WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling domain covered

  1. Life sciences domain analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Robert R; Freund, Elaine T; Schick, Lisa; Sharma, Mukesh K; Stafford, Grace A; Suzek, Baris E; Hernandez, Joyce; Hipp, Jason; Kelley, Jenny M; Rokicki, Konrad; Pan, Sue; Buckler, Andrew; Stokes, Todd H; Fernandez, Anna; Fore, Ian; Buetow, Kenneth H; Klemm, Juli D

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful exchange of information is a fundamental challenge in collaborative biomedical research. To help address this, the authors developed the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM), an information model that provides a framework for communication among domain experts and technical teams developing information systems to support biomedical research. The LS DAM is harmonized with the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) model of protocol-driven clinical research. Together, these models can facilitate data exchange for translational research. The content of the LS DAM was driven by analysis of life sciences and translational research scenarios and the concepts in the model are derived from existing information models, reference models and data exchange formats. The model is represented in the Unified Modeling Language and uses ISO 21090 data types. The LS DAM v2.2.1 is comprised of 130 classes and covers several core areas including Experiment, Molecular Biology, Molecular Databases and Specimen. Nearly half of these classes originate from the BRIDG model, emphasizing the semantic harmonization between these models. Validation of the LS DAM against independently derived information models, research scenarios and reference databases supports its general applicability to represent life sciences research. The LS DAM provides unambiguous definitions for concepts required to describe life sciences research. The processes established to achieve consensus among domain experts will be applied in future iterations and may be broadly applicable to other standardization efforts. The LS DAM provides common semantics for life sciences research. Through harmonization with BRIDG, it promotes interoperability in translational science.

  2. Domain patterning by electron beam of MgO doped lithium niobate covered by resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Chezganov, D. S.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Kuznetsov, D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Periodical domain structuring by focused electron beam irradiation of MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgOCLN) single crystalline plate covered by resist layer was studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. The dependences of domain size on the charge dose and distance between isolated domains were measured. It has been shown that the quality of periodical domain pattern depends on the thickness of resist layer and electron energy. The experimentally obtained periodic domain structures have been divided into four types. The irradiation parameters for the most uniform patterning were obtained experimentally. It was shown by computer simulation that the space charge slightly touching the crystal surface produced the maximum value of electric field at the resist/LN interface thus resulting in the best pattern quality. The obtained knowledge allowed us to optimize the poling process and to make the periodical domain patterns in 1-mm-thick wafers with an area up to 1 × 5 mm2 and a period of 6.89 μm for green light second harmonic generation. Spatial distribution of the efficiency of light frequency conversion confirmed the high homogeneity of the tailored domain patterns.

  3. STEGO TRANSFORMATION OF SPATIAL DOMAIN OF COVER IMAGE ROBUST AGAINST ATTACKS ON EMBEDDED MESSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main requirements to steganografic algorithm to be developed is robustness against disturbing influences, that is, to attacks against the embedded message. It was shown that guaranteeing the stego algorithm robustness does not depend on whether the additional information is embedded into the spatial or transformation domain of the cover image. Given the existing advantages of the spatial domain of the cover image in organization of embedding and extracting processes, a sufficient condition for ensuring robustness of such stego transformation was obtained in this work. It was shown that the amount of brightness correction related to the pixels of the cover image block is similar to the amount of correction related to the maximum singular value of the corresponding matrix of the block in case of embedding additional data that ensures robustness against attacks on the embedded message. Recommendations were obtained for selecting the size of the cover image block used in stego transformation as one of the parameters determining the calculation error of stego message. Given the inversely correspondence between the stego capacity of the stego channel being organized and the size of the cover image block, l=8 value was recommended.

  4. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  5. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  6. Using Built-In Domain-Specific Modeling Support to Guide Model-Based Test Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanstrén, Teemu; 10.4204/EPTCS.80.5

    2012-01-01

    We present a model-based testing approach to support automated test generation with domain-specific concepts. This includes a language expert who is an expert at building test models and domain experts who are experts in the domain of the system under test. First, we provide a framework to support the language expert in building test models using a full (Java) programming language with the help of simple but powerful modeling elements of the framework. Second, based on the model built with this framework, the toolset automatically forms a domain-specific modeling language that can be used to further constrain and guide test generation from these models by a domain expert. This makes it possible to generate a large set of test cases covering the full model, chosen (constrained) parts of the model, or manually define specific test cases on top of the model while using concepts familiar to the domain experts.

  7. Using Built-In Domain-Specific Modeling Support to Guide Model-Based Test Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Kanstrén

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a model-based testing approach to support automated test generation with domain-specific concepts. This includes a language expert who is an expert at building test models and domain experts who are experts in the domain of the system under test. First, we provide a framework to support the language expert in building test models using a full (Java programming language with the help of simple but powerful modeling elements of the framework. Second, based on the model built with this framework, the toolset automatically forms a domain-specific modeling language that can be used to further constrain and guide test generation from these models by a domain expert. This makes it possible to generate a large set of test cases covering the full model, chosen (constrained parts of the model, or manually define specific test cases on top of the model while using concepts familiar to the domain experts.

  8. Introduction to the Integrated Domain Modeling Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slihte Armands

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Integrated Domain Modeling approach and introduces the supporting toolset as a solution to the complex domain-modeling task. This approach integrates artificial intelligence (AI and system analysis by exploiting ontology, natural language processing (NLP, use cases and model-driven architecture (MDA for knowledge engineering and domain modeling. The IDM toolset provides the opportunity to automatically generate the initial AS-IS model from the formally defined domain knowledge. In this paper, we describe in detail the scope, architecture and implementation of the toolset.

  9. The Land Administration Domain Model Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    LADM is a international standard for the land administration domain. It will stimulate the development of software applications and will accelerate the implementation of proper land administration systems that will support sustainable development. The LADM covers basic information-related components

  10. Neural network models of protein domain evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Nagl

    2000-01-01

    Protein domains are complex adaptive systems, and here a novel procedure is presented that models the evolution of new functional sites within stable domain folds using neural networks. Neural networks, which were originally developed in cognitive science for the modeling of brain functions, can provide a fruitful methodology for the study of complex systems in general. Ethical implications of developing complex systems models of biomolecules are discussed, with particular reference to molecu...

  11. Total cloud cover from satellite observations and climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Probst

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Global and zonal monthly means of cloud cover fraction for total cloudiness (CF from the ISCCP D2 dataset are compared to same quantity produced by the 20th century simulations of 21 climate models from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 multi-model dataset archived by the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI. The comparison spans the time frame from January 1984 to December 1999 and the global and zonal average of CF are studied. The restriction to total cloudiness depends on the output of some models that does not include the 3D cloud structure. It is shown that the global mean of CF for the PCMDI/CMIP3 models, averaged over the whole period, exhibits a considerable variance and generally underestimates the ISCCP value. Very large discrepancies among models, and between models and observations, are found in the polar areas, where both models and satellite observations are less reliable, and especially near Antarctica. For this reason the zonal analysis is focused over the 60° S–60° N latitudinal belt, which includes the tropical area and mid latitudes. The two hemispheres are analyzed separately to show the variation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. Most models overestimate the yearly averaged values of CF over all of the analysed areas, while differences emerge in their ability to capture the amplitude of the seasonal cycle. The models represent, in a qualitatively correct way, the magnitude and the weak sign of the seasonal cycle over the whole geographical domain, but overestimate the strength of the signal in the tropical areas and at mid-latitudes, when taken separately. The interannual variability of the two yearly averages and of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle is greatly underestimated by all models in each area analysed. This work shows that the climate models have an heterogeneous behaviour in simulating the CF over

  12. Modeling Multiple Risks: Hidden Domain of Attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2011-01-01

    Hidden regular variation is a sub-model of multivariate regular variation and facilitates accurate estimation of joint tail probabilities. We generalize the model of hidden regular variation to what we call hidden domain of attraction. We exhibit examples that illustrate the need for a more general model and discuss detection and estimation techniques.

  13. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  14. Modeling Heat and Mass Transfer from Fabric-Covered Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gibson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric-covered cylinders are convenient analogs forclothing systems. The geometry is well defined andincludes many of the effects that are important ingarments. Fabric-covered cylinder models are usedin conjunction with laboratory measurements ofmaterial properties to calculate heat and mass transferproperties of clothing under specific conditions ofenvironmental wind speed, temperature, and relativehumidity.

  15. Structuring very large domain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    View/Viewpoint approaches like IEEE 1471-2000, or Kruchten's 4+1-view model are used to structure software architectures at a high level of granularity. While research has focused on architectural languages and with consistency between multiple views, practical questions such as the structuring a...

  16. Improving distributed hydrologic modeling and global land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, Patrick

    Distributed models of the land surface are essential for global climate models because of the importance of land-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy, momentum. They are also used for high resolution hydrologic simulation because of the need to capture non-linear responses to spatially variable inputs. Continued improvements to these models, and the data which they use, is especially important given ongoing changes in climate and land cover. In hydrologic models, important aspects are sometimes neglected due to the need to simplify the models for operational simulation. For example, operational flash flood models do not consider the role of snow and are often lumped (i.e. do not discretize a watershed into multiple units, and so do not fully consider the effect of intense, localized rainstorms). To address this deficiency, an overland flow model is coupled with a subsurface flow model to create a distributed flash flood forecasting system that can simulate flash floods that involve rain on snow. The model is intended for operational use, and there are extensive algorithms to incorporate high-resolution hydrometeorologic data, to assist in the calibration of the models, and to run the model in real time. A second study, which is designed to improve snow simulation in forested environments, demonstrates the importance of explicitly representing a near canopy environment in snow models, instead of only representing open and canopy covered areas (i.e. with % canopy fraction), as is often done. Our modeling, which uses canopy structure information from Aerial Laser Survey Mapping at 1 meter resolution, suggests that areas near trees have more net snow water input than surrounding areas because of the lack of snow interception, shading by the trees, and the effects of wind. In addition, the greatest discrepancy between our model simulations that explicitly represent forest structure and those that do not occur in areas with more canopy edges. In addition, two value

  17. Impact of Domain Modeling Techniques on the Quality of Domain Model: An Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiqmat Nisa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unified modeling language (UML is widely used to analyze and design different software development artifacts in an object oriented development. Domain model is a significant artifact that models the problem domain and visually represents real world objects and relationships among them. It facilitates the comprehension process by identifying the vocabulary and key concepts of the business world. Category list technique identifies concepts and associations with the help of pre defined categories, which are important to business information systems. Whereas noun phrasing technique performs grammatical analysis of use case description to recognize concepts and associations. Both of these techniques are used for the construction of domain model, however, no empirical evidence exists that evaluates the quality of the resultant domain model constructed via these two basic techniques. A controlled experiment was performed to investigate the impact of category list and noun phrasing technique on quality of the domain model. The constructed domain model is evaluated for completeness, correctness and effort required for its design. The obtained results show that category list technique is better than noun phrasing technique for the identification of concepts as it avoids generating unnecessary elements i.e. extra concepts, associations and attributes in the domain model. The noun phrasing technique produces a comprehensive domain model and requires less effort as compared to category list. There is no statistically significant difference between both techniques in case of correctness.

  18. Impact of Domain Modeling Techniques on the Quality of Domain Model: An Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiqmat Nisa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The unified modeling language (UML is widely used to analyze and design different software development artifacts in an object oriented development. Domain model is a significant artifact that models the problem domain and visually represents real world objects and relationships among them. It facilitates the comprehension process by identifying the vocabulary and key concepts of the business world. Category list technique identifies concepts and associations with the help of pre defined categories, which are important to business information systems. Whereas noun phrasing technique performs grammatical analysis of use case description to recognize concepts and associations. Both of these techniques are used for the construction of domain model, however, no empirical evidence exists that evaluates the quality of the resultant domain model constructed via these two basic techniques. A controlled experiment was performed to investigate the impact of category list and noun phrasing technique on quality of the domain model. The constructed domain model is evaluated for completeness, correctness and effort required for its design. The obtained results show that category list technique is better than noun phrasing technique for the identification of concepts as it avoids generating unnecessary elements i.e. extra concepts, associations and attributes in the domain model. The noun phrasing technique produces a comprehensive domain model and requires less effort as compared to category list. There is no statistically significant difference between both techniques in case of correctness.

  19. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  20. Domain Theory, Its Models and Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.; Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt

    2014-01-01

    Domain Theory is a systems approach for the analysis and synthesis of products. Its basic idea is to view a product as systems of activities, organs and parts and to define structure, elements, behaviour and function in these domains. The theory is a basis for a long line of research contributions...... and industrial applications especially for the DFX areas (not reported here) and for product modelling. The theory therefore contains a rich ontology of interrelated concepts. The Domain Theory is not aiming to create normative methods but the creation of a collection of concepts related to design phenomena......, which can support design work and to form elements of designers’ mindsets and thereby their practice. The theory is a model-based theory, which means it is composed of concepts and models, which explains certain design phenomena. Many similar theories are described in the literature with differences...

  1. Stochastic models of cover class dynamics. [remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T. H.; Robinson, V. B.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations related to satellite remote sensing of vegetation have been concerned with questions of signature identification and extension, cover inventory accuracy, and change detection and monitoring. Attention is given to models of ecological succession, present directions in successional modeling and analysis, nondynamic spatial models, issues in the analysis of spatial data, and aspects of spatial modeling. Issues in time-series analysis are considered along with dynamic spatial models, and problems of model specification and identification.

  2. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  3. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  4. Modelling land cover change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a 'hot spot' of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land cover change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. In this work a time series dataset of land cover change between 1970 and 2010 is constructed for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The MODIS instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at small regional extent (CLUE-s) modelling framework. Non-spatial estimates of land cover area from national agriculture and forest statistics, available on a state-wise, annual basis, are used as a direct model input. Land cover change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. This dataset will provide an essential input to a high resolution, physically based land surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land cover change on regional climate.

  5. Domain walls collision in Fe-rich and Co-rich glass covered microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of the investigation of domain walls propagation in Fe-rich and Co-rich microwires performed using Sixtus-Tonks and magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. It was found that under certain experimental conditions we are able to create the regime of the motion of two domain walls moving to opposite directions which terminates by the collision of the domain walls. Also the domain walls collision was visualized using magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope when the surface giant Barkhausen jump induced by circular magnetic field has been observed.

  6. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain......-specic modelling languages. We present a number of novel technical developments, including a new complete meta-calculus presentation of bigraphical reactive systems, an abstract machine that instantiates to an abstract machine for any instance calculus, and a mechanism for dening declarative sorting predicates...... that always give rise to wellbehaved sortings. We explore bigraphical renement relations that permit formalisation of the relationship between dierent languages instantiated as bigraphical reactive systems. We detail a prototype verication tool for instance calculi, and provide a tractable heuristic...

  7. User Requirements and Domain Model Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2006). User requirements and domain model engineering. Presentation at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006. Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetwor

  8. User Requirements and Domain Model Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Glahn, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Specht, M., & Glahn, C. (2006). User requirements and domain model engineering. Presentation at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006. Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetwor

  9. ISO 19512: The land administration domain model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Focus of this paper is on the Land Administration Domain Model which is under development as an International Standard at ISO. This development is an initiative of the International Federation of Surveyors – FIG. The International Standard is expected to be published in 2012. Why is this development

  10. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined......In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...

  11. Modeling Microwave Emission from Short Vegetation-Covered Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the temporal and spatial variability of the emissivity spectra, problems remain in the interpretation and application of satellite passive microwave data over vegetation-covered surfaces. The commonly used microwave land emissivity model, developed by Weng et al. (2001 and implemented into the community radiative transfer model (CRTM, treats vegetation-covered surfaces as a three-layer medium. This simplification comes at the cost of accuracy. In this study, to reduce bias in the modeling of microwave emissions from short vegetation-covered surfaces, two modifications are made. First, vegetation was considered as a multilayered medium including leaves and stems to simulate volumetric absorption and scattering. The results suggest that the calculated brightness temperatures well agree with field experiments under different incidence angles for low soil moisture and sparse crop cover. On the other hand, large errors from the measurements are found for high soil moisture content and dense crop cover. Second, the advanced integral equation model (AIEM was also used to improve the simulation of reflectivity from rough soil surfaces. Comparisons with field experimental data show that the determination coefficient between the calculated and measured brightness temperatures significantly increased and the root-mean-square errors remarkably decreased. The average improvement using the proposed approach is about 80% and 59% in accuracy for the vertical and horizontal polarization, respectively.

  12. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... on the thorough analysis of practical scenarios. We propose a formal definition of model clones, specify a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models, and implement it prototypically. We investigate different similarity heuristics to be used in the algorithm, and report the performance of our approach. While...

  13. Spatial analysis and statistical modelling of snow cover dynamics in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Johannes; Gerlitz, Lars; Böhner, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    General circulation models are able to predict large scale climate variations in global dimensions, however small scale dynamic characteristics, such as snow cover and its temporal variations in high mountain regions, are not represented sufficiently. Detailed knowledge about shifts in seasonal ablation times and spatial distribution of snow cover are crucial for various research interests. Since high mountain areas, for instance the Central Himalayas in Nepal, are generally remote, it is difficult to obtain data in high spatio-temporal resolutions. Regional climate models and downscaling techniques are implemented to compensate coarse resolution. Furthermore earth observation systems, such as MODIS, also permit bridging this gap to a certain extent. They offer snow (cover) data in daily temporal and medium spatial resolution of around 500 m, which can be applied as evaluation and training data for dynamical hydrological and statistical analyses. Within this approach two snow distribution models (binary snow cover and fractional snow cover) as well as one snow recession model were implemented for a research domain in the Rolwaling Himal in Nepal, employing the random forest technique, which represents a state of the art machine learning algorithm. Both bottom-up strategies provide inductive reasoning to derive rules for snow related processes out of climate (temperature, precipitation and irradiance) and climate-related topographic data sets (elevation, aspect and convergence index) obtained by meteorological network stations, remote sensing products (snow cover - MOD10-A1 and land surface temperatures - MOD11-A1) along with GIS. Snow distribution is predicted reliably on a daily basis in the research area, whereas further effort is necessary for predicting daily snow cover recession processes adequately. Swift changes induced by clear sky conditions with high insolation rates are well represented, whereas steady snow loss still needs continuing effort. All

  14. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  15. Modeling debris-covered glaciers: response to steady debris deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are common in rapidly eroding alpine landscapes. When thicker than a few centimeters, surface debris suppresses melt rates. If continuous debris cover is present, ablation rates can be significantly reduced leading to increases in glacier length. In order to quantify feedbacks in the debris-glacier-climate system, we developed a 2-D long-valley numerical glacier model that includes englacial and supraglacial debris advection. We ran 120 simulations on a linear bed profile in which a hypothetical steady state debris-free glacier responds to a step increase of surface debris deposition. Simulated glaciers advance to steady states in which ice accumulation equals ice ablation, and debris input equals debris loss from the glacier terminus. Our model and parameter selections can produce 2-fold increases in glacier length. Debris flux onto the glacier and the relationship between debris thickness and melt rate strongly control glacier length. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude, where ice discharge is high, results in the greatest glacier extension when other debris-related variables are held constant. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude re-emerges high in the ablation zone and therefore impacts melt rate over a greater fraction of the glacier surface. Continuous debris cover reduces ice discharge gradients, ice thickness gradients, and velocity gradients relative to initial debris-free glaciers. Debris-forced glacier extension decreases the ratio of accumulation zone to total glacier area (AAR). Our simulations reproduce the "general trends" between debris cover, AARs, and glacier surface velocity patterns from modern debris-covered glaciers. We provide a quantitative, theoretical foundation to interpret the effect of debris cover on the moraine record, and to assess the effects of climate change on debris-covered glaciers.

  16. Domain decomposition for implicit solvation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Stamm, Benjamin

    2013-08-07

    This article is the first of a series of papers dealing with domain decomposition algorithms for implicit solvent models. We show that, in the framework of the COSMO model, with van der Waals molecular cavities and classical charge distributions, the electrostatic energy contribution to the solvation energy, usually computed by solving an integral equation on the whole surface of the molecular cavity, can be computed more efficiently by using an integral equation formulation of Schwarz's domain decomposition method for boundary value problems. In addition, the so-obtained potential energy surface is smooth, which is a critical property to perform geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulations. The purpose of this first article is to detail the methodology, set up the theoretical foundations of the approach, and study the accuracies and convergence rates of the resulting algorithms. The full efficiency of the method and its applicability to large molecular systems of biological interest is demonstrated elsewhere.

  17. A Modeling and Data Analysis of Laser Beam Propagation in the Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 433 A Modeling and Data Analysis of Laser Beam Propagation in the Maritime Domain by...433 (2015) A MODELING AND DATA ANALYSIS OF LASER BEAM PROPAGATION IN THE MARITIME DOMAIN by Midshipman 1/C Benjamin C. Etringer United States Naval...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Modeling and Data Analysis of Laser Beam Propagation in the Maritime

  18. The impact of land-cover modification on the June meteorology of China since 1700, simulated using a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Pitman, A.J.; Zhao, M.; Leemans, R.

    2003-01-01

    A series of simulations was conducted using a regional climate model with a domain covering mainland China. Simulations were conducted for a single June using estimated land cover for 1700, 1750, 1800, 1850, 1900, 1950, 1970 and 1990. The conversion of land cover between these periods was extensive

  19. Interpreting multiscale domains of tree cover disturbance patterns in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Jennifer K. Costanza; Brian Buma

    2017-01-01

    Spatial patterns at multiple observation scales provide a framework to improve understanding of pattern-related phenomena. However, the metrics that are most sensitive to local patterns are least likely to exhibit consistent scaling relations with increasing extent (observation scale). A conceptual framework based on multiscale domains (i.e., geographic locations...

  20. Chemical domain of QSAR models from atom-centered fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Ralph; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2009-12-01

    A methodology to characterize the chemical domain of qualitative and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on the atom-centered fragment (ACF) approach is introduced. ACFs decompose the molecule into structural pieces, with each non-hydrogen atom of the molecule acting as an ACF center. ACFs vary with respect to their size in terms of the path length covered in each bonding direction starting from a given central atom and how comprehensively the neighbor atoms (including hydrogen) are described in terms of element type and bonding environment. In addition to these different levels of ACF definitions, the ACF match mode as degree of strictness of the ACF comparison between a test compound and a given ACF pool (such as from a training set) has to be specified. Analyses of the prediction statistics of three QSAR models with their training sets as well as with external test sets and associated subsets demonstrate a clear relationship between the prediction performance and the levels of ACF definition and match mode. The findings suggest that second-order ACFs combined with a borderline match mode may serve as a generic and at the same time a mechanistically sound tool to define and evaluate the chemical domain of QSAR models. Moreover, four standard categories of the ACF-based membership to a given chemical domain (outside, borderline outside, borderline inside, inside) are introduced that provide more specific information about the expected QSAR prediction performance. As such, the ACF-based characterization of the chemical domain appears to be particularly useful for QSAR applications in the context of REACH and other regulatory schemes addressing the safety evaluation of chemical compounds.

  1. On frequency and time domain models of traveling wave tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Théveny, Stéphane; Elskens, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the envelope modulation assumption of frequency-domain models of traveling wave tubes (TWTs) and test its consistency with the Maxwell equations. We compare the predictions of usual frequency-domain models with those of a new time domain model of the TWT.

