within the sediment column. The present article reports some work which has been carried out by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment on designing large model penetrators for tests at two sites in the North Atlantic

  20. Mineral-modeled ceramics for long-term storage of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past ten years, Penn State's Materials Research Laboratory has done extensive work on mineral-modeled ceramics for high-level nuclear waste storage. These ceramics are composed of several mineral analogues that form a monolithic polycrystalline aggregate. Mineral-modeling can be made in a similar fashion to nuclear waste glasses, and their naturally occurring analogues are known to last millions, and even billions, of years in hot, wet conditions. It is believed that such ceramics could reduce dispersal of radionuclides by leaching to a minimum

  1. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects

  2. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  3. Environmentally-assisted cracking behavior of a high level nuclear waste container alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1987-06-01

    The environmentally assisted cracking behavior of cast American Society for Testing and Materials A27 steel in a simulated groundwater environment was studied using both statically loaded and cyclically loaded specimens. Compared to other aqueous environments, the groundwater environment is relatively nonaggressive, probably because of its high pH and low level of dissolved oxygen. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. The Biological Behaviors of Rat Dermal Fibroblasts Can Be Inhibited by High Levels of MMP9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Neng Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore the effects of the high expression of MMP9 on biological behaviors of fibroblasts. Methods. High glucose and hyperhomocysteine were used to induce MMP9 expression in skin fibroblasts. Cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry and cell viability by CCK-8. ELISA assay was used to detect collagen (hydroxyproline secretion. Scratch test was employed to evaluate horizontal migration of cells and transwell method to evaluate vertical migration of cells. Results. The mRNA and protein expressions of MMP9 and its protease activity were significantly higher in cells treated with high glucose and hyperhomocysteine than those in control group. At the same time, the S-phase cell ratio, proliferation index, cell viability, collagen (hydroxyproline secretion, horizontal migration rate, and the number of vertical migration cells decreased in high-glucose and hyperhomocysteine-treated group. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1, which inhibits the activity of MMP9, recovered the above biological behaviors. Conclusions. High expression of MMP9 in skin fibroblasts could be induced by cultureing in high glucose and hyperhomocysteine medium, which inhibited cell biological behaviors. Inhibitions could be reversed by TIMP1. The findings suggested that MMP9 deters the healing of diabetic foot ulcers by inhibiting the biological behaviors of fibroblasts.

  5. A dynamic simulation model of the Savannah River Site high level waste complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.; Aull, J.E.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed, dynamic simulation entire high level radioactive waste complex at the Savannah River Site has been developed using SPEEDUP(tm) software. The model represents mass transfer, evaporation, precipitation, sludge washing, effluent treatment, and vitrification unit operation processes through the solution of 7800 coupled differential and algebraic equations. Twenty-seven discrete chemical constituents are tracked through the unit operations. The simultaneous simultaneous simulation of concurrent batch and continuous processes is achieved by several novel, customized SPEEDUP(tm) algorithms. Due to the model's computational burden, a high-end work station is required: simulation of a years operation of the complex requires approximately three CPU hours on an IBM RS/6000 Model 590 processor. The model will be used to develop optimal high level waste (HLW) processing strategies over a thirty year time horizon. It will be employed to better understand the dynamic inter-relationships between different HLW unit operations, and to suggest strategies that will maximize available working tank space during the early years of operation and minimize overall waste processing cost over the long-term history of the complex. Model validation runs are currently underway with comparisons against actual plant operating data providing an excellent match

  6. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  7. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  8. Characterization and reaction behavior of ferrocyanide simulants and Hanford Site high-level ferrocyanide waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-02-01

    Nonradioactive waste simulants and initial ferrocyanide tank waste samples were characterized to assess potential safety concerns associated with ferrocyanide high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). Chemical, physical, thermodynamic, and reaction properties of the waste simulants were determined and compared to properties of initial samples of actual ferrocyanide wastes presently in the tanks. The simulants were shown to not support propagating reactions when subjected to a strong ignition source. The simulant with the greatest ferrocyanide concentration was shown to not support a propagating reaction that would involve surrounding waste because of its high water content. Evaluation of dried simulants indicated a concentration limit of about 14 wt% disodium mononickel ferrocyanide, below which propagating reactions could not occur in the ambient temperature bulk tank waste. For postulated localized hot spots where dried waste is postulated to be at an initial temperature of 130 C, a concentration limit of about 13 wt% disodium mononickel ferrocyanide was determined, below which propagating reactions could not occur. Analyses of initial samples of the presently stored ferrocyanide waste indicate that the waste tank ferrocyanide concentrations are considerably lower than the limit for propagation for dry waste and that the water content is near that of the as-prepared simulants. If the initial trend continues, it will be possible to show that runaway ferrocyanide reactions are not possible under present tank conditions. The lower ferrocyanide concentrations in actual tank waste may be due to tank waste mixing and/or degradation from radiolysis and/or hydrolysis, which may have occurred over approximately 35 years of storage

  9. Integrated model of Korean spent fuel and high level waste disposal options - 16091

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yongsoo; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated model developed by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to simulate options for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and reprocessing products in South Korea. A companion paper (Hwang and Miller, 2009) describes a systems-level model of Korean options for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the 21. century. The model addresses alternative design concepts for disposal of SNF of different types (Candu, PWR), high level waste, and fission products arising from a variety of alternative fuel cycle back ends. It uses the GoldSim software to simulate the engineered system, near-field and far-field geosphere, and biosphere, resulting in long-term dose predictions for a variety of receptor groups. The model's results allow direct comparison of alternative repository design concepts, and identification of key parameter uncertainties and contributors to receptor doses. (authors)

  10. Crevice corrosion ampersand pitting of high-level waste containers: integration of deterministic ampersand probabilistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM

  11. CREVICE CORROSION and PITTING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS: INTEGRATION OF DETERMINISTIC and PROBABILISTIC MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOSEPH C. FARMER AND R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1997-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM

  12. Long-term leaching behavior of vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Sonobe, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Noriaki; Kashihara, Hidechiyo

    1985-01-01

    A long-term Soxhlet leaching test, long-term static leaching test, solubility evaluation test and actual-scale glass solid leaching test were carried out for simulated vitrified wastes. Under high flow-rate leachate conditions, the leaching of high-solubility substances such as B and Na increases almost linearly with time while that of Fe, Ni and rare earth metals strongly depends on their solubility. The overall leaching rate changes (tends to decrease) with time under static conditions. The elution or diffusion is the rate determining step in the earlier region of the leaching process while the solubilities of major components have greater effects in the latter region. The change of the dominant leaching mechanism is delayed more largely as the surface-area to leachate-volume (SA/V) ratio decreases. Actual-scale glass specimens showed almost the same leaching behaviors as small-scale ones. If cracks exist in glass solid, the leaching in them is slow causing little effects on the overall leaching rate. This may be due to the fact that solubility-dependent leaching is occuring in the cracks. The long-term static leaching observations were not satisfactorily explained by the MCC-3 type solubility test results. It is important to clarify the solubility-dependent leaching behaviors at large SA/V ratios. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Glasses for the solidification of high-level radioactive waste: their behavior in the presence of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1983-02-01

    Because of their amorphous structure, glasses are particularly suitable for the solidification of the mixture of high-level radioactive wastes resulting from reactor fuel reprocessing: they are not sensitive to variations in the compositions of waste oxides and are resistant to the damaging effects of radiation. The borosilicate glasses used for this purpose have been investigated for about 25 years, and waste vitrification techniques have been tested on a commercial scale. In view of possible accidents in a final waste repository, the chemical resistance of this type of glasses to attack by groundwaters is of special interest. The present report deals with the corrosion behaviour of glasses and discusses the most significant controlling parameters. The dissolution rates needed for safety analysis must be determined in relatively short-term experiments. Since the results can depend strongly on the type of test procedures used, a critical assessment of these techniques is necessary. Experimental results are illustrated by means of selected examples. Particular emphasis is placed upon the effects of increased temperatures and of nuclear radiation. The models which have been proposed for the estimation of the long-term behavior of vitrified waste are not yet fully complete and require improvement. Furthermore, the actual dissolution rates which are used in such models should be revised: to be desired are values which take into account the actual environmental conditions at the storage site. It should be noted, however, that even with current conservative input data on corrosion rates, a lifetime on the order of 10 5 years can be expected for the glass blocks to be deposited. The report concludes with recommendations fo further investigations

  14. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  15. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Effect of bentonite kinds and upgrading of evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2006-01-01

    The settlement behavior of container at high-level nuclear waste disposal was investigated using centrifuge. In the experiments, the change of the amount of settlement was exponentially increased with decrease of swelling pressure of bentonite. Furthermore, each the amount of settlement showed almost same value without dependency of bentonite samples and dry density if swelling pressure of bentonites was same. The results from centrifuge model tests was analyzed by 2D axisymmetrical FEM. 2D axisymmetrical FEM that can consider the effect of saline concentration was expanded from previous 1D FEM. The good correlation between experimental results and numerical analysis was obtain from 2D axisymmetrical FEM that is better than 1D FEM. The increase of amount of settlement saline concentration was showed using 2D axisymmetrical FEM that consider the seawater conditions. Furthermore, each calculated the amount of settlement was showed almost same value without dependency of saline concentration if swelling pressure of bentonites was same. (author)

  16. Disability and Exposure to High Levels of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Effect on Health and Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Anna; Herrick, Harry; Proescholdbell, Scott; Simmons, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities among persons with disabilities have been previously documented. However, there is little research specific to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in this population and how ACE exposure affects health outcomes in adulthood. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey were analyzed to compare the prevalence of ACEs between adults with and without disabilities and high ACE exposure (3-8 ACEs). Adjusted risk ratios of health risks and perceived poor health by disability status were calculated using predicted marginals. A higher percentage of persons with disabilities (36.5%) than those without disabilities (19.6%) reported high ACE exposure. Among those with high ACE exposure, persons with disabilities were more likely to report several ACE categories, particularly childhood sexual abuse. In adjusted analyses, persons with disabilities had an increased risk of smoking (relative risk [RR] = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51), poor physical health (RR = 4.34; 95% CI, 3.08-6.11), poor mental health (RR = 4.69; 95% CI, 3.19-6.87), and doctor-diagnosed depression (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.82-2.56) compared to persons without disabilities. The definition of disability derived from the BRFSS survey does not allow for those with disabilities to be categorized according to physical disabilities versus mental or emotional disabilities. In addition, we were unable to determine the timing of ACE exposure in relation to disability onset. A better understanding of the life course associations between ACEs and disability and the impact of exposure to multiple types of childhood adversity on disability and health is needed to inform research and services specific to this vulnerable population. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical Model of Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Rock for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, M.; Chiba, R.; Takahashi, T.; Hashida, T.; Fomin, S.; Chugunov, V.; Niibori, Y.

    2007-01-01

    An international consensus has emerged that deep geological disposal on land is one of the most appropriate means for high level radioactive wastes (HLW). The fluid transport is slow and radioactive elements are dangerous, so it's impossible to experiment over thousands of years. Instead, numerical model in such natural barrier as fractured underground needs to be considered. Field observations reveal that the equation with fractional derivative is more appropriate for describing physical phenomena than the equation which is based on the Fick's law. Thus, non-Fickian diffusion into inhomogeneous underground appears to be important in the assessment of HLW disposal. A solute transport equation with fractional derivative has been suggested and discussed in literature. However, no attempts were made to apply this equation for modeling of HLW disposal with account for the radioactive decay. In this study, we suggest the use of a novel fractional advection-diffusion equation which accounts for the effect of radioactive disintegration and for interactions between major, macro pores and fractal micro pores. This model is fundamentally different from previous proposed model of HLW, particularly in utilizing fractional derivative. Breakthrough curves numerically obtained by the present model are presented for a variety of rock types with respect to some important nuclides. Results of the calculation showed that for longer distance our model tends to be more conservative than the conventional Fickian model, therefore our model can be said to be safer

  18. Region-scale groundwater flow modelling of generic high level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, D.

    1996-02-01

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modelling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a variety of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The two-dimensional cross-sectional conceptual models of generic HLW disposal sites are evaluated using SWIFT III, which is a finite-difference flow and transport code. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data and information on geological and hydrogeologic conditions in plutons and batholiths are summarized. The generic conceptual models developed from this information are defined in terms of the finite difference grid, the geologic and hydrogeologic properties and the hydrologic boundary conditions used. The modelled results are described with contour maps showing the modelled head fields, groundwater flow paths and travel times and groundwater flux rates within the modelled systems. The results of the modelling analyses are used to develop general conclusions on the scales and patterns of groundwater flow in granitic plutons and batholiths. The conclusions focus on geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics that can result in favourable conditions, in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a HLW repository. (author) 43 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  19. Efficient Simulation Modeling of an Integrated High-Level-Waste Processing Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Michael V.; Paul, Pran K.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated computational tool named the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) has been developed to simulate the operation of the entire high-level-waste complex (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) over its full life cycle. ProdMod is used to guide SRS management in operating the waste complex in an economically efficient and environmentally sound manner. SRS HLW operations are modeled using coupled algebraic equations. The dynamic nature of plant processes is modeled in the form of a linear construct in which the time dependence is implicit. Batch processes are modeled in discrete event-space, while continuous processes are modeled in time-space. The ProdMod methodology maps between event-space and time-space such that the inherent mathematical discontinuities in batch process simulation are avoided without sacrificing any of the necessary detail in the batch recipe steps. Modeling the processes separately in event- and time-space using linear constructs, and then coupling the two spaces, has accelerated the speed of simulation compared to a typical dynamic simulation. The ProdMod simulator models have been validated against operating data and other computer codes. Case studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the ProdMod simulator in developing strategies that demonstrate significant cost savings in operating the SRS HLW complex and in verifying the feasibility of newly proposed processes

  20. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II.

    1992-09-01

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community

  1. Analytical approximations for the long-term decay behavior of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbrain, C.M.; Deutch, J.M.; Lester, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Simple analytical approximations are presented that describe the radioactivity and radiogenic decay heat behavior of high-level wastes (HLWs) from various nuclear fuel cycles during the first 100,000 years of waste life. The correlations are based on detailed computations of HLW properties carried out with the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2. The ambiguities encountered in using simple comparisons of the hazards posed by HLWs and naturally occurring mineral deposits to establish the longevity requirements for geologic waste disposal schemes are discussed

  2. Noble metal behavior during melting of simulated high-level nuclear waste glass feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Noble metals and their oxides can settle in waste glass melters and cause electrical shorting. Simulated waste feeds from Hanford, Savannah River, and Germany were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C and examined by electron microscopy to determine shapes, sizes, and distribution of noble metal particles as a function of temperature. Individual noble metal particles and agglomerates of rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (RuO 2 ), and palladium (Pd), as well as their alloys, were seen. the majority of particles and agglomerates were generally less than 10 microns; however, large agglomerations (up to 1 mm) were found in the German feed. Detailed particle distribution and characterization was performed for a Hanford waste to provide input to computer modeling of particle settling in the melter

  3. Physical modeling of joule heated ceramic glass melters for high level waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, M.S.; Kreid, D.K.

    1979-03-01

    This study developed physical modeling techniques and apparatus suitable for experimental analysis of joule heated ceramic glass melters designed for immobilizing high level waste. The physical modeling experiments can give qualitative insight into the design and operation of prototype furnaces and, if properly verified with prototype data, the physical models could be used for quantitative analysis of specific furnaces. Based on evaluation of the results of this study, it is recommended that the following actions and investigations be undertaken: It was not shown that the isothermal boundary conditions imposed by this study established prototypic heat losses through the boundaries of the model. Prototype wall temperatures and heat fluxes should be measured to provide better verification of the accuracy of the physical model. The VECTRA computer code is a two-dimensional analytical model. Physical model runs which are isothermal in the Y direction should be made to provide two-dimensional data for more direct comparison to the VECTRA predictions. The ability of the physical model to accurately predict prototype operating conditions should be proven before the model can become a reliable design tool. This will require significantly more prototype operating and glass property data than were available at the time of this study. A complete set of measurements covering power input, heat balances, wall temperatures, glass temperatures, and glass properties should be attempted for at least one prototype run. The information could be used to verify both physical and analytical models. Particle settling and/or sludge buildup should be studied directly by observing the accumulation of the appropriate size and density particles during feeding in the physical model. New designs should be formulated and modeled to minimize the potential problems with melter operation identifed by this study

  4. An Evaluation of the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a Framework for NASA Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael R.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Architecture (HLA) is a current US Department of Defense and an industry (IEEE-1516) standard architecture for modeling and simulations. It provides a framework and set of functional rules and common interfaces for integrating separate and disparate simulators into a larger simulation. The goal of the HLA is to reduce software costs by facilitating the reuse of simulation components and by providing a runtime infrastructure to manage the simulations. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HLA as a technology for NASA space mission simulations, a Simulations Group at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) conducted a study of the HLA and developed a simple prototype HLA-compliant space mission simulator. This paper summarizes the prototyping effort and discusses the potential usefulness of the HLA in the design and planning of future NASA space missions with a focus on risk mitigation and cost reduction.

  5. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Bedrossian, P.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological respository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environmental (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice

  6. Numerical modeling of heat outflux from a vitrified high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, Arun; Jayaraj, Aparna; Seshadri, H.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2018-01-01

    Heat generating vitrified high-level waste is initially stored in interim storage facility with adequate cooling for sufficient period of time, and then proposed to be disposed of in deep geological repositories. Heat flux from the waste form can cause thermo mechanical changes within the disposal module and also in the surrounding rock. It may change the permeability of rock fractures over a period of time. It is very essential to study the long term performance of deep geological repository to build confidence in the design and over all operation of the disposal facility. In this study a numerical model was developed to study the temperature distribution in the waste matrix and also the heat out flux to the surrounding rock matrix

  7. Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, A.D. [Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Leach, M.A. [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    This article develops a linear programming cost minimisation model for the high level system design and corresponding unit commitment of generators and storage within a microgrid; a set of energy resources working co-operatively to create a cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly energy provision system. Previous work in this area is used as a basis for formulation of a new approach to this problem, with particular emphasis on why a microgrid is different to centralised generation or other grid-connected decentralised energy resources. Specifically, the model explicitly defines the amount of time that the microgrid would be expected to operate autonomously, and restricts flow of heat between microgrid participants to defined cases. The model developed is applied to a set of United Kingdom commercial load profiles, under best current estimates of energy prices and technology capital costs, to determine investment attractiveness of the microgrid. Sensitivity analysis of results to variations in energy prices is performed. The results broadly indicate that a microgrid can offer an economic proposition, although it is necessarily slightly more expensive than regular grid-connected decentralised generation. The analysis results have raised important questions regarding a fair method for settlement between microgrid participants, and game theory has been identified as a suitable tool to analyse aspects of this situation. (author)

  8. Modelling high level system design and unit commitment for a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.; Leach, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a linear programming cost minimisation model for the high level system design and corresponding unit commitment of generators and storage within a microgrid; a set of energy resources working co-operatively to create a cost effective, reliable and environmentally friendly energy provision system. Previous work in this area is used as a basis for formulation of a new approach to this problem, with particular emphasis on why a microgrid is different to centralised generation or other grid-connected decentralised energy resources. Specifically, the model explicitly defines the amount of time that the microgrid would be expected to operate autonomously, and restricts flow of heat between microgrid participants to defined cases. The model developed is applied to a set of United Kingdom commercial load profiles, under best current estimates of energy prices and technology capital costs, to determine investment attractiveness of the microgrid. Sensitivity analysis of results to variations in energy prices is performed. The results broadly indicate that a microgrid can offer an economic proposition, although it is necessarily slightly more expensive than regular grid-connected decentralised generation. The analysis results have raised important questions regarding a fair method for settlement between microgrid participants, and game theory has been identified as a suitable tool to analyse aspects of this situation. (author)

  9. A Dual Regime Reactive Transport Model for Simulation of High Level Waste Tank Closure Scenarios - 13375

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sohini; Kosson, David S.; Brown, Kevin; Garrabrants, Andrew C.; Meeussen, Hans; Van der Sloot, Hans

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented in this paper for estimating evolution of pH and release of major species from grout within high-level waste tanks after closure. This model was developed as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The reactive transport model consists of two parts - (1) transport of species, and (2) chemical reactions. The closure grout can be assumed to have varying extents of cracking and composition for performance assessment purposes. The partially or completely degraded grouted tank is idealized as a dual regime system comprising of a mobile region having solid materials with cracks and macro-pores, and an immobile/stagnant region having solid matrix with micropores. The transport profiles of the species are calculated by incorporating advection of species through the mobile region, diffusion of species through the immobile/stagnant region, and exchange of species between the mobile and immobile regions. A geochemical speciation code in conjunction with the pH dependent test data for a grout material is used to obtain a mineral set that best describes the trends in the test data of the major species. The dual regime reactive transport model predictions are compared with the release data from an up-flow column percolation test. The coupled model is then used to assess effects of crack state of the structure, rate and composition of the infiltrating water on the pH evolution at the grout-waste interface. The coupled reactive transport model developed in this work can be used as part of the performance assessment process for evaluating potential risks from leaching of a cracked tank containing elements of human health and environmental concern. (authors)

  10. A Dual Regime Reactive Transport Model for Simulation of High Level Waste Tank Closure Scenarios - 13375

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sohini; Kosson, David S.; Brown, Kevin; Garrabrants, Andrew C. [Consortium for Risk Assessment with Stakeholder Participation - CRESP, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Meeussen, Hans [Consortium for Risk Assessment with Stakeholder Participation - CRESP, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Van der Sloot, Hans [Consortium for Risk Assessment with Stakeholder Participation - CRESP, Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented in this paper for estimating evolution of pH and release of major species from grout within high-level waste tanks after closure. This model was developed as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The reactive transport model consists of two parts - (1) transport of species, and (2) chemical reactions. The closure grout can be assumed to have varying extents of cracking and composition for performance assessment purposes. The partially or completely degraded grouted tank is idealized as a dual regime system comprising of a mobile region having solid materials with cracks and macro-pores, and an immobile/stagnant region having solid matrix with micropores. The transport profiles of the species are calculated by incorporating advection of species through the mobile region, diffusion of species through the immobile/stagnant region, and exchange of species between the mobile and immobile regions. A geochemical speciation code in conjunction with the pH dependent test data for a grout material is used to obtain a mineral set that best describes the trends in the test data of the major species. The dual regime reactive transport model predictions are compared with the release data from an up-flow column percolation test. The coupled model is then used to assess effects of crack state of the structure, rate and composition of the infiltrating water on the pH evolution at the grout-waste interface. The coupled reactive transport model developed in this work can be used as part of the performance assessment process for evaluating potential risks from leaching of a cracked tank containing elements of human health and environmental concern. (authors)

  11. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  12. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of high-level waste vitrification at Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant may be limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layers, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an underprediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsened over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. The accumulation rate of ∼53.8 ± 3.7 μm/h determined for this glass will result in a ∼26 mm-thick layer after 20 days of melter idling.