  2. Domain-specific modeling enabling full code generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) is the latest approach tosoftware development, promising to greatly increase the speed andease of software creation. Early adopters of DSM have been enjoyingproductivity increases of 500–1000% in production for over adecade. This book introduces DSM and offers examples from variousfields to illustrate to experienced developers how DSM can improvesoftware development in their teams. Two authorities in the field explain what DSM is, why it works,and how to successfully create and use a DSM solution to improveproductivity and quality. Divided into four parts, the book covers:background and motivation; fundamentals; in-depth examples; andcreating DSM solutions. There is an emphasis throughout the book onpractical guidelines for implementing DSM, including how toidentify the nece sary language constructs, how to generate fullcode from models, and how to provide tool support for a new DSMlanguage. The example cases described in the book are available thebook's Website, www.dsmbook....

  3. Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Halabisky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

  4. Modelling runoff from a Himalayan debris-covered glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fujita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the processes by which glacial debris-mantles alter the melting of glacier ice have been well studied, the mass balance and runoff patterns of Himalayan debris-covered glaciers and the response of these factors to climate change are not well understood. Many previous studies have addressed mechanisms of ice melt under debris mantles by applying multiplicative parameters derived from field experiments, and other studies have calculated the details of heat conduction through the debris layer. However, those approaches cannot be applied at catchment scales because debris distributions are heterogeneous and difficult to measure. Here, we establish a runoff model for a Himalayan debris-covered glacier in which the spatial distribution of the thermal properties of the debris mantle is estimated from remotely sensed multi-temporal data. We validated the model for the Tsho Rolpa Glacial Lake–Trambau Glacier basin in the Nepal Himalaya, using hydro-meteorological observations obtained for a 3.5 yr period (1993–1996. We calculated long-term averages of runoff components for the period 1980–2007 using gridded reanalysis datasets. Our calculations suggest that excess meltwater from the debris-covered area contributes significantly to the total runoff, mainly because of its location at lower elevations. Uncertainties in runoff values due to estimations of the thermal properties and albedo of the debris-covered surface were assessed to be approximately 8% of the runoff from the debris-covered area. We evaluated the sensitivities of runoff components to changes in air temperature and precipitation. As expected, warmer air temperatures increase the total runoff by increasing the melting rate; however, increased precipitation slightly reduces the total runoff, as ice melting is suppressed by the increased snow cover and associated high albedo. The response of total runoff to changing precipitation is complex because of the different responses of

  5. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  6. Hydrocarbon- Generating Model of the Area Covered With Volcanic Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhanqian; Zhang Yuwei

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Oil & gas fields shows their close relationship with the most active tectonic regions. This is not a coincidence but having a scientific reasons. The crustal active regions, refer to the places where the active natural earthquake, volcanic activities, underground water happened, and the areas of the leaking off of natural gas to the surface of the crust. The magma of volcanic activities brings the organic "kitchen range body" hydrocarbon- generating model and inorganic genetic hydrocarbon to the regions covered by volcanic rock. Underground water brings a catalytic hydrocarbongenerating model for organic matter, and the leaking- off of H2 and CO2 contributes a synthetic hydrocarbon - generating model. Volcanic activities bring the assemblage of Source, Reservoir and Seal formed by the sediments and magma the sedimentary basins, and the hydrocarbon - generating system with a "water - volcano" binary structure is formed. All these conditions are favorable and excellent for the formation of oil & gas fields. The distribution of American oil & gas fields have very close relationship with the mines of Fe, Mn, Ct, Mo, W and V, deposits of Zn, Cu, V, Pb, Al and Hg, and the deposits of fluorite, sulfur, potassium salt, phosphate and halite, and the distribution of sulfate- chloride of river water. The reason why few oil & gas fields discovered in the regions covered by volcanic rock in western America maybe because of the view of "inconsistency between petroleum and volcano". Further more, It's very difficult to carry out a geophysical exploration in such kinds of regions.This paper examined a few hydrocarbon-generating models (systems) mentioned above and came up with some fresh ideas on the exploration in the areas covered with volcanic rocks.

  7. Solving Vertex Cover Problem Using DNA Tile Assembly Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA tile assembly models are a class of mathematically distributed and parallel biocomputing models in DNA tiles. In previous works, tile assembly models have been proved be Turing-universal; that is, the system can do what Turing machine can do. In this paper, we use tile systems to solve computational hard problem. Mathematically, we construct three tile subsystems, which can be combined together to solve vertex cover problem. As a result, each of the proposed tile subsystems consists of Θ(1 types of tiles, and the assembly process is executed in a parallel way (like DNA’s biological function in cells; thus the systems can generate the solution of the problem in linear time with respect to the size of the graph.

  8. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Huber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.

  9. Multilayered temporal modeling for the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Dligach, Dmitriy; Miller, Timothy A; Bethard, Steven; Savova, Guergana K

    2016-03-01

    To develop an open-source temporal relation discovery system for the clinical domain. The system is capable of automatically inferring temporal relations between events and time expressions using a multilayered modeling strategy. It can operate at different levels of granularity--from rough temporality expressed as event relations to the document creation time (DCT) to temporal containment to fine-grained classic Allen-style relations. We evaluated our systems on 2 clinical corpora. One is a subset of the Temporal Histories of Your Medical Events (THYME) corpus, which was used in SemEval 2015 Task 6: Clinical TempEval. The other is the 2012 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) challenge corpus. We designed multiple supervised machine learning models to compute the DCT relation and within-sentence temporal relations. For the i2b2 data, we also developed models and rule-based methods to recognize cross-sentence temporal relations. We used the official evaluation scripts of both challenges to make our results comparable with results of other participating systems. In addition, we conducted a feature ablation study to find out the contribution of various features to the system's performance. Our system achieved state-of-the-art performance on the Clinical TempEval corpus and was on par with the best systems on the i2b2 2012 corpus. Particularly, on the Clinical TempEval corpus, our system established a new F1 score benchmark, statistically significant as compared to the baseline and the best participating system. Presented here is the first open-source clinical temporal relation discovery system. It was built using a multilayered temporal modeling strategy and achieved top performance in 2 major shared tasks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola;

    2007-01-01

    argue that the implementation of underlying knowledge models in a sharable format, as domain ontologies - along with application of automatic ontology mapping techniques for model alignment - can help to overcome the "new-user" problem and will greatly widen opportunities for student model translation....... Moreover, it then becomes possible for systems from relevant domains to rely on knowledge transfer and reuse those portions of the student models that are related to overlapping concepts....

  11. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2000 - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  12. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  13. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  14. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  15. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  16. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  17. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  18. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  19. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  20. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. ...... claim that both sections, Sects. 2–3, contribute to a methodology of software engineering.......We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. We...

  1. Globally covering a-priori regional gravity covariance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arabelos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity anomaly data generated using Wenzel’s GPM98A model complete to degree 1800, from which OSU91A has been subtracted, have been used to estimate covariance functions for a set of globally covering equal-area blocks of size 22.5° × 22.5° at Equator, having a 2.5° overlap. For each block an analytic covariance function model was determined. The models are based on 4 parameters: the depth to the Bjerhammar sphere (determines correlation, the free-air gravity anomaly variance, a scale factor of the OSU91A error degree-variances and a maximal summation index, N, of the error degree-variances. The depth of Bjerhammar-sphere varies from -134km to nearly zero, N varies from 360 to 40, the scale factor from 0.03 to 38.0 and the gravity variance from 1081 to 24(10µms-22. The parameters are interpreted in terms of the quality of the data used to construct OSU91A and GPM98A and general conditions such as the occurrence of mountain chains. The variation of the parameters show that it is necessary to use regional covariance models in order to obtain a realistic signal to noise ratio in global applications.Key words. GOCE mission, Covariance function, Spacewise approach`

  2. Modelling Deforestation and Land Cover Transitions of Tropical Peatlands in Sumatra, Indonesia Using Remote Sensed Land Cover Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Elz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia land use change associated with forest loss and degradation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. This is of particular concern where deforestation occurs on peat soils. A business-as-usual (BAU land change model was developed using Dinamica EGO© for a REDD+ Demonstration Activity area in south-east Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia containing Berbak National Park (NP. The model output will be used as baseline land change predictions for comparison with alternative land cover management scenarios as part of a REDD+ feasibility study. The study area is approximately 376,000 ha with approximately 50% on peat soils. The model uses published 2000 and 2010 land cover maps as input and projects land cover change for thirty years until 2040. The model predicted that under a BAU scenario the forest area, 185,000 ha in 2010, will decline by 37% by 2040. In protected forest areas, approximately 50% of the study area, forest cover will reduce by 25%. Peat swamp forest will reduce by almost 37%. The greatest land cover category increases are plantation/regrowth areas (which includes oil palm and open areas which each increase by 30,000 ha. These results indicate that the site has great potential as an Indonesian REDD+ Demonstration Activity.

  3. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  4. The SHOCT domain: a widespread domain under-represented in model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y Eberhardt

    Full Text Available We have identified a new protein domain, which we have named the SHOCT domain (Short C-terminal domain. This domain is widespread in bacteria with over a thousand examples. But we found it is missing from the most commonly studied model organisms, despite being present in closely related species. It's predominantly C-terminal location, co-occurrence with numerous other domains and short size is reminiscent of the Gram-positive anchor motif, however it is present in a much wider range of species. We suggest several hypotheses about the function of SHOCT, including oligomerisation and nucleic acid binding. Our initial experiments do not support its role as an oligomerisation domain.

  5. Sensitivity of snow cover to horizontal resolution in a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, E.; Kotlarski, S.; Viterbo, P.; Balsamo, G.; Miranda, P. M. A.; Schär, C.

    2010-09-01

    ECMWF recent weather forecasts. Such high resolution associated with the state of the art modeling and assimilation frameworks guarantees that the atmospheric conditions seen by the LSM are as close as possible to reality. To assure that the two lower horizontal resolution simulations have a good quality forcing, an energy/mass conserving remapping was applied when upscaling the forcing fields. Special care was taken for the upscaling of temperature, specific humidity, surface pressure and downward longwave radiation considering the changes in mean orography between resolutions. Snow cover simulations are validated against two daily observational products: 1) IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 4 km resolution (National Snow and Ice Data Center) and 2) SNOWCLIM snow depth daily European domain at 0.1° resolution (German Weather Service). The present work is focused over Europe, namely in four domains: Alps, Central and Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, where conditional spatial sampling is performed in order to distinguish between complex versus flat terrain and forest versus exposed (low vegetation and bare ground) areas. The results are model dependent, but allow deriving important relations between resolution, orography and vegetation variability impacts on snow cover simulations.

  6. PolSAR Land Cover Classification Based on Roll-Invariant and Selected Hidden Polarimetric Features in the Rotation Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chensong Tao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification is an important application for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR. Target polarimetric response is strongly dependent on its orientation. Backscattering responses of the same target with different orientations to the SAR flight path may be quite different. This target orientation diversity effect hinders PolSAR image understanding and interpretation. Roll-invariant polarimetric features such as entropy, anisotropy, mean alpha angle, and total scattering power are independent of the target orientation and are commonly adopted for PolSAR image classification. On the other aspect, target orientation diversity also contains rich information which may not be sensed by roll-invariant polarimetric features. In this vein, only using the roll-invariant polarimetric features may limit the final classification accuracy. To address this problem, this work uses the recently reported uniform polarimetric matrix rotation theory and a visualization and characterization tool of polarimetric coherence pattern to investigate hidden polarimetric features in the rotation domain along the radar line of sight. Then, a feature selection scheme is established and a set of hidden polarimetric features are selected in the rotation domain. Finally, a classification method is developed using the complementary information between roll-invariant and selected hidden polarimetric features with a support vector machine (SVM/decision tree (DT classifier. Comparison experiments are carried out with NASA/JPL AIRSAR and multi-temporal UAVSAR data. For AIRSAR data, the overall classification accuracy of the proposed classification method is 95.37% (with SVM/96.38% (with DT, while that of the conventional classification method is 93.87% (with SVM/94.12% (with DT, respectively. Meanwhile, for multi-temporal UAVSAR data, the mean overall classification accuracy of the proposed method is up to 97.47% (with SVM/99.39% (with DT, which is also higher

  7. DSRM: An Ontology Driven Domain Scientific Data Retrieval Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, a large number of domain scientific data have been accumulated with the characteristics of distribution and heterogeneity. It has important significance to acquire exact scientific data from multiple data sources for cooperative research. The existing data integration and information retrieval techniques cannot solve the problems of data semantic heterogeneity and retrieval inaccuracy very well. In this paper, an ontology driven domain scientific data retrieval model is proposed, which uses domain ontology to describe user query and queried data. User query is posed on domain ontology schema. Data retrieval for distributed and heterogeneous data sources is realized through constructing mapping relations between them and domain ontology schema. We developed a prototype for material scientific data, and the experimental results show that the proposed model is effective. Our model can also provide some means of use for reference to other domain scientific data retrieval.

  8. Estimated Frequency Domain Model Uncertainties used in Robust Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the combination of system identification and robust controller design. Recent results on estimation of frequency domain model uncertainty are......This paper deals with the combination of system identification and robust controller design. Recent results on estimation of frequency domain model uncertainty are...

  9. Interoperable domain models: The ISO land administration domain model LADM and its external classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Uitermark, H.T.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Cooper, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of one of the first spatial domain standards: a standard for the domain of Land Administration (LA). This standard is in the draft stage of development now (May 2011). The development of domain standards is a logical follow up after domain-independent standards,

  10. Organization Domain Modeling (ODM): Extending systematic D-AME beyond software domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, M.A. [Organon Motives, Inc., Belmont, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The emerging discipline of domain analysis, modeling, and engineering, or D-AME, has received most attention from the field of systematic software reuse, where the term {open_quotes}domain{close_quotes} usually denotes a well-scoped area of functionality within a set or class of software systems. A central challenge in D-AME research has been in defining processes and representations sufficiently general to apply in the diverse organizational and technical environments in which D-AME can make useful contribution. The systematic reuse community has established ambitious goals for what a D-AME process should address, such as the ability to support design for reuse for all products and processes of the software life cycle, and applicability beyond software domains: e.g., to domains such as business processes, product variability models, or more generally, domains of shared knowledge about particular technical areas of expertise. In practice, though, the search for generalized domain analysis processes and methods has been fraught. with difficulties. Obstacles include: adoption of a too-narrow conception of the nature of {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes}; tight coupling of D-AME process and methods with software engineering representations; and a consequent lack of understanding of the unique aspects of D-AME as a qualitative process. This paper discusses the goals for the extensibility of D-AME, the primary barriers to achieving these goals, and specific features of the Organization Domain Modeling (ODM) methodology that address these issues. ODM is structured as a core life cycle process model which is broadly applicable to diverse domains and organizational contexts. The core process is augmented by a set of supporting methods which facilitate tailorability, for example, by encapsulating commitments to specific software design representations and processes.

  11. Artificial Systems and Models for Risk Covering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu Mihai Treapăt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainly, this paper focuses on the roles of artificial intelligence based systems and especially on risk-covering operations. In this context, the paper comes with theoretical explanations on real-life based examples and applications. From a general perspective, the paper enriches its value with a wide discussion on the related subject. The paper aims to revise the volatilities’ estimation models and the correlations between the various time series and also by presenting the Risk Metrics methodology, as explained is a case study. The advantages that the VaR estimation offers, consist of its ability to quantitatively and numerically express the risk level of a portfolio, at a certain moment in time and also the risk of on open position (in titles, in FX, commodities or granted loans, belonging to an economic agent or even individual; hence, its role in a more efficient capital allocation, in the assumed risk delimitation, and also as a performance measurement instrument. In this paper and the study case that completes our work, we aim to prove how we can prevent considerable losses and even bankruptcies if VaR is known and applied accordingly. For this reason, the universities inRomaniashould include or increase their curricula with the study of the VaR model as an artificial intelligence tool. The simplicity of the presented case study, most probably, is the strongest argument of the current work because it can be understood also by the readers that are not necessarily very experienced in the risk management field.

  12. Spatial sensitivity analysis of remote sensing snow cover fraction data in a distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, Tomasz; Chormański, Jarosław; Nossent, Jiri; Batelaan, Okke

    2014-05-01

    Distributed hydrological models enhance the analysis and explanation of environmental processes. As more spatial input data and time series become available, more analysis is required of the sensitivity of the data on the simulations. Most research so far focussed on the sensitivity of precipitation data in distributed hydrological models. However, these results can not be compared until a universal approach to quantify the sensitivity of a model to spatial data is available. The frequently tested and used remote sensing data for distributed models is snow cover. Snow cover fraction (SCF) remote sensing products are easily available from the internet, e.g. MODIS snow cover product MOD10A1 (daily snow cover fraction at 500m spatial resolution). In this work a spatial sensitivity analysis (SA) of remotely sensed SCF from MOD10A1 was conducted with the distributed WetSpa model. The aim is to investigate if the WetSpa model is differently subjected to SCF uncertainty in different areas of the model domain. The analysis was extended to look not only at SA quantities but also to relate them to the physical parameters and processes in the study area. The study area is the Biebrza River catchment, Poland, which is considered semi natural catchment and subject to a spring snow melt regime. Hydrological simulations are performed with the distributed WetSpa model, with a simulation period of 2 hydrological years. For the SA the Latin-Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) algorithm is used, with a set of different response functions in regular 4 x 4 km grid. The results show that the spatial patterns of sensitivity can be easily interpreted by co-occurrence of different landscape features. Moreover, the spatial patterns of the SA results are related to the WetSpa spatial parameters and to different physical processes. Based on the study results, it is clear that spatial approach of SA can be performed with the proposed algorithm and the MOD10A1 SCF is spatially sensitive in

  13. Assessment of cloud cover in climate models and reanalysis databases with ISCCP over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Aaron; Calbo, Josep; Gonzalez, Josep-Abel

    2013-04-01

    Clouds are an important regulator of climate due to their influence on the water balance of the atmosphere and their interaction with solar and infrared radiation. At any time, clouds cover a great percentage of the Earth's surface but their distribution is very irregular along time and space, which makes the evaluation of their influence on climate a difficult task. At present there are few studies related to cloud cover comparing current climate models with observational data. In this study, the database of monthly cloud cover provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) has been chosen as a reference against which we compare the output of CMIP5 climate models and reanalysis databases, on the domain South-Europe-Mediterranean (SEM) established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1]. The study covers the period between 1984 and 2009, and the performance of cloud cover estimations for seasons has also been studied. To quantify the agreement between the databases we use two types of statistics: bias and SkillScore, which is based on the probability density functions (PDFs) of the databases [2]. We also use Taylor diagrams to visualize the statistics. Results indicate that there are areas where the models accurately describe what it is observed by ISCCP, for some periods of the year (e.g. Northern Africa, for autumn), compared to other areas and periods for which the agreement is lower (Iberian Peninsula in winter and the Black Sea for the summer months). However these differences should be attributed not only to the limitations of climate models, but possibly also to the data provided by ISCCP. References [1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007: Working Group I Report: The Physical Science Basis. [2] Ranking the AR4 climate models over the Murray Darling Basin using simulated maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation. Int J Climatol 28

  14. Forest cover dynamics analysis and prediction modelling using logistic regression model (case study: forest cover at Indragiri Hulu Regency, Riau Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahib, Irmadi; Suryanta, Jaka

    2017-01-01

    Forest destruction, climate change and global warming could reduce an indirect forest benefit because forest is the largest carbon sink and it plays a very important role in global carbon cycle. To support Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD +) program, people pay attention of forest cover changes as the basis for calculating carbon stock changes. This study try to explore the forest cover dynamics as well as the prediction model of forest cover in Indragiri Hulu Regency, Riau Province Indonesia. The study aims to analyse some various explanatory variables associated with forest conversion processes and predict forest cover change using logistic regression model (LRM). The main data used in this study is Land use/cover map (1990 – 2011). Performance of developed model was assessed through a comparison of the predicted model of forest cover change and the actual forest cover in 2011. The analysis result showed that forest cover has decreased continuously between 1990 and 2011, up to the loss of 165,284.82 ha (35.19 %) of forest area. The LRM successfully predicted the forest cover for the period 2010 with reasonably high accuracy (ROC = 92.97 % and 70.26 %).

  15. Role of snow cover on urban heat island intensity investigated by urban canopy model with snow effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Mori, K.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands have been investigated around the world including snowy regions. However, the relationship between urban heat island and snow cover remains unclear. This study examined the effect of snow cover in urban canopy on energy budget in urban areas of Sapporo, north Japan by 1km mesh WRF experiments. The modified urban canopy model permits snow cover in urban canopy by the modification of surface albedo, surface emissivity, and thermal conductivity for roof and road according to snow depth and snow water equivalent. The experiments revealed that snow cover in urban canopy decreases urban air temperature more strongly for daily maximum temperature (0.4-0.6 K) than for daily minimum temperature (0.1-0.3 K). The high snow albedo reduces the net radiation at building roof, leading to decrease in sensible heat flux. Interestingly, the cooling effect of snow cover compensates the warming effect by anthropogenic heat release in Sapporo, suggesting the importance of snow cover treatment in urban canopy model as well as estimating accurate anthropogenic heat distributions. In addition, the effect of road snow clearance tends to increase nocturnal surface air temperature in urban areas. A possible role of snow cover on urban heat island intensity was evaluated by two experiments with snow cover (i.e., realistic condition) and without snow cover in entire numerical domain. The snow cover decreases surface air temperature more in rural areas than in urban areas, which was commonly seen throughout a day, with stronger magnitude during nighttime than daytime, resulting in intensifying urban heat island by 4.0 K for daily minimum temperature.

  16. Recent land cover changes and sensitivity of the model simulations to various land cover datasets for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Ma, Zhuguo; Mahmood, Rezaul; Zhao, Tianbao; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Yanping

    2016-09-01

    Reliable land cover data are important for improving numerical simulation by regional climate model, because the land surface properties directly affect climate simulation by partitioning of energy, water and momentum fluxes and by determining temperature and moisture at the interface between the land surface and atmosphere. China has experienced significant land cover change in recent decades and accurate representation of these changes is, hence, essential. In this study, we used a climate model to examine the changes experienced in the regional climate because of the different land cover data in recent decades. Three sets of experiments are performed using the same settings, except for the land use/cover (LC) data for the years 1990, 2000, 2009, and the model default LC data. Three warm season periods are selected, which represented a wet (1998), normal (2000) and a dry year (2011) for China in each set of experiment. The results show that all three sets of land cover experiments simulate a warm bias relative to the control with default LC data for near-surface temperature in summertime in most parts of China. It is especially noticeable in the southwest China and south of the Yangtze River, where significant changes of LC occurred. Deforestation in southwest China and to the south of Yangtze River in the experiment cases may have contributed to the negative precipitation bias relative to the control cases. Large LC changes in northwestern Tibetan Plateau for 2000 and 2009 datasets are also associated with changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and heat fluxes. Wind anomalies and energy budget changes are consistent with the precipitation and temperature changes.

  17. Recent land cover changes and sensitivity of the model simulations to various land cover datasets for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Ma, Zhuguo; Mahmood, Rezaul; Zhao, Tianbao; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Yanping

    2017-08-01

    Reliable land cover data are important for improving numerical simulation by regional climate model, because the land surface properties directly affect climate simulation by partitioning of energy, water and momentum fluxes and by determining temperature and moisture at the interface between the land surface and atmosphere. China has experienced significant land cover change in recent decades and accurate representation of these changes is, hence, essential. In this study, we used a climate model to examine the changes experienced in the regional climate because of the different land cover data in recent decades. Three sets of experiments are performed using the same settings, except for the land use/cover (LC) data for the years 1990, 2000, 2009, and the model default LC data. Three warm season periods are selected, which represented a wet (1998), normal (2000) and a dry year (2011) for China in each set of experiment. The results show that all three sets of land cover experiments simulate a warm bias relative to the control with default LC data for near-surface temperature in summertime in most parts of China. It is especially noticeable in the southwest China and south of the Yangtze River, where significant changes of LC occurred. Deforestation in southwest China and to the south of Yangtze River in the experiment cases may have contributed to the negative precipitation bias relative to the control cases. Large LC changes in northwestern Tibetan Plateau for 2000 and 2009 datasets are also associated with changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and heat fluxes. Wind anomalies and energy budget changes are consistent with the precipitation and temperature changes.

  18. Modeling interactions between land cover and climate in integrated assessment models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) link representations of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate in an internally consistent framework. These models are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate, energy, and other policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. Additionally, these models are used to develop future scenarios of emissions and land cover for use in climate models (e.g., RCPs and CMIP5). Land use is strongly influenced by assumptions about population, income, diet, ecosystem productivity change, and climate policy. Population, income, and diet determine the amount of food production needed in the future. Assumptions about future changes in crop yields due to agronomic developments influence the amount of land needed to produce food crops. Climate policy has implications for land when land-based mitigation options (e.g., afforestation and bioenergy) are considered. IAM models consider each of these factors in their computation of land use in the future. As each of these factors is uncertain in the future, IAM models use scenario analysis to explore the implications of each. For example, IAMs have been used to explore the effect of different mitigation policies on land cover. These models can quantify the trade-offs in terms of land cover, energy prices, food prices, and mitigation costs of each of these policies. Furthermore, IAMs are beginning to explore the effect of climate change on land productivity, and the implications that changes in productivity have on mitigation efforts. In this talk, we describe the implications for future land use and land cover of a variety of socioeconomic, technological, and policy drivers in several IAM models. Additionally, we will discuss the effects of future land cover on climate and the effects of climate on future land cover, as simulated

  19. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  20. Prediction of VH-VL domain orientation for antibody variable domain modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujotzek, Alexander; Dunbar, James; Lipsmeier, Florian; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Antes, Iris; Deane, Charlotte M; Georges, Guy

    2015-04-01

    The antigen-binding site of antibodies forms at the interface of their two variable domains, VH and VL, making VH-VL domain orientation a factor that codetermines antibody specificity and affinity. Preserving VH-VL domain orientation in the process of antibody engineering is important in order to retain the original antibody properties, and predicting the correct VH-VL orientation has also been recognized as an important factor in antibody homology modeling. In this article, we present a fast sequence-based predictor that predicts VH-VL domain orientation with Q(2) values ranging from 0.54 to 0.73 on the evaluation set. We describe VH-VL orientation in terms of the six absolute ABangle parameters that have recently been proposed as a means to separate the different degrees of freedom of VH-VL domain orientation. In order to assess the impact of adjusting VH-VL orientation according to our predictions, we use the set of antibody structures of the recently published Antibody Modeling Assessment (AMA) II study. In comparison to the original AMAII homology models, we find an improvement in the accuracy of VH-VL orientation modeling, which also translates into an improvement in the average root-mean-square deviation with regard to the crystal structures.

  1. A Mixed Land Cover Spatio-temporal Data Model Based on Object-oriented and Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yinchao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal data model (STDM is one of the hot topics in the domains of spatio-temporal database and data analysis. There is a common view that a universal STDM is always of high complexity due to the various situation of spatio-temporal data. In this article, a mixed STDM is proposed based on object-oriented and snapshot models for modelling and analyzing landcover change (LCC. This model uses the object-oriented STDM to describe the spatio-temporal processes of land cover patches and organize their spatial and attributive properties. In the meantime, it uses the snapshot STDM to present the spatio-temporal distribution of LCC on the whole via snapshot images. The two types of models are spatially and temporally combined into a mixed version. In addition to presenting the spatio-temporal events themselves, this model could express the transformation events between different classes of spatio-temporal objects. It can be used to create database for historical data of LCC, do spatio-temporal statistics, simulation and data mining with the data. In this article, the LCC data in Heilongjiang province is used for case study to validate spatio-temporal data management and analysis abilities of mixed STDM, including creating database, spatio-temporal query, global evolution analysis and patches spatio-temporal process expression.

  2. A fitted neoprene garment to cover dressings in swine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Matt, Sara E; Pavlovich, Anna R; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2012-12-17

    Domesticated porcine species are commonly used in studies of wound healing, owing to similarities between porcine skin and human skin. Such studies often involve wound dressings, and keeping these dressings intact on the animal can be a challenge. The authors describe a novel and simple technique for constructing a fitted neoprene garment for pigs that covers dressings and maintains their integrity during experiments.

  3. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...

  4. Time domain modeling of tunable response of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopeva, Ludmila; Emani, Naresh K.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a causal numerical model for time domain simulations of the optical response of graphene. The dielectric function is approximated with a conductivity term, a Drude term and a number of the critical points terms.......We present a causal numerical model for time domain simulations of the optical response of graphene. The dielectric function is approximated with a conductivity term, a Drude term and a number of the critical points terms....

  5. Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Guilherme Luís Menegassi; Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2004-07-05

    To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Three hypothetical final covers were taken from scientific literature to investigate the proposed method: (i) a compacted clay liner (CCL); (ii) a composite liner (CL) and (iii) a capillary barrier (CB). The processes investigated: (i) the saturated hydraulic flux; (ii) the unsaturated hydraulic flux (exclusively for the capillary barrier) and (iii) the radon exhalation to the atmosphere. The computer programs utilised for the analyses are: (i) Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP); (ii) SEEP/W and (iii) RADON. The site considered for the development of the research presented herein was the uranium mill tailings impoundment located at the Brazilian city of Poços de Caldas, in the Minas Gerais State.

  6. Denoising in Wavelet Domain Using Probabilistic Graphical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maham Haider

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Denoising of real world images that are degraded by Gaussian noise is a long established problem in statistical signal processing. The existing models in time-frequency domain typically model the wavelet coefficients as either independent or jointly Gaussian. However, in the compression arena, techniques like denoising and detection, states the need for models to be non-Gaussian in nature. Probabilistic Graphical Models designed in time-frequency domain, serves the purpose for achieving denoising and compression with an improved performance. In this work, Hidden Markov Model (HMM designed with 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is proposed. A comparative analysis of proposed method with different existing techniques: Wavelet based and curvelet based methods in Bayesian Network domain and Empirical Bayesian Approach using Hidden Markov Tree model for denoising has been presented. Results are compared in terms of PSNR and visual quality.

  7. Visualisation of Domain-Specific Modelling Languages Using UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B.; Van Deursen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, general-purpose modelling tools are often only used to draw diagrams for the documentation. The introduction of model-driven software development approaches involves the definition of domain-specific modelling languages that allow code generation. Although graphical representations of the

  8. Multislice behavioral modeling based on envelope domain for power amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Huadong; Bao Jingfu; Wu Zhengde

    2009-01-01

    An envelope domain multislice behavioral modeling is introduced. The tradition AM-AM and AM-PM characteristics of power amplifiers are extended to envelope domain and base-band filter is applied to distortion complex envelope signal for description of the envelope memory effect. Using traditional one and two-tone tests, the coefficients of nonlinear model and the FIR filter can be extracted. At last the model has been applied to a 10 W WCDMA power amplifier to predict its output signal. And simulation results show that the model output conforms very well to the traditional transistor level simulation results.

  9. Modeling Historical Land Cover and Land Use: A Review fromContemporary Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonsina Chang-Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-explicit land cover land use change (LCLUC models are becoming increasingly useful tools for historians and archaeologists. Such kinds of models have been developed and used by geographers, ecologists and land managers over the last few decades to carry out prospective scenarios. In this paper, we review historical models to compare them with prospective models, with the assumption that the ample experience gained in the development of models of prospective simulation can benefit the development of models having as their objective the simulation of changes that happened in the past. The review is divided into three sections: in the first section, we explain the functioning of contemporary LCLUC models; in the second section, we analyze historical LCLUC models; in the third section, we compare the former two types of models, and finally, we discuss the contributions to historical LCLUC models of contemporary LCLUC models.

  10. On the role of domain size and resolution in the simulations with the HIRHAM region climate model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Thejll, Peter; Christensen, Jens H.;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the simulated temperature and precipitation of the HIRHAM regional climate model using systematic variations in domain size, resolution and detailed location in a total of eight simulations. HIRHAM was forced by ERA-Interim boundary data and the simulations focused on higher...... resolutions in the range of 5.5–12 km. HIRHAM outputs of seasonal precipitation and temperature were assessed by calculating distributed model errors against a higher resolution data set covering Denmark and a 0.25° resolution data set covering Europe. Furthermore the simulations were statistically tested......, the temperature errors were more highly significant than precipitation. In similarly sized domains, 12 of 16 combinations of variables, observation validation data and seasons showed better results for the highest resolution domain, but generally the most significant improvements were seen when varying the domain...

  11. Modeling human response errors in synthetic flight simulator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a control theoretic approach to modeling human response errors (HRE) in the flight simulation domain. The human pilot is modeled as a supervisor of a highly automated system. The synthesis uses the theory of optimal control pilot modeling for integrating the pilot's observation error and the error due to the simulation model (experimental error). Methods for solving the HRE problem are suggested. Experimental verification of the models will be tested in a flight quality handling simulation.

  12. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  13. Domain Model Structure - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us SAHG Domain Model Structure Data detail Data name Domain Model Structure DOI 10.18908/lsdba....Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Domain Model Structure - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  14. On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-specific Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Knappe, Rasmus; Bulskov, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    is a specific lattice-based concept algebraic language by which ontologies are inherently generative. The modeling of a domain specific ontology is based on a general ontology built upon common knowledge resources as dictionaries and thesauri. Based on analysis of concept occurrences in the object document......-based navigation. Finally, a measure of concept similarity is derived from the domain specific ontology based on occurrences, commonalities, and distances in the ontology....

  15. Choosing appropriate subpopulations for modeling tree canopy cover nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen G. Moisen; John W. Coulston; Barry T. Wilson; Warren B. Cohen; Mark V. Finco

    2012-01-01

    In prior national mapping efforts, the country has been divided into numerous ecologically similar mapping zones, and individual models have been constructed for each zone. Additionally, a hierarchical approach has been taken within zones to first mask out areas of nonforest, then target models of tree attributes within forested areas only. This results in many models...

  16. Decaying Domain Walls in an Extended Gravity Model and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate cosmological consequences of an extended gravity model which belongs to the same class studied by Accetta and Steinhardt in an extended inflationary scenario. But we do not worry about inflation in our model; instead, we focus on a topological object formed during cosmological phase transitions. Although domain walls appear during first-order phase transitions such as QCD transition, they decay at the end of the phase transition. Therefore the "domain wall problem" does not exist in the suitable range of pameters and, on the contrary, the "fragments" of walls may become seeds of dark matter. A possible connection to "oscillating universe" model offered by Morikawa et al. is also discussed.

  17. Small signal frequency domain model of an HVDC converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osauskas, C.M.; Hume, D.J.; Wood, A.R. [UnIversity of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-11-01

    A small-signal analytic frequency domain model of a 6-pulse HVDC converter is presented. The model consists of a set of explicit algebraic equations which relate the transfer of distortion from AC voltage, DC current and firing angle modulation, to AC current and DC voltage. The equations represent the linearisation of the transfers around a base operating point, and are derived from a piecewise linear description of the AC current and DC voltage waveforms. The model provides an understanding of the transfer of distortion by the converter and is in excellent agreement with time domain simulations. (author)

  18. High Precision Time Domain Forward Modeling for Crosshole Electromagnetic Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shuhai; Zhao Liying

    2007-01-01

    To improve the resolution of crosshole electromagnetic tomography, high precision of forward modeling is necessary. A pseudo-spectral time domain (PSTD) forward modeling was used to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation between two boreholes. The PSTD algorithm is based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm for spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. Besides having the strongpoint of the FDTD method, the calculation precision of the PSTD algorithm is higher than that of the FDTD method under the same calculation condition. The forward modeling using the PSTD method will play an important role in enhancing the resolution of crosshole electromagnetic tomography.

  19. A Separated Domain-Based Kernel Model for Trusted Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yanxiang; SHEN Changxiang; XU Jingdong; WU Gongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper fist gives an investigation on trusted computing on mainstream operation system (OS). Based on the observations, it is pointed out that Trusted Computing cannot be achieved due to the lack of separation mechanism of the components in mainstream OS. In order to provide a kind of separation mechanism, this paper proposes a separated domain-based kernel model (SDBKM), and this model is verified by non-interference theory. By monitoring and simplifying the trust dependence between domains, this model can solve problems in trust measurement such as deny of service (DoS) attack, Host security, and reduce the overhead of measurement.

  20. Modeling Microwave Structures in Time Domain Using Laguerre Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on time domain modeling of microwave structures by the method of moments. Two alternative schemes with weighted Laguerre polynomials are presented. Thanks to their properties, these schemes are free of late time oscillations. Further, the paper is aimed to effective and accurate evaluation of Green's functions integrals within these schemes. For this evaluation, a first- and second-order polynomial approximation is developed. The last part of the paper deals with modeling microstrip structures in the time domain. Conditions of impedance matching are derived, and the proposed approach is verified by modeling a microstrip filter.

  1. Industrial application of formal models generated from domain specific languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) provide a lightweight approach to incorporate formal techniques into the industrial workflow. From DSL instances, formal models and other artefacts can be generated, such as simulation models and code. Having a single source for all artefacts improves maintenance and

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DISTANCE MEASURES IN PROPOSED FUZZY TEXTURE MODEL FOR LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTELY SENSED IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jenicka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification is a vital application area in satellite image processing domain. Texture is a useful feature in land cover classification. The classification accuracy obtained always depends on the effectiveness of the texture model, distance measure and classification algorithm used. In this work, texture features are extracted using the proposed multivariate descriptor, MFTM/MVAR that uses Multivariate Fuzzy Texture Model (MFTM supplemented with Multivariate Variance (MVAR. The K_Nearest Neighbour (KNN algorithm is used for classification due to its simplicity coupled with efficiency. The distance measures such as Log likelihood, Manhattan, Chi squared, Kullback Leibler and Bhattacharyya were used and the experiments were conducted on IRS P6 LISS-IV data. The classified images were evaluated based on error matrix, classification accuracy and Kappa statistics. From the experiments, it is found that log likelihood distance with MFTM/MVAR descriptor and KNN classifier gives 95.29% classification accuracy.

  3. Factorized domain wall partition functions in trigonometric vertex models

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O; Zuparic, M

    2007-01-01

    We obtain factorized domain wall partition functions for two sets of trigonometric vertex models: 1. The N-state Deguchi-Akutsu models, for N = {2, 3, 4} (and conjecture the result for all N >= 5), and 2. The sl(r+1|s+1) Perk-Schultz models, for {r, s = \\N}, where (given the symmetries of these models) the result is independent of {r, s}.

  4. Why Friedman's Non-monotonic Reasoning Defies Hempel's Covering Law Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); Y-H. Tan

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We wil

  5. Why Friedman's non-monotonic reasoning defies Hempel's covering law model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); Yao-Hua Tan (Yao Hua)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will show that Hempel's covering law model can't deal very well with explanations that are based on incomplete knowledge. In particular the symmetry thesis, which is an important aspect of the covering law model, turns out to be problematic for these explanations. We wil

  6. Finite mixture models for sub-pixel coastal land cover classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ritchie, Michaela C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available mixture models have been used to generate sub-pixel land cover classifications, however, traditionally this makes use of mixtures of normal distributions. However, these models fail to represent many land cover classes accurately, as these are usually...

  7. Hybrid time/frequency domain modeling of nonlinear components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2007-01-01

    model is used as a basis for its implementation. First, the linear network part is replaced with an ideal voltage source and a time domain (EMT) simulation is performed. During the initial oscillations, harmonic content of the converter currents is calculated at every period by a fast Fourier transform...... and the periodic steady state is identified. Obtained harmonic currents are assigned to current sources and used in the frequency domain calculation in the linear network. The obtained three-phase bus voltage is then inverse Fourier transformed and assigned to the voltage source and the time domain simulation...... is performed again. This process is repeated until the change in the magnitudes and phase angles of the fundamental and low order characteristic harmonics of the bus voltage is smaller then predefined precision indexes. The method is verified against precise time domain simulation. The convergence properties...

  8. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  9. Infiltration under snow cover: Modeling approaches and predictive uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Jessica; Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater recharge from snowmelt represents a temporal redistribution of precipitation. This is extremely important because the rate and timing of snowpack drainage has substantial consequences to aquifer recharge patterns, which in turn affect groundwater availability throughout the rest of the year. The modeling methods developed to estimate drainage from a snowpack, which typically rely on temporally-dense point-measurements or temporally-limited spatially-dispersed calibration data, range in complexity from the simple degree-day method to more complex and physically-based energy balance approaches. While the gamut of snowmelt models are routinely used to aid in water resource management, a comparison of snowmelt models' predictive uncertainties had previously not been done. Therefore, we established a snowmelt model calibration dataset that is both temporally dense and represents the integrated snowmelt infiltration signal for the Vers Chez le Brandt research catchment, which functions as a rather unique natural lysimeter. We then evaluated the uncertainty associated with the degree-day, a modified degree-day and energy balance snowmelt model predictions using the null-space Monte Carlo approach. All three melt models underestimate total snowpack drainage, underestimate the rate of early and midwinter drainage and overestimate spring snowmelt rates. The actual rate of snowpack water loss is more constant over the course of the entire winter season than the snowmelt models would imply, indicating that mid-winter melt can contribute as significantly as springtime snowmelt to groundwater recharge in low alpine settings. Further, actual groundwater recharge could be between 2 and 31% greater than snowmelt models suggest, over the total winter season. This study shows that snowmelt model predictions can have considerable uncertainty, which may be reduced by the inclusion of more data that allows for the use of more complex approaches such as the energy balance

  10. Millimeter wave imaging system modeling: spatial frequency domain calculation versus spatial domain calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Tavakol, Vahid; Ocket, Ilja; Xu, Peng; Schreurs, Dominique; Wang, Jinkuan; Nauwelaers, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Active millimeter wave imaging systems have become a promising candidate for indoor security applications and industrial inspection. However, there is a lack of simulation tools at the system level. We introduce and evaluate two modeling approaches that are applied to active millimeter wave imaging systems. The first approach originates in Fourier optics and concerns the calculation in the spatial frequency domain. The second approach is based on wave propagation and corresponds to calculation in the spatial domain. We compare the two approaches in the case of both rough and smooth objects and point out that the spatial frequency domain calculation may suffer from a large error in amplitude of 50% in the case of rough objects. The comparison demonstrates that the concepts of point-spread function and f-number should be applied with careful consideration in coherent millimeter wave imaging systems. In the case of indoor applications, the near-field effect should be considered, and this is included in the spatial domain calculation.

  11. Time-domain fitting of battery electrochemical impedance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S. M. M.; Birkl, C. R.; Howey, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective technique for diagnosing the behaviour of electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells, usually by fitting data to an equivalent circuit model (ECM). The common approach in the laboratory is to measure the impedance spectrum of a cell in the frequency domain using a single sine sweep signal, then fit the ECM parameters in the frequency domain. This paper focuses instead on estimation of the ECM parameters directly from time-domain data. This may be advantageous for parameter estimation in practical applications such as automotive systems including battery-powered vehicles, where the data may be heavily corrupted by noise. The proposed methodology is based on the simplified refined instrumental variable for continuous-time fractional systems method ('srivcf'), provided by the Crone toolbox [1,2], combined with gradient-based optimisation to estimate the order of the fractional term in the ECM. The approach was tested first on synthetic data and then on real data measured from a 26650 lithium-ion iron phosphate cell with low-cost equipment. The resulting Nyquist plots from the time-domain fitted models match the impedance spectrum closely (much more accurately than when a Randles model is assumed), and the fitted parameters as separately determined through a laboratory potentiostat with frequency domain fitting match to within 13%.

  12. Reduced Order Internal Models in the Frequency Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Petteri; Paunonen, Lassi

    2016-01-01

    The internal model principle states that all robustly regulating controllers must contain a suitably reduplicated internal model of the signal to be regulated. Using frequency domain methods, we show that the number of the copies may be reduced if the class of perturbations in the problem is restricted. We present a two step design procedure for a simple controller containing a reduced order internal model achieving robust regulation. The results are illustrated with an example of a five tank...

  13. Modeling photosynthesis in sea ice-covered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew C.; Lindsay, Keith; Holland, Marika M.

    2015-09-01

    The lower trophic levels of marine ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth System mediating fluxes of carbon to the ocean interior. Many of the functional relationships describing biological rate processes, such as primary productivity, in marine ecosystem models are nonlinear functions of environmental state variables. As a result of nonlinearity, rate processes computed from mean fields at coarse resolution will differ from similar computations that incorporate small-scale heterogeneity. Here we examine how subgrid-scale variability in sea ice thickness impacts simulated net primary productivity (NPP) in a 1°×1° configuration of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM simulates a subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution and computes shortwave penetration independently for each ice thickness category. However, the default model formulation uses grid-cell mean irradiance to compute NPP. We demonstrate that accounting for subgrid-scale shortwave heterogeneity by computing light limitation terms under each ice category then averaging the result is a more accurate invocation of the photosynthesis equations. Moreover, this change delays seasonal bloom onset and increases interannual variability in NPP in the sea ice zone in the model. The new treatment reduces annual production by about 32% in the Arctic and 19% in the Antarctic. Our results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity in physical fields when integrating nonlinear biogeochemical reactions.

  14. Pyrolysis Model Development for a Multilayer Floor Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. McKinnon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive pyrolysis models that are integral to computational fire codes have improved significantly over the past decade as the demand for improved predictive capabilities has increased. High fidelity pyrolysis models may improve the design of engineered materials for better fire response, the design of the built environment, and may be used in forensic investigations of fire events. A major limitation to widespread use of comprehensive pyrolysis models is the large number of parameters required to fully define a material and the lack of effective methodologies for measurement of these parameters, especially for complex materials. The work presented here details a methodology used to characterize the pyrolysis of a low-pile carpet tile, an engineered composite material that is common in commercial and institutional occupancies. The studied material includes three distinct layers of varying composition and physical structure. The methodology utilized a comprehensive pyrolysis model (ThermaKin to conduct inverse analyses on data collected through several experimental techniques. Each layer of the composite was individually parameterized to identify its contribution to the overall response of the composite. The set of properties measured to define the carpet composite were validated against mass loss rate curves collected at conditions outside the range of calibration conditions to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model. The mean error between the predicted curve and the mean experimental mass loss rate curve was calculated as approximately 20% on average for heat fluxes ranging from 30 to 70 kW·m−2, which is within the mean experimental uncertainty.

  15. Modeling debris-covered glaciers: extension due to steady debris input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Debris-forced glacier extension decreases the ratio of accumulation zone to total glacier area (AAR. The model reproduces first-order relationships between debris cover, AARs, and glacier surface velocities from glaciers in High Asia. We provide a quantitative, theoretical foundation to interpret the effect of debris cover on the moraine record, and to assess the effects of climate change on debris-covered glaciers.