  13. Human Walk Modeled by PCPG to Control a Lower Limb Neuroprosthesis by High-Level Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Duvinage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current active leg prostheses do not integrate the most recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI and bipedal robotics. Moreover, their actuators are seldom driven by the subject’s intention. This paper aims at showing a summary of our current results in the field of human gait rehabilitation. In a first prototype, the main focus was on people suffering from foot drop problems, i.e. people who are unable to lift their feet. However, current work is focusing on a full active ankle orthosis. The approach is threefold: a BCI system, a gait model and an orthosis. Thanks to the BCI system, patients are able to generate high-level commands. Typically, a command could represent a speed modification. Then, a gait model based on a programmable central pattern generator is used to generate the adequate kinematics. Finally, the orthosis is tracking this kinematics when the foot is in the air, whereas, the orthosis is mimicking a spring when the foot is on the ground.

  14. Modeling by GASP-IV simulation of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; DePorter, E.L.; Turek, J.L.; Funk, S.K.; Rasbach, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste generated by defense-oriented and commercial nuclear energy activities are to be stored ultimately in underground repositories. Research continues on the waste-form and waste-form processing. DOE managers must coordinate the results of this research, the capacities and availability times of the permanent geologic storage repositories, and the capacities and availability times of interim storage facilities (pending availability of permanent repositories). Comprehensive and active DOE program-management information systems contain predicted generation of nuclear wastes from defense and commercial activities; milestones on research on waste-forms; and milestones on research and development, design, acquisition, and construction of facilities and repositories. A GASP IV simulation model is presented which interfaces all of these data. The model accepts alternate management decisions; relates all critical milestones, all research and development data, and the generation of waste nuclear materials; simulates the passage of time; then, predicts the impact of those alternate decisions on the availability of storage capacity for waste nuclear materials. 3 references, 3 figures

  15. The High Level Mathematical Models in Calculating Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes high-level mathematical models developed to solve special problems arising at later stages of design with regard to calculation of the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE under real operating conditions. The use of blade row mathematics models, as well as mathematical models of a higher level, including 2D and 3D description of the working process in the engine units and components, makes it possible to determine parameters and characteristics of the aircraft engine under conditions significantly different from the calculated ones.The paper considers application of mathematical modelling methods (MMM for solving a wide range of practical problems, such as forcing the engine by injection of water into the flowing part, estimate of the thermal instability effect on the GTE characteristics, simulation of engine start-up and windmill starting condition, etc. It shows that the MMM use, when optimizing the laws of the compressor stator control, as well as supplying cooling air to the hot turbine components in the motor system, can significantly improve the integral traction and economic characteristics of the engine in terms of its gas-dynamic stability, reliability and resource.It ought to bear in mind that blade row mathematical models of the engine are designed to solve purely "motor" problems and do not replace the existing models of various complexity levels used in calculation and design of compressors and turbines, because in “quality” a description of the working processes in these units is inevitably inferior to such specialized models.It is shown that the choice of the mathematical modelling level of an aircraft engine for solving a particular problem arising in its designing and computational study is to a large extent a compromise problem. Despite the significantly higher "resolution" and information ability the motor mathematical models containing 2D and 3D approaches to the calculation of flow in blade machine

  16. Modelling bentonite pore waters for the Swiss high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, E.

    1993-11-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to contribute to definition of representative compositions of bentonite pore waters in the near-field of the Swiss repository for high-level radioactive waste. Such compositions are necessary for determining the solubility limits of radionuclides for the safety analysis KRISTALLIN I. The model developed here is based on the premise, supported by experimental data, that the composition of bentonite pore waters is largely controlled by the dissolution or precipitation of reactive trace solids in bentonite. Selectivity constants for the exchange equilibria among Na-K, Na-Ca, and Ca-Mg were derived from water-bentonite interaction experiments performed for NAGRA by the British Geological Survey (BGS). An important parameter for the prediction of radionuclide solubilities is the oxidation potential of the bentonite water. Since the BGS experiments yielded no information on this, the oxidation potential had to be estimated from model assumptions. Bentonite pore waters were defined by computer simulation with the geochemical code MINEQL. They have been modelled in a closed system, i.e. assuming the bentonite, once it has reacted with a fixed volume of groundwater, does not exchange further chemical species with an external reservoir. No attempt was made to model the evolution of the pore water by simulating diffusive exchange processes. It can be anticipated that uncertainties in the concentrations of some major elements (e.g. Al, Si) will not significantly affect the calculated radionuclide solubilities. The latter will depend primarily on the concentrations of a few major ligands (OH - , Cl - and CO 3 -2 ) and, for multivalent elements, also on the oxidation potential of the solution. (author) 10 figs., 22 tabs., 40 refs

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE THERMAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ENGINEERED BARRIERS IN A HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KWON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate design of engineered barriers, including canister, buffer and backfill, is important for the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out under different condition to examine the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers and rock mass. The research looked at five areas of importance, the effect of the swelling pressure, water content of buffer, density of compacted bentonite, emplacement type and the selection of failure criteria. The results highlighted the need to consider tensile stress in the outer shell of a canister due to thermal expansion of the canister and the swelling pressure from the buffer for a more reliable design of an underground repository system. In addition, an adequate failure criterion should be used for the buffer and backfill.

  18. An analysis of the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers in a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.; Lee, J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate design of engineered barriers, including canister, buffer and backfill, is important for the safe disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three-dimensional computer simulations were carried out under different condition to examine the thermal and mechanical behavior of engineered barriers and rock mass. The research looked at five areas of importance, the effect of the swelling pressure, water content of buffer, density of compacted bentonite, emplacement type and the selection of failure criteria. The results highlighted the need to consider tensile stress in the outer shell of a canister due to thermal expansion of the canister and the swelling pressure from the buffer for a more reliable design of an underground repository system. In addition, an adequate failure criterion should be used for the buffer and backfill.

  19. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters - Part 5: Modeling of complex redox effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized thermodynamic computations are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing process variations. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Continuous melter test results have been compared to this improved staged-thermodynamic model of redox behavior

  20. A structural model analysis of public opposition to a high-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.; Burns, W.

    1991-09-01

    Studies show that most Nevada residents and almost all state officials oppose the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository project at Yucca Mountain. Surveys of the public show that individual citizens view the Yucca Mountain repository as having high risk; nuclear experts, in contrast, believe the risks are very low. Policy analysts have suggested that public risk perceptions may be reduced by better program management, increased trust in the federal government, and increased economic benefits for accepting a repository. The model developed in this study is designed to examine the relationship between public perceptions of risk, trust in risk management, and potential economic impacts of the current repository program using a confirmatory multivariate method known as covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that perceptions of potential economic gains have little relationship to opposition to the repository. On the other hand, risk perceptions and the level of trust in repository management are closely related to each other and to opposition. The impacts of risk perception and trust in management on opposition to the repository result from a combination of their direct influences as well as their indirect influences operating through perceptions that the repository would have serious negative impacts on the state's economy due to stigmatization and reduced tourism

  1. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  2. Geochemical modelling of bentonite porewater in high-level waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersin, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The description of the geochemical properties of the bentonite backfill that serves as engineered barrier for nuclear repositories is a central issue for perfomance assessment since these play a large role in determining the fate of contaminants released from the waste. In this study the porewater chemistry of bentonite was assessed with a thermodynamic modelling approach that includes ion exchange, surface complexation and mineral equilibrium reactions. The focus was to identify the geochemical reactions controlling the major ion chemistry and acid-base properties and to explore parameter uncertainties specifically at high compaction degrees. First, the adequacy of the approach was tested with two distinct surface complexation models by describing recent experimental data performed at highly varying solid/liquid ratios and ionic strengths. The results indicate adequate prediction of the entire experimental data set. Second, the modelling was extended to repository conditions, taking as an example the current Swiss concept for high-level waste where the compacted bentonite backfill is surrounded by argillaceous rock. The main reactions controlling major ion chemistry were found to be calcite equilibrium and concurrent Na-Ca exchange reactions and de-protonation of functional surface groups. Third, a sensitivity analysis of the main model parameters was performed. The results thereof indicate a remarkable robustness of the model with regard to parameter uncertainties. The bentonite system is characterised by a large acid-base buffering capacity which leads to stable pH-conditions. The uncertainty in pH was found to be mainly induced by the pCO 2 of the surrounding host rock. The results of a simple diffusion-reaction model indicate only minor changes of porewater composition with time, which is primarily due to the geochemical similarities of the bentonite and the argillaceous host rock. Overall, the results show the usefulness of simple thermodynamic models to

  3. On the way of advancing technical development related to behavior of bentonite and overpack in high level waste disposal place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Masatoshi; Ueda, Hiroyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    When the concept on disposal in a high level waste disposal place and the layout including the thickness of bentonite, overpack and so on are investigated, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamic behavior of bentonite and overpack for long period, in particular, the dynamic interaction of bentonite and overpack accompanying the corrosion and expansion of the overpack by its reaction with the groundwater containing little oxygen. At present, the experiment on the dynamic behavior of bentonite is carried out in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and others, and the obtained knowledges are reported. The shape of hollow cylinder bentonite specimen is discussed. As for the breaking of overpack accompanying the corrosion and expansion, the equation for evaluating various quantities and the flow chart of the analysis works are shown. The method of judging overpack breaking is explained. The effective thickness of bentonite for safety evaluation is given. If the subjects to be examined hereafter are not concluded by 2000, the alternative of covering overpack with titanium alloy should be investigated in parallel. (K.I.)

  4. Hypothetical high-level cognitive functions cannot be localized in the brain: another argument for a revitalized behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, William R

    2004-01-01

    A key epistemological difference between behaviorism and cognitivism concerns their respective attitudes toward the analysis of so-called cognitive processes into functional modules. Behaviorists generally say it is not possible. Cognitivists argue that this is an achievable goal. The question has been concretized by recent developments in brain imaging technology. A consideration of the matter suggests that technical and conceptual difficulties abound in the effort to localize "high-level cognitive functions" in narrowly circumscribed regions of the brain. Some of the most serious involve the ambiguous definition of the putative mental components that are to be localized and the generally unacknowledged nonlinear complexity of both psychological processes and the brain. In addition, the imaging techniques themselves are replete with technical difficulties that raise additional questions about this particular application, even though these wonderful machines can make extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology. The cumulative implication of these difficulties is that the cognitive approach to the study of scientific psychology has once again set out on a search for a chimera. New approaches to behaviorism may be required to set psychology back on the correct track.

  5. A high-level power model for MPSoC on FPGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for high-level power estimation of multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures on FPGA. The technique is based on abstract execution profiles, called event signatures. As a result, it is capable of achieving good evaluation performance, thereby making the

  6. A high-level power model for MPSoC on FPGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for high-level power estimation of multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures on FPGA. The technique is based on abstract execution profiles, called event signatures, and it operates at a higher level of abstraction than, e.g., commonly-used instruction-set

  7. On the time-dependent behavior of a cylindrical salt dome with a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a salt dome with a repository for high-level radioactive and heat-generating waste, thermal stresses develop. These stresses can influence the isolation capability of the salt dome if these stresses can initiate cracks or introduce movements along existing closed flaws. The influence of the thermomechanical properties of the rock salt and the surrounding rocks on the thermal stresses and the surface rise is discussed. This discussion is based on a number of finite element creep analyses of a homogeneous cylindrical salt dome. The parameters, varied in the analyses, are constants in the thermomechanical constitutive behavior of salt and rocks, and furthermore the thermal loading has been varied. It is shown that variations in the creep properties, which result in differences in creep strain rate of a factor of 100, have only a very limited influence on the thermal stresses and the surface rise. Of more importance is the elastic stiffness of the materials. In all creep analyses the thermal stresses in the salt are compressive and the shear stresses remain below 2 MPa. The results are evaluated using an analytical treatment. Based on this evaluation, it is shown that the observed trends in the numerical results have a more general character and are not strictly limited to the geometry chosen. It is concluded that the thermal stresses in the salt formation are not strongly dependent on the creep properties of the rock salt

  8. Conceptual modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in bentonite buffer for high-level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Young; Park, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, thermal-hydrological-chemical modeling for the alteration of a bentonite buffer is carried out using a simulation code TOUGHREACT. The modeling results show that the water saturation of bentonite steadily increases and finally the bentonite is fully saturated after 10 years. In addition, the temperature rapidly increases and stabilizes after 0.5 year, exhibiting a constant thermal gradient as a function of distance from the copper tube. The change of thermal-hydrological conditions mainly results in the alteration of anhydrite and calcite. Anhydrite and calcite are dissolved along with the inflow of groundwater. They then tend to precipitate in the vicinity of the copper tube due to its high temperature. This behavior induces a slight decrease in porosity and permeability of bentonite near the copper tube. Furthermore, this study finds that the diffusion coefficient can significantly affect the alteration of anhydrite and calcite, which causes changes in the hydrological properties of bentonite such as porosity and permeability. This study may facilitate the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  9. A First Step Towards High-Level Cost Models for the Implementation of SDRs on Multiprocessing Reconfigurable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Moullec, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    -In-Progress paper we introduce our set of high-level estimation models for Area-Time costs of applications mapped onto FPGA-based multiprocessing reconfigurable architectures. In particular, we suggest models for static and dynamic implementations, taking various internal and external architectural elements...... into account. We believe that such models could be used for rapidly comparing implementation alternatives at a high level of abstraction and for guiding the designer during the (pre)analysis phase of the design flow for the implementation of e.g. SDR platforms....

  10. Thermal modeling for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1994-03-01

    Repository performance models based on numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows have recently been developed by several different groups. Model conceptualizations generally focus on large-scale average behavior. This comparison finds that current performance assessment (PA) models use generally similar approximations and parameters. Certain differences exist in some performance-relevant parameters, especially absolute permeabilities, characteristic curves, and thermal conductivities. These reflect present uncertainties about the most appropriate parameters applicable to Yucca Mountain and must be resolved through future field observations and laboratory measurements. For a highly heterogeneous fractured-porous hydrogeologic system such as Yucca Mountain, water infiltration through the unsaturated zone is expected to be dominated by highly localized phenomena. These include fast channelized flow along preferential paths in fractures, and frequent local ponding. The extended dry repository concept proposed by the Livermore group is reviewed. Predictions of large-scale drying around the repository on the average for large thermal loads cannot be taken to indicate that waste packages will not be contacted by liquid water, and that aqueous-phase transport of contaminants is not possible. Specifically, the authors find that modest water infiltration, on the order of a few millimeters per year, would be sufficient to overwhelm the vaporization capacity of the repository heat and inundate the waste packages within a time frame of a few thousand years. A preliminary analysis indicates that channelized flow of water may persist over large vertical distances. The vaporization-condensation cycle has a capacity for generating huge amounts of ponded water. A small fraction of the total condensate, if ponded and then episodically released, would be sufficient to cause liquid phase to make contact with the waste packages

  11. The risk evaluation of a model of a high-level waste solidification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, H.

    1977-02-01

    In this report the risk associated with the operation of a plant for vitrification of high-level liquid waste is evaluated. Considerung risk assessment it turns out that the important accidents occur during off-gas cleaning. On the other hand effects of explosions in the process equipment don't contribute very much to the overall risk. These data are compared with the risk resulting from routine discharge of the plant. It is of the same magnitude as or greater than the most important accident risks. (orig.) [de

  12. Time-dependent structural transformation analysis to high-level Petri net model with active state transition diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Ayumu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an accumulation of in silico data obtained by simulating large-scale biological networks, a new interest of research is emerging for elucidating how living organism functions over time in cells. Investigating the dynamic features of current computational models promises a deeper understanding of complex cellular processes. This leads us to develop a method that utilizes structural properties of the model over all simulation time steps. Further, user-friendly overviews of dynamic behaviors can be considered to provide a great help in understanding the variations of system mechanisms. Results We propose a novel method for constructing and analyzing a so-called active state transition diagram (ASTD by using time-course simulation data of a high-level Petri net. Our method includes two new algorithms. The first algorithm extracts a series of subnets (called temporal subnets reflecting biological components contributing to the dynamics, while retaining positive mathematical qualities. The second one creates an ASTD composed of unique temporal subnets. ASTD provides users with concise information allowing them to grasp and trace how a key regulatory subnet and/or a network changes with time. The applicability of our method is demonstrated by the analysis of the underlying model for circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Conclusions Building ASTD is a useful means to convert a hybrid model dealing with discrete, continuous and more complicated events to finite time-dependent states. Based on ASTD, various analytical approaches can be applied to obtain new insights into not only systematic mechanisms but also dynamics.

  13. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  14. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  15. Conceptual modular description of the high-level waste management system for system studies model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Young, J.R.; Konzek, G.J.

    1992-08-01

    This document presents modular descriptions of possible alternative components of the federal high-level radioactive waste management system and the procedures for combining these modules to obtain descriptions for alternative configurations of that system. The 20 separate system component modules presented here can be combined to obtain a description of any of the 17 alternative system configurations (i.e., scenarios) that were evaluated in the MRS Systems Studies program (DOE 1989a). First-approximation descriptions of other yet-undefined system configurations could also be developed for system study purposes from this database. The descriptions include, in a modular format, both functional descriptions of the processes in the waste management system, plus physical descriptions of the equipment and facilities necessary for performance of those functions

  16. MODELING THE CORROSION OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS CAM-CRM INTERFACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOSEPH C. FARMER, PETER J. BEDROSSIAN, R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1998-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel400. Initially, the containers will be hot and dry due to the heat generated by radioactive decay. However, the temperature will eventually drop to levels where both humid air and aqueous phase corrosion will be possible. As the outer barrier is penetrated, uniform corrosion of the CRM will be possible in exfoliated areas. The possibility for crevice formation between the CAM and CRM will also exist. In the case of either Alloy 625 or C-22, a crevice will have to form before significant penetration of the CRM can occur. Crevice corrosion of the CRMs has been well documented. Lillard and Scully have induced crevice corrosion in Alloy 625 during exposure to artificial sea water. Jones and Wilde have prepared simulated crevice solutions of FeCl 2 , NiCl 2 and CrCl 3 , and measured substantial pH suppression. Asphahani measured the dissolution rates of Alloys 625 and C-22 in such artificial crevice solutions at various temperatures. Others have observed no significant localized attack in less severe environments

  17. Examination of Factors Explaining Coaching Strategy and Training Methodology as Correlates of Potential Doping Behavior in High-Level Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liposek, Silvester; Zenic, Natasa; Saavedra, Jose M; Sekulic, Damir; Rodek, Jelena; Marinsek, Miha; Sajber, Dorica

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching is considered an important determinant of athletes’ potential doping behavior (PDB), there is an evident lack of studies that have examined coaching-strategy-and-training-methodology (CS&TM) in relation to PDB. This study was aimed to identify the specific associations that may exist between CS&TM -factors and other factors, and PDB in high-level swimming. The sample comprised 94 swimmers (35 females; 19.7 ± 2.3 years of age) and consisted of swimmers older than 18 years who participated in the 2017 National Championship. Variables were collected by previously validated questionnaires, with the addition of questions where athletes were asked about CS&TM to which they had been exposed. Multinomial logistic regression was applied for the criterion PDB (Negative PDB – Neutral PDB – Positive PDB). The higher risk for positive-PDB was found in males (OR: 6.58; 95%CI: 1.01-9.12); therefore, all regressions were adjusted for gender. Those swimmers who achieved better competitive result were less prone to neutral-PDB (0.41; 0.17-0.98). The positive-PDB was evidenced in those swimmers who perceived that their training was monotonous and lacked diversity (1.82; 1.41-5.11), and who were involved in training which was mostly oriented toward volume (1.76; 1.11-7.12). The lower likelihood of positive-PDB is found in those who replied that technique is practiced frequently (0.12; 0.01-0.81), those who replied that coach regularly provided the attention to explain the training aims (0.21; 0.04-0.81), and that coach frequently reviewed and discussed the quality of execution of specific tasks (0.41; 0.02-0.81). The findings on the relationships between the studied variables and PDB should be incorporated into targeted anti-doping efforts in swimming. Further studies examining sport-specific variables of CS&TM in younger swimmers and other sports are warranted. Key points The opinions about doping presence in swimming were not associated with athletes

  18. Non-radiological air quality modeling for the high-level waste tank closure environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion modeling of potential non-radiological air emissions associated with the proposed closure of high-level waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site has been completed, as requested (TtNUS, 1999). Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants at the site boundary and at the distance to the co-located onsite worker (640 meters) are summarized. In all cases, the calculated concentrations were much less than regulatory standards

  19. Geotechnical modeling of high-level nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the geotechnical modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting (DRM). Three seeparate tasks were performed to reach this objective: a review of the four scenarios which have been proposed for DRM, to date; an evaluation of computer-based numerical models which could be used to analyze the mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic processes involved in DRM; and a critical review of rock mass properties which are relevant to the design and safety of waste disposal by rock melting. It is concluded that several geotechnical aspects of DRM can be studied realistically with current state-of-the-art model capabilities and knowledge of material properties. The next step in the feasibility study of DRM should be a best-estimate calculation of the four cavity-melt and canister-burial concepts. These new analyses will indicate the most critical areas for subsequent research

  20. Review of international near-field modeling for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Andersson, K.; Pescatore, C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary components of nuclear waste repositories that mitigate radionuclide release are the near-field and the far-field subsystems. The near-field encompasses the waste package, which is composed of engineered barriers; the far-field includes the natural barriers. An international survey and review is being conducted on the latest developments in modeling of near-field performance, with particular emphasis on the conceptual and mathematical models for source-term calculations. The objectives of this review will be to establish the status and commonality among models and methods for assessing near-field performance, as well as to identify possible future needs for continued comparison and collaboration. In parallel with the technical evaluation, an international technical Workshop on near-field performance assessment will be held, in association with the Nuclear Energy Agency, on May 11-13, 1993 in Cadarache, France

  1. Abs: a high-level modeling language for cloud-aware programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCloud technology has become an invaluable tool to the IT business, because of its attractive economic model. Yet, from the programmers’ perspective, the development of cloud applications remains a major challenge. In this paper we introduce a programming language that allows Cloud

  2. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of HLW vitrification is limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layer, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 µm/h determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  3. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ``failure``, and the use of ``rules-of-thumb`` to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process.

  4. Modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers, with emphasis on the stochastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.; Halsey, W.G.; Clarke, W.L.; McCright, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify methods of modeling pitting corrosion damage of high-level radioactive-waste containers are described. The need to develop models that can provide information useful to higher level system performance assessment models is emphasized, and examples of how this could be accomplished are described. Work to date has focused upon physically-based phenomenological stochastic models of pit initiation and growth. These models may provide a way to distill information from mechanistic theories in a way that provides the necessary information to the less detailed performance assessment models. Monte Carlo implementations of the stochastic theory have resulted in simulations that are, at least qualitatively, consistent with a wide variety of experimental data. The effects of environment on pitting corrosion have been included in the model using a set of simple phenomenological equations relating the parameters of the stochastic model to key environmental variables. The results suggest that stochastic models might be useful for extrapolating accelerated test data and for predicting the effects of changes in the environment on pit initiation and growth. Preliminary ideas for integrating pitting models with performance assessment models are discussed. These ideas include improving the concept of container ''failure'', and the use of ''rules-of-thumb'' to take information from the detailed process models and provide it to the higher level system and subsystem models. Finally, directions for future work are described, with emphasis on additional experimental work since it is an integral part of the modeling process

  5. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    The paper attempts theoretically to clarify the interrelation between various levels of descriptions used in the modelling and the programming of information systems. We suggest an analysis where we characterise the description levels with respect to how precisely they may handle information abou...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  6. Prediction of pressure of bentonite buffer in model test of disposal pit for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Osada, Toru; Takao, Hajime; Ueda, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Bentonite-based buffer materials for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal are expected to fill up the space between buffer and a wall of the disposal pit, and/or between buffer and an waste-container called as overpack by its swelling deformation. That is called as self-sealing ability. This study performs the model tests simulated the relationship between buffer and space mentioned above. It also investigates the validity of the theoretical equations for evaluating the swelling characteristics of bentonite-based buffer and backfill material, which were proposed in Komine and Ogata (2003, 2004), by comparing the calculations and the experimental results. (author)

  7. Development of a structural model to analyze public opinion on a high-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Slovic, P.; Mertz, C.K.; Burns, W.