  16. Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid

  17. ISO 19152: 2012, Land Administration Domain Model published by ISO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.; Lemmen, C.; Uitermark, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the last developments of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). The Final Draft International Standard, ISO FDIS 19152, unanimously passed on 1 November 2012 the final vote towards becoming an International Standard (IS). After technical editing by ISO secretariat in Genev

  18. Frequency-domain thermal modelling of power semiconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andresen, Markus

    2015-01-01

    to correctly predict the device temperatures, especially when considering the thermal grease and heat sink attached to the power semiconductor devices. In this paper, the frequency-domain approach is applied to the modelling of thermal dynamics for power devices. The limits of the existing RC lump...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_000271.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000271.1 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN PAX-6 PAIRED DOMAIN-DNA COMPLEX RE...VEALS A GENERAL MODEL FOR PAX PROTEIN-DNA INTERACTIONS c6paxa_ chr11/NP_000271.1/NP_000271.1_holo_4-136.pdb

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_002323.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002323.2 chr12 Haddock model of the complex between double module of LRP, CR56, ...and first domain of receptor associated protein, RAP-d1. p2fylb_ chr12/NP_002323.2/NP_002323.2_holo_2483-255

  1. Tree cover bistability in the MPI Earth system model due to fire-vegetation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The global distribution of tree cover is mainly limited by precipitation and temperature. Within tropical ecosystems different tree cover values have been observed in regions with similar climate. Satellite data even revealed a lack of ecosystems with tree coverage around 60% and dominant tree covers of 20% and 80%. Conceptual models have been used to explain this tree cover distribution and base it on a bistability in tree cover caused by fire-vegetation interactions or competition between trees and grasses. Some ecological models also show this property of multiple stable tree covers, but it remains unclear which mechanism is the cause for this behaviour. Vegetation models used in climate simulations usually use simple approaches and were criticised to neglect such ecological theories and misrepresent tropical tree cover distribution and dynamics. Here we show that including the process based fire model SPITFIRE generated a bistability in tree cover in the land surface model JSBACH. Previous model versions showed only one stable tree cover state. Using a conceptual model we can show that a bistability can occur due to a feedback between grasses and fire. Grasses and trees are represented in the model based on plant functional types. With respect to fire the main difference between grasses and trees is the fuel characteristics. Grass fuels are smaller in size, and have a higher surface area to volume ratio. These grass fuels dry faster increasing their flammability which leads to a higher fire rate of spread. Trees are characterized by coarse fuels, which are less likely to ignite and rather suppress fire. Therefore a higher fraction of grasses promotes fire, fire kills trees and following a fire, grasses establish faster. This feedback can stabilize ecosystems with low tree cover in a low tree cover state and systems with high tree cover in a high tree cover state. In previous model versions this feedback was absent. Based on the new JSBACH model driven with

  2. Modeling protein network evolution under genome duplication and domain shuffling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isambert Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successive whole genome duplications have recently been firmly established in all major eukaryote kingdoms. Such exponential evolutionary processes must have largely contributed to shape the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI networks by outweighing, in particular, all time-linear network growths modeled so far. Results We propose and solve a mathematical model of PPI network evolution under successive genome duplications. This demonstrates, from first principles, that evolutionary conservation and scale-free topology are intrinsically linked properties of PPI networks and emerge from i prevailing exponential network dynamics under duplication and ii asymmetric divergence of gene duplicates. While required, we argue that this asymmetric divergence arises, in fact, spontaneously at the level of protein-binding sites. This supports a refined model of PPI network evolution in terms of protein domains under exponential and asymmetric duplication/divergence dynamics, with multidomain proteins underlying the combinatorial formation of protein complexes. Genome duplication then provides a powerful source of PPI network innovation by promoting local rearrangements of multidomain proteins on a genome wide scale. Yet, we show that the overall conservation and topology of PPI networks are robust to extensive domain shuffling of multidomain proteins as well as to finer details of protein interaction and evolution. Finally, large scale features of direct and indirect PPI networks of S. cerevisiae are well reproduced numerically with only two adjusted parameters of clear biological significance (i.e. network effective growth rate and average number of protein-binding domains per protein. Conclusion This study demonstrates the statistical consequences of genome duplication and domain shuffling on the conservation and topology of PPI networks over a broad evolutionary scale across eukaryote kingdoms. In particular, scale

  3. Modelling land change: the issue of use and cover in wide-scale applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the underlying causes for the apparent mismatch between land cover and land use in the context of wide-scale land change modelling are explored. A land use-land cover (LU/LC) ratio is proposed as a relevant landscape characteristic. The one-to-one ratio between land use and land

  4. Domains via Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoqiang; CHEN Yixiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a concrete and simple introduction to two pillars of domain theory: (1) solving recursive domain equations, and (2) universal and saturated domains. Our exposition combines Larsen and Winskel's idea on solving domain equations using information systems with Girard's idea of stable domain theory in the form of coherence spaces, or graphs.Detailed constructions are given for universal and even homogeneous objects in two categories of graphs: one representing binary complete, prime algebraic domains with complete primes covering the bottom; the other representing ω-algebraic, prime algebraic lattices. The backand-forth argument in model theory helps to enlighten the constructions.

  5. Possibilities of Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) implementation in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babalola, S.O.; Rahman, A.A.; Choon, L.T.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    LADM covers essential information associated components of land administration and management including those over water and elements above and below the surface of the earth. LADM standard provides an abstract conceptual model with three packages and one sub-package. LADM defined terminology for a

  6. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, Shaini; Thakur, Praveen K.; Aggarwal, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH) have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006). Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I) and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA) to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU), rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated using observed

  7. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006. Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU, rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated

  8. Critical domain-wall dynamics of model B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, R H; Zheng, B; Zhou, N J

    2009-05-01

    With Monte Carlo methods, we simulate the critical domain-wall dynamics of model B, taking the two-dimensional Ising model as an example. In the macroscopic short-time regime, a dynamic scaling form is revealed. Due to the existence of the quasirandom walkers, the magnetization shows intrinsic dependence on the lattice size L . An exponent which governs the L dependence of the magnetization is measured to be sigma=0.243(8) .

  9. Effective roughness calculated from satellite-derived land cover maps and hedge-information used in a weather forecasting model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Nielsen, N.,W.; Jensen, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    In numerical weather prediction, climate and hydrological modelling, the grid cell size is typically larger than the horizontal length scales of variations in aerodynamic roughness, surface temperature and surface humidity. These local land cover variations give rise to sub-grid scale surface flux...... to be well-described in any large-scale model. A method of aggregating the roughness step changes in arbitrary real terrain has been applied in flat terrain (Denmark) where sub-grid scale vegetation-driven roughness variations are a dominant characteristic of the landscape. The aggregation model...... is a physical two-dimensional atmospheric flow model in the horizontal domain based on a linearized version of the Navier Stoke equation. The equations are solved by the Fast Fourier Transformation technique, hence the code is very fast. The new effective roughness maps have been used in the HIgh Resolution...

  10. Using SST and land cover data from EO Missions for improved mesoscale modelling of the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Floors, Rogier Ralph; Lea, Guillaume

    the wind resource modelling of coastal areas. The wind over a coastal area was measured by land-based LIDAR systems [6], an offshore LIDAR buoy and satellite radar remote sensing (SAR and scatterometers). Simulations using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) meso-scale model were performed. The aim...... was to evaluate the uncertainty of the modelled wind in the coastal zone and further improve it. Moreover LIDAR measurements were used to evaluate the wind speed retrieval from high resolution SAR systems (Sentinel-1 and TerraSAR-X). The WRF model used a high-resolution satellite SST reanalysis product from...... the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), specifically developed for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region. To improve the physical description of the domain, the elevation, topography and land use, the CORINE land cover database and the SRTM elevation database are used as boundary conditions; with a spatial...

  11. Domain walls and gravitational waves in the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Tomasz; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek; Olszewski, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    We study domain walls which can be created in the Standard Model under the assumption that it is valid up to very high energy scales. We focus on domain walls interpolating between the physical electroweak vacuum and the global minimum appearing at very high field strengths. The creation of the network which ends up in the electroweak vacuum percolating through the Universe is not as difficult to obtain as one may expect, although it requires certain tuning of initial conditions. Our numerical simulations confirm that such domain walls would swiftly decay and thus cannot dominate the Universe. We discuss the possibility of detection of gravitational waves produced in this scenario. We have found that for the standard cosmology the energy density of these gravitational waves is too small to be observed in present and planned detectors.

  12. Domain walls and gravitational waves in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Krajewski, Tomasz; Lewicki, Marek; Olszewski, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    We study domain walls which can be created in the Standard Model under the assumption that it is valid up to very high energy scales. We focus on domain walls interpolating between the physical electroweak vacuum and the global minimum appearing at very high field strengths. The creation of the network which ends up in the electroweak vacuum percolating through the Universe is not as difficult to obtain as one may expect, although it requires certain tuning of initial conditions. Our numerical simulations confirm that such domain walls would swiftly decay and thus cannot dominate the Universe. We discuss the possibility of detection of gravitational waves produced in this scenario. We have found that for the standard cosmology the energy density of these gravitational waves is too small to be observed in present and planned detectors.

  13. Realisation of chiral symmetry in the domain model of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kalloniatis, Alexander C

    2003-01-01

    The domain model for the QCD vacuum has previously been developed and shown to exhibit confinement of quarks and strong correlation of the local chirality of quark modes and duality of the background domain-like gluon field. Quark fluctuations satisfy a chirality violating boundary conditions parametrized by a random chiral angle $\\alpha_j$ on the $j-th$ domain. The free energy of an ensemble of $N\\to\\infty$ domains depends on $\\{\\alpha_j, j=1... N\\}$ through the logarithm of the quark determinant. Its parity odd part is given by the axial anomaly. The anomaly contribution to the free energy suppresses continuous axial U(1) degeneracy in the ground state, leaving only a residual axial Z(2) symmetry. This discrete symmetry and flavour $SU(N_f)_L\\times SU(N_f)_R$ chiral symmetry in turn are spontaneously broken with a quark condensate arising due to the asymmetry of the spectrum of Dirac operator. In order to illustrate the splitting between the $\\eta'$ from octet pseudoscalar mesons realised in the domain mode...

  14. Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

  15. A Variable Precision Covering-Based Rough Set Model Based on Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical rough set theory is a technique of granular computing for handling the uncertainty, vagueness, and granularity in information systems. Covering-based rough sets are proposed to generalize this theory for dealing with covering data. By introducing a concept of misclassification rate functions, an extended variable precision covering-based rough set model is proposed in this paper. In addition, we define the f-lower and f-upper approximations in terms of neighborhoods in the extended model and study their properties. Particularly, two coverings with the same reductions are proved to generate the same f-lower and f-upper approximations. Finally, we discuss the relationships between the new model and some other variable precision rough set models.

  16. Forcing the snow-cover model SNOWPACK with forecasted weather data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bellaire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalanche danger is often estimated based on snow cover stratigraphy and snow stability data. In Canada, single forecasting regions are very large (>50 000 km2 and snow cover data are often not available. To provide additional information on the snow cover and its seasonal evolution the Swiss snow cover model SNOWPACK was therefore coupled with a regional weather forecasting model GEM15. The output of GEM15 was compared to meteorological as well as snow cover data from Mt. Fidelity, British Columbia, Canada, for five winters between 2005 and 2010. Precipitation amounts are most difficult to predict for weather forecasting models. Therefore, we first assess the capability of the model chain to forecast new snow amounts and consequently snow depth. Forecasted precipitation amounts were generally over-estimated. The forecasted data were therefore filtered and used as input for the snow cover model. Comparison between the model output and manual observations showed that after pre-processing the input data the snow depth and new snow events were well modelled. In a case study two key factors of snow cover instability, i.e. surface hoar formation and crust formation were investigated at a single point. Over half of the relevant critical layers were reproduced. Overall, the model chain shows promising potential as a future forecasting tool for avalanche warning services in Canadian data sparse areas and could thus well be applied to similarly large regions elsewhere. However, a more detailed analysis of the simulated snow cover structure is still required.

  17. Modeling the spatial variability of snow instability with the snow cover model SNOWPACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Bettina; Reuter, Benjamin; Gaume, Johan; Fierz, Charles; Bavay, Mathias; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    Snow stratigraphy - key information for avalanche forecasting - can be obtained using numerical snow cover models driven by meteorological data. Simulations are typically performed for the locations of automatic weather station or for virtual slopes of varying aspect. However, it is unclear to which extent these simulations can represent the snowpack properties in the surrounding terrain, in particular snow instability, which is known to vary in space. To address this issue, we implemented two newly developed snow instability criteria in SNOWPACK relating to failure initiation and crack propagation, two fundamental processes for dry-snow slab avalanche release. Snow cover simulations were performed for the Steintälli field site above Davos (Eastern Swiss Alps), where snowpack data from several field campaigns are available. In each campaign, about 150 vertical snow penetration resistance profiles were sampled with the snow micro-penetrometer (SMP). For each profile, SMP and SNOWPACK- based instability criteria were compared. In addition, we carried out SNOWPACK simulations for multiple aspects and slope angles, allowing to obtain statistical distributions of the snow instability at the basin scale. Comparing the modeled to the observed distributions of snow instability suggests that it is feasible to obtain an adequate spatial representation of snow instability without high resolution distributed modeling. Hence, for the purpose of regional avalanche forecasting, simulations for a selection of virtual slopes seems sufficient to assess the influence of basic terrain features such as aspect and elevation.

  18. Porous Media and Immersed Boundary Hybrid-Modelling for Simulating Flow in Stone Cover-Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Liu, Xiaofeng; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a new numerical modelling approach for coastal and marine applications where a porous media conceptual model was combined with a free surface volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and an immersed boundary method (IBM). The immersed boundary model covers the method of describing a s....... In this paper, the model is applied to investigate two practical cases in terms of a cover layer of stones on a flat bed under oscillatory flow at different packing densities, and a rock toe structure at a breakwater....

  19. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Sonali; Dadhwal, V. K.; Jha, C. S.; Rao, N. Rama; Diwakar, P. G.

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to simulate the forest cover changes in India using Land Change Modeler. Classified multi-temporal long-term forest cover data was used to generate the forest covers of 1880 and 2025. The spatial data were overlaid with variables such as the proximity to roads, settlements, water bodies, elevation and slope to determine the relationship between forest cover change and explanatory variables. The predicted forest cover in 1880 indicates an area of 10,42,008 km2, which represents 31.7% of the geographical area of India. About 40% of the forest cover in India was lost during the time interval of 1880-2013. Ownership of majority of forest lands by non-governmental agencies and large scale shifting cultivation are responsible for higher deforestation rates in the Northeastern states. The six states of the Northeast (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) and one union territory (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) had shown an annual gross rate of deforestation of >0.3 from 2005 to 2013 and has been considered in the present study for the prediction of future forest cover in 2025. The modelling results predicted widespread deforestation in Northeast India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and hence is likely to affect the remaining forests significantly before 2025. The multi-layer perceptron neural network has predicted the forest cover for the period of 1880 and 2025 with a Kappa statistic of >0.70. The model predicted a further decrease of 2305 km2 of forest area in the Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands by 2025. The majority of the protected areas are successful in the protection of the forest cover in the Northeast due to management practices, with the exception of Manas, Sonai-Rupai, Nameri and Marat Longri. The predicted forest cover scenario for the year 2025 would provide useful inputs for effective resource management and help in biodiversity conservation and for mitigating climate change.

  20. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; Sonali Singh; V K Dadhwal; C S Jha; N Rama Rao; P G Diwakar

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to simulate the forest cover changes in India using Land Change Modeler. Classified multi-temporal long-term forest cover data was used to generate the forest covers of 1880 and 2025. The spatial data were overlaid with variables such as the proximity to roads, settlements, water bodies, elevation and slope to determine the relationship between forest cover change and explanatory variables. The predicted forest cover in 1880 indicates an area of 10,42,008 km², which represents 31.7% of the geographical area of India. About 40% of the forest cover in India was lost during the time interval of 1880–2013. Ownership of majority of forest lands by non-governmental agencies and large scale shifting cultivation are responsible for higher deforestation rates in the Northeastern states. The six states of the Northeast (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) and one union territory (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) had shown an annual gross rate of deforestation of >0.3 from 2005 to 2013 and has been considered in the present study for the prediction of future forest cover in 2025. The modelling results predicted widespread deforestation in Northeast India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and hence is likely to affect the remaining forests significantly before 2025. The multilayer perceptron neural network has predicted the forest cover for the period of 1880 and 2025 with a Kappa statistic of >0.70. The model predicted a further decrease of 2305 km2 of forest area in the Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands by 2025. The majority of the protected areas are successful in the protection of the forest cover in the Northeast due to management practices, with the exception of Manas, Sonai-Rupai, Nameri and Marat Longri. The predicted forest cover scenario for the year 2025 would provide useful inputs for effective resource management and help in biodiversity conservation and for mitigating climate change.

  1. Assessment Of The Impact Of ESA CCI Land Cover Information For Global Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Loew, A.; Hangemann, S.; Defourny, P.; Brockmann, C.; Bontemps, S.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing the issues of climate change, the European Space Agency has recently initiated the Global Monitoring of an Essential Climate Variables program (ESA Climate Change Initiative). The main objective is to realize the full potential of the long-term global Earth Observation archives that ESA has established over the last thirty years. Due to well organized data access and transparency for the data quality, as well as long-term scientific and technical support, the provided datasets have become very attractive for the use in Earth System Modeling. The Max Plank Institute for Meteorology is contributing to the ESA CCI via the Climate Modeler User Group (CMUG) activities and is responsible for providing a modeler perspective on the Land Cover and Fire Essential Climate Variables. The new ESA land cover ECV has recently released a new global 300-m land cover dataset. This dataset is supported by an interactive tool which allows flexible horizontal re-scaling and conversion from currently accepted satellite specific land classes to the model- specific Plant Functional Types (PFT) categorization. Such a dataset is an ideal starting point for the generation of the land cover information for the initialization of model cover fractions. In this presentation, we show how the usage of this new dataset affects the model performance, comparing it to the standard model set-up, in terms of energy and water fluxes. To do so, we performed a number of offline land-system simulations with original standard JSBACH land cover information and with the new ESA CCI land cover product. We have analyzed the impact of land cover on a simulated surface albedo, temperature and energy fluxes as well as on the biomass load and fire carbon emissions.

  2. Replacement of annular domain with trapezoidal domain in computational modeling of nonaqueous-phase-liquid dissolution-front propagation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-bin; Thomas POULET; Klaus REGENAUER-LIEB

    2015-01-01

    In order to simulate the instability phenomenon of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution front in a computational model, the intrinsic characteristic length is commonly used to determine the length scale at which the instability of the NAPL dissolution front can be initiated. This will require a huge number of finite elements if a whole NAPL dissolution system is simulated in the computational model. Even though modern supercomputers might be used to tackle this kind of NAPL dissolution problem, it can become prohibitive for commonly-used personal computers to do so. The main purpose of this work is to investigate whether or not the whole NAPL dissolution system of an annular domain can be replaced by a trapezoidal domain, so as to greatly reduce the requirements for computer efforts. The related simulation results have demonstrated that when the NAPL dissolution system under consideration is in a subcritical state, if the dissolution pattern around the entrance of an annulus domain is of interest, then a trapezoidal domain cannot be used to replace an annular domain in the computational simulation of the NAPL dissolution system. However, if the dissolution pattern away from the vicinity of the entrance of an annulus domain is of interest, then a trapezoidal domain can be used to replace an annular domain in the computational simulation of the NAPL dissolution system. When the NAPL dissolution system under consideration is in a supercritical state, a trapezoidal domain cannot be used to replace an annular domain in the computational simulation of the NAPL dissolution system.

  3. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality at the watershed scale (~ 50 km2) and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of 1990-2000. To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was the most effective species, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of cover crops (~ 30

  4. Synthetic Domain Theory and Models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Birkedal, Lars; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    2008-01-01

    Plotkin suggested using a polymorphic dual intuitionistic/linear type theory (PILLY) as a metalanguage for parametric polymorphism and recursion. In recent work the first two authors and R.L. Petersen have defined a notion of parametric LAPL-structure, which are models of PILLY, in which one can...... reason using parametricity and, for example, solve a large class of domain equations, as suggested by Plotkin.In this paper, we show how an interpretation of a strict version of Bierman, Pitts and Russo's language Lily into synthetic domain theory presented by Simpson and Rosolini gives rise...... to a parametric LAPL-structure. This adds to the evidence that the notion of LAPL-structure is a general notion, suitable for treating many different parametric models, and it provides formal proofs of consequences of parametricity expected to hold for the interpretation. Finally, we show how these results...

  5. Modeling of methane oxidation in landfill cover soil using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah; Younes, Mohammad K; Irwan, Dani

    2014-02-01

    Knowing the fraction of methane (CH4) oxidized in landfill cover soils is an important step in estimating the total CH4 emissions from any landfill. Predicting CH4 oxidation in landfill cover soils is a difficult task because it is controlled by a number of biological and environmental factors. This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward backpropagation to predict CH4 oxidation in landfill cover soil in relation to air temperature, soil moisture content, oxygen (O2) concentration at a depth of 10 cm in cover soil, and CH4 concentration at the bottom of cover soil. The optimum ANN model giving the lowest mean square error (MSE) was configured from three layers, with 12 and 9 neurons at the first and the second hidden layers, respectively, log-sigmoid (logsig) transfer function at the hidden and output layers, and the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. This study revealed that the ANN oxidation model can predict CH4 oxidation with a MSE of 0.0082, a coefficient of determination (R2) between the measured and predicted outputs of up to 0.937, and a model efficiency (E) of 0.8978. To conclude, further developments of the proposed ANN model are required to generalize and apply the model to other landfills with different cover soil properties.

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_003096.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003096.1 chr11 Haddock model of the complex between double module of LRP, CR56, ...and first domain of receptor associated protein, RAP-d1. p2fyja_ chr11/NP_003096.1/NP_003096.1_apo_1077-1153....pdb p2fylb_ chr11/NP_003096.1/NP_003096.1_holo_1077-1153.pdb blast 1342W,1343K,1344C,1345D,1346G,1347M,1348

  7. Model Driven Testing of Web Applications Using Domain Specific Language

    OpenAIRE

    Viet-Cuong Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    As more and more systems move to the cloud, the importance of web applications has increased recently. Web applications need more strict requirements in order to sup-port higher availability. The techniques in quality assurance of these applications hence become essential, the role of testing for web application becomes more significant. Model-driven testing is a promising paradigm for the automation of software testing. In the web domain, the challenge however remains in the creation of mode...

  8. Modelling Effects of Cover Material and Cover Depth on Hydrological Regime and Salt Redistribution in Reclaimed Oil Sand Landscapes in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welegedara, N.; Grant, R. F.; Quideau, S.; Lloret, E.

    2014-12-01

    Large-Scale surface mining is continuing in the Athabasca oil sands region in northern Alberta, Canada, causing significant ecosystem disturbances and changes in hydrology. Reclamation efforts in this region require understanding processes that control water, nutrient and salt fluxes through reclaimed landscapes which is critical to restoring their productivity. These processes were tested in a comprehensive mathematical model, ecosys, which was used to determine the effect of different cover thicknesses on water balance, water buffering capacity, salinity and the productivity in the South Bison Hills reclamation site of Syncrude Canada (SCL). This site was constructed in 1999 by capping peat mineral mix and secondary (glacial till) soil over saline sodic overburden. The site was constructed with three different soil cover thicknesses: 35 cm (thin), 50 cm (intermediate) and 100 cm (thick) along a 20% north facing slope. Model outputs were validated with field measured volumetric water content, runoff, snow data, electrical conductivity (EC) and plant productivity data recorded from 1999 to 2013. Model and field results show differences in horizontal and vertical water transport among the three reclaimed prototype covers. Lower water retention capacity in the 35 cm cover compared to the 50 cm and 100 cm covers caused greater soil moisture variation so that permanent wilting point was reached during dry years, decreasing plant growth due to water stress. In addition, the modeled and field-measured EC values indicated some upward salt movement from overburden to cover material over the time. This movement caused higher EC values (6 - 8 dS m-1) to be reached in the shallow rooting zone of the 35 cm and 50 cm covers than of the 100 cm cover several years after the covers were established. The determination of cost effective but ecologically sustainable cover depth is a challenge and will be a focus in future simulations.