    1991-01-01

    Studies show that Nevada residents and state officials oppose the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository project at Yucca Mountain. Nevada residents view the Yucca Mountain repository as having extremely high risk; nuclear experts, in contrast, feel the risks are very low. These experts have suggested that public risk perceptions may be reduced by better program management, increased trust in the federal government, and/or by increased benefits and compensation for accepting a repository. The model described in this paper is designed to examine the relationship between risk perception and various strategies for risk management using a confirmatory multivariate method known as covariance structure analysis

  8. Occurrence, behavior and distribution of high levels of uranium in shallow groundwater at Datong basin, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin, E-mail: yx.wang@cug.edu.cn; Xie, Xianjun

    2014-02-01

    Geochemical investigations of uranium (U) occurrence in the environments were conducted at Datong basin of northern China. The results suggest that U contents were generally < 1 mg/kg for the igneous and metamorphic rocks, typically 2–5 mg/kg for the Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary rocks and around 3 mg/kg for sediments and topsoil, respectively. U in the Quaternary aquifer sediments may be primarily associated with carnotite from the Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing clastic rocks around the basin. Shallow groundwater had U concentrations of < 0.02–288 μg/L (average 24 μg/L), with 24% of the investigated boreholes above the WHO provisional guideline of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. Average U concentration for surface water was 5.8 μg/L. In oxidizing waters, uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) species is dominant and strongly adsorbed onto iron (hydro)xides, while it would be preferentially complexed with carbonate in the alkaline groundwater, forming highly soluble uranyl-carbonate complexes at Datong. Under reducing conditions, uranous (U(IV)) species is ready to precipitate or bind to organic matter, therefore having a low mobility. At the study area, high U groundwater (> 30 μg/L) occurs at the alluvial plains due to intermediate redox and enhanced alkaline conditions. The abnormally high levels of U in groundwater (> 100 μg/L) are locally found at the west alluvial plains. By contrast, U co-precipitation with secondary carbonate minerals like Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} in the dominant Ca–Mg–Na–HCO{sub 3} type groundwater may prevail at the east alluvial plains. Besides, bedrocks such as Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary rocks, especially the coal-bearing strata which have higher U contents at the west mountain areas may also account for the abnormally high levels of U in groundwater. - Highlights: • High U groundwater occurs at the alluvial plains of Datong basin. • Redox state, complexation and adsorption are responsible

  9. Predicting transitions in low and high levels of risk behavior from early to middle adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Harakeh, Z.; Lugtig, P.; Huizink, A.; Creemers, H.E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; van Oort, F.; Ormel, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the joint development of substance use and externalizing problems in early and middle adolescence. First, it was tested whether the relevant groups found in previous studies i.e., those with an early onset, a late onset, and no onset or low levels of risk behavior could be

  10. Evaluation of long-term behavior of concretes in high level waste repositories. An accelerated leaching test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes an accelerated leaching method that with a rapid process allows to develop and evaluate cements for use in a nuclear disposal, and the understanding of the long term effects. The method has been developed to study the stability of cementitious materials in contact with bentonite, to be used in high level radioactivity waste repositories. Nitric acid has been selected to simulate in an accelerated way the pH decreasing produced when concrete is in contact with groundwaters.

    El presente trabajo describe un ensayo acelerado de lixiviación, que mediante un proceso rápido, permite desarrollar y evaluar cementos para su uso en instalaciones nucleares, y la comprensión de su comportamiento a largo plazo. El método se ha desarrollado para estudiar la estabilidad de materiales de base cemento, en contacto con bentonita, que serán utilizados en almacenamientos de resíduos radiactivos de alta actividad. Como agente lixiviante se seleccionó el ácido nítrico, con objeto de simular de forma acelerada, la disminución del pH que se produce cuando el hormigón entra en contacto con aguas subterráneas.

  11. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-08-01

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist

  12. High-Level Waste Glass Formulation Model Sensitivity Study 2009 Glass Formulation Model Versus 1996 Glass Formulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsher, J.D.; Meinert, F.L.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigations on the time dependent behavior of a salt dome with a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Vons, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of in-situ measurements, performed in a 300 m deep dry-drilled borehole, in the ASSE-mine. Convergence measurements at ambient as well as elevated temperatures and pressure measurements at elevated temperatures are discussed. Creep equations derived from these experiments are used for the numerical analysis of the time dependent behavior of a salt dome with a HLW repository. The analyses show that the total stresses in the salt remain compressive with deviatoric components smaller than 3 MPa. 9 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  14. Regulatory perspectives on model validation in high-level radioactive waste management programs: A joint NRC/SKI white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingefors, S.; Andersson, J.; Norrby, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power lnspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden). Office of Nuclear Waste Safety; Eisenberg, N.A.; Lee, M.P.; Federline, M.V. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards; Sagar, B.; Wittmeyer, G.W. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Validation (or confidence building) should be an important aspect of the regulatory uses of mathematical models in the safety assessments of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which scientific validation of models is usually pursued. Because models for a geologic repository performance assessment cannot be tested over the spatial scales of interest and long time periods for which the models will make estimates of performance, the usual avenue for model validation- that is, comparison of model estimates with actual data at the space-time scales of interest- is precluded. Further complicating the model validation process in HLW programs are the uncertainties inherent in describing the geologic complexities of potential disposal sites, and their interactions with the engineered system, with a limited set of generally imprecise data, making it difficult to discriminate between model discrepancy and inadequacy of input data. A successful strategy for model validation, therefore, should attempt to recognize these difficulties, address their resolution, and document the resolution in a careful manner. The end result of validation efforts should be a documented enhancement of confidence in the model to an extent that the model's results can aid in regulatory decision-making. The level of validation needed should be determined by the intended uses of these models, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. This white Paper presents a model validation strategy that can be implemented in a regulatory environment. It was prepared jointly by staff members of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate-SKI. This document should not be viewed as, and is not intended to be formal guidance or as a staff position on this matter. Rather, based on a review of the literature and previous

  15. Regulatory perspectives on model validation in high-level radioactive waste management programs: A joint NRC/SKI white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingefors, S.; Andersson, J.; Norrby, S.

    1999-03-01

    Validation (or confidence building) should be an important aspect of the regulatory uses of mathematical models in the safety assessments of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which scientific validation of models is usually pursued. Because models for a geologic repository performance assessment cannot be tested over the spatial scales of interest and long time periods for which the models will make estimates of performance, the usual avenue for model validation- that is, comparison of model estimates with actual data at the space-time scales of interest- is precluded. Further complicating the model validation process in HLW programs are the uncertainties inherent in describing the geologic complexities of potential disposal sites, and their interactions with the engineered system, with a limited set of generally imprecise data, making it difficult to discriminate between model discrepancy and inadequacy of input data. A successful strategy for model validation, therefore, should attempt to recognize these difficulties, address their resolution, and document the resolution in a careful manner. The end result of validation efforts should be a documented enhancement of confidence in the model to an extent that the model's results can aid in regulatory decision-making. The level of validation needed should be determined by the intended uses of these models, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. This white Paper presents a model validation strategy that can be implemented in a regulatory environment. It was prepared jointly by staff members of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate-SKI. This document should not be viewed as, and is not intended to be formal guidance or as a staff position on this matter. Rather, based on a review of the literature and previous

  16. Using High-Level RTOS Models for HW/SW Embedded Architecture Exploration: Case Study on Mobile Robotic Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdier François

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We are interested in the design of a system-on-chip implementing the vision system of a mobile robot. Following a biologically inspired approach, this vision architecture belongs to a larger sensorimotor loop. This regulation loop both creates and exploits dynamics properties to achieve a wide variety of target tracking and navigation objectives. Such a system is representative of numerous flexible and dynamic applications which are more and more encountered in embedded systems. In order to deal with all of the dynamic aspects of these applications, it appears necessary to embed a dedicated real-time operating system on the chip. The presence of this on-chip custom executive layer constitutes a major scientific obstacle in the traditional hardware and software design flows. Classical exploration and simulation tools are particularly inappropriate in this case. We detail in this paper the specific mechanisms necessary to build a high-level model of an embedded custom operating system able to manage such a real-time but flexible application. We also describe our executable RTOS model written in SystemC allowing an early simulation of our application on top of its specific scheduling layer. Based on this model, a methodology is discussed and results are given on the exploration and validation of a distributed platform adapted to this vision system.

  17. Numerical modelling of the long term mechanical behaviour of a storage cell for high level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, H.B.; Jia, Y.; Duveau, G.; Shao, J.F.; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    the various important processes in the storage structures, the coupling between the corrosion/strain processes and the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is death with in this study. The principal objective is to establish a numerical method capable to reproduce correctly the evolutionary interface between the metallic container and clay formation taking into account the decrease of mechanical resistance and the generated supplementary volume. Special attention is paid on the evolution of the interface of steel and rock, the amplitude of possible overpressure and stress and the evolution of the EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone). In the numerical analyses, different materials are taken into account: limestone, argillite, steel and air. Firstly, a brief presentation of the constitutive models for the Callovo-Oxfordian clay is given. For the sake of simplicity, a poro-elastic model is used for limestone and an elasto-plasticity model using a Mises type criterion is applied to the steel. Then a series of parametric studies is performed in order to study the mechanical resistance of corroded steel.. Finally, a storage cell of High-Level Wastes is simulated. In the numerical model, the wastes cell is taken as a circular borehole. The loading path is composed of the following three steps: the excavation phase, the waiting phase for the installation of waste package, and the evolution phase after the backfilling of the storage cell. The proposed model is able to describe the main features of poro-mechanical behaviour for the clay formation: such as plastic deformation, material damage by microcracks, transition of volumetric compressibility/dilatancy and the viscoplastic strain. In spite of the simplifications used, the numerical results allow us to obtain some quantitative results describing the mechanical behaviour and the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes for a short and long-term in the storage cell. (authors)

  18. Modelling of radionuclide migration and heat transport from an High-Level-Radioactive-Waste-repository (HLW) in Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put, M.; Henrion, P.

    1992-01-01

    For the modelling of the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay formation, the analytical code MICOF has been updated with a 3-dimensional analytical solution for discrete sources. the MICOF program is used for the calculation of the release of α and β emitters from the HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES (HLW). A coherent conceptual model is developed which describes all the major physico-chemical phenomena influencing the migration of radionuclides in the Boom clay. The concept of the diffusion accessible porosity is introduced and included in the MICOF code. Different types of migration experiments are described with their advantages and disadvantages. The thermal impact of the HLW disposal in the stratified Boom clay formation has been evaluated by a finite element simulation of the coupled heat and mass transport equation. The results of the simulations show that under certain conditions thermal convection cells may form, but the convective heat transfer in the clay formation is negligible. 6 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  19. Temperature calculations on different configurations for disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt dome model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.

    1978-06-01

    A medium size salt dome is considered as a structure in which a repository can be located for all radioactive wastes to be produced within the scope of a postulated nuclear power program. A dominating design factor for the lay-out of such a waste repository is the temperature distribution in the salt dome resulting from decay heat released from the buried solidified high-level reprocessing waste. Two numerical models are presented for the calculation of both global and local rock salt temperatures. The results of calculations performed with these models are demonstrated to be compatible. Rock salt temperatures related to several types of burial configurations, ranging from two layer configurations with various vertical distances between the layers via a three and a four layer repository to deep bore hole concepts varying from 100 to 600 m bore hole depth, can therefore be calculated with one rather simple unit cell model. The results of these calculations indicate that rock salt temperatures can be kept within acceptable limits to realize a repository using standard mining techniques. The temperatures at mine galery level prove to be a dominating factor in the selection of a repository configuration. More detailed calculations of these temperatures taking into account the loading sequence and the cooling capacity of the mine ventilation are recommended. Finally the apparent advantages of a deep bore hole concept emphasize the need for R and D work with respect to advanced drilling techniques in order to achieve deep dry disposal bore holes that can be realized from a burial mine in the salt dome. (Auth.)

  20. Biosphere modelling for the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Japanese H12 assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard H.; Smith, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    JNC has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). In the safety assessment of a HLW disposal system, it is often necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate dose, consideration needs to be given to the surface environment (biosphere) into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. However, for a deep repository, such releases might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is not possible to predict with any certainty how the biosphere and human behaviour will evolve. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, the reference biosphere le concept has been developed for use in the safety assessment of HLW disposal. The Reference Biospheres Methodology was originally developed by the BIOMOVS II Reference Biospheres Working Group and subsequently enhanced within Theme 1 of the BIOMASS programme. As the aim of the H12 assessment with a hypothetical HLW disposal system was to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of the Japanese disposal concept for a range of geological and surface environments, some assessment specific reference biospheres were developed for the biosphere modelling in the H12 assessment using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II/BIOMASS approach. They have been used to derive factors to convert the radionuclide flux from a geosphere to a biosphere into a dose. The influx to dose conversion factor also have been derived for a range of different geosphere-biosphere interfaces (well, river and marine) and potential exposure groups (farming, freshwater-fishing and marine-fishing). This paper summarises the approach used for the derivation of the influx to dose conversion factor also for the range of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and

  1. Modelling magma-drift interaction at the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, Andrew W.; Sparks, Steve; Bokhove, Onno; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Britain E.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the possible ascent of alkali basalt magma containing 2 wt percent water through a dike and into a horizontal subsurface drift as part of a risk assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. On intersection of the dike with the

  2. Chemical reactivity of precursor materials during synthesis of glasses used for conditioning high-level radioactive waste: Experiments and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    The glass used to store high-level radioactive waste is produced by reaction of a solid waste residue and a glassy precursor (glass frit). The waste residue is first dried and calcined (to lose water and nitrogen respectively), then mixed with the glass frit to enable vitrification at high temperature. In order to obtain a good quality glass of constant composition upon cooling, the chemical reactions between the solid precursors must be complete while in the liquid state, to enable incorporation of the radioactive elements into the glassy matrix. The physical and chemical conditions during glass synthesis (e.g. temperature, relative proportions of frit and calcine, amount of radioactive charge) are typically empirically adjusted to obtain a satisfactory final product. The aim of this work is to provide new insights into the chemical and physical interactions that take place during vitrification and to provide data for a mathematical model that has been developed to simulate the chemical reactions. The consequences of the different chemical reactions that involve solid, liquid and gaseous phases are described (thermal effects, changes in crystal morphology and composition, variations in melt properties and structure). In a first series of experiments, a simplified analogue of the calcine (NaNO 3 -Al 2 O 3 ± MoO 3 /Nd 2 O 3 ) has been studied. In a second series of experiments, the simplified calcines have been reacted with a simplified glass frit (SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 ) at high temperature. The results show that crystallization of the calcine may take place before interaction with the glass frit, but that the reactivity with the glass at high temperature is a function of the nature and stoichiometry of the crystalline phases which form at low temperature. The results also highlight how the mixing of the starting materials, the physical properties of the frit (viscosity, glass transition temperature) and the Na 2 O/Al 2 O 3 of the calcine but also its

  3. Behavior of technetium in alkaline solution: Identification of non-pertechnetate species in high-level nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Shuh, David K.; Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Technetium is a long-lived (99Tc: 213,000 year half-life) fission product found in nuclear waste and is one of the important isotopes of environmental concern. The known chemistry of technetium suggests that it should be found as pertechnetate, TcO4-, in the extremely basic environment of the nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford site. However, other chemical forms of technetium are present in significant amounts in certain tanks, and these non-pertechnetate species complicate the treatment of the waste. The only spectroscopic characterization of these non-pertechnetate species is a series of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of actual tank waste. To better understand the behavior of technetium under these conditions, we have investigated the reduction of pertechnetate in highly alkaline solution in the presence of compounds found in high-level waste. These results and the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of these species are compared to the chemical behavior and XANES spectra of the actual non-pertechnetate species. The identity of the nonpertechnetate species is surprising

  4. Development of integraded mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-tayer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 Gr 55 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C- 22 and A516 Gr 55 are favored.

  5. Development of integrated mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-tayer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 Gr 55 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C- 22 and A516 Gr 55 are favored

  6. The inventory model for feasibility studies of a deep geological disposal for high level and long lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Lagrange, M.H.; Porcher, J.B.; Chupeau, J.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed inventory of high level and long lived waste packages was established to perform studies for the feasibility of an underground repository. This inventory takes into account existing conditioned waste, unconditioned waste and arisings generated by existing facilities. Grouping of waste package sorts in package types is done regarding relevant characteristics that determine the design of disposal vaults. The radiological content of each package type is derived from calculations of nuclear interactions inside the reactors, from the distribution of the nuclides in the different package types; it is cross-checked with available data on waste sorts. (author)

  7. Development of integrated mechanistically-based degradation-mode models for performance assessment of high-level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrossian, P; Estill, J; Farmer, J; Hopper, R; Horn, J; Huang, J S; McCright, D; Roy, A; Wang, F; Wilfinger, K

    1999-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 Gr 55, a carbon steel, or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 G4 55 are favored

  8. Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This

  9. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  10. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  11. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  12. A natural analogue for high-level waste in tuff: Chemical analysis and modeling of the Valles site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.W.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Ho, C.K.; Kovach, L.; McConnell, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a high-level waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock Tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 40 Ar isotopic composition. Overall, the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 m of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  13. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  14. Review of models for use in probabilistic assessments of the disposal of high level radioactive wastes on or beneath the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, A.G.; Gibson, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    The report describes a review of computer models applicable to probabilistic assessments of the ocean disposal of vitrified high level waste. Computer models were identified and each evaluated against a common set of criteria. The review covers each stage of the chain of radionuclide transport: canister deterioration and leaching, migration through the bottom sediments, dispersion in the ocean, suspended sediment effects, biological aspects and uptake by man. The models identified are generally at a relatively early stage of development and documentation was often only of a general nature. These overall systems models and sub-models considered to be most suitable for probabilistic assessments were identified and areas of further development identified. (author)

  15. Use of simplified models in the performance assessment of a high-level waste repository system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensado, Osvaldo; Mohanty, Sitakanta; Kanno, Takeshi; Tochigi, Yoshikatsu

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores simplifications to the H12 performance assessment model to enhance performance in Monte Carlo analyses. It is shown that similar reference case results to those of the H12 model can be derived by describing the buffer material surrounding a waste package as a planar body. Other possible simplifications to the performance assessment model in areas related to the stratification of the host rock transmissivity domain and solubility constraints in the buffer material are explored. (author)

  16. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  17. Development of a numerical code for the prediction of the long-term behavior of the underground facilities for the high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2006-01-01

    Complicated phenomena originated by thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling behavior will occur in the near-field of geological disposal of nuclear waste. Development of a numerical evaluation method for such phenomena is important in order to make a reasonable repository design and a safety assessment. In order to achieve the objective above, a numerical model using the equations which can evaluate the swelling characteristics of buffer materials based on the diffusive double layer theory is proposed, and a numerical scheme for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled analysis including the swelling model is constructed. The proposed swelling model can reproduce the behavior observed during both swelling pressure tests and swelling deformation tests. When the developed numerical code is applied to the laboratory heater test using a bentonite specimen, it can reproduce the thermal gradient, the distribution of saturation rate and the variation of porosity. The developed numerical code will be applied to well-controlled laboratory tests and full-scale in-situ tests in the future work. In order to apply to the various geochemical conditions around the engineered barrier, chemical component will be coupled to the present numerical code. (author)

  18. Assessment of historical leak model methodology as applied to the REDOX high-level waste tank SX-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JONES, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Using the Historical Leak Model approach, the estimated leak rate (and therefore, projected leak volume) for Tank 241-SX-108 could not be reproduced using the data included in the initial document describing the leak methodology. An analysis of parameters impacting tank heat load calculations strongly suggest that the historical tank operating data lack the precision and accuracy required to estimate tank leak volumes using the Historical Leak Model methodology

  19. A construction of Japanese consensus-formation model for the selection of last disposal site of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Naotaka; Saigusa, Shin; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    A group with Shizuoka University as the center one is promoting the investigation of the subject 'A construction of Japanese consensus - formation model for the selection of last disposal site of high-level radioactive wastes' adopted in 'Atomic Energy Fundamental Strategic Initiative' at the 20th fiscal year of Heisei, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The result of this investigation is described here. (M.H.)

  20. Application of the continuously-yielding joint model for studying disposal of high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Johansson, E.; Simonen, A.

    1993-04-01

    The non-linear Continuously-Yielding (CY) joint model and its use in numerical analyses of a nuclear waste repository are studied in the report. On major advantage of using CY-model is that laboratory test results, if available, can directly be used in analyses thus reducing uncertainties about joint input parameters. The new testing machine MTS-815 of Helsinki University of Technology was used to determine the joint behaviour of some granitic joints from the depth of 400-600 m below the ground surface. The procedure for triaxial joint tests was refined during this work. Two programs called NormFit and SherFit were developed and tested to determine the best fit parameter values for CY-model from laboratory test results

  1. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Modeling for speciation of radionuclides in waste packages with high-level radioactive wastes; Modellierung zur Speziation von Radionukliden in Abfallgebinden mit hoch radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben; Bracke, Guido; Seher, Holger

    2016-10-15

    Based on a literature search on radioactive waste inventories adequate thermodynamic data for model inventories were derived for geochemical model calculations using PHREEQC in order to determine the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes in different containers. The calculations were performed for different model inventories (PWR-MOX, PWR-UO2, BWR-MOX, BMR-UO2) assuming intact containers under reduction conditions. The effect of a defect in the container on the solid phase composition was considered in variation calculations assuming air contact induced oxidation.

  3. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  4. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  5. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Price

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN, IP, and subcutaneously (SC. Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival. Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  6. The Development of an Effective Transportation Risk Assessment Model for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, Thomas; Winnard, Thomas; Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.

    2001-01-01

    Past approaches for assessing the impacts of transporting spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste have not been effectively implemented or have used relatively simple approaches. The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis considers 83 origins, 34 fuel types, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, 10,911 rail shipments, consisting of 59,250 shipment links outside Nevada (shipment kilometers and population density pairs through urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 shipment links in Nevada. There was additional complexity within the analysis. The analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The model also considered different accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. To capture the all of the complexities of the transportation analysis, a Microsoft(reg s ign) Access database was created. In the Microsoft(reg s ign) Access approach the data is placed in individual tables and equations are developed in queries to obtain the overall impacts. While the query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one equation for a particular impact. This greatly simplifies the validation effort. Furthermore, in Access, data in tables can be linked automatically using query joins. Another advantage built into MS Access is nested queries, or the ability to develop query hierarchies. It is possible to separate the calculation into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing the state and mode specific accident rate to produce accidents by state. One of the biggest advantages of the nested queries is in validation

  7. A non-parametric hierarchical model to discover behavior dynamics from tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.F.P.; Englebienne, G.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel non-parametric Bayesian model to jointly discover the dynamics of low-level actions and high-level behaviors of tracked people in open environments. Our model represents behaviors as Markov chains of actions which capture high-level temporal dynamics. Actions may be shared by

  8. High-level transfer and long-term expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Bank, A

    1998-06-30

    Insertion of a normally functioning human beta-globin gene into the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of patients with beta-thalassemia may be an effective approach to the therapy of this disorder. Safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models are prerequisites for HSC somatic gene therapy. We have recently shown for the first time that, using a modified beta-globin retroviral vector in a mouse transplant model, long-term, high-level expression of a transferred human beta-globin gene is possible. The human beta-globin gene continues to be detected up to eight months post-transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in three of five mice surviving long-term (> 4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. The unrearranged 5.1 kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus is seen by Southern blotting in two of these mice. More importantly, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in two mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin. We document stem cell transduction by showing continued high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in secondarily transplanted recipient mice. These results provide evidence of HSC transduction with a human beta-globin gene in animals and demonstrate that retroviral-mediated unrearranged human beta-globin gene transfer leads to a high level of human beta-globin gene expression in the long term for the first time. A gene therapy strategy may be a feasible therapeutic approach to the beta-thalassemias if consistent human beta-globin gene transfer and expression into HSC can be achieved.

  9. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  10. Laboratory-scale vitrification and leaching of Hanford high-level waste for the purpose of simulant and glass property models validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Elliott, M.L.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being built to process the high-level and TRU waste into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Testing programs have been established within the Project to verify process technology using simulated waste. A parallel testing program with actual radioactive waste is being performed to confirm the validity of using simulates and glass property models for waste form qualification and process testing. The first feed type to be processed by and the first to be tested on a laboratory-scale is pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The NCAW is a neutralized high-level waste stream generated from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant at Hanford. As part of the fuel reprocessing, the high-level waste generated in PUREX was denitrated with sugar to form current acid waste (CAW). Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite were added to the CAW to minimize corrosion in the tanks, thus yielding neutralized CAW. The NCAW contains small amounts of plutonium, fission products from the irradiated fuel, stainless steel corrosion products, and iron and sulfate from the ferrous sulfamate reductant used in the PUREX process. This paper will discuss the results and status of the laboratory-scale radioactive testing

  11. A modelling study for long-term life prediction of carbon steel overpack for geological isolation of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Honda, Akira; Ishikawa, Hirohisa

    1996-01-01

    Current plans for the geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in Japan include metal overpacks which contain HLW. Overpacks may be required to remain intact for more than several hundred years in order to provide containment of radio nuclides. The main factor limiting the performance of overpacks is considered to be corrosion by groundwater. Carbon steel is one of the candidate material for overpacks. A mathematical model for life prediction of carbon steel overpack has been developed based on corrosion mechanism. General corrosion and localized corrosion are considered because these are likely to initiate in repository conditions. In general corrosion model, the reduction of oxygen and water are considered as cathodic reaction. In localized corrosion model, we have constructed a model which predict the period for localized corrosion based on oxygen transport in bentonite. We also developed a model which predict the propagation rate of localized corrosion that is based on mass balance within the corroding cavity. (author)

  12. High-Level Connectionist Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Lussac ... and Simon Newcomb ... had attempted to prove it would be impossible to build a flying machine that would carry a man. (Wright [25, p. 12]1...of the law of aerodynamic lift (even though the understanding was quite imperfect at first) over an airfoil which enabled Man to build flying macnines...A bird isn’t sustained in the air by the hand of God-natural laws govern its flight. Similarly, natural laws govern what [goes on inside the head

  13. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs

  15. A conceptual frame for the development of models for the prediction of the local effects of a high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias; Ferreri, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Safety analyses assocciated with the elimination of radioactive wastes in rock masses assume, in all cases, the existance of wastes which will corrode the waste canisters producing the liberation of radionuclides in the rocky and their ultimate migration towards the biosphere. A conceptual discussion is presented which allows the specification to be met by the models for the prediction of the effects of the emplacement of a high level waste repository located at a depth of 500 m in a granitic rock. Furthermore, the radionuclides giving the largest contribution to the radiological impact are identified. (Author) [es

  16. The JAERI program for development of safety assessment models and acquisition of data needed for assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.

    1991-01-01

    The JAERI is conducting R and D program for the development of safety assessment methodologies and the acquisition of data needed for the assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, aiming at the elucidation of feasibility of geologic disposal in Japan. The paper describes current R and D activities to develop interim versions of both a deterministic and a probabilistic methodologies based on a normal evolution scenario, to collect data concerning engineered barriers and geologic media through field and laboratory experiments, and to validate the models used in the methodologies. 2 figs., 2 refs

  17. Perspective of the waste management research program at NRC on modeling phenomena related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, J.D.; Costanzi, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste falls short of ideal for a variety of reasons. The understanding of the physical processes involved may be incomplete or incorrect. It may not be possible to specify mathematically all relationships among the processes involved. The initial conditions or boundary conditions may not be known or directly measurable. Further, often it is impossible to obtain exact solutions to the mathematical relationships that constitute the mathematical model. Finally, many simplifications, approximations, and assumptions will be needed to make the models both understandable and calculationally tractable. Yet, modeling is the only means available by which any quantitative estimation of the expected performance of a geologic repository over the long term can be made. If modeling estimates of the performance of a geologic repository are to provide effective support for an NRC finding of reasonable assurance of no unreasonable risk to the public health and safety, then the strengths and limitations of the modeling process, the models themselves, and the use of the models must be understood and explored fully

  18. Unsaturated flow modeling in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Wu, Yu-Shu; Stein, Joshua S.; Houseworth, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progression of modeling efforts of infiltration, percolation, and seepage conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository in the unsaturated zone for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scientific understanding of infiltration in a desert environment, unsaturated percolation flux in fractures and matrix of the volcanic tuff, and seepage into an open drift in a thermally perturbed environment was initially lacking in 1984. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased through site characterization and in situ testing, modeling of infiltration, percolation, and seepage evolved from simple assumptions in a single model in 1984 to three modeling modules each based on several detailed process models in 2008. Uncertainty in percolation flux through Yucca Mountain was usually important in explaining the observed uncertainty in performance measures:cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter. - Highlights: • Progression of modeling of infiltration, percolation, and seepage conducted is described for a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. • Progression from 1-D in single equivalent to 3-D model of percolation in dual permeability continuum is described. • Introduction of an infiltration boundary condition in 1998 and the refinement for evaluating uncertainty for the license application is described. • Introduction of a seepage module that included calibration to in-site measurements and separating uncertainty and variability is described

  19. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1999-01-01

    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  20. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The

  1. Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow processes at a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Two complementary numerical models for analyzing high-level nuclear waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain have been developed. A vertical cross-sectional (X-Z) model permits a realistic representation of hydrogeologic features, such as alternating tilting layers of welded and non-welded tuffs. fault zones, and surface topography. An alternative radially symmetric (R-Z) model is more limited in its ability to describe the hydrogeology of the site, but is better suited to model heat transfer in the host rock. Our models include a comprehensive description of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes, including strong enhancements of vapor diffusion from pore-level phase change effects. The neighborhood of the repository is found to partially dry out from the waste heat. A condensation halo of large liquid saturation forms around the drying zone, from which liquid flows downward at large rates. System response to infiltration from the surface and to ventilation of mined openings is evaluated. The impact of the various flow processes on the waste isolation capabilities of the site is discussed

  2. Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow processes at a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Two complementary numerical models for analyzing high-level nuclear waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain have been developed. A vertical cross-sectional (X-Z) model permits a realistic representation of hydrogeologic features, such as alternating tilting layers of welded and non-welded tuffs, fault zones, and surface topography. An alternative radially symmetric (R-Z) model is more limited in its ability to describe the hydrogeology of the site, but is better suited to model heat transfer in the host rock. Our models include a comprehensive description of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes, including strong enhancements of vapor diffusion from pore-level phase change effects. The neighborhood of the repository is found to partially dry out from the waste heat. A condensation halo of large liquid saturation forms around the drying zone, from which liquid flows downward at large rates. System response to infiltration from the surface and to ventilation of mined openings is evaluated. The impact of the various flow processes on the waste isolation capabilities of the site is discussed

  3. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  4. Progression of performance assessment modeling for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Wilson, Michael L.; Sevougian, S. David

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the evolution of consequence modeling for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. The discussion includes four early performance assessments (PAs) conducted between 1982 and 1995 to support selection and to evaluate feasibility and three major PAs conducted between 1998 and 2008 to evaluate viability, recommend the site, and assess compliance. Modeling efforts in 1982 estimated dose to individuals 18 km from the site caused by volcanic eruption through the repository. Modeling in 1984 estimated releases via the groundwater pathway because of container corrosion. In combination, this early analysis supported the first environmental assessment. Analysts in 1991 evaluated cumulative release, as specified in the 1985 US radiation protection standards, via the groundwater pathway over 10 4 yr at a 5-km boundary by modeling waste degradation and flow/transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones. By 1992, however, the US Congress mandated a change to a dose measure. Thus, the 1993 and 1995 performance assessments improved modeling of waste container degradation to provide better estimates of radionuclide release rates out to 10 6 yr. The 1998 viability assessment was a major step in modeling complexity. Dose at a 20-km boundary from the repository was evaluated through 10 6 yr for undisturbed conditions using more elaborate modeling of flow and the addition of modules for modeling infiltration, drift seepage, the chemical environment, and biosphere transport. The 2000 assessment for the site recommendation refined the analysis. Seepage modeling was greatly improved and waste form degradation modeling included more chemical dependence. The 2008 compliance assessment for the license application incorporated the influence of the seismicity on waste package performance to evaluate dose at an ∼18-km boundary. - Highlights: • Evolution of the consequence models to simulate physical

  5. [Clinical features, care pathways and behaviors of patients with high level of cardiovascular risk: transversal study in south-west region of France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Bernard; Couffinhal, Thierry; Saillour-Glénisson, Florence; Sevin, Floriane; Kret, Marion; Michel, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    To screen and to follow-up the patients with high cardiovascular risk in general practice may amplify the decrease of the cardiovascular morbi-mortality observed since a few years. The objective of this study is to identify the patients with high cardiovascular risk and to describe the management of these patients by general practitioners in Aquitaine. Transversal study of a sample of patients from 18 to 70 years old with high cardiovascular risk (combining at least 3 factors), included by voluntary general practitioners (GP). Forty-seven GP included 102 patients, presenting on average 3.7 risk factors among which 2.6 modifiable. The target values were reached for 59 % of patients with high blood pressure, 56 % of patients with diabetes and 53 % of patients with high cholesterol level. The analysis of care pathways identified the cardiologist as the privileged interlocutor. The doctors thought that seven patients out of 10 could change their risk behaviors. For the patients, the scale of declared importance to change was 6.6 on 10 for tobacco, 6.0 for food habits and 6.2 for physical activity. The confidence in their capacity to change was 3.8 on 10 for the tobacco, 5.2 for the food habits and 4.7 for the physical activity. Although doctors' sample is not representative, these results give an original overview of the management of patients with high cardiovascular risk and their care pathways. Medical treatments were globally in accordance with guidelines. The difficulty to change risk behaviors illustrates the necessity of patient therapeutic education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Quartz Particle Size and Sucrose Addition on Melting Behavior of a Melter Feed for High-Level Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, Jose; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Henager, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 (micro)m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-(micro)m quartz particles; particles (ge) 150 (micro)m formed clusters. Particles of 5 (micro)m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles (ge) 150 (micro)m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles.

  7. A model for the analysis of a normal evolution scenarios for a deep geological granite repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Cunado, M.A.; Lopez, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The methodology usually used to evaluate the behaviour of deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes comprises three phases: Identification of factors (processes, characteristics and events) that can affect the repository. Generation of scenarios. In general, a normal evolution scenario (Reference Scenario) and various disruptive scenarios (earthquake, human intrusion, etc) are considered. Evaluation of the behaviour of the repository in each scenario. The normal evolution scenario taking into account all factors with a high probability of occurrence is the first to be analysed. The performance assessment of behaviour being carried out by ENRESA for the AGP Granite has led to the identification of 63 of these factors. To analyse repository behaviour in the normal evolution scenario, it is necessary to first of all create an integrated model of the global system. This is a qualitative model including the 63 factors identified. For a global view of a such a complex system, it is very useful to graphically display the relationship between factors in an Influence Diagram. This paper shows the Influence Diagram used in the analysis of the AGP Granite Reference Scenario. (Author)

  8. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  9. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  10. Biosphere assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal: modelling experiences and discussion on key parameters by sensitivity analysis in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Makino, Hitoshi; Uchida, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    In the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal system of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), biosphere assessment is often necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate the dose, the surface environment (biosphere) into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and the associated future human behaviour needs to be considered. However, for a deep repository, such releases might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is impossible to predict with any certainty how the biosphere and human behaviour will evolve. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, the 'Reference Biospheres' concept has been developed for use in the safety assessment of HLW disposal. As the aim of the safety assessment with a hypothetical HLW disposal system by JNC was to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of the Japanese disposal concept for a range of geological and surface environments, some biosphere models were developed using the 'Reference Biospheres' concept and the BIOMASS Methodology. These models have been used to derive factors to convert the radionuclide flux from a geosphere to a biosphere into a dose (flux to dose conversion factors). Moreover, sensitivity analysis for parameters in the biosphere models was performed to evaluate and understand the relative importance of parameters. It was concluded that transport parameters in the surface environments, annual amount of food consumption, distribution coefficients on soils and sediments, transfer coefficients of radionuclides to animal products and concentration ratios for marine organisms would have larger influence on the flux to dose conversion factors than any other parameters. (author)

  11. Development of an Insight Model for Post-closure Radiological Risks from the Disposal of High-level Waste and Spent Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M.; Carter, A.; Bailey, L.; Wellstead, M.

    2012-04-01

    Geological disposal is the UK policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive wastes. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the UK. The approach adopted for building confidence in long-term safety of the GDF is to use multiple barriers to isolate and contain the wastes. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop a safety case based on varied and different lines of reasoning, including both quantitative aspects and qualitative safety arguments. This paper describes the development of a simplified model for high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF). Assessments of HLW and SF disposals need to reflect a number of physical and chemical processes that govern the release and transport of the disposed wastes. Physical processes include container failure, release of radionuclides from the wasteform, diffusion through bentonite barriers and transport in fractured rock. Chemical processes include solubility limitation and sorption. HLW and SF assessments are generally based on numerical models of these processes, implemented in software tools such as GoldSim. The results of such assessments can be complex to understand, especially in situations where no single release or transport process is dominant. A simplified model of the release and transport of radionuclides for disposals of HLW and SF has been developed. The objectives of the model are to identify the key physical and chemical processes that govern radiological risk, and to enable numerical estimates of risk (and other intermediate quantities) to be made. The model is based on the notion that the properties of the time-dependent model outputs can be characterised in terms of "moments". The moments are easy to compute since they are related in a simple way to the Laplace transforms of the functions under consideration. The Laplace transform method is a standard technique for

  12. Building a high level sample processing and quality assessment model for biogeochemical measurements: a case study from the ocean acidification community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Connell, D.; Spears, T.; Leadbetter, A.; Burger, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    The scientific literature heavily features small-scale studies with the impact of the results extrapolated to regional/global importance. There are on-going initiatives (e.g. OA-ICC, GOA-ON, GEOTRACES, EMODNet Chemistry) aiming to assemble regional to global-scale datasets that are available for trend or meta-analyses. Assessing the quality and comparability of these data requires information about the processing chain from "sampling to spreadsheet". This provenance information needs to be captured and readily available to assess data fitness for purpose. The NOAA Ocean Acidification metadata template was designed in consultation with domain experts for this reason; the core carbonate chemistry variables have 23-37 metadata fields each and for scientists generating these datasets there could appear to be an ever increasing amount of metadata expected to accompany a dataset. While this provenance metadata should be considered essential by those generating or using the data, for those discovering data there is a sliding scale between what is considered discovery metadata (title, abstract, contacts, etc.) versus usage metadata (methodology, environmental setup, lineage, etc.), the split depending on the intended use of data. As part of the OA-ICC's activities, the metadata fields from the NOAA template relevant to the sample processing chain and QA criteria have been factored to develop profiles for, and extensions to, the OM-JSON encoding supported by the PROV ontology. While this work started focused on carbonate chemistry variable specific metadata, the factorization could be applied within the O&M model across other disciplines such as trace metals or contaminants. In a linked data world with a suitable high level model for sample processing and QA available, tools and support can be provided to link reproducible units of metadata (e.g. the standard protocol for a variable as adopted by a community) and simplify the provision of metadata and subsequent discovery.

  13. 2003 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference Breached Drip Shield Test and Validation of a TSPA Sub-Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, Z.P.; Kam, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) represents the system of human engineered barriers in the isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. It is designed to complement and enhance the natural barriers to isolate and prevent the transport of radionuclides into the surrounding environment. The transport mechanism most frequently postulated for radionuclides is liquid water flux that has penetrated the EBS through corrosion breaches in the drip shield and waste packages (WP). A water flux-splitting model is used to predict flow through WP and drip shield breaches and is documented in the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction''. A future revision of the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' will be one component of the total system performance assessment--license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The flux-splitting model is conservative based on the following assumptions: (1) Drip impact occurs without a loss of water mass. (2) Dripping flux falls exactly at the crown of the drip shield as opposed to different locations on the curved surface, which will effect splashing and flow patterns. (3) The flux passing through a drip shield patch is proportional to the ratio of the length of the penetration in the axial direction to the total axial length of the drip shield. In this assumption all fluid that drips and flows from the drip shield crown toward a penetration will be collected if the axial locations of the source and patch coincide. (4) The potential for evaporation is ignored. Because of these conservatisms, the current version of the flux-splitting model is incapable of accounting for water that has been splashed from the impact location, the deviation of water paths (rivulets) from the axis of impact, and water loss due to evaporation. This paper will present the results of a series of breached drip shield tests used to collect empirical data for the initial validation and further

  14. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  15. Behavioral Reference Model for Pervasive Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Arezoo; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges. Integrity and reliability of healthcare systems are of critical importance, as even the slightest error may put the patients' lives in danger; therefore acquiring a behavioral model for these systems and developing the tools required to model their behaviors are of significant importance. The high-level designs may contain some flaws, therefor the system must be fully examined for different scenarios and conditions. This paper presents a software architecture for development of healthcare systems based on pervasive computing concepts, and then models the behavior of described system. A set of solutions are then proposed to improve the design's qualitative characteristics including, availability, interoperability and performance.

  16. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  17. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed-independent...

  18. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  19. Behavior genetics: Bees as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae) is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behavior, in particular social behavior. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behavior are genetically determined, including defensive, hygienic, reproductive and foraging behavior. For example, genetic diversity is associated with specialization to collect water, nectar and pollen. Also, control of worker reproduction is associated with genetic differences. In this paper, I review the methods and the main results from the study of the genetic and genomic basis of some behaviors in bees.

  20. Using Business Theory to Motivate Undergraduate Students in Goal Attainment: An Empirical Assessment and Model for High Level Motivation and Goal Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul; Griego, Orlando V.; Stevens, Roxanne Helm

    2010-01-01

    Students at a private university in southern California took part in a study focusing on high level motivation and goal commitment. Using path analysis, this study mapped out two-paths. The first path to motivation and, therefore, goal commitment was through self-efficacy. The second path to goal commitment required a more supportive course.…

  1. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  2. Analysis of Surface Leaching Processes in Vitrified High-Level Nuclear Wastes Using In-Situ Raman Imaging and Atomistic Modeling - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Joseph H.

    2001-01-01

    The in situ analysis of surface conditions of vitrified nuclear wastes can provide an important check of the burial status of radioactive objects without risk of radiation exposure. Raman spectroscopy was initially chosen as the most promising method for testing the surface conditions of glasses undergoing chemical corrosion, and was used extensively during the first year. However, it was determined that infrared reflection spectroscopy was better suited to this particular need and was used for the remaining two years to investigate the surface corrosion behavior of model silicate glasses for extension to nuclear waste glasses. The developed methodology is consistent with the known theory of optical propagation of dielectric media and uses the Kramers-Kronig formalism. The results show that it is possible to study the corrosion of glass by analyzing the glass surface using reflection fast Fourier infrared measurements and the newly developed ''dispersion analysis method.'' The data show how this analysis can be used to monitor the corrosion behavior of vitrified waste glasses over extended periods of storage

  3. Modelling intelligent behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. S.; Triffet, T.

    1993-01-01

    An introductory discussion of the related concepts of intelligence and consciousness suggests criteria to be met in the modeling of intelligence and the development of intelligent materials. Methods for the modeling of actual structure and activity of the animal cortex have been found, based on present knowledge of the ionic and cellular constitution of the nervous system. These have led to the development of a realistic neural network model, which has been used to study the formation of memory and the process of learning. An account is given of experiments with simple materials which exhibit almost all properties of biological synapses and suggest the possibility of a new type of computer architecture to implement an advanced type of artificial intelligence.

  4. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  5. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  6. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  7. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 5: Dispersal of radionuclides in the oceans: Models, data sets and regional descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.; Simmons, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the development of a realistic and credible methodology to describe the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides for risk assessment calculations

  8. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  9. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  10. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  11. Chemical speciation of strontium, americium, and curium in high level waste: Predictive modeling of phase partitioning during tank processing. Annual progress report, October 1996--September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.; Felmy, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    'The program at Florida State University was funded to collaborate with Dr. A. Felmy (PNNL) on speciation in high level wastes and with Dr. D. Rai (PNNL) on redox of Pu under high level waste conditions. The funding provided support for 3 research associates (postdoctoral researchers) under Professor G. R. Choppin as P.I. Dr. Kath Morris from U. Manchester (Great Britain), Dr. Dean Peterman and Dr. Amy Irwin (both from U. Cincinnati) joined the laboratory in the latter part of 1996. After an initial training period to become familiar with basic actinide chemistry and radiochemical techniques, they began their research. Dr. Peterman was assigned the task of measuring Th-EDTA complexation prior to measuring Pu(IV)-EDTA complexation. These studies are associated with the speciation program with Dr. Felmy. Drs. Morris and Irwin initiated research on redox of plutonium with agents present in the Hanford Tanks as a result of radiolysis or from use in separations. The preliminary results obtained thus far are described in this report. It is expected that the rate of progress will continue to increase significantly as the researchers gain more experience with plutonium chemistry.'

  12. Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...

  13. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  14. Behavioral model of visual perception and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Ilya A.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Gusakova, Valentina I.