  9. Modelling high-resolution snow cover precipitation supply for German river catchments with SNOW 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Uwe; Reich, Thomas; Schneider, Gerold; Fiedler, Anett

    2013-04-01

    Formation of snow cover causes a delayed response of surface to precipitation. Both melting of snow and release of liquid water retained within the snow cover form precipitation supply which contributes to runoff and infiltration. The model SNOW 4 is developed to simulate snow cover accumulation and depletion and the resulting precipitation supply on a regular grid. The core of the model is formed by a set of equations which describe the snow cover energy and mass balance. The snow surface energy balance is calculated as a result of the radiation balance and the heat fluxes between atmosphere, soil and snow cover. The available melting heat enters the mass balance computation part of the model and melting of snow or freezing of liquid water within the snow layer takes place depending on its sign. Retention, aging and snow cover regeneration are taken into consideration. The model runs operationally 4 times a day and provides both a snow cover and precipitation supply analysis for the last 30 hours and a forecast for up to 72 hours. For the 30-hour analysis, regionalised observations are used both to define the initial state and force the model. Hourly measurements of air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed, global radiation or sunshine duration and precipitation are interpolated to the model grid. For the forecast period, SNOW 4 obtains the required input data from the operational products of the COSMO-EU weather forecast model. The size of a grid box is 1km2. The model area covers a region of 1100x1000km2 and includes the catchments of the German rivers completely. The internal time step is set to 1 hour. Once a day, the compliance between model and regionalized snow cover data is assessed. If discrepancies exceed certain thresholds, the model must be adjusted by a weighted approach towards the observations. The model simulations are updated every six hours based on the most recent observations and weather forecasts. The model works operationally since

  10. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  11. Spatial Simulation Modelling of Future Forest Cover Change Scenarios in Luangprabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamma Homsysavath

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking Luangprabang province in Lao Peoples’s Democratic Republic (PDR as an example, we simulated future forest cover changes under the business-as-usual (BAU, pessimistic and optimistic scenarios based on the Markov-cellular automata (MCA model. We computed transition probabilities from satellite-derived forest cover maps (1993 and 2000 using the Markov chains, while the “weights of evidence” technique was used to generate transition potential maps. The initial forest cover map (1993, the transition potential maps and the 1993–2000 transition probabilities were used to calibrate the model. Forest cover simulations were then performed from 1993 to 2007 at an annual time-step. The simulated forest cover map for 2007 was compared to the observed (actual forest cover map for 2007 in order to test the accuracy of the model. Following the successful calibration and validation, future forest cover changes were simulated up to 2014 under different scenarios. The MCA simulations under the BAU and pessimistic scenarios projected that current forest areas would decrease, whereas unstocked forest areas would increase in the future. Conversely, the optimistic scenario projected that current forest areas would increase in the future if strict forestry laws enforcing conservation in protected forest areas are implemented. The three simulation scenarios provide a very good case study for simulating future forest cover changes at the subnational level (Luangprabang province. Thus, the future simulated forest cover changes can possibly be used as a guideline to set reference scenarios as well as undertake REDD/REDD+ preparedness activities within the study area.

  12. Capability of Spaceborne Hyperspectral EnMAP Mission for Mapping Fractional Cover for Soil Erosion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion can be linked to relative fractional cover of photosynthetic-active vegetation (PV, non-photosynthetic-active vegetation (NPV and bare soil (BS, which can be integrated into erosion models as the cover-management C-factor. This study investigates the capability of EnMAP imagery to map fractional cover in a region near San Jose, Costa Rica, characterized by spatially extensive coffee plantations and grazing in a mountainous terrain. Simulated EnMAP imagery is based on airborne hyperspectral HyMap data. Fractional cover estimates are derived in an automated fashion by extracting image endmembers to be used with a Multiple End-member Spectral Mixture Analysis approach. The C-factor is calculated based on the fractional cover estimates determined independently for EnMAP and HyMap. Results demonstrate that with EnMAP imagery it is possible to extract quality endmember classes with important spectral features related to PV, NPV and soil, and be able to estimate relative cover fractions. This spectral information is critical to separate BS and NPV which greatly can impact the C-factor derivation. From a regional perspective, we can use EnMAP to provide good fractional cover estimates that can be integrated into soil erosion modeling.

  13. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  14. A relational metric, its application to domain analysis, and an example analysis and model of a remote sensing domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    An objective and quantitative method has been developed for deriving models of complex and specialized spheres of activity (domains) from domain-generated verbal data. The method was developed for analysis of interview transcripts, incident reports, and other text documents whose original source is people who are knowledgeable about, and participate in, the domain in question. To test the method, it is applied here to a report describing a remote sensing project within the scope of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The method has the potential to improve the designs of domain-related computer systems and software by quickly providing developers with explicit and objective models of the domain in a form which is useful for design. Results of the analysis include a network model of the domain, and an object-oriented relational analysis report which describes the nodes and relationships in the network model. Other products include a database of relationships in the domain, and an interactive concordance. The analysis method utilizes a newly developed relational metric, a proximity-weighted frequency of co-occurrence. The metric is applied to relations between the most frequently occurring terms (words or multiword entities) in the domain text, and the terms found within the contexts of these terms. Contextual scope is selectable. Because of the discriminating power of the metric, data reduction from the association matrix to the network is simple. In addition to their value for design. the models produced by the method are also useful for understanding the domains themselves. They can, for example, be interpreted as models of presence in the domain.

  15. Modelling the role of the design context in the design process: a domain-independent approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Kroes, P.; Basten, T; Durling, D.; Shackleton, J.

    2002-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that, to be domain independent, the

  16. A domain-independent descriptive design model and its application to structured reflection on design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Hammer, D.K.; Kroes, P.A.; van Aken, Joan Ernst; van Aken, J.E.; Dorst, C.H.; Bax, M.F.T.; Basten, T

    2006-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that to be domain independent, the

  17. A probabilistic graphical model approach in 30 m land cover mapping with multiple data sources

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie; Ji, Luyan; Huang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Haohuan; Xu, Shiming; Li, Congcong

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend to acquire high accuracy land-cover maps using multi-source classification methods, most of which are based on data fusion, especially pixel- or feature-level fusions. A probabilistic graphical model (PGM) approach is proposed in this research for 30 m resolution land-cover mapping with multi-temporal Landsat and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Independent classifiers were applied to two single-date Landsat 8 scenes and the MODIS time-series data, ...

  18. Modelling the role of the design context in the design process: a domain-independent approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, Isabelle; Kroes, P.; Basten, T; Durling, D.; Shackleton, J

    2002-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that, to be domain independent, the models must abstract from domain-specific aspects, be based on the study of several design disciplines, and be useful for many design disciplines and for multidisciplinary design teams. This paper desc...

  19. The Human-Computer Domain Relation in UX Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    This paper argues that the conceptualization of the human, the computer and the domain of use in competing lines of UX research have problematic similarities and superficial differences. The paper qualitatively analyses concepts and models in five research papers that together represent two...... influential lines of UX research: aesthetics and temporal UX, and two use situations: using a website and starting to use a smartphone. The results suggest that the two lines of UX research share a focus on users’ evaluative judgments of technology, both focuses on product qualities rather than activity...... domains, give little details about users, and treat human-computer interaction as perception. The conclusion gives similarities and differences between the approaches to UX. The implications for theory building are indicated....

  20. Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Tatem, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Gridded population distribution data are finding increasing use in a wide range of fields, including resource allocation, disease burden estimation and climate change impact assessment. Land cover information can be used in combination with detailed settlement extents to redistribute aggregated census counts to improve the accuracy of national-scale gridded population data. In East Africa, such analyses have been done using regional land cover data, thus restricting application of the approach to this region. If gridded population data are to be improved across Africa, an alternative, consistent and comparable source of land cover data is required. Here these analyses were repeated for Kenya using four continent-wide land cover datasets combined with detailed settlement extents and accuracies were assessed against detailed census data. The aim was to identify the large area land cover dataset that, combined with detailed settlement extents, produce the most accurate population distribution data. The effectiveness of the population distribution modelling procedures in the absence of high resolution census data was evaluated, as was the extrapolation ability of population densities between different regions. Results showed that the use of the GlobCover dataset refined with detailed settlement extents provided significantly more accurate gridded population data compared to the use of refined AVHRR-derived, MODIS-derived and GLC2000 land cover datasets. This study supports the hypothesis that land cover information is important for improving population distribution model accuracies, particularly in countries where only coarse resolution census data are available. Obtaining high resolution census data must however remain the priority. With its higher spatial resolution and its more recent data acquisition, the GlobCover dataset was found as the most valuable resource to use in combination with detailed settlement extents for the production of gridded population datasets

  1. Modelling Mixed Discrete-Continuous Domains for Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, M; 10.1613/jair.2044

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present pddl+, a planning domain description language for modelling mixed discrete-continuous planning domains. We describe the syntax and modelling style of pddl+, showing that the language makes convenient the modelling of complex time-dependent effects. We provide a formal semantics for pddl+ by mapping planning instances into constructs of hybrid automata. Using the syntax of HAs as our semantic model we construct a semantic mapping to labelled transition systems to complete the formal interpretation of pddl+ planning instances. An advantage of building a mapping from pddl+ to HA theory is that it forms a bridge between the Planning and Real Time Systems research communities. One consequence is that we can expect to make use of some of the theoretical properties of HAs. For example, for a restricted class of HAs the Reachability problem (which is equivalent to Plan Existence) is decidable. pddl+ provides an alternative to the continuous durative action model of pddl2.1, adding a more flex...

  2. Towards a portable, scalable, open source model of tree cover derived from Landsat spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. A.; Xu, Q.; Morrison, B. D.; Xu, Z.; Man, A.; Fredrickson, M. M.; Ramirez, C.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    Tree cover is a key parameter used in a variety of applications, including ecosystem and fire behavior modeling, wildlife management, and is the primary way by which a variety of biomes are classified. At large scales, quantification of tree cover can help elucidate changes in deforestation and forest recovery and understand the relationship between climate and forest distributions. To determine tree cover at large scales, remote sensing-based methods are required. There exist a variety of products at various scales and extents, including two global products, Hansen et al.'s treecover2000 product and Sexton et al.'s Landsat Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product. While these products serve an important role, they are only available for a limited set of dates: treecover2000 is available for the year 2000, and Landsat VCF for 2000 and 2005. In this analysis, we created a single model of tree cover as a function of Landsat spectra that is both calibrated and validated using small footprint LiDAR estimates of tree cover, trained across multiple Landsat scenes. Our model was found to be accurate and portable across space and time largely due to using a large amount of LiDAR - Landsat pixel pairs across multiple Landsat scenes to capture both sensor and scene heterogeneity. We will be releasing the model itself, rather than time-limited products, to allow other users to apply the model to any reflectance-calibrated Landsat scene from any time period.

  3. A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Steiner, Jakob F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Wouter W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113

    2016-01-01

    Ice cliffs might be partly responsible for the high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region. The few existing models of cliff backwasting are point-scale models applied at few locations or assume cliffs to be planes with constant slope and aspect, a major

  4. Using set covering with item sampling to analyze the infeasibility of linear programming test assembly models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitzing, HA

    2004-01-01

    This article shows how set covering with item sampling (SCIS) methods can be used in the analysis and preanalysis of linear programming models for test assembly (LPTA). LPTA models can construct tests, fulfilling a set of constraints set by the test assembler. Sometimes, no solution to the LPTA mode

  5. Dynamical scaling, domain-growth kinetics, and domain-wall shapes of quenched two-dimensional anisotropic XY models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Praestgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    temperature, the domain-growth kinetics is found to be independent of the value of this parameter over several decades of its range. This suggests that a universal principle is operative. The domain-wall shape is analyzed and shown to be well represented by a hyperbolic tangent function. The growth process......The domain-growth kinetics in two different anisotropic two-dimensional XY-spin models is studied by computer simulation. The models have uniaxial and cubic anisotropy which leads to ground-state orderings which are twofold and fourfold degenerate, respectively. The models are quenched from...... infinite to zero temperature as well as to nonzero temperatures below the ordering transition. The continuous nature of the spin variables causes the domain walls to be ‘‘soft’’ and characterized by a finite thickness. The steady-state thickness of the walls can be varied by a model parameter, P. At zero...

  6. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Kwiatkowska, Marta [Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Dunn, Katherine E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Ouldridge, Thomas E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen’s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami.

  7. Clinic expert information extraction based on domain model and block importance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanpeng; Wang, Li; Qian, Danmin; Geng, Xingyun; Yao, Dengfu; Dong, Jiancheng

    2015-11-01

    To extract expert clinic information from the Deep Web, there are two challenges to face. The first one is to make a judgment on forms. A novel method based on a domain model, which is a tree structure constructed by the attributes of query interfaces is proposed. With this model, query interfaces can be classified to a domain and filled in with domain keywords. Another challenge is to extract information from response Web pages indexed by query interfaces. To filter the noisy information on a Web page, a block importance model is proposed, both content and spatial features are taken into account in this model. The experimental results indicate that the domain model yields a precision 4.89% higher than that of the rule-based method, whereas the block importance model yields an F1 measure 10.5% higher than that of the XPath method.

  8. Deviatoric constitutive model: domain of strain rate validity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zocher, Marvin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A case is made for using an enhanced methodology in determining the parameters that appear in a deviatoric constitutive model. Predictability rests on our ability to solve a properly posed initial boundary value problem (IBVP), which incorporates an accurate reflection of material constitutive behavior. That reflection is provided through the constitutive model. Moreover, the constitutive model is required for mathematical closure of the IBVP. Common practice in the shock physics community is to divide the Cauchy tensor into spherical and deviatoric parts, and to develop separate models for spherical and deviatoric constitutive response. Our focus shall be on the Cauchy deviator and deviatoric constitutive behavior. Discussions related to the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor are reserved for another time. A number of deviatoric constitutive models have been developed for utilization in the solution of IBVPs that are of interest to those working in the field of shock physics, e.g. All of these models are phenomenological and contain a number of parameters that must be determined in light of experimental data. The methodology employed in determining these parameters dictates the loading regime over which the model can be expected to be accurate. The focus of this paper is the methodology employed in determining model parameters and the consequences of that methodology as it relates to the domain of strain rate validity. We shall begin by describing the methodology that is typically employed. We shall discuss limitations imposed upon predictive capability by the typically employed methodology. We shall propose a modification to the typically employed methodology that significantly extends the domain of strain rate validity.

  9. Mapping woody plant cover in desert grasslands using canopy reflectance modeling and MISR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, Mark J.; Su, Lihong; Laliberte, Andrea; Rango, Albert; Peters, Debra P. C.; Martonchik, John V.

    2006-09-01

    A simplified geometric-optical model (SGM) was inverted using red band reflectance data acquired at 275 m in nine viewing angles from the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) flown on NASA's Terra satellite, to provide estimates of fractional woody plant cover for large areas (over 3519 km2) in parts of the Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, USA. The use of the model in these semi-arid environments was enabled by the derivation of a priori estimates of the soil/understory background reflectance response. This was made possible by determining relationships between the kernel weights from a LiSparse-RossThin model adjusted against the same MISR data - together with spectral reflectance data derived from MISR's nadir-viewing camera - and the parameters of the Walthall model used to represent the background. Spatial distributions of retrieved fractional woody plant cover match those of % tree cover in the global MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields product but also include shrubs. Good relationships were obtained with fractional shrub cover measured in pastures in the USDA, ARS Jornada Experimental Range but tree cover in higher elevation and riparian zones was dramatically over-estimated as a result of the fixing of crown height and shape parameters.

  10. Optimizing predictive performance of CASE Ultra expert system models using the applicability domains of individual toxicity alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Suman K; Saiakhov, Roustem D; Klopman, Gilles

    2012-10-22

    Fragment based expert system models of toxicological end points are primarily comprised of a set of substructures that are statistically related to the toxic property in question. These special substructures are often referred to as toxicity alerts, toxicophores, or biophores. They are the main building blocks/classifying units of the model, and it is important to define the chemical structural space within which the alerts are expected to produce reliable predictions. Furthermore, defining an appropriate applicability domain is required as part of the OECD guidelines for the validation of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In this respect, this paper describes a method to construct applicability domains for individual toxicity alerts that are part of the CASE Ultra expert system models. Defining applicability domain for individual alerts was necessary because each CASE Ultra model is comprised of multiple alerts, and different alerts of a model usually represent different toxicity mechanisms and cover different structural space; the use of an applicability domain for the overall model is often not adequate. The domain for each alert was constructed using a set of fragments that were found to be statistically related to the end point in question as opposed to using overall structural similarity or physicochemical properties. Use of the applicability domains in reducing false positive predictions is demonstrated. It is now possible to obtain ROC (receiver operating characteristic) profiles of CASE Ultra models by applying domain adherence cutoffs on the alerts identified in test chemicals. This helps in optimizing the performance of a model based on their true positive-false positive prediction trade-offs and reduce drastic effects on the predictive performance caused by the active/inactive ratio of the model's training set. None of the major currently available commercial expert systems for toxicity prediction offer the possibility to explore a

  11. Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric

  12. A stochastic Forest Fire Model for future land cover scenarios assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D'Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Land cover is affected by many factors including economic development, climate and natural disturbances such as wildfires. The ability to evaluate how fire regimes may alter future vegetation, and how future vegetation may alter fire regimes, would assist forest managers in planning management actions to be carried out in the face of anticipated socio-economic and climatic change. In this paper, we present a method for calibrating a cellular automata wildfire regime simulation model with actual data on land cover and wildfire size-frequency. The method is based on the observation that many forest fire regimes, in different forest types and regions, exhibit power law frequency-area distributions. The standard Drossel-Schwabl cellular automata Forest Fire Model (DS-FFM produces simulations which reproduce this observed pattern. However, the standard model is simplistic in that it considers land cover to be binary – each cell either contains a tree or it is empty – and the model overestimates the frequency of large fires relative to actual landscapes. Our new model, the Modified Forest Fire Model (MFFM, addresses this limitation by incorporating information on actual land use and differentiating among various types of flammable vegetation. The MFFM simulation model was tested on forest types with Mediterranean and sub-tropical fire regimes. The results showed that the MFFM was able to reproduce structural fire regime parameters for these two regions. Further, the model was used to forecast future land cover. Future research will extend this model to refine the forecasts of future land cover and fire regime scenarios under climate, land use and socio-economic change.

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_005647.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005647.2 chr21 Haddock model of the complex between double module of LRP, CR56, ...and first domain of receptor associated protein, RAP-d1. p2fyja_ chr21/NP_005647.2/NP_005647.2_apo_31-110.pd...b p2fylb_ chr21/NP_005647.2/NP_005647.2_holo_31-110.pdb psi-blast 45Y,49V,50P,51Q,52Y,53A,54P,55R,56V,61S,62N,91L,92G,93T,94F,96V,98A,104L,105L _CA 1 ...

  14. On the trigonometric Felderhof model with domain wall boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Caradoc, A; Wheeler, M; Zuparic, M; 10.1088/1742-5468/2007/03/P03010

    2008-01-01

    We consider the trigonometric Felderhof model, of free fermions in an external field, on a finite lattice with domain wall boundary conditions. The vertex weights are functions of rapidities and external fields. We obtain a determinant expression for the partition function in the special case where the dependence on the rapidities is eliminated, but for general external field variables. This determinant can be evaluated in product form. In the homogeneous limit, it is proportional to a 2-Toda tau function. Next, we use the algebraic Bethe ansatz factorized basis to obtain a product expression for the partition function in the general case with dependence on all variables.

  15. Cloud cover diurnal cycles in satellite data and regional climate model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifroth, Uwe; Ahrens, Bodo [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hollmann, Rainer [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The amount and diurnal cycle of cloud cover play an important role in the energy and water cycle of the earth-atmosphere system and influence the radiation budget of the earth. Due to its importance and the challenging nature of its quantification, cloud cover is considered the biggest uncertainty factor in climate modeling. There is a clear need for reliable cloud datasets suitable for climate model evaluation studies. This study analyzes two datasets of cloud cover and its diurnal cycle derived from satellite observations by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and by EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) in Africa and Europe. Two regions, Europe and the subtropical southern Atlantic Ocean, were identified as offering distinct cloud cover diurnal cycles reasonably observed by both satellite datasets. In these regions, simulations by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) were evaluated in terms of cloud cover and its diurnal cycle during the time period of 1990 to 2007. Results show that the satellite derived cloud diurnal cycles largely agree, while discrepancies occur under extreme conditions like in the Sahara region. The CCLM is able to simulate the diurnal cycle observed consistently in the two satellite datasets in the South-Atlantic ocean, but not in Europe. CCLM misses the afternoon maximum cloud cover in Summer in Europe, which implies deficiencies in the parameterization of convection and in the treatment of surface-atmosphere interactions. The simulation of the diurnal cycle of the more stratiform cloud cover over the subtropical Atlantic was satisfactory in CCLM. (orig.)

  16. The influence of land cover roughness on the results of high resolution tsunami inundation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaiser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a local case study is presented in which detailed inundation simulations have been performed to support damage analysis and risk assessment related to the 2004 tsunami in Phang Nga and Phuket, Thailand. Besides tsunami sources, bathymetry and topography, bottom roughness induced by vegetation and built environment is considered to influence inundation characteristics, such as water depths or flow velocities and therefore attracts major attention in this work. Plenty of information available on the 2004 tsunami event, high-resolution satellite imagery and extensive field measurements to derive land cover information and forest stand parameters facilitated the generation of topographic datasets, land cover maps and site-specific Manning values for the most prominent land cover classes in the study areas. The numerical models ComMIT and Mike 21 FM were used to hindcast the observed tsunami inundation and to draw conclusions on the influence of land cover on inundation patterns. Results show a strong influence of dense vegetation on flow velocities, which were reduced by up to 50% by mangroves, while the inundation extent is influenced only to a lesser extent. In urban areas, the disregard of buildings in the model led to a significant overestimation of the inundation extent. Hence different approaches to consider buildings were used and analyzed in the model. The case study highlights the importance and quantifies the effects of considering land cover roughness in inundation simulations used for local risk assessment.

  17. Mixed-domain multi-simulator statistical device modeling and yiel-driven design

    OpenAIRE

    Bandler, J.W.; Biernacki, R.M.; S. H. Chen

    1997-01-01

    We present mixed-domain, multi-simulator approaches to device modeling and yield-driven optimization. Intelligent computational interfaces combine and enhance the features of otherwise disjoint simulators. Time-domain, frequency-domain and electromagnetic simulations are integrated for efficient statistical modeling and design with mixed-domain specifications. Our approach is demonstrated by statistical modeling of GaAs MESFETs and yield optimization using, simultaneously, SPICE device models...

  18. Mixed-domain multi-simulator statistical device modeling and yiel-driven design

    OpenAIRE

    Bandler, J.W.; Biernacki, R.M.; Chen, S H

    1997-01-01

    We present mixed-domain, multi-simulator approaches to device modeling and yield-driven optimization. Intelligent computational interfaces combine and enhance the features of otherwise disjoint simulators. Time-domain, frequency-domain and electromagnetic simulations are integrated for efficient statistical modeling and design with mixed-domain specifications. Our approach is demonstrated by statistical modeling of GaAs MESFETs and yield optimization using, simultaneously, SPICE device models...