    1993-09-01

    In the processes of visual perception and recognition human eyes actively select essential information by way of successive fixations at the most informative points of the image. A behavioral program defining a scanpath of the image is formed at the stage of learning (object memorizing) and consists of sequential motor actions, which are shifts of attention from one to another point of fixation, and sensory signals expected to arrive in response to each shift of attention. In the modern view of the problem, invariant object recognition is provided by the following: (1) separated processing of `what' (object features) and `where' (spatial features) information at high levels of the visual system; (2) mechanisms of visual attention using `where' information; (3) representation of `what' information in an object-based frame of reference (OFR). However, most recent models of vision based on OFR have demonstrated the ability of invariant recognition of only simple objects like letters or binary objects without background, i.e. objects to which a frame of reference is easily attached. In contrast, we use not OFR, but a feature-based frame of reference (FFR), connected with the basic feature (edge) at the fixation point. This has provided for our model, the ability for invariant representation of complex objects in gray-level images, but demands realization of behavioral aspects of vision described above. The developed model contains a neural network subsystem of low-level vision which extracts a set of primary features (edges) in each fixation, and high- level subsystem consisting of `what' (Sensory Memory) and `where' (Motor Memory) modules. The resolution of primary features extraction decreases with distances from the point of fixation. FFR provides both the invariant representation of object features in Sensor Memory and shifts of attention in Motor Memory. Object recognition consists in successive recall (from Motor Memory) and execution of shifts of attention and

  15. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  16. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  17. Design exploration and verification platform, based on high-level modeling and FPGA prototyping, for fast and flexible digital communication in physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magazzù, G; Borgese, G; Costantino, N; Fanucci, L; Saponara, S; Incandela, J

    2013-01-01

    In many research fields as high energy physics (HEP), astrophysics, nuclear medicine or space engineering with harsh operating conditions, the use of fast and flexible digital communication protocols is becoming more and more important. The possibility to have a smart and tested top-down design flow for the design of a new protocol for control/readout of front-end electronics is very useful. To this aim, and to reduce development time, costs and risks, this paper describes an innovative design/verification flow applied as example case study to a new communication protocol called FF-LYNX. After the description of the main FF-LYNX features, the paper presents: the definition of a parametric SystemC-based Integrated Simulation Environment (ISE) for high-level protocol definition and validation; the set up of figure of merits to drive the design space exploration; the use of ISE for early analysis of the achievable performances when adopting the new communication protocol and its interfaces for a new (or upgraded) physics experiment; the design of VHDL IP cores for the TX and RX protocol interfaces; their implementation on a FPGA-based emulator for functional verification and finally the modification of the FPGA-based emulator for testing the ASIC chipset which implements the rad-tolerant protocol interfaces. For every step, significant results will be shown to underline the usefulness of this design and verification approach that can be applied to any new digital protocol development for smart detectors in physics experiments.

  18. Design exploration and verification platform, based on high-level modeling and FPGA prototyping, for fast and flexible digital communication in physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazzù, G.; Borgese, G.; Costantino, N.; Fanucci, L.; Incandela, J.; Saponara, S.

    2013-02-01

    In many research fields as high energy physics (HEP), astrophysics, nuclear medicine or space engineering with harsh operating conditions, the use of fast and flexible digital communication protocols is becoming more and more important. The possibility to have a smart and tested top-down design flow for the design of a new protocol for control/readout of front-end electronics is very useful. To this aim, and to reduce development time, costs and risks, this paper describes an innovative design/verification flow applied as example case study to a new communication protocol called FF-LYNX. After the description of the main FF-LYNX features, the paper presents: the definition of a parametric SystemC-based Integrated Simulation Environment (ISE) for high-level protocol definition and validation; the set up of figure of merits to drive the design space exploration; the use of ISE for early analysis of the achievable performances when adopting the new communication protocol and its interfaces for a new (or upgraded) physics experiment; the design of VHDL IP cores for the TX and RX protocol interfaces; their implementation on a FPGA-based emulator for functional verification and finally the modification of the FPGA-based emulator for testing the ASIC chipset which implements the rad-tolerant protocol interfaces. For every step, significant results will be shown to underline the usefulness of this design and verification approach that can be applied to any new digital protocol development for smart detectors in physics experiments.

  19. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived....... Evidence is provided, which implies that the asymmetry is caused by a self-enhancement in the initiation dynamics. These results have implications for the formation of social networks and the dynamics of the links. It is shown that the Big Five Inventory (BFI) representing a psychological profile only...

  20. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  1. Review of models for use in probabilistic assessments of the disposal of high level radioactive wastes on or beneath the seabed: appendix III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, A.G.; Gibson, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    MARINRAD (MARINe RADionuclide Transport and Dose) is a system of computer programs designed to evaluate the consequences from release of radioactive waste into the ocean. It is presently being used in safety assessment studies for the Subseabed Disposal Program by Sandia National Laboratories. MARINRAD calculates doses to humans and biota and health effects to humans. The MARINRAD software system is composed of three computer programs: ORIGEN, MARRAD and MAROUT. The use of the ORIGEN program to generate a nuclide inventory file is optional. The MARRAD program incorporates an ocean transport box model that calculates radionuclide concentrations as a function of time, and a steady-state food-chain model that calculates the biota concentration factors. Program MAROUT evaluates a pathways-to-man model which is used to calculate dose and health effects to man for up to seven different exposure pathways. (author)

  2. Introducing heterogeneity in Monte Carlo models for risk assessments of high-level nuclear waste. A parallel implementation of the MLCRYSTAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, M.

    1996-09-01

    We have introduced heterogeneity to an existing model as a special feature and simultaneously extended the model from 1D to 3D. Briefly, the code generates stochastic fractures in a given geosphere. These fractures are connected in series to form one pathway for radionuclide transport from the repository to the biosphere. Rock heterogeneity is realized by simulating physical and chemical properties for each fracture, i.e. these properties vary along the transport pathway (which is an ensemble of all fractures serially connected). In this case, each Monte Carlo simulation involves a set of many thousands of realizations, one for each pathway. Each pathway can be formed by approx. 100 fractures. This means that for a Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 realizations, we need to perform a total of 100,000 simulations. Therefore the introduction of heterogeneity has increased the CPU demands by two orders of magnitude. To overcome the demand for CPU, the program, MLCRYSTAL, has been implemented in a parallel workstation environment using the MPI, Message Passing Interface, and later on ported to an IBM-SP2 parallel supercomputer. The program is presented here and a preliminary set of results is given with the conclusions that can be drawn. 3 refs, 12 figs.

  3. Introducing heterogeneity in Monte Carlo models for risk assessments of high-level nuclear waste. A parallel implementation of the MLCRYSTAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.

    1996-09-01

    We have introduced heterogeneity to an existing model as a special feature and simultaneously extended the model from 1D to 3D. Briefly, the code generates stochastic fractures in a given geosphere. These fractures are connected in series to form one pathway for radionuclide transport from the repository to the biosphere. Rock heterogeneity is realized by simulating physical and chemical properties for each fracture, i.e. these properties vary along the transport pathway (which is an ensemble of all fractures serially connected). In this case, each Monte Carlo simulation involves a set of many thousands of realizations, one for each pathway. Each pathway can be formed by approx. 100 fractures. This means that for a Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 realizations, we need to perform a total of 100,000 simulations. Therefore the introduction of heterogeneity has increased the CPU demands by two orders of magnitude. To overcome the demand for CPU, the program, MLCRYSTAL, has been implemented in a parallel workstation environment using the MPI, Message Passing Interface, and later on ported to an IBM-SP2 parallel supercomputer. The program is presented here and a preliminary set of results is given with the conclusions that can be drawn. 3 refs, 12 figs

  4. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  5. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  6. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  7. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  8. Stability of High-Level Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the proposed effort is to use a new approach to develop solution models of complex waste glass systems and spent fuel that are predictive with regard to composition, phase separation, and volatility. The effort will also yield thermodynamic values for waste components that are fundamentally required for corrosion models used to predict the leaching/corrosion behavior for waste glass and spent fuel material. This basic information and understanding of chemical behavior can subsequently be used directly in computational models of leaching and transport in geologic media, in designing and engineering waste forms and barrier systems, and in prediction of chemical interactions.

  9. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  10. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  11. An evolutionary behavioral model for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Lopez, Dr Oscar Javier

    2011-01-01

    For autonomous agents the problem of deciding what to do next becomes increasingly complex when acting in unpredictable and dynamic environments pursuing multiple and possibly conflicting goals. One of the most relevant behavior-based model that tries to deal with this problem is the one proposed by Maes, the Bbehavior Network model. This model proposes a set of behaviors as purposive perception-action units which are linked in a nonhierarchical network, and whose behavior selection process i...

  12. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  13. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  14. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  15. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  16. USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2005-01-01

    This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters

  17. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  18. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  19. Model for behavior observation training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability

  20. Multiaxial behavior of foams - Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheo, Laurent; Guérard, Sandra; Rio, Gérard; Donnard, Adrien; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Cellular materials are strongly related to pressure level inside the material. It is therefore important to use experiments which can highlight (i) the pressure-volume behavior, (ii) the shear-shape behavior for different pressure level. Authors propose to use hydrostatic compressive, shear and combined pressure-shear tests to determine cellular materials behavior. Finite Element Modeling must take into account these behavior specificities. Authors chose to use a behavior law with a Hyperelastic, a Viscous and a Hysteretic contributions. Specific developments has been performed on the Hyperelastic one by separating the spherical and the deviatoric part to take into account volume change and shape change characteristics of cellular materials.

  1. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  2. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  3. Biosocial Models of Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes biological influences on criminality. Illustrative data suggest a biological sex difference in criminality and heritable differences in this trait among individuals. Methods of isolating environmental influences are described. Author notes that using environment-friendly behavior genetic research designs is not only proper but would…

  4. An etiological model of disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Berbert; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2017-09-01

    The Tripartite Influence Model posits that parents, peers and media influences mediated by internalization and appearance social comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, the Tripartite Influence Model has not been tested in Brazil where the people are known to have high levels of body image and appearance concerns. This study aimed to test an adapted Tripartite Influence Model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women. A sample of 741 undergraduate students (M age  = 23.55 years, SD = 4.09) completed measures of sociocultural influences, internalization of body ideal, social appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, muscularity dissatisfaction, disordered eating and body change behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women has good fit indexes (χ 2 (2064) = 6793.232; p = 0.0001; χ 2 /gl = 3.29; CFI = 0.82; PCFI = 0.79; RMSEA = 0.056 [IC90% = 0.053-0.057]). Parent and media influences were related with both internalization and social comparison, while peer influence with social comparison. A full mediation model was found, with both internalization and social comparison contributing to body dissatisfaction. Finally, body dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating behaviors. The findings inform the importance of considering cultural aspects that influence body image and eating behaviors, and highlight the validity of the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women, that can be used for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Conceptual Model of Investor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBased on a survey of behavioral finance literature, this paper presents a descriptive model of individual investor behavior in which investment decisions are seen as an iterative process of interactions between the investor and the investment environment. This investment process is influenced by a number of interdependent variables and driven by dual mental systems, the interplay of which contributes to boundedly rational behavior where investors use various heuristics and may exh...

  6. A Conceptual Model of Investor Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lovric (Milan); U. Kaymak (Uzay); J. Spronk (Jaap)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBased on a survey of behavioral finance literature, this paper presents a descriptive model of individual investor behavior in which investment decisions are seen as an iterative process of interactions between the investor and the investment environment. This investment process is

  7. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  8. Relational models for knowledge sharing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, N.I.; Berends, J.J.; Baalen, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relational dimension of knowledge sharing behavior by proposing a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying knowledge sharing in organizations. This theoretical framework originates from (Fiske, 1991) and (Fiske, 1992) Relational Models Theory (RMT). The RMT

  9. Punishment models of addictive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917; Minnaard, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413292533; Smeets, J.A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413578577; Lesscher, H.M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258637196

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by loss of control over substance use. In recent years, there has been a lively interest in animal models of loss of control over substance use, using punishment paradigms. We provide an overview of punishment models of

  10. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  11. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs

  12. An integrative model of organizational safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Fan, Di; Fu, Gui; Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua

    2013-06-01

    This study develops an integrative model of safety management based on social cognitive theory and the total safety culture triadic framework. The purpose of the model is to reveal the causal linkages between a hazardous environment, safety climate, and individual safety behaviors. Based on primary survey data from 209 front-line workers in one of the largest state-owned coal mining corporations in China, the model is tested using structural equation modeling techniques. An employee's perception of a hazardous environment is found to have a statistically significant impact on employee safety behaviors through a psychological process mediated by the perception of management commitment to safety and individual beliefs about safety. The integrative model developed here leads to a comprehensive solution that takes into consideration the environmental, organizational and employees' psychological and behavioral aspects of safety management. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  14. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents

  15. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  16. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  17. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of...

  18. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  19. Organizational buying behavior: An integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational buying behavior is decision making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services, and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers. Understanding the buying decision processes is essential to developing the marketing programs of companies that sell to organizations, or to 'industrial customers'. In business (industrial marketing, exchange relationships between the organizational selling center and the organizational buying center are crucial. Integrative model of organizational buying behavior offers a systematic framework in analyzing the complementary factors and what effect they have on the behavior of those involved in making buying decisions.

  20. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  1. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  2. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  3. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  5. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  6. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  7. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  8. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  9. Modelling aerosol behavior in reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the areas of concern in using computer codes to model fission-product aerosol behavior in the reactor cooling system (RCS) of a water-cooled nuclear reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident. The basic physical processes that require modelling include: fission product release and aerosol formation in the reactor core, aerosol transport and deposition in the reactor core and throughout the rest of the RCS, and the interaction between aerosol transport processes and the thermalhydraulics. In addition to these basic physical processes, chemical reactions can have a large influence on the nature of the aerosol and its behavior in the RCS. The focus is on the physics and the implications of numerical methods used in the computer codes to model aerosol behavior in the RCS

  10. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehraneh Ghaemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are used to model the driver's behavior. Three different positions are considered for driving and decision making. A fuzzy model called Model I is presented for modeling the change of steering angle and speed control by considering time distances with existing cars in these three positions, the information about the speed and direction of car, and the steering angle of car. Also we obtained two other models based on fuzzy rules called Model II and Model III by using Sugeno fuzzy inference. Model II and Model III have less linguistic terms than Model I for the steering angle and direction of car. The results of three models are compared for a driver who drives based on driving laws.

  11. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  12. Error Resilient Video Compression Using Behavior Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacco R. Taal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless and Internet video applications are inherently subjected to bit errors and packet errors, respectively. This is especially so if constraints on the end-to-end compression and transmission latencies are imposed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to optimize the video compression parameters and the rate allocation of these applications that take into account residual channel bit errors. In this paper, we study the behavior of a predictive (interframe video encoder and model the encoders behavior using only the statistics of the original input data and of the underlying channel prone to bit errors. The resulting data-driven behavior models are then used to carry out group-of-pictures partitioning and to control the rate of the video encoder in such a way that the overall quality of the decoded video with compression and channel errors is optimized.

  13. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...

  14. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  15. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  16. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  17. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  18. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  19. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  20. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  1. Behavioral and statistical models of educational inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how students and their families make educational decisions. We describe three types of behavioral model that might underlie decision-making and we show that they have consequences for what decisions are made. Our study thus has policy implications if we wish...

  2. Modeling landowner behavior regarding forest certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Mercker; Donald G. Hodges

    2008-01-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners in western Tennessee were surveyed to assess their awareness, acceptance, and perceived benefits of forest certification. More than 80 percent of the landowners indicated a willingness to consider certification for their lands. A model was created to explain landowner behavior regarding their willingness to consider certification....

  3. A conceptual model of investor behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.; Nefti, S.; Gray, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral finance is a subdiscipline of finance that uses insights from cogni tive and social psychology to enrich our knowledge of how investors make their financial decisions. Agent-based artificial financial markets are bottomup models of financial markets that start from the micro level of

  4. Models of behavioral change and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes models of behavioral change and adaptation, which have received less application in the life choice analysis associated with urban policy. Related to various life choices, life trajectory events are major decisions with a relatively long-lasting impact, such as

  5. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  6. Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.

    1975-01-01

    This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.

  7. A motivational model for environmentally responsible behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a study examining whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are related to environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). The study analysed past environmental behavior, self-regulatory mechanisms (self-efficacy, satisfaction, goals), and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to ERBs in a sample of 156 university students. Results show that all the motivational variables studied are linked to ERB. The effects of self-efficacy on ERB are mediated by the intrinsic motivation responses of the participants. A theoretical model was created by means of path analysis, revealing the power of motivational variables to predict ERB. Structural equation modeling was used to test and fit the research model. The role of motivational variables is discussed with a view to creating adequate learning contexts and experiences to generate interest and new sensations in which self-efficacy and affective reactions play an important role.

  8. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  9. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  10. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  11. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  12. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  13. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  14. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  15. Human Guidance Behavior Decomposition and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feit, Andrew James

    Trained humans are capable of high performance, adaptable, and robust first-person dynamic motion guidance behavior. This behavior is exhibited in a wide variety of activities such as driving, piloting aircraft, skiing, biking, and many others. Human performance in such activities far exceeds the current capability of autonomous systems in terms of adaptability to new tasks, real-time motion planning, robustness, and trading safety for performance. The present work investigates the structure of human dynamic motion guidance that enables these performance qualities. This work uses a first-person experimental framework that presents a driving task to the subject, measuring control inputs, vehicle motion, and operator visual gaze movement. The resulting data is decomposed into subspace segment clusters that form primitive elements of action-perception interactive behavior. Subspace clusters are defined by both agent-environment system dynamic constraints and operator control strategies. A key contribution of this work is to define transitions between subspace cluster segments, or subgoals, as points where the set of active constraints, either system or operator defined, changes. This definition provides necessary conditions to determine transition points for a given task-environment scenario that allow a solution trajectory to be planned from known behavior elements. In addition, human gaze behavior during this task contains predictive behavior elements, indicating that the identified control modes are internally modeled. Based on these ideas, a generative, autonomous guidance framework is introduced that efficiently generates optimal dynamic motion behavior in new tasks. The new subgoal planning algorithm is shown to generate solutions to certain tasks more quickly than existing approaches currently used in robotics.

  16. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  17. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  18. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  19. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    Presents photographs of wildland vegetation appropriate for the 13 fuel models used in mathematical models of fire behavior. Fuel model descriptions include fire behavior associated with each fuel and its physical characteristics. A similarity chart cross-references the 13 fire behavior fuel models to the 20 fuel models used in the National Fire Danger Rating System....

  20. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  1. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First......Try) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males....... A bivariate analysis indicated significant shared genetic variance between NumCh and FirstTry....

  2. Using Avatars to Model Weight Loss Behaviors: Participant Attitudes and Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Hayes, Sharon; Russo, Giuseppe; Muresu, Debora; Giordano, Antonio; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Virtual reality and other avatar-based technologies are potential methods for demonstrating and modeling weight loss behaviors. This study examined avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. Methods: This study consisted of two phases: (1) an online survey to obtain feedback about using avatars for modeling weight loss behaviors and (2) technology development and usability testing to create an avatar-based technology program for modeling weight loss behaviors. Results: Results of phase 1 (n = 128) revealed that interest was high, with 88.3% stating that they would participate in a program that used an avatar to help practice weight loss skills in a virtual environment. In phase 2, avatars and modules to model weight loss skills were developed. Eight women were recruited to participate in a 4-week usability test, with 100% reporting they would recommend the program and that it influenced their diet/exercise behavior. Most women (87.5%) indicated that the virtual models were helpful. After 4 weeks, average weight loss was 1.6 kg (standard deviation = 1.7). Conclusion: This investigation revealed a high level of interest in an avatar-based program, with formative work indicating promise. Given the high costs associated with in vivo exposure and practice, this study demonstrates the potential use of avatar-based technology as a tool for modeling weight loss behaviors. PMID:23911189

  3. An information-motivation-behavioral skills model of adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeffrey D; Fisher, William A; Amico, K Rivet; Harman, Jennifer J

    2006-07-01

    HIV-positive persons who do not maintain consistently high levels of adherence to often complex and toxic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens may experience therapeutic failure and deterioration of health status and may develop multidrug-resistant HIV that can be transmitted to uninfected others. The current analysis conceptualizes social and psychological determinants of adherence to HAART among HIV-positive individuals. The authors propose an information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of HAART adherence that assumes that adherence-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills are fundamental determinants of adherence to HAART. According to the model, adherence-related information and motivation work through adherence-related behavioral skills to affect adherence to HAART. Empirical support for the IMB model of adherence is presented, and its application in adherence-promotion intervention efforts is discussed.

  4. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  5. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  6. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  7. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  8. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  9. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  10. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  11. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  12. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  13. Agent-based modeling of sustainable behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Maroño, Noelia; Fontenla-Romero, Oscar; Polhill, J; Craig, Tony; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Using the O.D.D. (Overview, Design concepts, Detail) protocol, this title explores the role of agent-based modeling in predicting the feasibility of various approaches to sustainability. The chapters incorporated in this volume consist of real case studies to illustrate the utility of agent-based modeling and complexity theory in discovering a path to more efficient and sustainable lifestyles. The topics covered within include: households' attitudes toward recycling, designing decision trees for representing sustainable behaviors, negotiation-based parking allocation, auction-based traffic signal control, and others. This selection of papers will be of interest to social scientists who wish to learn more about agent-based modeling as well as experts in the field of agent-based modeling.

  14. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  15. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  16. Soil-structure interaction effects on high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfeld, E.

    1991-01-01

    High Level Waste Tanks consist of steel tanks located in concrete vaults which are usually completely embedded in the soil. Many of these tanks are old and were designed to seismic standards which are not compatible with current requirements. The objective if this paper is to develop simple methods of modeling SSI effects for such structures and to obtain solutions for a range of parameters that can be used to identify significant aspects of the problem

  17. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  18. Modeling Individual Cyclic Variation in Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Emma; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-04-01

    Cycles are fundamental to human health and behavior. Examples include mood cycles, circadian rhythms, and the menstrual cycle. However, modeling cycles in time series data is challenging because in most cases the cycles are not labeled or directly observed and need to be inferred from multidimensional measurements taken over time. Here, we present Cyclic Hidden Markov Models (CyH-MMs) for detecting and modeling cycles in a collection of multidimensional heterogeneous time series data. In contrast to previous cycle modeling methods, CyHMMs deal with a number of challenges encountered in modeling real-world cycles: they can model multivariate data with both discrete and continuous dimensions; they explicitly model and are robust to missing data; and they can share information across individuals to accommodate variation both within and between individual time series. Experiments on synthetic and real-world health-tracking data demonstrate that CyHMMs infer cycle lengths more accurately than existing methods, with 58% lower error on simulated data and 63% lower error on real-world data compared to the best-performing baseline. CyHMMs can also perform functions which baselines cannot: they can model the progression of individual features/symptoms over the course of the cycle, identify the most variable features, and cluster individual time series into groups with distinct characteristics. Applying CyHMMs to two real-world health-tracking datasets-of human menstrual cycle symptoms and physical activity tracking data-yields important insights including which symptoms to expect at each point during the cycle. We also find that people fall into several groups with distinct cycle patterns, and that these groups differ along dimensions not provided to the model. For example, by modeling missing data in the menstrual cycles dataset, we are able to discover a medically relevant group of birth control users even though information on birth control is not given to the model.

  19. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  20. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  1. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  2. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  4. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  5. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  6. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  7. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  8. Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    One of the principal foundations of mathematical theory of conventional plasticity for rate-independent metals is that there exists a well-defined yield surface in stress space for any material point under deformation. A material point can undergo further plastic deformation if the applied stresses are beyond current yield surface which is generally referred as 'plastic loading'. On the other hand, if the applied stress state falls within or on the yield surface, the metal will deform elastically only and is said to be undergoing 'elastic unloading'. Although it has been always recognized throughout the history of development of plasticity theory that there is indeed inelastic deformation accompanying elastic unloading, which leads to metal's hysteresis behavior, its effects were thought to be negligible and were largely ignored in the mathematical treatment.Recently there have been renewed interests in the study of unloading behavior of sheet metals upon large plastic deformation and its implications on springback prediction. Springback is essentially an elastic recovery process of a formed sheet metal blank when it is released from the forming dies. Its magnitude depends on the stress states and compliances of the deformed sheet metal if no further plastic loading occurs during the relaxation process. Therefore the accurate determination of material compliances during springback and its effective incorporation into simulation software are important aspects for springback calculation. Some of the studies suggest that the unloading curve might deviate from linearity, and suggestions were made that a reduced elastic modulus be used for springback simulation.The aim of this study is NOT to take a position on the debate of whether elastic moduli are changed during sheet metal forming process. Instead we propose an approach of modeling observed psuedoelastic behavior within the context of mathematical theory of plasticity, where elastic moduli are treated to be

  9. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  10. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  11. Behavioral optimization models for multicriteria portfolio selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlawat Mukesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, behavioral construct of suitability is used to develop a multicriteria decision making framework for portfolio selection. To achieve this purpose, we rely on multiple methodologies. Analytical hierarchy process technique is used to model the suitability considerations with a view to obtaining the suitability performance score in respect of each asset. A fuzzy multiple criteria decision making method is used to obtain the financial quality score of each asset based upon investor's rating on the financial criteria. Two optimization models are developed for optimal asset allocation considering simultaneously financial and suitability criteria. An empirical study is conducted on randomly selected assets from National Stock Exchange, Mumbai, India to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. Generalized Penner models and multicritical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the critical behavior of generalized Penner models at t∼-1+μ/N where the topological expansion for the free energy develops logarithmic singularities: Γ∼-(χ 0 μ 2 lnμ+χ 1 lnμ+...). We demonstrate that these criticalities can best be characterized by the fact that the large-N generating function becomes meromorphic with a single pole term of unit residue, F(z)→1/(z-a), where a is the location of the ''sink.'' For a one-band eigenvalue distribution, we identify multicritical potentials; we find that none of these can be associated with the c=1 string compactified at an integral multiple of the self-dual radius. We also give an exact solution to the Gaussian Penner model and explicitly demonstrate that, at criticality, this solution does not correspond to a c=1 string compactified at twice the self-dual radius

  13. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  15. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.

    2011-09-01

    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  16. Swarming behavior of simple model squirmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We have studied experimentally the collective behavior of self-propelling liquid droplets, which closely mimic the locomotion of some protozoal organisms, the so-called squirmers. For the sake of simplicity, we concentrate on quasi-two-dimensional (2D) settings, although our swimmers provide a fully 3D propulsion scheme. At an areal density of 0.46, we find strong polar correlation of the locomotion velocities of neighboring droplets, which decays over less than one droplet diameter. When the areal density is increased to 0.78, distinct peaks show up in the angular correlation function, which point to the formation of ordered rafts. This shows that pronounced textures, beyond what has been seen in simulations so far, may show up in crowds of simple model squirmers, despite the simplicity of their (purely physical) mutual interaction.

  17. Behavior of cosmological models with varying G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; Parsons, P.

    1997-01-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes in a wide range of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We apply solution-generating methods to three parametrized classes of scalar-tensor theory which lead naturally to general relativity in the weak-field limit. We restrict the parameters which specify these theories by the requirements imposed by the weak-field tests of gravitation theories in the solar system and by the requirement that viable cosmological solutions be obtained. We construct a range of exact solutions for open, closed, and flat isotropic universes containing matter with equation of state p≤(1)/(3)ρ and in vacuum. We study the range of early- and late-time behaviors displayed, examine when there is a open-quotes bounceclose quotes at early times, and expansion maxima in closed models. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Swarming behavior of simple model squirmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thutupalli, Shashi; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan, E-mail: shashi.thutupalli@ds.mpg.de, E-mail: stephan.herminghaus@ds.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We have studied experimentally the collective behavior of self-propelling liquid droplets, which closely mimic the locomotion of some protozoal organisms, the so-called squirmers. For the sake of simplicity, we concentrate on quasi-two-dimensional (2D) settings, although our swimmers provide a fully 3D propulsion scheme. At an areal density of 0.46, we find strong polar correlation of the locomotion velocities of neighboring droplets, which decays over less than one droplet diameter. When the areal density is increased to 0.78, distinct peaks show up in the angular correlation function, which point to the formation of ordered rafts. This shows that pronounced textures, beyond what has been seen in simulations so far, may show up in crowds of simple model squirmers, despite the simplicity of their (purely physical) mutual interaction.

  19. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  20. Modeling the exergy behavior of human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutenedjian Mady, Carlos Eduardo; Silva Ferreira, Maurício; Itizo Yanagihara, Jurandir; Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is applied to assess the energy conversion processes that take place in the human body, aiming at developing indicators of health and performance based on the concepts of exergy destroyed rate and exergy efficiency. The thermal behavior of the human body is simulated by a model composed of 15 cylinders with elliptical cross section representing: head, neck, trunk, arms, forearms, hands, thighs, legs, and feet. For each, a combination of tissues is considered. The energy equation is solved for each cylinder, being possible to obtain transitory response from the body due to a variation in environmental conditions. With this model, it is possible to obtain heat and mass flow rates to the environment due to radiation, convection, evaporation and respiration. The exergy balances provide the exergy variation due to heat and mass exchange over the body, and the exergy variation over time for each compartments tissue and blood, the sum of which leads to the total variation of the body. Results indicate that exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency decrease over lifespan and the human body is more efficient and destroys less exergy in lower relative humidities and higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► In this article it is indicated an overview of the human thermal model. ► It is performed the energy and exergy analysis of the human body. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency decreases with lifespan. ► Exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are a function of environmental conditions.

  1. Car-following Behavior Model Learning Using Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yihuan; Lin, Q.; Wang, Jun; Verwer, S.E.; Dochain, D.; Henrion, D.; Peaucelle, D.

    Learning driving behavior is fundamental for autonomous vehicles to “understand” traffic situations. This paper proposes a novel method for learning a behavioral model of car-following using automata learning algorithms. The model is interpretable for car-following behavior analysis. Frequent common

  2. A Conceptual Model of Leisure-Time Choice Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Michel J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of studying the gap between predisposition and actual behavior of consumers of spectator sports is discussed. A model is drawn from the areas of behavioral sciences, consumer behavior, and leisure research. The model is constructed around the premise that choice is primarily a function of personal, product, and environmental factors. (JN)

  3. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    Full Text Available Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK promoter. Transgenic (Tg mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests. The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help

  4. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoccia, Sara; Maccarinelli, Federica; Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F; Cremona, Ottavio; Arosio, Paolo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter. Transgenic (Tg) mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests). The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb) known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help developing

  5. High level trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, U.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestabo, A.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Schulz, M.; Steinbeck, T.; Wiebalck, A.; Skaali, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of ∼75 MByte/event. The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system. Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques. Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition. One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, and connected by a high bandwidth, low latency network

  6. Risk communication by utilizing environmental ethics as meta-cognition for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    Though the high level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan has been clearly stated, this issue is still unfamiliar with the general public, who tend to make a social decision based on heuristics. Therefore, much effort such as developing risk communication system is required to restrain the general public from making a negative decision which may bring social dilemma. However, societal consensus on acceptable disposal practice will be very difficult to attain in a short period of time. The purpose of this research was to verify the effect of web risk communication model which has dialog-mode contents with environmental ethics as a meta-cognition and a bulletin board system in light of developing objective risk cognition. The experimental result suggested that this model was able to inspire subjective norm and introspection towards the necessity of pro-social behaviors more effectively than a one-way lecture. (author)

  7. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  8. Resonance phenomena at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobeslavsky, E.; Dittes, F.M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1994-11-01

    We investigate the behaviour of resonances as a function of the coupling strength between bound and unbound states on the basis of a simple S-matrix model. Resonance energies and widths are calculated for well isolated, overlapping and strongly overlapping resonance states. The formation of shorter and longer time scales (trapping effect) is traced. We illustrate that the cross section results from an interference of all resonance states in spite of the fact that their lifetimes may be very different. (orig.)

  9. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  10. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  12. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  13. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Predicting reading behavior is a difficult task. Reading behavior depends on various linguistic factors (e.g. sentence length, structural complexity etc.) and other factors (e.g individual's reading style, age etc.). Ideally, a reading model should be similar to a language model where the model i...

  14. Sibling Influence on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Deviant and Sexual Risk Behaviors: The Role of Sibling Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other’s health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. Methods The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk taking behaviors in two home interviews across a two-year span. Results A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings’ perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings’ subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings’ earlier and younger siblings’ later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings’ earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Conclusions Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. PMID:24287013

  15. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  16. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  17. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of actinide elements released from high-level waste glasses into a tuff groundwater in laboratory tests at 90 degrees C at various glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (S/V) between dissolved, suspended, and sorbed fractions has been measured. While the maximum release of actinides is controlled by the corrosion rate of the glass matrix, their solubility and sorption behavior affects the amounts present in potentially mobile phases. Actinide solubilities are affected by the solution pH and the presence of complexants released from the glass, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chloride, radiolytic products, such as nitrate and nitrite, and carbonate. Sorption onto inorganic colloids formed during lass corrosion may increase the amounts of actinides in solution, although subsequent sedimentation of these colloids under static conditions leads to a significant reduction in the amount of actinides in solution. The solution chemistry and observed actinide behavior depend on the S/V of the test. Tests at high S/V lead to higher pH values, greater complexant concentrations, and generate colloids more quickly than tests at low S/V. The S/V also affects the rate of glass corrosion

  18. Consumer Behavior Modeling: Fuzzy Logic Model for Air Purifiers Choosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Dorokhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning, the article briefly describes the features of the marketing complex household goods. Also provides an overview of some aspects of the market for indoor air purifiers. The specific subject of the study was the process of consumer choice of household appliances for cleaning air in living quarters. The aim of the study was to substantiate and develop a computer model for evaluating by the potential buyers devices for air purification in conditions of vagueness and ambiguity of their consumer preferences. Accordingly, the main consumer criteria are identified, substantiated and described when buyers choose air purifiers. As methods of research, approaches based on fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets theory and fuzzy modeling were chosen. It was hypothesized that the fuzzy-multiple model allows rather accurately reflect consumer preferences and potential consumer choice in conditions of insufficient and undetermined information. Further, a computer model for estimating the consumer qualities of air cleaners by customers is developed. A proposed approach based on the application of fuzzy logic theory and practical modeling in the specialized computer software MATLAB. In this model, the necessary membership functions and their terms are constructed, as well as a set of rules for fuzzy inference to make decisions on the estimation of a specific air purifier. A numerical example of a comparative evaluation of air cleaners presented on the Ukrainian market is made and is given. Numerical simulation results confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach and the correctness of the hypothesis advanced about the possibility of modeling consumer behavior using fuzzy logic. The analysis of the obtained results is carried out and the prospects of application, development, and improvement of the developed model and the proposed approach are determined.

  19. National high-level waste systems analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.; Thiel, E.C.

    1995-05-01

    This document details the development of modeling capabilities that can provide a system-wide view of all US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level waste (HLW) treatment and storage systems. This model can assess the impact of budget constraints on storage and treatment system schedules and throughput. These impacts can then be assessed against existing and pending milestones to determine the impact to the overall HLW system. A nation-wide view of waste treatment availability will help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. The impacts of the availability of various treatment systems and throughput can be compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources or the need to renegotiate milestones

  20. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  1. Emotions and personality traits as high-level factors in visual attention: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eKaspar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The visual sense has outstanding significance for human perception and behavior, and visual attention plays a central role in the processing of the sensory input. Thereby, multiple low- and high-level factors contribute to the guidance of attention. The present review focuses on two neglected high-level factors: emotion and personality. The review starts with an overview of different models of attention, providing a conceptual framework and illustrating the nature of low- and high-level factors in visual attention. Then, the ambiguous concept of emotion is described, and recommendations are made for the experimental practice. In the following, we present several studies showing the influence of emotion on overt attention, whereby the distinction between internally and externally located emotional impacts is emphasized. We also provide evidence showing that emotional stimuli influence perceptual processing outside of the focus of attention, whereby results in this field are mixed. Then, we present some detached studies showing the reversed causal effect: attention can also affect emotional responses. The final section on emotion–attention interactions addresses the interplay on the neuronal level, which has been neglected for a long time in neuroscience. In this context, several conceptual recommendations for future research are made. Finally, based on findings showing inter-individual differences in human sensitivity to emotional items, we introduce the wide range of time-independent personality traits that also influence attention, and in this context we try to raise awareness of the consideration of inter-individual differences in the field of neuroscience.

  2. The Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills Model of ART Adherence in a Deep South HIV+ Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K. Rivet; Barta, William; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Shuper, Paul A.; Fisher, William A.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are critical to the management of HIV, yet many people living with HIV do not achieve these levels. There is a substantial body of literature regarding correlates of adherence to ART, and theory-based multivariate models of ART adherence are emerging. The current study assessed the determinants of adherence behavior postulated by the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model of ART adherence in a sample of 149 HIV-positive patients in Mississippi. Structural equation modeling indicated that ART-related information correlated with personal and social motivation, and the two sub-areas of motivation were not intercorrelated. In this Deep South sample, being better informed, socially supported, and perceiving fewer negative consequences of adherence were independently related to stronger behavioral skills for taking medications, which in turn associated with self-reported adherence. The IMB model of ART adherence appeared to well characterize the complexities of adherence for this sample. PMID:17876697

  3. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in a Deep South HIV+ clinic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K Rivet; Barta, William; Konkle-Parker, Deborah J; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Cornman, Deborah H; Shuper, Paul A; Fisher, William A

    2009-02-01

    High levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are critical to the management of HIV, yet many people living with HIV do not achieve these levels. There is a substantial body of literature regarding correlates of adherence to ART, and theory-based multivariate models of ART adherence are emerging. The current study assessed the determinants of adherence behavior postulated by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of ART adherence in a sample of 149 HIV-positive patients in Mississippi. Structural equation modeling indicated that ART-related information correlated with personal and social motivation, and the two sub-areas of motivation were not intercorrelated. In this Deep South sample, being better informed, socially supported, and perceiving fewer negative consequences of adherence were independently related to stronger behavioral skills for taking medications, which in turn associated with self-reported adherence. The IMB model of ART adherence appeared to well characterize the complexities of adherence for this sample.

  4. Behavioral modelling and predistortion of wideband wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Covers theoretical and practical aspects related to the behavioral modelling and predistortion of wireless transmitters and power amplifiers. It includes simulation software that enables the users to apply the theory presented in the book. In the first section, the reader is given the general background of nonlinear dynamic systems along with their behavioral modelling from all its aspects. In the second part, a comprehensive compilation of behavioral models formulations and structures is provided including memory polynomial based models, box oriented models such as Hammerstein-based and Wiene

  5. Animal behavior models of the mechanisms underlying antipsychotic atypicality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyer, M.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This review describes the animal behavior models that provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the critical differences between the actions of typical vs. atypical antipsychotic drugs. Although many of these models are capable of differentiating between antipsychotic and other psychotropic

  6. Trojan detection model based on network behavior analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junrong; Liu Baoxu; Wang Wenjin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of existing Trojan detection technology, this paper presents a Trojan detection model based on network behavior analysis. First of all, we abstract description of the Trojan network behavior, then according to certain rules to establish the characteristic behavior library, and then use the support vector machine algorithm to determine whether a Trojan invasion. Finally, through the intrusion detection experiments, shows that this model can effectively detect Trojans. (authors)

  7. Understanding Eating Behaviors through Parental Communication and the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Emily; Shim, Minsun

    2017-05-01

    Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States. Participants were recruited and data collection occurred spring 2012. Participants responded to measures to assess perceived parental communication, eating behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control over healthful eating. SEM and mediation analyses were used to address the hypotheses posited. Data demonstrated that perceived parent-child communication - specifically, its quality and target-specific content - significantly predicted emerging adults' eating behaviors, mediated through subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This study sets the stage for further exploration and understanding of different ways parental communication influences emerging adults' healthy behavior enactment.

  8. Cognitive Models as Bridge between Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C

    2016-04-01

    How can disparate neural and behavioral measures be integrated? Turner and colleagues propose joint modeling as a solution. Joint modeling mutually constrains the interpretation of brain and behavioral measures by exploiting their covariation structure. Simultaneous estimation allows for more accurate prediction than would be possible by considering these measures in isolation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  10. Testing the Validity of a Cognitive Behavioral Model for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylu, Namrata; Oei, Tian Po S; Loo, Jasmine M Y; Tsai, Jung-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cognitive behavioral therapies appear to be one of the most studied treatments for gambling problems and studies show it is effective in treating gambling problems. However, cognitive behavior models have not been widely tested using statistical means. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior using structural equation modeling (AMOS 20). Several questionnaires assessing a range of gambling specific variables (e.g., gambling urges, cognitions and behaviors) and gambling correlates (e.g., psychological states, and coping styles) were distributed to 969 participants from the community. Results showed that negative psychological states (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) only directly predicted gambling behavior, whereas gambling urges predicted gambling behavior directly as well as indirectly via gambling cognitions. Avoidance coping predicted gambling behavior only indirectly via gambling cognitions. Negative psychological states were significantly related to gambling cognitions as well as avoidance coping. In addition, significant gender differences were also found. The results provided confirmation for the validity of the pathways postulated in the cognitive behavioral theory of gambling behavior. It also highlighted the importance of gender differences in conceptualizing gambling behavior.

  11. Model of Collective Fish Behavior with Hydrodynamic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Audrey; Nadal, François; Sire, Clément; Kanso, Eva; Eloy, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    Fish schooling is often modeled with self-propelled particles subject to phenomenological behavioral rules. Although fish are known to sense and exploit flow features, these models usually neglect hydrodynamics. Here, we propose a novel model that couples behavioral rules with far-field hydrodynamic interactions. We show that (1) a new "collective turning" phase emerges, (2) on average, individuals swim faster thanks to the fluid, and (3) the flow enhances behavioral noise. The results of this model suggest that hydrodynamic effects should be considered to fully understand the collective dynamics of fish.

  12. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Approximate Bisimulation for High-Level Datapaths in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relation called approximate bisimulation is proposed to achieve behavior and structure optimization for a type of high-level datapath whose data exchange processes are expressed by nonlinear polynomial systems. The high-level datapaths are divided into small blocks with a partitioning method and then represented by polynomial transition systems. A standardized form based on Ritt-Wu's method is developed to represent the equivalence relation for the high-level datapaths. Furthermore, we establish an approximate bisimulation relation within a controllable error range and express the approximation with an error control function, which is processed by Sostools. Meanwhile, the error is controlled through tuning the equivalence restrictions. An example of high-level datapaths demonstrates the efficiency of our method.

  14. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  15. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90 0 C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations

  16. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  17. Theoretical models of drivers behavior on the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Biernacki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of mechanisms and factors responsible for the driver behavior on the road is the subject of ongoing interest to transportation psychologists, occupational doctors and engineers. Models of driver behavior are a key point for the understanding the mechanisms and factors which may cause limitations to the optimal functioning on the road. They also systematize knowledge about the factors responsible for the behavior of the driver and thus constitute a starting point for formulating empirical or diagnostic hypotheses. The aim of this study is to present models of driver behavior from the descriptive and functional perspectives. Med Pr 2017;68(3:401–411

  18. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  19. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  1. Rasmussen's model of human behavior in laparoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S; Alwayn, I; Hosman, R J A W; Stassen, H G

    2003-08-01

    Compared to aviation, where virtual reality (VR) training has been standardized and simulators have proven their benefits, the objectives, needs, and means of VR training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) still have to be established. The aim of the study presented is to introduce Rasmussen's model of human behavior as a practical framework for the definition of the training objectives, needs, and means in MIS. Rasmussen distinguishes three levels of human behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behaviour. The training needs of a laparoscopic novice can be determined by identifying the specific skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior that is required for performing safe laparoscopy. Future objectives of VR laparoscopy trainers should address all three levels of behavior. Although most commercially available simulators for laparoscopy aim at training skill-based behavior, especially the training of knowledge-based behavior during complications in surgery will improve safety levels. However, the cost and complexity of a training means increases when the training objectives proceed from the training of skill-based behavior to the training of complex knowledge-based behavior. In aviation, human behavior models have been used successfully to integrate the training of skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior in a full flight simulator. Understanding surgeon behavior is one of the first steps towards a future full-scale laparoscopy simulator.

  2. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how…

  3. Modeling cultural behavior for military virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.; Schram, J.; Bosch, K. van den

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and

  4. Modeling Cultural Behavior for Military Virtual Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Schram, J.

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and

  5. Modeling Behavior and Variation for Crowd Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    characters and environments with- out having to design new behavior graphs. For example, we generated animations for a skateboarder and a horse using...also have motion data for a skateboarder and a horse. Their graphs are similar to the one in Figure 3.3 right. For the skateboarder , there are five

  6. Analysis of crack initiation and growth in the high level vibration test at Tadotsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassir, M.K.; Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Shteyngart, S.

    1993-08-01

    The High Level Vibration Test data are used to assess the accuracy and usefulness of current engineering methodologies for predicting crack initiation and growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow under complex, large amplitude loading. The data were obtained by testing at room temperature a large scale modified model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. Fatigue crack initiation time is reasonably predicted by applying a modified local strain approach (Coffin-Mason-Goodman equation) in conjunction with Miner's rule of cumulative damage. Three fracture mechanics methodologies are applied to investigate the crack growth behavior observed in the hot leg of the model. These are: the ΔK methodology (Paris law), ΔJ concepts and a recently developed limit load stress-range criterion. The report includes a discussion on the pros and cons of the analysis involved in each of the methods, the role played by the key parameters influencing the formulation and a comparison of the results with the actual crack growth behavior observed in the vibration test program. Some conclusions and recommendations for improvement of the methodologies are also provided

  7. Rethinking high-level radioactive waste disposal: making the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    There is worldwide consensus that geological disposal is best for disposing of high-level radioactive waste; nevertheless, the U.S. program is unlikely to succeed. The program is hampered by its high degree of inflexibility with respect to both schedule and technical specifications that assume the properties and future behavior of a geological repository can be determined and specified with a very high degree of certainty. Geological models, and scientific knowledge generally, have been inappropriately applied. Geophysical analysis can and should have a key role in the assessment of long-term repository isolation; however, geophysial models are being asked to predict the detailed structure and behavior of sites over thousands of years. This is scientifically unsound and will lead to bad engineering practice. The United States has written detailed regulations for repository siting and construction before all of the data are in and is thus bound by requirements that may be impossible to meet. An alternative approach emphasizing flexibility can succeed. It will require time to assess performance, a willingness to respond to problems as they arise, remediation if necessary, and revision of the design and regulations if they are found to impede progress toward the health goal already defined as safe disposal. 6 refs

  8. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  9. Cheating under pressure: A self-protection model of workplace cheating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marie S; Baer, Michael D; Ambrose, Maureen L; Folger, Robert; Palmer, Noel F

    2018-01-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 103(1) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-44052-001). In the article, the fit statistics in Study 3 were reported in error. The fit of the measurement model is: Χ²(362) = 563.66, p = .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04. The fit of the SEM model is: Χ²(362) = 563.66, p = .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04.] Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emphasis on high levels of performance, they may also enhance employees' self-interested motives and need for self-protection. We suggest that demands for high performance may elicit performance pressure-the subjective experience that employees must raise their performance efforts or face significant consequences. Employees' perception of the need to raise performance paired with the potential for negative consequences is threatening and heightens self-protection needs. Driven by self-protection, employees experience anger and heightened self-serving cognitions, which motivate cheating behavior. A multistudy approach was used to test our predictions. Study 1 developed and provided validity evidence for a measure of cheating behavior. Studies 2 and 3 tested our predictions in time-separated field studies. Results from Study 2 demonstrated that anger mediates the effects of performance pressure on cheating behavior. Study 3 replicated the Study 2 findings, and extended them to show that self-serving cognitions also mediate the effects of performance pressure on cheating behavior. Implications of our findings for theory and practice are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Gap Acceptance Behavior Model for Non-signalized

    OpenAIRE

    Fajaruddin Bin Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes field studies that were performed to determine the critical gap on the multiple rural roadways Malaysia, at non-signalized T-intersection by using The Raff and Logic Method. Critical gap between passenger car and motorcycle have been determined.   There are quite number of studied doing gap acceptance behavior model for passenger car however still few research on gap acceptance behavior model for motorcycle. Thus in this paper, logistic regression models were developed to p...