  19. Modelling of flashover performance of an ice-covered resistive glazed post station insulator in presence of an air gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Vinay [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, Masoud [NSERC/Hydro-Quebec/UQAC Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE) and Canada Research Chair on Engineering of Power Network Atmospheric Icing (INGIVRE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2006-01-07

    The main objective of this paper is to study the electric field distributions around a standard post insulator for the power frequency, lightning impulse (1.2/50 {mu}s) and switching impulse (250/2500 {mu}s) voltages under icing conditions, and these were computed numerically using the finite element method. Thin glaze coating on the insulator requires a very large number of elements for finite element analysis because of the open boundary around the ice-covered insulator. To reduce the number of elements and hence computation time, the region between the domain of interest and infinity was modelled by a form of Kelvin transformation. The simulation results, confirmed by laboratory experiments, show that while a lightning impulse is the limiting factor in the design of a resistive glazed insulator under clean conditions, a switching impulse is the limiting factor under icing conditions.

  20. Data sets for snow cover monitoring and modelling from the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, M.; Daniels, K.; Scott, D.; McLean, B.; Weaver, R.

    2003-04-01

    A wide range of snow cover monitoring and modelling data sets are pending or are currently available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). In-situ observations support validation experiments that enhance the accuracy of remote sensing data. In addition, remote sensing data are available in near-real time, providing coarse-resolution snow monitoring capability. Time series data beginning in 1966 are valuable for modelling efforts. NSIDC holdings include SMMR and SSM/I snow cover data, MODIS snow cover extent products, in-situ and satellite data collected for NASA's recent Cold Land Processes Experiment, and soon-to-be-released ASMR-E passive microwave products. The AMSR-E and MODIS sensors are part of NASA's Earth Observing System flying on the Terra and Aqua satellites Characteristics of these NSIDC-held data sets, appropriateness of products for specific applications, and data set access and availability will be presented.

  1. Towards the maturity model for feature oriented domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the quality of a model has always been a challenge for researchers in academia and industry. The quality of a feature model is a prime factor because it is used in the development of products. A degraded feature model leads the development of low quality products. Few efforts have been made on improving the quality of feature models. This paper is an effort to present our ongoing work i.e. development of FODA (Feature Oriented Domain Analysis maturity model which will help to evaluate the quality of a given feature model. In this paper, we provide the quality levels along with their descriptions. The proposed model consists of four levels starting from level 0 to level 3. Design of each level is based on the severity of errors, whereas severity of errors decreases from level 0 to level 3. We elaborate each level with the help of examples. We borrowed all examples from the material published by the research community of Software Product Lines (SPL for the application of our framework.

  2. Pollen-based land-cover change during the Holocene in temperate China for climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Mazier, Florence; Xu, Qinghai; Cao, Xianyong; Herxschuh, Ulrike; Zhao, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Quantification of the biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects of human-induced land-cover change (land-use) on climate in the past is still a subject of debate. Progress in our understanding of the net effect of land-use change on climate greatly depends on the availability of reliable, empirical reconstructions of anthropogenic vegetation change. China is one of the key regions of the world where agricultural civilizations flourished during a large part of the Holocene. However, the role of human activity in vegetation change is not yet fully understood. As a contribution to LandCover6k, we present the first pollen-based reconstruction of land-cover change, both climate-(natural) and human-induced, over the Holocene in temperate China using the REVEALS model (Sugita, 2007). The REVEALS model requires values of pollen productivity for the major plants characteristic of the study region. We performed the first evaluation of the relative pollen productivities (RPP) available from temperate China and established a tentative standard RPP dataset for 31 plant taxa. These RPP values were used together with 95 pollen records from temperate China grouped into 35 groups for the REVEALS application. The REVEALS-based values of plant cover strongly differ from the pollen percentages. As in Europe, pollen percentages generally underestimate the cover of herbs in the vegetation, except for Artemisia that is overrepresented by pollen. As expected, human-induced deforestation is highest in eastern China with 3 major phases of decreasing woodland cover at ca. 5.5-5k, 3.5-3k and 2k calendar years BP. Disentangling human-induced from climate-induced land-cover change requires thorough comparison of the REVEALS reconstructions with historical and archaeological data. Sugita S (2007) The Holocene, 17(2): 229-241.

  3. The Aggregate Representation of Terrestrial Land Covers Within Global Climate Models (GCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, W. James; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    1996-01-01

    This project had four initial objectives: (1) to create a realistic coupled surface-atmosphere model to investigate the aggregate description of heterogeneous surfaces; (2) to develop a simple heuristic model of surface-atmosphere interactions; (3) using the above models, to test aggregation rules for a variety of realistic cover and meteorological conditions; and (4) to reconcile biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) land covers with those that can be recognized from space; Our progress in meeting these objectives can be summarized as follows. Objective 1: The first objective was achieved in the first year of the project by coupling the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) with a proven two-dimensional model of the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting model, BATS-ABL, is described in detail in a Masters thesis and reported in a paper in the Journal of Hydrology Objective 2: The potential value of the heuristic model was re-evaluated early in the project and a decision was made to focus subsequent research around modeling studies with the BATS-ABL model. The value of using such coupled surface-atmosphere models in this research area was further confirmed by the success of the Tucson Aggregation Workshop. Objective 3: There was excellent progress in using the BATS-ABL model to test aggregation rules for a variety of realistic covers. The foci of attention have been the site of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) in Kansas and one of the study sites of the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observational Study (ABRACOS) near the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. These two sites were selected because of the ready availability of relevant field data to validate and initiate the BATS-ABL model. The results of these tests are given in a Masters thesis, and reported in two papers. Objective 4: Progress far exceeded original expectations not only in reconciling BATS land covers with those that can be

  4. Survey of trust models in different network domains

    CERN Document Server

    Momani, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the security and trust concepts in wireless sensor networks and explains the difference between them, stating that even though both terms are used interchangeably when defining a secure system, they are not the same. The difference between reputation and trust is also explained, highlighting that reputation partially affects trust. A survey of trust and reputation systems in various domains is conducted, with more details given to models in ad-hoc and sensor networks as they are closely related to each other and to our research interests. The methodologies used to model trust and their references are presented. The factors affecting trust updating are summarised and some examples of the systems in which these factors have been implemented are given. The survey states that, even though researchers have started to explore the issue of trust in wireless sensor networks, they are still examining the trust associated with routing messages between nodes (binary events). However, wireless senso...

  5. Domain-Oriented Subject Aware Model for Multimedia Data Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increment of the scale of internet information as well as the cross-correlation interaction, how to achieve accurate retrieval of multimedia data is an urgent question in terms of efficiently utilizing information resources. However, existing information retrieval approaches provide only limited capabilities to search multimedia data. In order to improve the ability of information retrieval, we propose a domain-oriented subject aware model by introducing three innovative improvements. Firstly, we propose the text-image feature mapping method based on the transfer learning to extract image semantics. Then we put forward the annotation document method to accomplish simultaneous retrieval of multimedia data. Lastly, we present subject aware graph to quantify the semantics of query requirements, which can customize query threshold to retrieve multimedia data. Conducted experiments show that our model obtained encouraging performance results.

  6. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, J.F.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of

  7. Modelling ice-cliff backwasting on a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, Jakob F.; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Walter W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Reid, Tim D.

    2015-01-01

    Ice cliffs have been identified as a reason for higher ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers than are implied by the insulation effects of the debris. This study aims to improve our understanding of cliff backwasting, and the role of radiative fluxes in particular. An energy-balance model is

  8. Hotspots of uncertainty in land use and land cover change projections: a global scale model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prestele, Reinhard; Alexander, Peter; Rounsevell, Mark; Arneth, Almut; Calvin, Katherine; Doelman, Jonathan; Eitelberg, David; Engström, Kerstin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Humpenöder, Florian; Jain, Atul K.; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald D.; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Schüngel, Jan; Stehfest, Elke; Tabeau, Andrzej; Meijl, van Hans; Vliet, van Jasper; Verburg, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Model-based global projections of future land use and land cover (LULC) change are frequently used in environmental assessments to study the impact of LULC change on environmental services and to provide decision support for policy. These projections are characterized by a high uncertainty in terms

  9. Including the effects of debris cover in a distributed glacier energy balance model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Reid, T.; Carenzo, M.; Brock, B. W.

    2010-12-01

    Distributed models of glacier energy balance, which make use of digital elevation models and extensive spatial data on local meteorology, have become very useful tools for predicting glacial ablation and runoff in recent years. They generally function by running a one-dimensional energy balance model at every point on a grid on the glacier surface - for each point in the grid the ablation is calculated based on the balance of heat fluxes at the ice-air boundary. However, one key component has been missing from distributed models to date, namely the effects of debris cover. Many glacier ablation zones are mantled in near-continuous blankets of rock debris, and debris-covered glaciers are important drivers of the water cycle in the European Alps, Andes and Himalayas. Moreover, debris covers have been seen to expand in recent years, so it is essential to assess exactly how the presence of debris may affect a glacier’s surface energy balance and potential responses to climate changes. The effects of a debris cover are complicated by the varying surface roughness, albedo and thermal properties of the debris in question, but generally a debris cover reduces glacier melt rate by insulating the glacier surface from direct solar radiation. Even on glaciers where the debris cover is not continuous, isolated patches of debris caused by rockfalls can affect the glacier evolution by introducing differential ablation across the glacier surface, thus creating ice-cored moraines that may persist after ‘clean’ parts of the glacier have wasted away. This paper presents the results of incorporating a one-dimensional ‘debris energy balance model’ called DEB-Model (Reid and Brock 2010) into a distributed melt model for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. DEB-Model numerically estimates debris surface temperature by considering the balance of heat fluxes at the air-debris interface, then calculates heat conduction through the debris in order to estimate melt rates at the

  10. Fractional snow cover mapping from MODIS data using wavelet-artificial intelligence hybrid models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Vahid; Malekinezhad, Hossein; Shirmohammadi, Bagher

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the wavelet-artificial intelligence hybrid models to produce fractional snow cover maps. At first, cloud cover was removed from MODIS data and cloud free images were produced. SVM-based binary classified ETM+ imagery were then used as reference maps in order to obtain train and test data for sub-pixel classification models. ANN and ANFIS-based modeling were performed using raw data (without wavelet-based preprocessing). In the next step, several mother wavelets and levels were used in order to decompose the original data to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then, the decomposed data were used for further modeling processes. ANN, ANFIS, wavelet-ANN and wavelet-ANFIS models were compared to evaluate the effect of wavelet transformation on the ability of artificial intelligence models. It was demonstrated that wavelet transformation as a preprocessing approach can significantly enhance the performance of ANN and ANFIS models. This study indicated an overall accuracy of 92.45% for wavelet-ANFIS model, 86.13% for wavelet-ANN, 72.23% for ANFIS model and 66.78% for ANN model. In fact, hybrid wavelet-artificial intelligence models can extract the characteristics of the original signals (i.e. model inputs) accurately through decomposing the non-stationary and complex signals into several stationary and simpler signals. The positive effect of fuzzification as well as wavelet transformation in the wavelet-ANFIS model was also confirmed.

  11. Distributed modeling of snow cover mass and energy balance in the Rheraya watershed (High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchane, Ahmed; Gascoin, Simon; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine

    2016-04-01

    The mountains of the High Moroccan Atlas represent an important source of water for the neighboring arid plains. Despite the importance of snow in the regional water balance, few studies were devoted to the modeling of the snow cover at the watershed scale. This type of modeling is necessary to characterize the contribution of snowmelt to water balance and understanding its sensitivity to natural and human-induced climate fluctuations. In this study, we applied a spatially-distributed model of the snowpack evolution (SnowModel, Liston & Elder 2006) on the Rheraya watershed (225 km²) in the High Atlas in order to simulate the mass and energy balance of the snow cover and the evolution of snow depth over a full season (2008-2009). The model was forced by 6 meteorological stations. The model was evaluated locally at the Oukaimeden meteorological station (3230 m asl) where snow depth is recorded continuously. To evaluate the model at the watershed scale we used the daily MODIS snow cover products and a series of 15 cloud-free optical images acquired by the FORMOSAT-2 satellite at 8-m resolution from February to June 2009. The results showed that the model is able to simulate the snow depth in the Oukaimeden station for the 2008-2009 season, and also to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of of the snow cover area in the watershed Rheraya. Based on the model output we examine the importance of the snow sublimation on the water balance at the watershed scale.

  12. Analysis of MODIS snow cover time series over the alpine regions as input for hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Claudia; Rastner, Philipp; Irsara, Luca; Moelg, Nico; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Dalla Chiesa, Stefano; Endrizzi, Stefano; Zebisch, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Snow extent and relative physical properties are key parameters in hydrology, weather forecast and hazard warning as well as in climatological models. Satellite sensors offer a unique advantage in monitoring snow cover due to their temporal and spatial synoptic view. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) from NASA is especially useful for this purpose due to its high frequency. However, in order to evaluate the role of snow on the water cycle of a catchment such as runoff generation due to snowmelt, remote sensing data need to be assimilated in hydrological models. This study presents a comparison on a multi-temporal basis between snow cover data derived from (1) MODIS images, (2) LANDSAT images, and (3) predictions by the hydrological model GEOtop [1,3]. The test area is located in the catchment of the Matscher Valley (South Tyrol, Northern Italy). The snow cover maps derived from MODIS-images are obtained using a newly developed algorithm taking into account the specific requirements of mountain regions with a focus on the Alps [2]. This algorithm requires the standard MODIS-products MOD09 and MOD02 as input data and generates snow cover maps at a spatial resolution of 250 m. The final output is a combination of MODIS AQUA and MODIS TERRA snow cover maps, thus reducing the presence of cloudy pixels and no-data-values due to topography. By using these maps, daily time series starting from the winter season (November - May) 2002 till 2008/2009 have been created. Along with snow maps from MODIS images, also some snow cover maps derived from LANDSAT images have been used. Due to their high resolution (manto nevoso in aree alpine con dati MODIS multi-temporali e modelli idrologici, 13th ASITA National Conference, 1-4.12.2009, Bari, Italy. [3] Zanotti F., Endrizzi S., Bertoldi G. and Rigon R. 2004. The GEOtop snow module. Hydrological Processes, 18: 3667-3679. DOI:10.1002/hyp.5794.

  13. Impact of Model and Observation Error on Assimilating Snow Cover Fraction Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Kristi R.

    Accurately modeling or observing snow cover fraction (SCF) estimates, which represent fractional snow cover area within a gridcell, can help with better understanding earth system dynamics, improving weather and climate prediction, and providing end-use water solutions. Seeking to obtain more accurate snowpack estimates, high resolution snow cover fraction observations are assimilated with different data assimilation (DA) methods within a land surface model (LSM). The LSM simulates snowpack states, snow water equivalent and snow depth, to obtain improved snowpack estimates known as the analysis. Data assimilation experiments are conducted for two mountainous areas where high spatial snow variability occurs, which can impact realistic snowpack representation for different hydrological and meteorological applications. Consequently, the experiments are conducted at higher model resolutions to better capture this variability. This study focuses on four key aspects of how assimilating SCF observations may improve snowpack estimates and impact the LSM overall. These include investigating the role of data assimilation method complexity, evaluating the impact of model and observational errors on snow state analysis estimates, improving the model's SCF representation for assimilation using observation operators, and examining subsequent model state and flux impacts when SCF observations are assimilated. A simpler direct insertion (DI) and a more complex ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation method were applied. The more complex method proved to be superior to the simpler one; however, this method required accounting for more realistic observational and model errors. Also, the EnKF method required an ensemble of model forecasts, in which bias in the ensemble generation was found and removed. Reducing this bias improved the model snowpack estimates. Detection and geolocation errors in the satellite-based snow cover fraction observations also contributed to degrading

  14. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M; Pellicciotti, F; Mabillard, J; Reid, T; Brock, B W

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  15. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  16. Impacts of land cover data selection and trait parameterisation on dynamic modelling of species' range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto K Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Dynamic models for range expansion provide a promising tool for assessing species' capacity to respond to climate change by shifting their ranges to new areas. However, these models include a number of uncertainties which may affect how successfully they can be applied to climate change oriented conservation planning. We used RangeShifter, a novel dynamic and individual-based modelling platform, to study two potential sources of such uncertainties: the selection of land cover data and the parameterization of key life-history traits. As an example, we modelled the range expansion dynamics of two butterfly species, one habitat specialist (Maniola jurtina and one generalist (Issoria lathonia. Our results show that projections of total population size, number of occupied grid cells and the mean maximal latitudinal range shift were all clearly dependent on the choice made between using CORINE land cover data vs. using more detailed grassland data from three alternative national databases. Range expansion was also sensitive to the parameterization of the four considered life-history traits (magnitude and probability of long-distance dispersal events, population growth rate and carrying capacity, with carrying capacity and magnitude of long-distance dispersal showing the strongest effect. Our results highlight the sensitivity of dynamic species population models to the selection of existing land cover data and to uncertainty in the model parameters and indicate that these need to be carefully evaluated before the models are applied to conservation planning.

  17. Research destruction ice under dynamic loading. Part 1. Modeling explosive ice cover into account the temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolov Gennady N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research, the behavior of ice under shock and explosive loads is analyzed. Full-scale experiments were carried out. It is established that the results of 2013 practically coincide with the results of 2017, which is explained by the temperature of the formation of river ice. Two research objects are considered, including freshwater ice and river ice cover. The Taylor test was simulated numerically. The results of the Taylor test are presented. Ice is described by an elastoplastic model of continuum mechanics. The process of explosive loading of ice by emulsion explosives is numerically simulated. The destruction of the ice cover under detonation products is analyzed in detail.

  18. A higher order conditional random field model for simultaneous classification of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Lena; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new approach for the simultaneous classification of land cover and land use considering spatial as well as semantic context. We apply a Conditional Random Fields (CRF) consisting of a land cover and a land use layer. In the land cover layer of the CRF, the nodes represent super-pixels; in the land use layer, the nodes correspond to objects from a geospatial database. Intra-layer edges of the CRF model spatial dependencies between neighbouring image sites. All spatially overlapping sites in both layers are connected by inter-layer edges, which leads to higher order cliques modelling the semantic relation between all land cover and land use sites in the clique. A generic formulation of the higher order potential is proposed. In order to enable efficient inference in the two-layer higher order CRF, we propose an iterative inference procedure in which the two classification tasks mutually influence each other. We integrate contextual relations between land cover and land use in the classification process by using contextual features describing the complex dependencies of all nodes in a higher order clique. These features are incorporated in a discriminative classifier, which approximates the higher order potentials during the inference procedure. The approach is designed for input data based on aerial images. Experiments are carried out on two test sites to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experiments show that the classification results are improved compared to the results of a non-contextual classifier. For land cover classification, the result is much more homogeneous and the delineation of land cover segments is improved. For the land use classification, an improvement is mainly achieved for land use objects showing non-typical characteristics or similarities to other land use classes. Furthermore, we have shown that the size of the super-pixels has an influence on the level of detail of the classification result, but also on the

  19. Modeling the effect of reflective calf hutch covers on reducing heat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binion, W. R.; Friend, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study determined if a reflective film could theoretically be useful in moderating the rate of heat loss from calves housed in polyethylene hutches during cold weather. An engineering approach was used in which rate of heat loss was modeled using 38-l steel drums filled with body temperature water and covered by fresh calf hide. The reflective film (cover) consisted of aluminized 0.0635 mm low-density olive color polyethylene. The non-reflective olive side was sprayed with flat black paint. Covers were 1.8 × 3 m with the aluminized side facing the hutch. Two of four hutches were either uncovered or had covers across the top and sides. During the night, (mean temperature ± SE -13.6 ± 0.29 °C), the rate of temperature loss was -0.21 °C per 5-min interval over 28 temperature readings in the covered and -0.25 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). During the daytime (mean ± SE 14.3 ± 0.52 °C), rate of heat loss was -0.15 °C per 5-min interval over 33 temperature readings in the covered and -0.11 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). Reflective film reduced the rate of heat loss during cold nights, but when the sun was shining on the hutches during midday, the uncovered hutches warmed up more and, hence, reduced the rate of heat loss when compared to the covered. Further research is needed on the orientation of hutches in relationship to the sun and with live calves because calves would be able to move into the sun during cold sunny days.

  20. A SIMPLIFIED MODEL FOR DOMAIN SWITCHING OF FERROELECTRIC CRYSTAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeYansong; FanJinghong

    2004-01-01

    Domain switching is the main source of nonlinear characteristics in ferroelectrics. According to crystal plasticity theory, the domains and domain switching systems for perovskitetype structure ferroelectrics are defined. Considering the traverse motion performance of domain wall, a rather simplified form of evolution law about incremental of volume fraction during domain switching has been developed. The main factors, which exert an influence on domain switching, such as material parameters, domain wall motion history, kind of domain switching (180° or 90°) and volume fraction, could be addressed. The hysteresis loops of spontaneous electric polarization as a function of electric field, the butterfly shaped strain versus electric field curve and the platform relations between spontaneous polarization and stress, as well as the longitudinal strain and stress, are well simulated and discussed.

  1. Building Domain Specific Enterprise Applications using Model Driven Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarence J M Tauro; N Ganesan; Vijay Gopal M; Rinu Thomas

    2012-01-01

    ...]. On the other hand Domain Driven Design principles addresses the domain problem in a well defined manner that when captured as requirement and developed as a system results in a cohesive system...

  2. An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover and albedo over the Rocky Mountains, with implications for the simulated snow-albedo feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Justin R.; Letcher, Theodore W.; Skiles, S. McKenzie

    2016-08-01

    The snow-albedo feedback (SAF) strongly influences climate over midlatitude mountainous regions. However, over these regions the skill of regional climate models (RCMs) at simulating properties such as snow cover and surface albedo is poorly characterized. These properties are evaluated in a pair of 7 year long high-resolution RCM simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the central Rocky Mountains. Key differences between the simulations include the computational domain (regional versus continental) and land surface model used (Noah versus Noah-MP). Simulations are evaluated against high-resolution satellite estimates of snow cover and albedo from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Both simulations generally reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial variability of snow cover and also exhibit important biases. One simulation substantially overpredicts subpixel fractional snow cover over snowy pixels (by up to 0.4) causing large positive biases in surface albedo, likely due in part to inadequate representation of canopy effects. The other simulation exhibits a negative bias in areal snow extent (as much as 19% of the analysis domain). Surface measurements reveal large positive biases in snow albedo (exceeding 0.2) during late spring caused by neglecting radiative effects of impurities deposited onto snow. Semi-idealized climate change experiments show substantially different magnitudes of SAF-enhanced warming in the two simulations that can be tied to the differences in snow cover in their control climates. More confident projections of regional climate change over mountains will require further work to evaluate and improve representation of snow cover and albedo in RCMs.

  3. Content-adaptive pentary steganography using the multivariate generalized Gaussian cover model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica; Cogranne, Rémi

    2015-03-01

    The vast majority of steganographic schemes for digital images stored in the raster format limit the amplitude of embedding changes to the smallest possible value. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to further improve the empirical security by allowing the embedding changes in highly textured areas to have a larger amplitude and thus embedding there a larger payload. Our approach is entirely model driven in the sense that the probabilities with which the cover pixels should be changed by a certain amount are derived from the cover model to minimize the power of an optimal statistical test. The embedding consists of two steps. First, the sender estimates the cover model parameters, the pixel variances, when modeling the pixels as a sequence of independent but not identically distributed generalized Gaussian random variables. Then, the embedding change probabilities for changing each pixel by 1 or 2, which can be transformed to costs for practical embedding using syndrome-trellis codes, are computed by solving a pair of non-linear algebraic equations. Using rich models and selection-channel-aware features, we compare the security of our scheme based on the generalized Gaussian model with pentary versions of two popular embedding algorithms: HILL and S-UNIWARD.