  11. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  12. Performance of fire behavior fuel models developed for the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Ziel; W. Matt Jolly

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 40 new fire behavior fuel models were published for use with the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model. These new models are intended to augment the original 13 developed in 1972 and 1976. As a compiled set of quantitative fuel descriptions that serve as input to the Rothermel model, the selected fire behavior fuel model has always been critical to the resulting...

  13. Modeling pedestrian shopping behavior using principles of bounded rationality: model comparison and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of geographical choice behavior have been dominantly based on rational choice models, which assume that decision makers are utility-maximizers. Rational choice models may be less appropriate as behavioral models when modeling decisions in complex environments in which decision makers may

  14. Understanding and Modeling Freight Stakeholder Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This project developed a conceptual model of private-sector freight stakeholder decisions and interactions for : forecasting freight demands in response to key policy variables. Using East Central Wisconsin as a study area, empirical : models were de...

  15. Satin: A high-level and efficient grid programming model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.; Wrzesinska, G.; Jacobs, C.J.H.; Bal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Computational grids have an enormous potential to provide compute power. However, this power remains largely unexploited today for most applications, except trivially parallel programs. Developing parallel grid applications simply is too difficult. Grids introduce several problems not encountered

  16. eSPEM - A SPEM Extension for Enactable Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellner, Ralf; Al-Hilank, Samir; Drexler, Johannes; Jung, Martin; Kips, Detlef; Philippsen, Michael

    OMG's SPEM - by means of its (semi-)formal notation - allows for a detailed description of development processes and methodologies, but can only be used for a rather coarse description of their behavior. Concepts for a more fine-grained behavior model are considered out of scope of the SPEM standard and have to be provided by other standards like BPDM/BPMN or UML. However, a coarse granularity of the behavior model often impedes a computer-aided enactment of a process model. Therefore, in this paper we present eSPEM, an extension of SPEM, that is based on the UML meta-model and focused on fine-grained behavior and life-cycle modeling and thereby supports automated enactment of development processes.

  17. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle's on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study

  18. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007. Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002 to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the prospect utility (PU models (Ahn et al., 2008 to be more effective than the EU models in the IGT. Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests, we propose that Ahn et al. (2008 PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results between our behavioral and modeling data. This study aims to modify Ahn et al. (2008 PU model to a simplified model and collected 145 subjects’ IGT performance as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly while α approaching zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ , and A in the PU model. Notably, the power of influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical order in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay-loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there still have other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated.

  19. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...

  20. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  1. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating

  2. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  3. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  4. System Behavior Models: A Survey of Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    OF FIGURES Spiral Model .................................................................................................3 Figure 1. Approaches in... spiral model was chosen for researching and structuring this thesis, shown in Figure 1. This approach allowed multiple iterations of source material...applications and refining through iteration. 3 Spiral Model Figure 1. D. SCOPE The research is limited to a literature review, limited

  5. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ontology and modeling patterns for state-based behavior representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Rozek, Matthew L.; Ingham, Michel D.; Rouquette, Nicolas F.; Chung, Seung H.; Kerzhner, Aleksandr A.; Donahue, Kenneth M.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an approach to capture state-based behavior of elements, that is, the specification of their state evolution in time, and the interactions amongst them. Elements can be components (e.g., sensors, actuators) or environments, and are characterized by state variables that vary with time. The behaviors of these elements, as well as interactions among them are represented through constraints on state variables. This paper discusses the concepts and relationships introduced in this behavior ontology, and the modeling patterns associated with it. Two example cases are provided to illustrate their usage, as well as to demonstrate the flexibility and scalability of the behavior ontology: a simple flashlight electrical model and a more complex spacecraft model involving instruments, power and data behaviors. Finally, an implementation in a SysML profile is provided.

  7. Modeling detour behavior of pedestrian dynamics under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yunchao; Xiao, Yao; Wu, Jianjun; Tang, Tao; Gao, Ziyou

    2018-02-01

    Pedestrian simulation approach has been widely used to reveal the human behavior and evaluate the performance of crowd evacuation. In the existing pedestrian simulation models, the social force model is capable of predicting many collective phenomena. Detour behavior occurs in many cases, and the important behavior is a dominate factor of the crowd evacuation efficiency. However, limited attention has been attracted for analyzing and modeling the characteristics of detour behavior. In this paper, a modified social force model integrated by Voronoi diagram is proposed to calculate the detour direction and preferred velocity. Besides, with the consideration of locations and velocities of neighbor pedestrians, a Logit-based choice model is built to describe the detour direction choice. The proposed model is applied to analyze pedestrian dynamics in a corridor scenario with either unidirectional or bidirectional flow, and a building scenario in real-world. Simulation results show that the modified social force model including detour behavior could reduce the frequency of collision and deadlock, increase the average speed of the crowd, and predict more practical crowd dynamics with detour behavior. This model can also be potentially applied to understand the pedestrian dynamics and design emergent management strategies for crowd evacuations.

  8. A hierarchical modeling of information seeking behavior of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of school teachers in the public primary schools of rural areas of Nigeria and to draw up a model of their information-seeking behavior. A Cross-sectional survey design research was employed to carry out the research. Findings showed that the ...

  9. A Behavioral Decision Making Modeling Approach Towards Hedging Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Egelkraut, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper takes a behavioral approach toward the market for hedging services. A behavioral decision-making model is developed that provides insight into how and why owner-managers decide the way they do regarding hedging services. Insight into those choice processes reveals information needed by

  10. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In

  11. A Transformational Approach to VHDL and CDFG Based High-Level Synthesis: a Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoek, Peter F.A.; Middelhoek, P.F.A.; Mekenkamp, G.E.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Krol, Th.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-target design methodology based on the concepts of transformational design, and its application to the interlaced-to-progressive scan conversion (IPSC) problem, are discussed. Starting from a single high-level behavioral specification in VHDL a direction detector used in

  12. High-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A joint programme has begun between the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley to study the dispersion of radioactivity in the deep ocean arising from the possible dumping of high level waste on the sea bed in vitrified-glass form which would permit slow leakage over a long term scale. The programme consists firstly of the development of a simple diffusion/advection model for the dispersion of radioactivity in a closed and finite ocean, which overcomes many of the criticisms of the earlier model proposed by Webb and Morley. Preliminary results from this new model are comparable to those of the Webb-Morley model for radio isotopes with half-lives of 10-300 years but are considerably more restrictive outside this range, particularly for those which are much longer-lived. The second part of the programme, towards which the emphasis is directed, concerns the field programme planned to measure the advection and diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean to provide realistic input parameters to the model and increase our fundamental understanding of the environment in which the radioactive materials may be released. The first cruises of the programme will take place in late 1976 and involve deep current meter deployments and float dispersion experiments around the present NEA dump site with some sediment sampling, so that adsorption experiments can be started on typical deep sea sediments. The programme will expand the number of long-term deep moored stations over the next five years and include further float experiments, CTD profiling, and other physical oceanography. In the second half of the 5-year programme, attempts will be made to measure diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean using radioactive tracers

  13. Modeling Customer's Satisfaction Behavior through Uninorms

    OpenAIRE

    Depaire, Benoit; Vanhoof, Koen; Wets, Geert

    2006-01-01

    During the last three decades, the focus of customer satisfaction research has shifted from what it was about the product or service that customers found satisfying to how and why customers became satisfied. This resulted into several models that try to explain the customer's satisfaction behaviour, among which the expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm is one of the most prominent models. This model identifies three elements which have an influence on the customer's satisfaction level: i.e perf...

  14. Behavioral models as theoretical frames to analyze the business objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alonso Bafico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Pfeffer’s Models of Behavior and connects each of them with attributes of the definition of the firm’s objective, assumed as the maximization of the sustainable, long term valor of the residual claims.Each of the five models of behavior (rational, social, moral, retrospective and cognitive contributes to the decision making and goal setting processes with its particular and complementary elements. From those assuming complete rationality and frictionless markets, to the models emphasizing the role of ethical positions, and the presence of perceptive and cognitive mechanisms. The analysis highlights the main contributions of critical theories and models of behavior, underlining their focus on non-traditional variables, regarded as critical inputs for goal setting processes and designing alternative executive incentive schemes.  The explicit consideration of those variables does not indicate the need for a new definition of corporate objective. The maximization of the long term value of the shareholders’ claims still defines the relevant objective function of the firm, remaining as the main yardstick of corporate performance.Behavioral models are recognized as important tools to help managers direct their attention to long term strategies. In the last part, we comment on the relationship between the objective function and behavioral models, from the practitioners’ perspective.Key words: Firm Objectives, Behavioral Models, Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory.

  15. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameret, P.-A.; Rauzy, A.; Roussel, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  16. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  17. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Gorin, T.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1996-05-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it is proportional to t -b with b∼3/2 in all cases considered, including the critical region of overlapping where the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions is large. Starting from the shell model, we get b∼2 for 2 and 4 open decay channels and all coupling strengths to the continuum. When the closed system is described by a random matrix, b∼1+K/2 for K=2 and 4 channels. This law holds in a limited time interval. The distribution of the widths is different in the two models when more than one channel are open. This leads to the different exponents b in the power law. Our calculations are performed with 190 and 130 states, respectively, most of them in the critical region. The theoretical results should be proven experimentally by measuring the time behaviour of de-excitation of a realistic quantum system. (orig.)

  18. Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting Survey - Model Intended Angler Behavior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collect and analyze survey data from recreational saltwater fishermen in Oregon and Washington. Model trip demand using stated frequency / contingent behavior data....

  19. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  20. A phenomenological memristor model for synaptic memory and learning behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Shao; Sheng-Bing Zhang; Shu-Yuan Shao

    2017-01-01

    Properties that are similar to the memory and learning functions in biological systems have been observed and reported in the experimental studies of memristors fabricated by different materials.These properties include the forgetting effect,the transition from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM),learning-experience behavior,etc.The mathematical model of this kind of memristor would be very important for its theoretical analysis and application design.In our analysis of the existing memristor model with these properties,we find that some behaviors of the model are inconsistent with the reported experimental observations.A phenomenological memristor model is proposed for this kind of memristor.The model design is based on the forgetting effect and STM-to-LTM transition since these behaviors are two typical properties of these memristors.Further analyses of this model show that this model can also be used directly or modified to describe other experimentally observed behaviors.Simulations show that the proposed model can give a better description of the reported memory and learning behaviors of this kind of memristor than the existing model.

  1. A BEHAVIORAL-APPROACH TO LINEAR EXACT MODELING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ANTOULAS, AC; WILLEMS, JC

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral approach to system theory provides a parameter-free framework for the study of the general problem of linear exact modeling and recursive modeling. The main contribution of this paper is the solution of the (continuous-time) polynomial-exponential time series modeling problem. Both

  2. A model of multi-purpose shopping trip behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Existing utility-based models of complex choice behavior do not adequately deal with the interdependencies of chained choices. In this paper, we introduce a model of multi-purpose shopping which is aimed at overcoming this shortcoming. In the proposed model, dependencies between choices within as

  3. Modeling the mechanical behavior of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Ahzi, S.

    1997-01-01

    A crystal plasticity model is proposed to simulate the large plastic deformation and texture evolution in tantalum over a wide range of strain rates. In the model, a modification of the viscoplastic power law for slip and a Taylor interaction law for polycrystals are employed, which account for the effects of strain hardening, strain-rate hardening, and thermal softening. A series of uniaxial compression tests in tantalum at strain rates ranging from 10 -3 to 10 4 s -1 were conducted and used to verify the model's simulated stress-strain response. Initial and evolved deformation textures were also measured for comparison with predicted textures from the model. Applications of this crystal plasticity model are made to examine the effect of different initial crystallographic textures in tantalum subjected to uniaxial compression deformation or biaxial tensile deformation

  4. Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform SocialConstructionis Social constructionism is a school of thought Peter L...HUMAN, SOCIAL , CULTURAL BEHAVIOR (HSCB) MODELING WORKSHOP I: CHARACTERIZING THE CAPABILITY NEEDS FOR HSCB MODELING FINAL REPORT... Social , Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. Engineering Student's Ethical Awareness and Behavior: A New Motivational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana; Woodcock, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics, they still rely heavily on teaching ethical awareness, and pay little attention to how well ethical awareness predicts ethical behavior. However the ability to exercise ethical judgement does not mean that students are ethically educated or likely to behave in an ethical manner. This paper argues measuring ethical judgment is insufficient for evaluating the teaching of engineering ethics, because ethical awareness has not been demonstrated to translate into ethical behavior. The focus of this paper is to propose a model that correlates with both, ethical awareness and ethical behavior. This model integrates the theory of planned behavior, person and thing orientation, and spheres of control. Applying this model will allow educators to build confidence and trust in their students' ability to build a professional identity and be prepared for the engineering profession and practice.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Elementary Robot Behaviors using Associative Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude F. Touzet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there are several drawbacks that impede the necessary and much needed use of robot learning techniques in real applications. First, the time needed to achieve the synthesis of any behavior is prohibitive. Second, the robot behavior during the learning phase is – by definition – bad, it may even be dangerous. Third, except within the lazy learning approach, a new behavior implies a new learning phase. We propose in this paper to use associative memories (self-organizing maps to encode the non explicit model of the robot-world interaction sampled by the lazy memory, and then generate a robot behavior by means of situations to be achieved, i.e., points on the self-organizing maps. Any behavior can instantaneously be synthesized by the definition of a goal situation. Its performance will be minimal (not necessarily bad and will improve by the mere repetition of the behavior.

  7. The gravity model of labor migration behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandr, Tarasyev; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we present a dynamic inter-regional model, that is based on the gravity approach to migration and describes in continuous time the labor force dynamics between a number of conjugate regions. Our modification of the gravity migration model allows to explain the migration processes and to display the impact of migration on the regional economic development both for regions of origin and attraction. The application of our model allows to trace the dependency between salaries levels, total workforce, the number of vacancies and the number unemployed people in simulated regions. Due to the gravity component in our model the accuracy of prediction for migration flows is limited by the distance range between analyzed regions, so this model is tested on a number of conjugate neighbor regions. Future studies will be aimed at development of a multi-level dynamic model, which allows to construct a forecast for unemployment and vacancies trends on the first modeling level and to use these identified parameters on the second level for describing dynamic trajectories of migration flows.

  8. Towards a characterization of behavior-disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Perra

    Full Text Available The last decade saw the advent of increasingly realistic epidemic models that leverage on the availability of highly detailed census and human mobility data. Data-driven models aim at a granularity down to the level of households or single individuals. However, relatively little systematic work has been done to provide coupled behavior-disease models able to close the feedback loop between behavioral changes triggered in the population by an individual's perception of the disease spread and the actual disease spread itself. While models lacking this coupling can be extremely successful in mild epidemics, they obviously will be of limited use in situations where social disruption or behavioral alterations are induced in the population by knowledge of the disease. Here we propose a characterization of a set of prototypical mechanisms for self-initiated social distancing induced by local and non-local prevalence-based information available to individuals in the population. We characterize the effects of these mechanisms in the framework of a compartmental scheme that enlarges the basic SIR model by considering separate behavioral classes within the population. The transition of individuals in/out of behavioral classes is coupled with the spreading of the disease and provides a rich phase space with multiple epidemic peaks and tipping points. The class of models presented here can be used in the case of data-driven computational approaches to analyze scenarios of social adaptation and behavioral change.

  9. Modeling a Consistent Behavior of PLC-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article extends the cycle of papers dedicated to programming and verificatoin of PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides the availability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method.The model checking method needs to construct a finite model of a PLC program. For successful verification of required properties it is important to take into consideration that not all combinations of input signals from the sensors can occur while PLC works with a control object. This fact requires more advertence to the construction of the PLC-program model.In this paper we propose to describe a consistent behavior of sensors by three groups of LTL-formulas. They will affect the program model, approximating it to the actual behavior of the PLC program. The idea of LTL-requirements is shown by an example.A PLC program is a description of reactions on input signals from sensors, switches and buttons. In constructing a PLC-program model, the approach to modeling a consistent behavior of PLC sensors allows to focus on modeling precisely these reactions without an extension of the program model by additional structures for realization of a realistic behavior of sensors. The consistent behavior of sensors is taken into account only at the stage of checking a conformity of the programming model to required properties, i. e. a property satisfaction proof for the constructed model occurs with the condition that the model contains only such executions of the program that comply with the consistent behavior of sensors.

  10. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  11. The structural integrity of high level waste containers for deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keer, T.J.; Martindale, N.J.; Haijtink, B.

    1990-01-01

    Most countries with a nuclear power program are developing plans to dispose of high level waste in deep geological repositories. These facilities are typically in the range 500-1000m below ground. Although long term safety analyses mainly rely on the isolation function of the geological barrier, for the medium term (between 500 and 1000 years) a barrier such as a container (overpack) may play an important role. This paper addresses the mechanical/structural behavior of these structures under extreme geological pressures. The work described in the paper was conducted within the COMPAS project (Container Mechanical Performance Assessment) funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the United Kingdom Department of the Environment. The work was aimed at predicting the modes of failure and failure pressures which characterize the heavy, thick walled mild steel containers which might be considered for the disposal of vitrified waste. The work involved a considerable amount of analytical work, using 3-D non-linear finite element techniques, coupled with a large parallel program of experimental work. The experimental work consisted of a number of scale model tests in which the response of the containers was examined under external pressures as high as 120MPa. Extensive strain-gauge instrumentation was used to record the behavior of the models as they were driven to collapse. A number of comparative computer calculations were carried out by organizations from various European countries. Correlations were established between experimental and analytical data and guidelines regarding the choice of suitable software were established. The work concluded with a full 3-D simulation of the behavior of a container under long-term disposal conditions. In this analysis, non-linearities due to geological effects and material/geometry effects in the container were properly accounted for. 6 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  12. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  13. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  14. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. An Integrated Approach to Modeling Evacuation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    A spate of recent hurricanes and other natural disasters have drawn a lot of attention to the evacuation decision of individuals. Here we focus on evacuation models that incorporate two economic phenomena that seem to be increasingly important in exp...

  16. Modelling chemical behavior of water reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R G.J.; Hanshaw, J; Mason, P K; Mignanelli, M A [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    For many applications, large computer codes have been developed which use correlation`s, simplifications and approximations in order to describe the complex situations which may occur during the operation of nuclear power plant or during fault scenarios. However, it is important to have a firm physical basis for simplifications and approximations in such codes and, therefore, there has been an emphasis on modelling the behaviour of materials and processes on a more detailed or fundamental basis. The application of fundamental modelling techniques to simulated various chemical phenomena in thermal reactor fuel systems are described in this paper. These methods include thermochemical modelling, kinetic and mass transfer modelling and atomistic simulation and examples of each approach are presented. In each of these applications a summary of the methods are discussed together with the assessment process adopted to provide the fundamental parameters which form the basis of the calculation. (author). 25 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  18. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, Jim; McGurk, John; Dickinson, Shirley; Burrows, Robert; Hinds, Kelvin; Hussey, Dennis; Deshon, Jeff; Barrios Figueras, Joan Pau; Maldonado Sanchez, Santiago; Fernandez Lillo, Enrique; Garbett, Keith

    2012-09-01

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  19. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, several sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected two constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model, and the element tests and mock-up tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters were carried out, and mechanical behavior is evaluated over a long period of time. Analysis estimated the amount of settlement of the over pack, the stress state of buffer material, the reaction force to a base rock, etc., and the result that EBS is mechanically stable over a long period of time was obtained. Next, in order to prove analyses results a side, literature survey was conducted about geological age, the dynamics history of a Smectite layer. The outline plan was drawn up about the natural analogue verification method and preliminary examination was performed about the applicability of Freezing Sampling'. (author)

  20. Modeling Structural, Dyadic, and Individual Factors: The Inclusion and Exclusion Model of HIV Related Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.; Glasman, Laura R.; Rothman, Alexander J.

    2010-01-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals...

  1. Micromechanical modeling of rate-dependent behavior of Connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, A; Ahmadian, M T; Firozbakhsh, K; Aghdam, M M

    2017-03-07

    In this paper, a constitutive and micromechanical model for prediction of rate-dependent behavior of connective tissues (CTs) is presented. Connective tissues are considered as nonlinear viscoelastic material. The rate-dependent behavior of CTs is incorporated into model using the well-known quasi-linear viscoelasticity (QLV) theory. A planar wavy representative volume element (RVE) is considered based on the tissue microstructure histological evidences. The presented model parameters are identified based on the available experiments in the literature. The presented constitutive model introduced to ABAQUS by means of UMAT subroutine. Results show that, monotonic uniaxial test predictions of the presented model at different strain rates for rat tail tendon (RTT) and human patellar tendon (HPT) are in good agreement with experimental data. Results of incremental stress-relaxation test are also presented to investigate both instantaneous and viscoelastic behavior of connective tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  3. Options for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Laughton, A.S.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste within the fuel cycle, especially the high-level wastes from reprocessing of nuclear fuel, is currently a matter of particular concern. In the short term (meaning a timescale of tens of years) management by engineered storage is considered to provide a satisfactory solution. Beyond this, however, the two main alternative options which are considered in the paper are: (a) disposal by burial into geologic formations on land; and (b) disposal by emplacement into or onto the seabed. Status of our present knowledge on the land and seabed disposal options is reviewed together with an assessment of the extent to which their reliability and safety can be judged on presently available information. Further information is needed on the environmental behaviour of radioactivity in the form of solidified waste in both situations in order to provide a more complete, scientific assessment. Work done so far has clarified the areas where further research is most needed - for instance modelling of the environmental transfer processes associated with the seabed option. This is discussed together with an indication of the research programmes which are now being pursued

  4. Control of high-level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Coleman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Site High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The following discussion is a preliminary analysis of the capability of the laboratory methods that can be used to control the glass composition, and the relationships between glass durability and glass properties important to glass melting. The glass durability and processing properties will be controlled by controlling the chemical composition of the glass. The glass composition will be controlled by control of the melter feed transferred from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). During cold runs, tests will be conducted to demonstrate the chemical equivalence of glass sampled from the pour stream and glass removed from cooled canisters. In similar tests, the compositions of glass produced from slurries sampled from the SME and MFT will be compared to final product glass to determine the statistical relationships between melter feed and glass product. The total error is the combination of those associated with homogeneity in the SME or MFT, sampling, preparation of samples for analysis, instrument calibration, analysis, and the composition/property model. This study investigated the sensitivity of estimation of property data to the combination of variations from sampling through analysis. In this or a similar manner, the need for routine glass product sampling will be minimized, and glass product characteristics will be assured before the melter feed is committed to the melter

  5. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  6. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  7. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  8. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  9. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  10. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  11. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  12. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  13. Micromechanical Behavior and Modelling of Granular Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    DiMaggio and Sandier 1971, Baladi and Rohani 1979). The problem of inherent (structural) anisotropy - especially important for 3 anisotropically...Republic of Germany. Baladi ,G.Y. and Rohani, B. (1979), "Elastic-Plastic Model for Saturated Sand," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE

  14. Molecular Modeling of Interfacial Behaviors of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    potential was originally designed for the modeling of mixed covalent- ionic bonding and was successfully used to describe oxides in crystalline, glassy, and...is separates from the bulk liquid polymer, i.e., the structure of this layer, as influenced by that of the meatal surface, is significantly more...Striolo, J. Kieffer, and P. Cummings, ’Evaluation of Force- fields for molecular simulation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes,’ J. Phys. Chem

  15. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Malkinson, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...

  17. Gambling and the Reasoned Action Model: Predicting Past Behavior, Intentions, and Future Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Ethan; Tagler, Michael J; Hohman, Zachary P

    2018-03-01

    Gambling is a serious concern for society because it is highly addictive and is associated with a myriad of negative outcomes. The current study applied the Reasoned Action Model (RAM) to understand and predict gambling intentions and behavior. Although prior studies have taken a reasoned action approach to understand gambling, no prior study has fully applied the RAM or used the RAM to predict future gambling. Across two studies the RAM was used to predict intentions to gamble, past gambling behavior, and future gambling behavior. In study 1 the model significantly predicted intentions and past behavior in both a college student and Amazon Mechanical Turk sample. In study 2 the model predicted future gambling behavior, measured 2 weeks after initial measurement of the RAM constructs. This study stands as the first to show the utility of the RAM in predicting future gambling behavior. Across both studies, attitudes and perceived normative pressure were the strongest predictors of intentions to gamble. These findings provide increased understanding of gambling and inform the development of gambling interventions based on the RAM.

  18. Sibling influence on mexican-origin adolescents' deviant and sexual risk behaviors: the role of sibling modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Zeiders, Katharine H; Killoren, Sarah E; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other's health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths' deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk-taking behaviors in two home interviews across a 2-year span. A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings' perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings' deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings' subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings' earlier and younger siblings' later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings' earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling individuals’ cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Activity-based analysis has slowly shifted gear from analysis of daily activity patterns to analysis and modeling of dynamic activity-travel patterns. In this paper, we describe a dynamic model that is concerned with simulating cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior for a

  20. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  1. Personality and emotion-based high-level control of affective story characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Poh; Pham, Binh; Wardhani, Aster

    2007-01-01

    Human emotional behavior, personality, and body language are the essential elements in the recognition of a believable synthetic story character. This paper presents an approach using story scripts and action descriptions in a form similar to the content description of storyboards to predict specific personality and emotional states. By adopting the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) Model of personality from the study of psychology as a basis for a computational model, we construct a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based system to facilitate the personality and emotion control of the body language of a dynamic story character. The story character can consistently perform specific postures and gestures based on his/her personality type. Story designers can devise a story context in the form of our story interface which predictably motivates personality and emotion values to drive the appropriate movements of the story characters. Our system takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and researchers of storytelling, nonverbal communication, and human movement. Our ultimate goal is to facilitate the high-level control of a synthetic character.

  2. Critical behavior in a microcanonical multifragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raduta, A.H.; Raduta, A.R.; Chomaz, Ph.; Raduta, A.H.; Raduta, A.R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2001-01-01

    Scaling properties of the fragment size distributions are studied in a microcanonical multifragmentation model. A new method based on the global quality of the scaling function is presented. Scaling is not washed out by the long range Coulomb interaction nor by secondary decays for a wide range of source masses, densities and deposited energies. However, the influence of these factors on precise value of the critical exponents as well as the finite size corrections to scaling are shown to be important and to affect the possible determination of a specific universality class. (authors)

  3. Modelling the behavior of an oil saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgin, E.; Altaee, A.; Lord, S.; Konuk, I.

    1990-01-01

    The experiments carried out in an earlier study show the oil contamination affects the strength and deformation characteristics of a crushed quartz sand. In the present study, a mathematical soil model is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the same sand. The model parameters are determined for both clean and oil contaminated soil. Simulations are made for the stress-strain behavior of the soil in drained and undrained conventional traixial compression tests. In order to illustrate the effect of changes in the soil properties on the behavior of an engineering structure, a finite element analysis is carried out. In this paper comparative results are presented to show the differences in the behavior of a foundation resting on a clean sand, on an oil contaminated sand, and on a sand contaminated locally

  4. Modeling pedestrian shopping behavior using principles of bounded rationality: model comparison and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Timmermans, Harry

    2011-06-01

    Models of geographical choice behavior have been dominantly based on rational choice models, which assume that decision makers are utility-maximizers. Rational choice models may be less appropriate as behavioral models when modeling decisions in complex environments in which decision makers may simplify the decision problem using heuristics. Pedestrian behavior in shopping streets is an example. We therefore propose a modeling framework for pedestrian shopping behavior incorporating principles of bounded rationality. We extend three classical heuristic rules (conjunctive, disjunctive and lexicographic rule) by introducing threshold heterogeneity. The proposed models are implemented using data on pedestrian behavior in Wang Fujing Street, the city center of Beijing, China. The models are estimated and compared with multinomial logit models and mixed logit models. Results show that the heuristic models are the best for all the decisions that are modeled. Validation tests are carried out through multi-agent simulation by comparing simulated spatio-temporal agent behavior with the observed pedestrian behavior. The predictions of heuristic models are slightly better than those of the multinomial logit models.

  5. Ketogenic diet improves behaviors in a maternal immune activation model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available Prenatal factors influence autism spectrum disorder (ASD incidence in children and can increase ASD symptoms in offspring of animal models. These may include maternal immune activation (MIA due to viral or bacterial infection during the first trimesters. Unfortunately, regardless of ASD etiology, existing drugs are poorly effective against core symptoms. For nearly a century a ketogenic diet (KD has been used to treat seizures, and recent insights into mechanisms of ASD and a growing recognition that immune/inflammatory conditions exacerbate ASD risk has increased interest in KD as a treatment for ASD. Here we studied the effects of KD on core ASD symptoms in offspring exposed to MIA. To produce MIA, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were injected with the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; after weaning offspring were fed KD or control diet for three weeks. Consistent with an ASD phenotype of a higher incidence in males, control diet-fed MIA male offspring were not social and exhibited high levels of repetitive self-directed behaviors; female offspring were unaffected. However, KD feeding partially or completely reversed all MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in males; it had no effect on behavior in females. KD-induced metabolic changes of reduced blood glucose and elevated blood ketones were quantified in offspring of both sexes. Prior work from our laboratory and others demonstrate KDs improve relevant behaviors in several ASD models, and here we demonstrate clear benefits of KD in the MIA model of ASD. Together these studies suggest a broad utility for metabolic therapy in improving core ASD symptoms, and support further research to develop and apply ketogenic and/or metabolic strategies in patients with ASD.

  6. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  7. Learning Behavior Models for Interpreting and Predicting Traffic Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gindele, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present Bayesian state estimation and machine learning methods for predicting traffic situations. The cognitive ability to assess situations and behaviors of traffic participants, and to anticipate possible developments is an essential requirement for several applications in the traffic domain, especially for self-driving cars. We present a method for learning behavior models from unlabeled traffic observations and develop improved learning methods for decision trees.

  8. Study of ATES thermal behavior using a steady flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.; Hellstroem, G.; Tsang, C. F.; Claesson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal behavior of a single well aquifer thermal energy storage system in which buoyancy flow is neglected is studied. A dimensionless formulation of the energy transport equations for the aquifer system is presented, and the key dimensionless parameters are discussed. A simple numerical model is used to generate graphs showing the thermal behavior of the system as a function of these parameters. Some comparisons with field experiments are given to illustrate the use of the dimensionless groups and graphs.

  9. Rational compensating model of behavior of elderly consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Astashova Julija Vladimirovna

    2014-01-01

    In article relevance of revision of the upper age brackets of a target segment of business in the conditions of population aging is proved. Practice of domestic and foreign business at interaction with consumers of the senior age group is considered. On the basis of allocation of specific characteristics of behavior of elderly consumers by the author the system of requirements is developed, and also the rational compensating model of the behavior, allowing to build effective processes of inte...

  10. Characterization of Models for Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten; Augustesen, Anders; Lade, Poul V.

    2004-01-01

      Different classes of constitutive models have been developed to capture the time-dependent viscous phenomena ~ creep, stress relaxation, and rate effects ! observed in soils. Models based on empirical, rheological, and general stress-strain-time concepts have been studied. The first part....... Special attention is paid to elastoviscoplastic models that combine inviscid elastic and time-dependent plastic behavior. Various general elastoviscoplastic models can roughly be divided into two categories: Models based on the concept of overstress and models based on nonstationary flow surface theory...

  11. Is running away right? The behavioral activation-behavioral inhibition model of anterior asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Leue, Anja; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    The measurement of anterior electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetries has become an important standard paradigm for the investigation of affective states and traits. Findings in this area are typically interpreted within the motivational direction model, which suggests a lateralization of approach and withdrawal motivational systems to the left and right anterior region, respectively. However, efforts to compare this widely adopted model with an alternative account-which relates the left anterior region to behavioral activation independent of the direction of behavior (approach or withdrawal) and the right anterior region to goal conflict-induced behavioral inhibition-are rare and inconclusive. Therefore, the authors measured the EEG in a sample of 93 young men during emotional imagery designed to provide a critical test between the 2 models. The results (e.g., a correlation between left anterior activation and withdrawal motivation) favor the alternative model on the basis of the concepts of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition. In addition, the present study also supports an association of right parietal activation with physiological arousal and the conceptualization of parietal EEG asymmetry as a mediator of emotion-related physiological arousal. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  12. Modeling emergent border-crossing behaviors during pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eunice E.; Santos, Eugene; Korah, John; Thompson, Jeremy E.; Gu, Qi; Kim, Keum Joo; Li, Deqing; Russell, Jacob; Subramanian, Suresh; Zhang, Yuxi; Zhao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    Modeling real-world scenarios is a challenge for traditional social science researchers, as it is often hard to capture the intricacies and dynamisms of real-world situations without making simplistic assumptions. This imposes severe limitations on the capabilities of such models and frameworks. Complex population dynamics during natural disasters such as pandemics is an area where computational social science can provide useful insights and explanations. In this paper, we employ a novel intent-driven modeling paradigm for such real-world scenarios by causally mapping beliefs, goals, and actions of individuals and groups to overall behavior using a probabilistic representation called Bayesian Knowledge Bases (BKBs). To validate our framework we examine emergent behavior occurring near a national border during pandemics, specifically the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. The novelty of the work in this paper lies in representing the dynamism at multiple scales by including both coarse-grained (events at the national level) and finegrained (events at two separate border locations) information. This is especially useful for analysts in disaster management and first responder organizations who need to be able to understand both macro-level behavior and changes in the immediate vicinity, to help with planning, prevention, and mitigation. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in uncovering previously hidden connections and explanations by comparing independent models of the border locations with their fused model to identify emergent behaviors not found in either independent location models nor in a simple linear combination of those models.

  13. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  14. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO 3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO 3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , DTPA, HNO 3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed

  15. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASHENFELDER DJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  16. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  17. Low-temperature behavior of core-softened models: Water and silica behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagla, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    A core-softened model of a glass forming fluid is numerically studied in the limit of very low temperatures. The model shows two qualitatively different behaviors depending on the strength of the attraction between particles. For no or low attraction, the changes of density as a function of pressure are smooth, although hysteretic due to mechanical metastabilities. For larger attraction, sudden changes of density upon compressing and decompressing occur. This global mechanical instability is correlated to the existence of a thermodynamic first-order amorphous-amorphous transition. The two different behaviors obtained correspond qualitatively to the different phenomenology observed in silica and water

  18. Modeling structural, dyadic, and individual factors: the inclusion and exclusion model of HIV related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Tannenbaum, Melanie B; Glasman, Laura R; Rothman, Alexander J

    2010-12-01

    Changing HIV-related behaviors requires addressing the individual, dyadic, and structural influences that shape them. This supplement of AIDS & Behavior presents frameworks that integrate these three influences on behavior. Concepts from these frameworks were selected to model the processes by which structural factors affect individual HIV-related behavior. In the Inclusion/Exclusion Model, material and symbolic inclusions and exclusions (sharing versus denying resources) regulate individuals' ability and motivation to detect, prevent, and treat HIV. Structural interventions create inclusions that increase one's ability or motivation to perform these behaviors or exclusions that hinder one's ability or motivation to execute counterproductive behaviors. The need to expand research regarding multilevel influences on HIV-related behavior is also discussed, particularly concerning further understanding of sustained behavior change and effective dissemination of evidence-based intervention strategies.

  19. Evaluating system behavior through Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.-S.; Modarres, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) is introduced for representing full-scale time-dependent behavior and uncertain behavior of complex physical systems. Conceptually, the DMLD allows one to decompose a complex system hierarchically to model and to represent: (1) partial success/failure of the system, (2) full-scale logical, physical and fuzzy connectivity relations, (3) probabilistic, resolutional or linguistic uncertainty, (4) multiple-state system dynamics, and (5) floating threshold and transition effects. To demonstrate the technique, examples of using DMLD to model, to diagnose and to control dynamic behavior of a system are presented. A DMLD-based expert system building tool, called Dynamic Reliability Expert System (DREXs), is introduced to automate the DMLD modeling process

  20. An Ontology-Based Framework for Modeling User Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana

    2011-01-01

    and classifies its users according to their behavior. The user ontology is the backbone of OntobUMf and has been designed according to the Information Management System Learning Information Package (IMS LIP). The user ontology includes a Behavior concept that extends IMS LIP specification and defines...... characteristics of the users interacting with the system. Concrete examples of how OntobUMf is used in the context of a Knowledge Management (KM) System are provided. This paper discusses some of the implications of ontology-based user modeling for semantically enhanced KM and, in particular, for personal KM....... The results of this research may contribute to the development of other frameworks for modeling user behavior, other semantically enhanced user modeling frameworks, or other semantically enhanced information systems....

  1. Bifurcation Behavior Analysis in a Predator-Prey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey model is studied mathematically and numerically. The aim is to explore how some key factors influence dynamic evolutionary mechanism of steady conversion and bifurcation behavior in predator-prey model. The theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the existence and stability of the equilibria, as well as the occurrence of bifurcation behaviors (transcritical bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation, and Hopf bifurcation, which can deduce a standard parameter controlled relationship and in turn provide a theoretical basis for the numerical simulation. Numerical analysis ensures reliability of the theoretical results and illustrates that three stable equilibria will arise simultaneously in the model. It testifies the existence of Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, too. It should also be stressed that the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of steady conversion and bifurcation behavior mainly depend on a specific key parameter. In a word, all these results are expected to be of use in the study of the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  2. Empirical modeling of dynamic behaviors of pneumatic artificial muscle actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramatunge, Kanchana Crishan; Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

    2013-11-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuators yield muscle-like mechanical actuation with high force to weight ratio, soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled as well as humanoid robots or machines. The present study is to develop empirical models of the PAM actuators, that is, a PAM coupled with pneumatic control valves, in order to describe their dynamic behaviors for practical control design and usage. Empirical modeling is an efficient approach to computer-based modeling with observations of real behaviors. Different characteristics of dynamic behaviors of each PAM actuator are due not only to the structures of the PAM actuators themselves, but also to the variations of their material properties in manufacturing processes. To overcome the difficulties, the proposed empirical models are experimentally derived from real physical behaviors of the PAM actuators, which are being implemented. In case studies, the simulated results with good agreement to experimental results, show that the proposed methodology can be applied to describe the dynamic behaviors of the real PAM actuators. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymer models with optimal good-solvent behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We consider three different continuum polymer models, which all depend on a tunable parameter r that determines the strength of the excluded-volume interactions. In the first model, chains are obtained by concatenating hard spherocylinders of height b and diameter rb (we call them thick self-avoiding chains). The other two models are generalizations of the tangent hard-sphere and of the Kremer-Grest models. We show that for a specific value r* , all models show optimal behavior: asymptotic long-chain behavior is observed for relatively short chains. For r < r* , instead, the behavior can be parametrized by using the two-parameter model, which also describes the thermal crossover close to the θ point. The bonds of the thick self-avoiding chains cannot cross each other, and therefore the model is suited for the investigation of topological properties and for dynamical studies. Such a model also provides a coarse-grained description of double-stranded DNA, so that we can use our results to discuss under which conditions DNA can be considered as a model good-solvent polymer.

  4. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  5. Techniques for the solidification of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the long-term management of the high-level wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is receiving world-wide attention. While the majority of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of commercial fuels are currently being stored in stainless-steel tanks, increasing effort is being devoted to developing technology for the conversion of these wastes into solids. A number of full-scale solidification facilities are expected to come into operation in the next decade. The object of this report is to survey and compare all the work currently in progress on the techniques available for the solidification of high-level wastes. It will examine the high-level liquid wastes arising from the various processes currently under development or in operation, the advantages and disadvantages of each process for different types and quantities of waste solutions, the stages of development, the scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes

  6. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigerman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  7. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  8. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  9. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding

  10. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  11. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  12. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures

  13. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  14. Treatment technologies for non-high-level wastes (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Non-high-level waste arising from operations at nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, and reprocessing facilities can be treated using one of several technical alternatives prior to storage. Each alternative and the associated experience and status of development are summarized. The technology for treating non-high-level wastes is generally available for industrial use. Improved techniques applicable to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are being developed and demonstrated to reduce the volume of waste and to immobilize it for storage. 36 figures, 59 references

  15. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  16. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Behavioral effects of nerve agents: laboratory animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse and often subtle behavioral consequences have been reported for humans exposed to nerve agents. Laboratory studies of nerve agent exposure offer rigorous control over important variables, but species other than man must be used. Nonhuman primate models offer the best means of identifying the toxic nervous system effects of nerve agent insult and the countermeasures best capable of preventing or attenuating these effects. Comprehensive behavioral models must evaluate preservation and recovery of function as well as new learning ability. The throughput and sensitivity of the tests chosen are important considerations. A few nonhuman primate studies will be discussed to elaborate recent successes, current limitations, and future directions.(author)

  18. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C S; Benson, C; Kersten, D; Schrater, P

    2010-09-14

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) "probability matching"-a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans-occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning.

  19. Collective signaling behavior in a networked-oscillator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-H.; Hui, P. M.

    2007-09-01

    We propose and study the collective behavior of a model of networked signaling objects that incorporates several ingredients of real-life systems. These ingredients include spatial inhomogeneity with grouping of signaling objects, signal attenuation with distance, and delayed and impulsive coupling between non-identical signaling objects. Depending on the coupling strength and/or time-delay effect, the model exhibits completely, partially, and locally collective signaling behavior. In particular, a correlated signaling (CS) behavior is observed in which there exist time durations when nearly a constant fraction of oscillators in the system are in the signaling state. These time durations are much longer than the duration of a spike when a single oscillator signals, and they are separated by regular intervals in which nearly all oscillators are silent. Such CS behavior is similar to that observed in biological systems such as fireflies, cicadas, crickets, and frogs. The robustness of the CS behavior against noise is also studied. It is found that properly adjusting the coupling strength and noise level could enhance the correlated behavior.

  20. Advancing Models and Theories for Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-11-01

    To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Grief Therapy: The ABC Model of Rational-Emotion Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Malkinson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.

  2. Transformation of UML Behavioral Diagrams to Support Software Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.

  3. Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurement, Modeling and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Hoe I; Leshchinsky, Dov; Koseki, Junichi; A Collection of Papers of the Geotechnical Symposium in Rome

    2007-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of the proceedings for the Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, which was held on March 16 and 17, 2006 in Rome, Italy. The Symposium was organized to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Tatsuoka as well as honoring his research achievement. The publications are focused on the recent developments in the stress-strain behavior of geomaterials, with an emphasis on laboratory measurements, soil constitutive modeling and behavior of soil structures (such as reinforced soils, piles and slopes). The latest advancement in the field, such as the rate effect and dynamic behavior of both clay and sand, behavior of modified soils and soil mixtures, and soil liquefaction are addressed. A special keynote paper by Prof. Tatsuoka is included with three other keynote papers (presented by Prof. Lo Presti, Prof. Di Benedetto, and Prof. Shibuya).

  4. Behavioral Modeling Based on Probabilistic Finite Automata: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-06-24

    Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.

  5. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Annalisa; Liccardo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1) epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI). We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious diseases.

  6. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Fierro

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious

  7. Constitutive modeling of salt behavior: State of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The modern investigation of the thermomechanical behavior of salt started in the mid-1930's and, for what appears to be a very narrow discipline, ''salt mechanics'' has acquired considerable technical depth and sophistication. The last three decades have been especially productive in constitutive model development and laboratory investigations of time-dependent creep behavior. This has been largely due ot anticipated use of domal or bedded salt deposits as sites for radioactive waste repositories and to expanded need for hydrocarbon and feedback storage caverns. Salt is an interesting material, in that it is ''metal-like''; and, therefore, constitutive modeling can draw upon a large body of metal deformation information to arrive at appropriate models of behavior. Testing apparatus and methods have centered on either uniaxial or triaxial compression to obtain steady state and transient creep responses. Flow and fracture potentials have been defined. Validation attempts of the models against field data, although limited, have proved promising. The objective here is to summarize the state-of-the-technology of the constitutive modeling of salt behavior or ''salt mechanics.''

  8. Factors Influencing College Women's Contraceptive Behavior: An Application of the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jazmyne A.; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated variables within the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) as well as differences across socioeconomic status (SES) levels within the context of inconsistent contraceptive use among college women. Participants: A nonprobability sample of 515 female college students completed an Internet-based survey…

  9. Separation of transuranium elements from high-level waste by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Kubota, M.; Tani, S.

    1991-01-01

    Separation of transuranic elements (TRU) by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA) has been studied to develop a partitioning process for high-level waste (HLW). In the present study, experiments of counter-current continuous extraction and back-extraction using a miniature mixer-settler were carried out to find the optimum process condition for the separation of Np initially in the pentavalent state and to examine the extraction behaviors of fission and corrosion products. (J.P.N.)

  10. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  11. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  12. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  13. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  14. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  15. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  16. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  17. An emergency management demonstrator using the high level architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the issues of simulation interoperability within the emergency management training context. A prototype implementation in Java of a subset of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is described. The use of Web Browsers to provide graphical user interfaces to HLA is also investigated. (au)

  18. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." excerpt

  19. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  20. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...