  4. Modelling the water balance of a mesoscale catchment basin using remotely sensed land cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Canty, Morton; Kunkel, Ralf; Menz, Gunter; Vereecken, Harry; Wendland, Frank

    2008-05-01

    SummaryHydrological modelling of mesoscale catchments is often adversely affected by a lack of adequate information about specific site conditions. In particular, digital land cover data are available from data sets which were acquired on a European or a national scale. These data sets do not only exhibit a restricted spatial resolution but also a differentiation of crops and impervious areas which is not appropriate to the needs of mesoscale hydrological models. In this paper, the impact of remote sensing data on the reliability of a water balance model is investigated and compared to model results determined on the basis of CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover as a reference. The aim is to quantify the improved model performance achieved by an enhanced land cover representation and corresponding model modifications. Making use of medium resolution satellite imagery from SPOT, LANDSAT ETM+ and ASTER, detailed information on land cover, especially agricultural crops and impervious surfaces, was extracted over a 5-year period (2000-2004). Crop-specific evapotranspiration coefficients were derived by using remote sensing data to replace grass reference evapotranspiration necessitated by the use of CORINE land cover for rural areas. For regions classified as settlement or industrial areas, degrees of imperviousness were derived. The data were incorporated into the hydrological model GROWA (large-scale water balance model), which uses an empirical approach combining distributed meteorological data with distributed site parameters to calculate the annual runoff components. Using satellite imagery in combination with runoff data from gauging stations for the years 2000-2004, the actual evapotranspiration calculation in GROWA was methodologically extended by including empirical crop coefficients for actual evapotranspiration calculations. While GROWA originally treated agricultural areas as homogeneous, now a consideration and differentiation

  5. Land Cover Classification for Polarimetric SAR Images Based on Mixture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two mixture models are proposed for modeling heterogeneous regions in single-look and multi-look polarimetric SAR images, along with their corresponding maximum likelihood classifiers for land cover classification. The classical Gaussian and Wishart models are suitable for modeling scattering vectors and covariance matrices from homogeneous regions, while their performance deteriorates for regions that are heterogeneous. By comparison, the proposed mixture models reduce the modeling error by expressing the data distribution as a weighted sum of multiple component distributions. For single-look and multi-look polarimetric SAR data, complex Gaussian and complex Wishart components are adopted, respectively. Model parameters are determined by employing the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. Two maximum likelihood classifiers are then constructed based on the proposed mixture models. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the RADARSAT-2 sensor of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA, the AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU. Experiment results demonstrate that the new models fit heterogeneous regions preferably to the classical models and are especially appropriate for extremely heterogeneous regions, such as urban areas. The overall accuracy of land cover classification is also improved due to the more refined modeling.

  6. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondman, A-K; Gaillard, M-J; Mazier, F; Sugita, S; Fyfe, R; Nielsen, A B; Twiddle, C; Barratt, P; Birks, H J B; Bjune, A E; Björkman, L; Broström, A; Caseldine, C; David, R; Dodson, J; Dörfler, W; Fischer, E; van Geel, B; Giesecke, T; Hultberg, T; Kalnina, L; Kangur, M; van der Knaap, P; Koff, T; Kuneš, P; Lagerås, P; Latałowa, M; Lechterbeck, J; Leroyer, C; Leydet, M; Lindbladh, M; Marquer, L; Mitchell, F J G; Odgaard, B V; Peglar, S M; Persson, T; Poska, A; Rösch, M; Seppä, H; Veski, S; Wick, L

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling. The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land]. The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A global reference model of the domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes c

  8. Response of Himalayan debris-covered glaciers to climate warming: from observations to predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, D.; Lefeuvre, P.; Ng, F.; Nicholson, L. I.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations and remote-sensing studies have shown that Himalayan debris-covered glaciers tend to follow distinctive evolutionary pathways during periods of negative mass balance. Initially, debris-covered glacier tongues downwaste rather than retreat, resulting in thinning and a reduction of ice surface gradient. Reduced driving stresses lead to lower velocities and eventual stagnation of the tongue. These geometrical and dynamic changes reduce the efficiency of the hydrological system, leading to increased retention of meltwater and the formation of ephemeral supraglacial lakes. High ablation rates around lakes and internal ablation in association with englacial conduits serve to accelerate mass loss and downwasting. In some cases, this evolutionary cascade results in the formation of moraine-dammed lakes, which can present significant outburst flood risks if large lake volumes coincide with weak moraine dams . While this evolutionary sequence has been observed on numerous glaciers, numerical prediction of future glacier behavior requires quantification or parameterization of several complex processes. In addition, system behavior is highly non-linear with multiple process thresholds, creating considerable modeling challenges. An essential first step is to develop robust mass-balance models, including patterns of snow accumulation in extreme terrain and the effects of both debris and climate on melting. Accumulation models need to incorporate vertical variations in precipitation as well as redistribution by wind and avalanching. Newly available precipitation estimates from satellite data can provide important model input. Ablation modeling can be done using a range of approaches, including degree-day and full energy balance models. Mass balance gradients calculated using the latter approach indicate ablation maxima some distance above the glacier termini, where debris cover is relatively thin. Mass balance modeling also indicates that in monsoonal regions

  9. Impurity-induced antiferromagnetic domains in the periodic Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benali, A.; Bai, Z. J.; Curro, N. J.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2016-08-01

    A central feature of the periodic Anderson model is the competition between antiferromagnetism, mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction at small conduction electron-local electron hybridization V , and singlet formation at large V . At zero temperature, and in dimension d >1 , these two phases are separated by a quantum critical point Vc. We use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations to explore the effect of impurities which have a local hybridization V*Vc . We measure the suppression of singlet correlations and the antiferromagnetic correlations which form around the impurity, as well as the size of the resulting domain. Exact diagonalization calculations for linear chains allow us to verify that the qualitative features obtained at intermediate coupling and finite T persist to strong coupling and T =0 , regimes which are difficult to access with QMC. Our calculations agree qualitatively with NMR measurements in CeCoIn5 -xCdx .

  10. Testing GNSS ionosphere models based on the position domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orus-Perez, Raul; Rovira, Adria

    2017-04-01

    As is well know, the ionosphere is one of the main contributors to the navigation error of single-frequency users. Currently, there are many models available for correcting the ionosphere delay. Thus, the different GNSS provide its own ionosphere corrections in the Signal-in-Space as for instance, NeQuick G for Galileo or Klobuchar for GPS. Other sources for ionosphere corrections are the Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (i.e. EGNOS or WAAS), Global Ionospheric Maps (i.e. provided by IGS), regional maps and even climatological models, like NeQuick or IRI. With this large variety of models, there have been a lot of efforts to define a suitable strategy to test the accuracy of the different models. Usually, this testing has been done by computing a "reference ionosphere", using all kind of GNSS techniques, using ionosonde data or using altimeter data. These techniques are not bias free and they may raise questions on which is the absolute accuracy they achieve. In order to complement these tests, a new methodology has been developed to test ionosphere models for GNSS. This methodology is based on the position domain, modeling the observables on each frequency with geodetic accuracy, and then to combine the obtained least square solutions to determine the ionosphere error. The results of the testing for different GIMs from IGS and different Signal-in-Space models (GPS, Galileo, and EGNOS) will be presented for 2 years of the last Solar Maximum with more than 40 receivers worldwide. The weaknesses and strengths of the new methodology will also be shown to get a comprehensive idea of its capabilities.

  11. Modelling erosion development during wave overtopping of an asphalt road covered dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomers Anouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave overtopping initiates erosion of dikes, thereby compromising the safety against flooding. Structures integrated in a grass covered dike may decrease the resistance against erosion. In this study, CFD modelling is used to assess the effect of an asphalt road on top of the dike crest on the initiation of erosion due to wave overtopping. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a k-ε turbulence model. Two wave overtopping experiments are used for validating the hydrodynamics and the coupled hydrodynamic-erosion model. The amount of scour caused by overtopping waves is predicted by combining the shear stresses from the CFD model with an erosion model including grass erosion. Both the hydrodynamics and scour depths show good agreement with the measurements. Results show that a dike profile with a road on top of the crest is more vulnerable to erosion development than a bare grass covered dike profile. This is caused by a combination of the smoother asphalt section and the damaged berms at the transitions of the asphalt with the grass cover.

  12. Aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE) with plane wave synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Kazuyuki; Tierney, Jaime; Byram, Brett

    2017-03-01

    In our previous studies, we demonstrated that our aperture domain model-based clutter suppression algorithm improved image quality of in vivo B-mode data obtained from focused transmit beam sequences. Our approach suppresses off-axis clutter and reverberation and tackles limitations of related algorithms because it preserves RF channel signals and speckle statistics. We call the algorithm aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). We previously focused on reverberation suppression, but ADMIRE is also effective at suppressing off-axis clutter. We are interested in how ADMIRE performs on plane wave sequences and the impact of AD- MIRE applied before and after synthetic beamforming of steered plane wave sequences. We employed simulated phantoms using Field II and tissue-mimicking phantoms to evaluate ADMIRE applied to plane wave sequencing. We generated images acquired from plane waves with and without synthetic aperture synthesis and measured contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). For simulated cyst images formed from single plane waves, the contrast for delay-and-sum (DAS) and ADMIRE are 15.64 dB and 28.34 dB, respectively, while the CNR are 1.76 dB and 3.90 dB, respectively. Based on these findings, ADMIRE improves plane wave image quality. We also applied ADMIRE to resolution phantoms having a point target at 3 cm depth on-axis, simulating the point spread functions from data obtained from 1 and 75 steered plane waves, along with linear scan at focus of 3 and 4 cm depth. We then examined the outcome of applying ADMIRE before and after synthetic aperture processing. Finally, we applied this to an in vivo carotid artery.

  13. Gas Transport Parameters for Landfill Final Cover Soil: Measurements and Model Modification by Dry Bulk Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarachchi, P. N.; Kawamoto, K.; Hamamoto, S.; Nagamori, M.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2011-12-01

    for ka than Dp for both fractions. We suggest this is because of compaction effects caused to create well-aligned macropore networks that are available for gas transport through the porous material. Then, the famous predictive models, the water induced linear reduction (WLR) model for Dp and the reference point law (RPL) model for ka were modified with reference point measurements (dry conditions) and model parameters and they correlated linearly to dry bulk density values for both fractions of landfill final cover soil.

  14. NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE SNOW INDEX SIMULATION FOR SNOW-COVER MAPPING IN FOREST BY GEOSAIL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yun-gang; LIU Chuang

    2006-01-01

    The snow-cover mapping in forest area is always one of the difficult points for optical satellite remote sensing. To investigate reflectance variability and to improve the mapping of snow in forest area, GeoSail model was used to simulate the reflectance of a snow-covered forest. Using this model, the effects of varying canopy density, solar illumination and view geometry on the performance of the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. The relationship between NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and snow fraction was discussed in detail. Results indicated that the weak performance would be achieved if fixed criteria were used for different regions especially in the complicated land cover components. Finally, some suggestions to MODIS SNOWMAP algorithm were put forward to improve snow mapping precision in forest area based on the simulation, for example, new criteria should be used in coniferous forest, that is, NDSI greater than 0.3 and NDVI greater than zero. Otherwise, a threshold on view zenith angle may be used in the criteria such as 45°.

  15. Impact of land cover characterization on regional climate modeling over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Pal, Jeremy S.; Wang, Guiling L.; Lawrence, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of high resolution modern vegetation cover on the West African climate is examined using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model implementing the NCAR Community Land Model. Two high resolution 25 km long-term simulations driven by the output from a coarser 50-km resolution simulation are performed for the period 1998-2010. One high resolution simulation uses an earlier and coarser-resolution version of plant functional type distribution and leaf area index, while the other uses a more recent, higher-quality, and finer-resolution version of the data. The results indicate that the new land cover distribution substantially alters the distribution of temperature with warming in Central Nigeria, northern Gulf of Guinea and part of the Sahel due to the replacement of C4 grass with corn; and cooling along the coastlines of the Gulf of Guinea and in Central Africa due to the replacement of C4 grass with tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. Changes in latent heat flux appear to be largely responsible for these temperature changes with a net decrease (increase) in regions of warming (cooling). The improved land cover distribution also results in a wetter monsoon season. The presence of corn tends to favor larger precipitation amounts via more intense events, while the presence of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees tends to favor the occurrence of both more intense and more frequent events. The wetter conditions appear to be sustained via (1) an enhanced soil moisture feedback; and (2) elevated moisture transport due to increased low-level convergence in regions south of 10N where the most substantial land cover differences are present. Overall the changes induced by the improved vegetation cover improve, to some extent, the performance of the high resolution regional climate model in simulating the main West African summer monsoon features.

  16. Modeling vulnerability to thermokarst disturbance and its consequences on regional land cover dynamic in boreal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, H.; Lara, M. J.; Bolton, W. R.; McGuire, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Estimation of the magnitude and consequences of permafrost degradation in high latitude is one of the most urgent research challenges related to contemporary and future climate change. In addition to widespread vertical degradation, ice-rich permafrost can thaw laterally, often triggering abrupt subsidence of the ground surface called thermokart. In this depression, permafrost plateau vegetation will transition to wetlands or lakes, while surface water of the surrounding landscape may drain towards it. These abrupt changes in land cover and hydrology can have dramatic consequences from wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycles. Although recent studies have documented an acceleration of the rates of thermokarst formation in boreal and arctic peatlands, the importance of thermokarst at the regional level is still poorly understood. To better understand the vulnerability of the landscape to thermokarst disturbance in Alaska, we developed the Alaska Thermokarst Model (ATM), a state-and-transition model designed to simulate land cover change associated with thermokarst disturbance. In boreal regions, the model simulates transitions from permafrost plateau forest to thermokarst lake, bog or fen, as a function of climate and fire dynamics, permafrost characteristics and physiographic information. This model is designed and parameterized based on existing literature and a new repeated imagery analysis we conducted in a major wetland complex in boreal Alaska. We will present simulation and validation of thermokarst dynamic and associated land cover change in two wetland complexes in boreal Alaska, from 2000 to 2100 for six climate scenarios associating three AR5 emission scenarios and two global circulation model simulations. By 2100, ATM is predicting decrease between 3.5 and 9.1 % in the extent of permafrost plateau forest, mostly to the benefit of thermokarst fen, and lake. This analysis allowed us to assess the importance of thermokarst dynamics and landscape evolution

  17. Modeling and imaging land-cover influences on air temperature in and near Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Gordon M.; Ellis, Alexis; Nowak, David J.; Yesilonis, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Over the course of 1681 hours between May 5 and September 30, 2006, air temperatures measured at the 1.5-m height at seven sites in and near the city of Baltimore, MD were used to empirically model Δ widehat{T} R-p , the difference in air temperature between a site in downtown Baltimore and the six other sites. Variables in the prediction equation included difference between the downtown reference and each of the other sites in upwind tree cover and impervious cover as obtained from 10-m resolution geographic information system (GIS) data. Other predictor variables included an index of atmospheric stability, topographic indices, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and antecedent precipitation. The model was used to map predicted hourly Δ widehat{T} R-p across the Baltimore region based on hourly weather data from the airport. Despite the numerous sources of variability in the regression modeling, the method produced reasonable map patterns of Δ widehat{T} R-p that, except for some areas evidently affected by sea breeze from the Chesapeake, closely matched results of mesoscale modeling. Potential applications include predictions of the effect of changing tree cover on air temperature in the area.

  18. Sensitivity Study of Cloud Cover and Ozone Modeling to Microphysics Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałaszek, Kinga; Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Werner, Małgorzata; Ojrzyńska, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    Cloud cover is a significant meteorological parameter influencing the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface, and therefore affecting the formation of photochemical pollutants, most of all tropospheric ozone (O3). Because cloud amount and type in meteorological models are resolved by microphysics schemes, adjusting this parameterization is a major factor determining the accuracy of the results. However, verification of cloud cover simulations based on surface data is difficult and yields significant errors. Current meteorological satellite programs provide many high-resolution cloud products, which can be used to verify numerical models. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been applied for the area of Poland for an episode of June 17th-July 4th, 2008, when high ground-level ozone concentrations were observed. Four simulations were performed, each with a different microphysics parameterization: Purdue Lin, Eta Ferrier, WRF Single-Moment 6-class, and Morrison Double-Moment scheme. The results were then evaluated based on cloud mask satellite images derived from SEVIRI data. Meteorological variables and O3 concentrations were also evaluated. The results show that the simulation using Morrison Double-Moment microphysics provides the most and Purdue Lin the least accurate information on cloud cover and surface meteorological variables for the selected high ozone episode. Those two configurations were used for WRF-Chem runs, which showed significantly higher O3 concentrations and better model-measurements agreement of the latter.

  19. Counting Tensor Model Observables and Branched Covers of the 2-Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2013-01-01

    Lattice gauge theories of permutation groups with a simple topological action (henceforth permutation-TFTs) have recently found several applications in the combinatorics of quantum field theories (QFTs). They have been used to solve counting problems of Feynman graphs in QFTs and ribbon graphs of large $N$, often revealing inter-relations between different counting problems. In another recent development, tensor theories generalizing matrix theories have been actively developed as models of random geometry in three or more dimensions. Here, we apply permutation-TFT methods to count gauge invariants for tensor models (colored as well as non-colored), exhibiting a relationship with counting problems of branched covers of the 2-sphere, where the rank $d$ of the tensor gets related to a number of branch points. We give explicit generating functions for the relevant counting and describe algorithms for the enumeration of the invariants. As well as the classic count of Hurwitz equivalence classes of branched covers...

  20. Potential solar radiation and land cover contributions to digital climate surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pol; Batalla, Meritxell; Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Overview: We have designed a series of ad-hoc experiments to study the role of factors that a priori have a strong weight in developing digital models of temperature and precipitation, such as solar radiation and land cover. Empirical test beds have been designed to improve climate (mean air temperature and total precipitation) digital models using statistical general techniques (multiple regression) with residual correction (interpolated with inverse weighting distance). Aim: Understand what roles these two factors (solar radiation and land cover) play to incorporate them into the process of generating mapping of temperature and rainfall. Study area: The Iberian Peninsula and supported in this, Catalonia and the Catalan Pyrenees. Data: The dependent variables used in all experiments relate to data from meteorological stations precipitation (PL), mean temperature (MT), average temperature minimum (MN) and maximum average temperature (MX). These data were obtained monthly from the AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología). Data series of stations covers the period between 1950 to 2010. Methodology: The idea is to design ad hoc, based on a sample of more equitable space statistician, to detect the role of radiation. Based on the influence of solar radiation on the temperature of the air from a quantitative point of view, the difficulty in answering this lies in the fact that there are lots of weather stations located in areas where solar radiation is similar. This suggests that the role of the radiation variable remains "off" when, instead, we intuitively think that would strongly influence the temperature. We have developed a multiple regression analysis between these meteorological variables as the dependent ones (Temperature and rainfall), and some geographical variables: altitude (ALT), latitude (LAT), continentality (CON) and solar radiation (RAD) as the independent ones. In case of the experiment with land covers, we have used the NDVI index as a proxy of land

  1. Investigating the spread in surface albedo for snow-covered forests in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libo; Cole, Jason N. S.; Bartlett, Paul; Verseghy, Diana; Derksen, Chris; Brown, Ross; Salzen, Knut

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the role of leaf/plant area index (LAI/PAI) specification on the large spread of winter albedo simulated by climate models. To examine the sensitivity of winter albedo to LAI, we perform a sensitivity analysis using two methods commonly used to compute albedo in snow-covered forests as well as diagnostic calculations within version 4.2 of the Canadian Atmospheric Model for which PAI is systematically varied. The results show that the simulated albedo is very sensitive to negative PAI biases, especially for smaller PAI values. The LAI and surface albedo of boreal forests in the presence of snow simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models are evaluated using satellite observations. The evaluation of CMIP5 models suggest that inaccurate tree cover fraction due to improper plant functional type specification or erroneous LAI parameterization in some models explains, in part, an observed positive bias in winter albedo over boreal forest regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This contributes to a large intermodel spread in simulated surface albedo in the presence of snow over these regions and is largely responsible for uncertainties in simulated snow-albedo feedback strength. Errors are largest (+20-40%) in models with large underestimation of LAI but are typically within ±15% when simulated LAI is within the observed range. This study underscores the importance of accurate representation of vegetation distribution and parameters in realistic simulation of surface albedo.

  2. Investigating the spread of surface albedo in snow covered forests in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libo; Cole, Jason; Bartlett, Paul; Verseghy, Diana; Derksen, Chris; Brown, Ross; von Salzen, Knut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the role of leaf/plant area index (LAI/PAI) specification on the large spread of winter albedo simulated by climate models. To examine the sensitivity of winter albedo to LAI, we perform a sensitivity analysis using two methods commonly used to compute albedo in snow-covered forests as well as diagnostic calculations within version 4.2 of the Canadian Atmospheric Model for which PAI is systematically varied. The results show that the simulated albedo is very sensitive to negative PAI biases, especially for smaller PAI values. The LAI and surface albedo of boreal forests in the presence of snow simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models are evaluated using satellite observations. The evaluation of CMIP5 models suggest that inaccurate tree cover fraction due to improper plant functional type specification or erroneous LAI parameterization in some models explains, in part, an observed positive bias in winter albedo over boreal forest regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This contributes to a large intermodel spread in simulated surface albedo in the presence of snow over these regions and is largely responsible for uncertainties in simulated snow-albedo feedback strength. Errors are largest (+20-40 %) in models with large underestimation of LAI but are typically within ±15% when simulated LAI is within the observed range. This study underscores the importance of accurate representation of vegetation distribution and parameters in realistic simulation of surface albedo.

  3. Climate Change for Agriculture, Forest Cover and 3d Urban Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, M.; Bassir, D.

    2014-11-01

    This research demonstrates the important role of the remote sensing in finding out the different parameters behind the agricultural crop change, forest cover and urban 3D models. Standalone software is developed to view and analysis the different factors effecting the change in crop productions. Open-source libraries from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation have been used for the development of the shape-file viewer. Software can be used to get the attribute information, scale, zoom in/out and pan the shapefiles. Environmental changes due to pollution and population that are increasing the urbanisation and decreasing the forest cover on the earth. Satellite imagery such as Landsat 5(1984) to Landsat TRIS/8 (2014), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and NDVI are used to analyse the different parameters that are effecting the agricultural crop production change and forest change. It is advisable for the development of good quality of NDVI and forest cover maps to use data collected from the same processing methods for the complete region. Management practices have been developed from the analysed data for the betterment of the crop and saving the forest cover

  4. The importance of land cover change across urban-rural typologies for climate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Jason; Habeeb, Dana; Stone, Brian

    2013-01-15

    Land cover changes affect local surface energy balances by changing the amount of solar energy reflected, the magnitude and duration over which absorbed energy is released as heat, and the amount of energy that is diverted to non-heating fluxes through evaporation. However, such local influences often are only crudely included in climate modeling exercises, if at all. A better understanding of local land conversion dynamics can serve to inform inputs for climate models and increase the role for land use planning in climate management policy. Here we present a new approach for projecting and incorporating metropolitan land cover change into mesoscale climate and other environmental assessment models. Our results demonstrate the relative contributions of different land development patterns to land cover change and conversion and suggest that regional growth management strategies serving to increase settlement densities over time can have a significant influence on the rate of deforestation per unit of population growth. Employing the approach presented herein, the impacts of land conversion on climate change and on parallel environmental systems and services, such as ground water recharge, habitat provision, and food production, may all be investigated more closely and managed through land use planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the potential of MSG-SEVIRI snow cover images for hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surer, S.; Parajka, J.; Akyurek, Z.; Bloeschl, G.

    2012-12-01

    Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on board of MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) geostationary satellite enables snow cover monitoring at very high temporal resolution (15 min). It is a key component of the recent EUMETSAT programme for Satellite Application Facility on Support to operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) project. The main aim of the project is to develop and test new satellite products, which will comply the requirements for operational hydrology and water resources management. The objective of this study is (a) to compare snow cover product (H10) derived from MSG-SEVIRI with MODIS (MOD10A1) snow cover product, (b) to examine the MSG-SEVIRI snow mapping accuracy against in situ snow observations, (c) to test potential of H10 snow cover products for calibration and validation of a conceptual hydrologic model. We compare MSG-SEVIRI, MODIS grid maps and daily snow depth measurements at 272 climate stations over Austria in the period from October 2007 to June 2012. The results indicate that temporal merging of 15 minutes MSG-SEVIRI observations allows a reduction of cloud coverage at daily time scale. The relative number of days with cloud coverage in winter season is on average 35% for MSG-SEVIRI, compared to 65% for MODIS dataset. The coarser spatial resolution of MSG-SEVIRI, namely 0.05o, however, resulted in lower mapping accuracy. The overall snow cover mapping error is 5% for MODIS and 15% for MSG-SEVIRI, respectively. Our results showed that for MSG-SEVIRI dataset the underestimation errors dominate and tend to increase with increasing altitude of climate stations. Our results showed that for MSG-SEVIRI dataset the underestimation errors dominated. The potential of MSG-SEVIRI product (H10) for hydrological modeling is examined in two mountain catchments in Austria and Turkey. We will evaluate the potential of snow cover data from the MSG-SEVIRI for calibrating and validating a conceptual semi

  6. Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional hydrological model of a slope covered with pyroclastic materials is proposed. The soil cover is constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices, with a total thickness between 1.8 m and 2.5 m, lying upon a fractured limestone bedrock. The mean inclination of the slope is around 40°, slightly larger than the friction angle of the ashes. Thus, the equilibrium of the slope, significantly affected by the cohesive contribution exerted by soil suction in unsaturated conditions, may be altered by rainfall infiltration. The model assumes a single homogeneous soil layer occupying the entire depth of the cover, and takes into account seasonally variable canopy interception of precipitation and root water uptake by vegetation, mainly constituted by deciduous chestnut woods with a dense underbrush growing during late spring and summer. The bottom boundary condition links water potential at the soil–bedrock interface with the fluctuations of the water table of the aquifer located in the fractured limestone, which is conceptually modelled as a linear reservoir. Most of the model parameters have been assigned according to literature indications or from experimental data. Soil suction and water content data measured between 1 January 2011 and 20 July 2011 at a monitoring station installed along the slope allowed the remaining parameters to be identified. The calibrated model, which reproduced very closely the data of the calibration set, has been applied to the simulation of the hydrological response of the slope to the hourly precipitation record of 1999, when a large flow-like landslide was triggered close to the monitored location. The simulation results show that the lowest soil suction ever attained occurred just at the time the landslide was triggered, indicating that the model is capable of predicting slope failure conditions.

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_055738.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055738.3 chr13 Solution structure of the 6th fibronectin type III domain from hu...man fibronectin type III domain containing protein 3 c1x4xa_ chr13/NP_055738.3/NP_055738.3_apo_889-989.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_004079.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004079.3 chr10 The solution structure of the BRCT domain from human polymerase r...eveals homology with the TdT BRCT domain p2htfa_ chr10/NP_004079.3/NP_004079.3_apo_25-125.pdb blast 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_067651.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_067651.2 chr4 Crystal Structure of A N-terminal Fragment of SKAP-HOM Containing ...both the Helical Dimerization Domain and the PH Domain c2otxb_ chr4/NP_067651.2/NP_067651.2_apo_1-250.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_001035207.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035207.1 chr11 Pleckstrin-homology domain (PH domain) c1u2ba_ chr11/NP_001035207.1/NP_001035207....1_apo_1279-1403.pdb d1fgya_ chr11/NP_001035207.1/NP_001035207.1_holo_1279-1403.pdb psi-bl

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_036547.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_036547.1 chr8 FUSION OF N-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE MINOR COAT PROTEIN FROM GENE II...I IN PHAGE M13, AND C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF E. COLI PROTEIN-TOLA c1tola_ chr8/NP_036547.1/NP_036547.1_apo_4-226.pdb swppa 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_937872.1 [SAHG[Archive

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    Full Text Available NP_937872.1 chr4 FUSION OF N-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE MINOR COAT PROTEIN FROM GENE II...I IN PHAGE M13, AND C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF E. COLI PROTEIN-TOLA c1tola_ chr4/NP_937872.1/NP_937872.1_apo_857-1037.pdb swppa 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001092103.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001092103.1 chr19 FUSION OF N-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE MINOR COAT PROTEIN FROM GEN...E III IN PHAGE M13, AND C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF E. COLI PROTEIN-TOLA c1tola_ chr19/NP_001092103.1/NP_001092103.1_apo_24-251.pdb swppa 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_004372.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004372.3 chr6 FUSION OF N-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE MINOR COAT PROTEIN FROM GENE II...I IN PHAGE M13, AND C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF E. COLI PROTEIN-TOLA c1tola_ chr6/NP_004372.3/NP_004372.3_apo_441-674.pdb swppa 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_851851.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_851851.1 chr22 BCR-homology GTPase activation domain (BH-domain) d1rgpa_ chr22/NP_851851.1/NP_851851.1..._apo_222-417.pdb d1grnb_ chr22/NP_851851.1/NP_851851.1_holo_222-417.pdb blast 268R GDP 1 ...

  16. Partial covering of a circle by equal circles. Part I: The mechanical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gáspár

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How must n equal circles of given radius be placed so that they cover as great a part of the area of the unit circle as possible? To analyse this mathematical problem, mechanical models are introduced. A generalized tensegrity structure is associated with a maximum area configuration of the n circles, whose equilibrium configuration is determined numerically with the method of dynamic relaxation, and the stability of equilibrium is investigated by means of the stiffness matrix of the tensegrity structure. In this Part I, the principles of the models are presented, while an application will be shown in the forthcoming Part II.

  17. Present-day and ice-covered equilibrium states in a comprehensive climate model

    OpenAIRE

    J. Marotzke; Botzet, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show that in a comprehensive climate model both the current climate and a completely ice-covered Earth are stable states under today's total solar irradiance (TSI) and CO2 level. We employ the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, at relatively high resolution (horizontally T63 in the atmosphere and 1.5 degrees in the ocean). Setting TSI to near-zero causes a transition from realistic present-day climate to a completely ice-c...

  18. Extent of partial ice cover due to carbon cycle feedback in a zonal energy balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huntingford

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A global carbon cycle is introduced into a zonally averaged energy balance climate model. The physical model components are similar to those of Budyko (1969 and Sellers (1969. The new carbon components account for atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and the terrestrial and oceanic storage of carbon. Prescribing values for the sum of these carbon components, it is found that inclusion of a closed carbon cycle reduces the range of insolation over which stable partial ice cover solutions may occur. This highly simplified climate model also predicts that the estimated release of carbon from fossil fuel burning over the next hundred years could result in the eventual melting of the ice sheets. Keywords: climate, carbon cycle,zonal model, earth system modelling

  19. Forward-looking Assimilation of MODIS-derived Snow Covered Area into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Snow cover over land has a significant impact on the surface radiation budget, turbulent energy fluxes to the atmosphere, and local hydrological fluxes. For this reason, inaccuracies in the representation of snow covered area (SCA) within a land surface model (LSM) can lead to substantial errors in both offline and coupled simulations. Data assimilation algorithms have the potential to address this problem. However, the assimilation of SCA observations is complicated by an information deficit in the observation SCA indicates only the presence or absence of snow, and not snow volume and by the fact that assimilated SCA observations can introduce inconsistencies with atmospheric forcing data, leading to non-physical artifacts in the local water balance. In this paper we present a novel assimilation algorithm that introduces MODIS SCA observations to the Noah LSM in global, uncoupled simulations. The algorithm utilizes observations from up to 72 hours ahead of the model simulation in order to correct against emerging errors in the simulation of snow cover while preserving the local hydrologic balance. This is accomplished by using future snow observations to adjust air temperature and, when necessary, precipitation within the LSM. In global, offline integrations, this new assimilation algorithm provided improved simulation of SCA and snow water equivalent relative to open loop integrations and integrations that used an earlier SCA assimilation algorithm. These improvements, in turn, influenced the simulation of surface water and energy fluxes both during the snow season and, in some regions, on into the following spring.

  20. Present-day and ice-covered equilibrium states in a comprehensive climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotzke, Jochem; Botzet, Michael

    2007-08-01

    We show that in a comprehensive climate model both the current climate and a completely ice-covered Earth are stable states under today's total solar irradiance (TSI) and CO2 level. We employ the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, at relatively high resolution (horizontally T63 in the atmosphere and 1.5 degrees in the ocean). Setting TSI to near-zero causes a transition from realistic present-day climate to a completely ice-covered state within 15 years; this state persists even when TSI re-assumes today's value. A break-up of the complete ice cover occurs with today's TSI and 100 times - but not with 10 times - today's atmospheric CO2 level. While TSI is near-zero, extremely strong meridional overturning ensues in both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Our results imply that a snowball Earth is possible, in principle, with inception possibly triggered by a brief dark spell.

  1. Possibilities of Land Administration Domain Model (ladm) Implementation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, S. O.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Choon, L. T.; Van Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2015-10-01

    LADM covers essential information associated components of land administration and management including those over water and elements above and below the surface of the earth. LADM standard provides an abstract conceptual model with three packages and one sub-package. LADM defined terminology for a land administration system that allows a shared explanation of different formal customary or informal tenures. The standard provides the basis for national and regional profiles and enables the combination of land management information from different sources in a coherent manner. Given this, this paper started with the description of land and land administration in Nigeria. The pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial era with organization structure was discussed. This discussion is important to present an understanding of the background of any improvement needed for the LADM implementation in Nigeria. The LADM, ISO 19152 and the packages of LADM was discussed, and the comparison of the different aspects of each package and classes were made with Nigerian land administration and the cadastral system. In the comparison made, it was discovered that the concept is similar to LADM packages in Nigerian land administration. Although, the terminology may not be the same in all cases. Having studied conceptualization and the application of LADM, as a model that has essential information associated with components of the land administration. Including those on the land, over water as well as elements above and below the surface of the earth and discovered that the standard is suitable for the country. The model can, therefore, be adopted into Nigerian land administration system by mapping in some of the concepts of LADM.

  2. POSSIBILITIES OF LAND ADMINISTRATION DOMAIN MODEL (LADM IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Babalola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available LADM covers essential information associated components of land administration and management including those over water and elements above and below the surface of the earth. LADM standard provides an abstract conceptual model with three packages and one sub-package. LADM defined terminology for a land administration system that allows a shared explanation of different formal customary or informal tenures. The standard provides the basis for national and regional profiles and enables the combination of land management information from different sources in a coherent manner. Given this, this paper started with the description of land and land administration in Nigeria. The pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial era with organization structure was discussed. This discussion is important to present an understanding of the background of any improvement needed for the LADM implementation in Nigeria. The LADM, ISO 19152 and the packages of LADM was discussed, and the comparison of the different aspects of each package and classes were made with Nigerian land administration and the cadastral system. In the comparison made, it was discovered that the concept is similar to LADM packages in Nigerian land administration. Although, the terminology may not be the same in all cases. Having studied conceptualization and the application of LADM, as a model that has essential information associated with components of the land administration. Including those on the land, over water as well as elements above and below the surface of the earth and discovered that the standard is suitable for the country. The model can, therefore, be adopted into Nigerian land administration system by mapping in some of the concepts of LADM.

  3. Modeled historical land use and land cover for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Quenzer, Robert; Friesz, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of the conterminous United States has changed dramatically over the last 200 years, with agricultural land use, urban expansion, forestry, and other anthropogenic activities altering land cover across vast swaths of the country. While land use and land cover (LULC) models have been developed to model potential future LULC change, few efforts have focused on recreating historical landscapes. Researchers at the US Geological Survey have used a wide range of historical data sources and a spatially explicit modeling framework to model spatially explicit historical LULC change in the conterminous United States from 1992 back to 1938. Annual LULC maps were produced at 250-m resolution, with 14 LULC classes. Assessment of model results showed good agreement with trends and spatial patterns in historical data sources such as the Census of Agriculture and historical housing density data, although comparison with historical data is complicated by definitional and methodological differences. The completion of this dataset allows researchers to assess historical LULC impacts on a range of ecological processes.

  4. Fractional vegetation cover estimation based on an improved selective endmember spectral mixture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Vegetation is an important part of ecosystem and estimation of fractional vegetation cover is of significant meaning to monitoring of vegetation growth in a certain region. With Landsat TM images and HJ-1B images as data source, an improved selective endmember linear spectral mixture model (SELSMM was put forward in this research to estimate the fractional vegetation cover in Huangfuchuan watershed in China. We compared the result with the vegetation coverage estimated with linear spectral mixture model (LSMM and conducted accuracy test on the two results with field survey data to study the effectiveness of different models in estimation of vegetation coverage. Results indicated that: (1 the RMSE of the estimation result of SELSMM based on TM images is the lowest, which is 0.044. The RMSEs of the estimation results of LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.052, 0.077 and 0.082, which are all higher than that of SELSMM based on TM images; (2 the R2 of SELSMM based on TM images, LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.668, 0.531, 0.342 and 0.336. Among these models, SELSMM based on TM images has the highest estimation accuracy and also the highest correlation with measured vegetation coverage. Of the two methods tested, SELSMM is superior to LSMM in estimation of vegetation coverage and it is also better at unmixing mixed pixels of TM images than pixels of HJ-1B images. So, the SELSMM based on TM images is comparatively accurate and reliable in the research of regional fractional vegetation cover estimation.

  5. Fractional vegetation cover estimation based on an improved selective endmember spectral mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiao Bing

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation is an important part of ecosystem and estimation of fractional vegetation cover is of significant meaning to monitoring of vegetation growth in a certain region. With Landsat TM images and HJ-1B images as data source, an improved selective endmember linear spectral mixture model (SELSMM) was put forward in this research to estimate the fractional vegetation cover in Huangfuchuan watershed in China. We compared the result with the vegetation coverage estimated with linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and conducted accuracy test on the two results with field survey data to study the effectiveness of different models in estimation of vegetation coverage. Results indicated that: (1) the RMSE of the estimation result of SELSMM based on TM images is the lowest, which is 0.044. The RMSEs of the estimation results of LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.052, 0.077 and 0.082, which are all higher than that of SELSMM based on TM images; (2) the R2 of SELSMM based on TM images, LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.668, 0.531, 0.342 and 0.336. Among these models, SELSMM based on TM images has the highest estimation accuracy and also the highest correlation with measured vegetation coverage. Of the two methods tested, SELSMM is superior to LSMM in estimation of vegetation coverage and it is also better at unmixing mixed pixels of TM images than pixels of HJ-1B images. So, the SELSMM based on TM images is comparatively accurate and reliable in the research of regional fractional vegetation cover estimation.

  6. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover and soil moisture on spin up behaviour of a land surface model in a monsoonal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anwesha; Mandal, Manabottam

    2015-04-01

    Model spin-up is the process through which the model is adequately equilibrated to ensure balance between the mass fields and velocity fields. In this study, an offline one dimensional Noah land surface model is integrated recursively for three years to assess its spin-up behavior at different sites over the Indian Monsoon domain. Several numerical experiments are performed to investigate the impact of soil category, vegetation cover, initial soil moisture and subsequent dry or wet condition on model spin-up. These include simulations with the dominant soil and vegetation covers of this region, different initial soil moisture content (observed soil moisture; dry soil; moderately wet soil; saturated soil), simulations initialized at different rain conditions (no rain; infrequent rain; continuous rain) and different seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer/Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and Autumn). It is seen that the spin-up behavior of the model depends on the soil type and vegetation cover with soil characteristics having the larger influence. Over India, the model has the longest spin-up in the case of simulations with loamy soil covered with mixed-shrub. It is noted that the model has a significantly longer spin-up when initialized with very low initial soil moisture content than with higher soil moisture content. It is also seen that in general, simulations initialized just before a continuous rainfall event have the least spin-up time. This observation is reinforced by the results from the simulations initialized in different seasons. It is seen that for monsoonal region, the model spin-up time is least for simulations initialized just before the Monsoon. Model initialized during the Monsoon rain episodes has a longer spin-up than that initialized in any other season. Furthermore, it is seen that the model has a shorter spin-up if it reaches the equilibrium state predominantly via drying process and could be as low as two months under quasi-equilibrium condition depending on

  7. Comparison of deep percolation rates below contrasting land covers with a joint canopy and soil model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, C. G.; Pryet, A.; García Vera, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chaumont, C.; Tournebize, J.; Villacis, M.; d'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.

    2016-01-01

    A Rutter-type canopy interception model is combined with a 1-D physically-based soil water flow model to compare deep percolation rates below distinct land covers. The joint model allows the quantification of both evaporation and transpiration rates as well as deep percolation from vegetation and soil characteristics. Experimental observations are required to constitute the input and calibration datasets. An appropriate monitoring design is described which consists in meteorological monitoring together with throughfall and soil water tension measurements. The methodology is illustrated in Santa Cruz Island in the Galapagos Archipelago, which has been affected by significant land use changes. Two adjacent study plots are investigated: a secondary forest and a pasture. The results of the model reveal that evaporation of canopy interception is higher in the pasture due to the bigger canopy storage capacity, which promotes evaporation against canopy drainage. This is however compensated by higher transpiration in the secondary forest, due to the smaller surface resistance. As a consequence, total evapotranspiration is similar for the two plots and no marked difference in deep percolation can be observed. In both cases, deep percolation reaches ca. 2 m/year which corresponds to 80% of the incoming rainfall. This methodology not only allows the quantification of deep percolation, but can also be used to identify the controlling factors of deep percolation under contrasting land covers.

  8. Domain Modeling - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available English ]; } else { document.getElementById(lang).innerHTML= '[ Japanese | English ]'; } } window.onload = ...) link to Protein Basic Information of the same RefSeqID chromosome Chromosome number of the gene domainIdx

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_005364.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ECEPTOR [EBP] AND AN INACTIVE PEPTIDE [EMP33] CONTAINS 3,5-DIBROMOTYROSINE IN POSITION 4 (DENOTED DBY) c1cn4...NP_005364.1 chr1 COMPLEX BETWEEN THE EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) R

  10. Towards an ontological model defining the social engineering domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available information. Although Social Engineering is an important branch of Information Security, the discipline is not well defined; a number of different definitions appear in the literature. Several concepts in the domain of Social Engineering are defined...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_000206.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g the Pathogenic K659N Mutation Responsible for an Unclassified Craniosynostosis Syndrome. p1gjoa_ chr19/NP_...NP_000206.2 chr19 Crystal Strucure of FGF Receptor 2 (FGFR2) Kinase Domain Harborin

  12. DSRM: An Ontology Driven Domain Scientific Data Retrieval Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    With the development of information technology, a large number of domain scientific data have been accumulated with the characteristics of distribution and heterogeneity. It has important significance to acquire exact scientific data from multiple data sources for cooperative research. The existing data integration and information retrieval techniques cannot solve the problems of data semantic heterogeneity and retrieval inaccuracy very well. In this paper, an ontology driven domain scientifi...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001001417.5 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001417.5 chr17 Crystal structure of the putative RabGAP domain of human TBC1 ...domain family member 14 p2qq8a_ chr17/NP_001001417.5/NP_001001417.5_holo_78-368.pdb psi-blast 153L,156H,201F,202P,205D,278S,279L,307V,308Q,337D,338T,339V UNX 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_510961.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_510961.1 chr6 C1 set domains (antibody constant domain-like) d1syva1 chr6/NP_510961.1/NP_510961....1_apo_147-236.pdb d1im9a1 chr6/NP_510961.1/NP_510961.1_holo_147-236.pdb psi-blast 230K,235F,236I ALA,ASP,LYS 1 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_079067.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079067.2 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE 3RD PDZ DOMAIN OF INTESTINE- AND KIDNEY-...ENRICHED PDZ DOMAIN IKEPP (PDZD3) p2v90f_ chr11/NP_079067.2/NP_079067.2_apo_246-339.pdb blast 256P,257Q,282P,283G,284L,287K,288K,336F,337F,338S 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_056047.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056047.1 chr12 Solution structure of the FYVE domain in zinc finger FYVE domain-...containing protein 12 p2yqma_ chr12/NP_056047.1/NP_056047.1_holo_675-757.pdb psi-blast 696T,698T,699L,700S,712S,714Q,715G,716S,717P,719A,720K,722E,723A,740A,741S,743A,744R _ZN 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_001003407.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001003407.1 chr10 NMR structure of the complex between Nck-2 SH3 domain and PINC...H-1 LIM4 domain c1u5sb_ chr10/NP_001003407.1/NP_001003407.1_holo_36-95.pdb psi-blast 39C,41K,42C,59H,62C,65C,67V,68C,69G,70C,85L,86C,89D _ZN 0 ...

  18. Dynamic-stochastic modeling of snow cover formation on the European territory of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gelfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic-stochastic model, which combines a deterministic model of snow cover formation with a stochastic weather generator, has been developed. The deterministic snow model describes temporal change of the snow depth, content of ice and liquid water, snow density, snowmelt, sublimation, re-freezing of melt water, and snow metamorphism. The model has been calibrated and validated against the long-term data of snow measurements over the territory of the European Russia. The model showed good performance in simulating time series of the snow water equivalent and snow depth. The developed weather generator (NEsted Weather Generator, NewGen includes nested generators of annual, monthly and daily time series of weather variables (namely, precipitation, air temperature, and air humidity. The parameters of the NewGen have been adjusted through calibration against the long-term meteorological data in the European Russia. A disaggregation procedure has been proposed for transforming parameters of the annual weather generator into the parameters of the monthly one and, subsequently, into the parameters of the daily generator. Multi-year time series of the simulated daily weather variables have been used as an input to the snow model. Probability properties of the snow cover, such as snow water equivalent and snow depth for return periods of 25 and 100 years, have been estimated against the observed data, showing good correlation coefficients. The described model has been applied to different landscapes of European Russia, from steppe to taiga regions, to show the robustness of the proposed technique.

  19. Snow Cover on the Arctic Sea Ice: Model Validation, Sensitivity, and 21st Century Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazey, Benjamin Andrew

    The role of snow cover in controlling Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and extent is assessed with a series of models. Investigations with the stand alone Community Ice CodE (CICE) show, first, a reduction in snow depth triggers a decrease in ice volume and area, and, second, that the impact of increased snow is heavily dependent on ice and atmospheric conditions. Hindcast snow depths on the Arctic ice, simulated by the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are validated with 20th century in situ snow depth measurements. The snow depths in CCSM are found to be deeper than observed, likely due to excessive precipitation produced by the component atmosphere model. The sensitivity of the ice to the thermal barrier imposed by the biased snow depth is assessed. The removal of the thermodynamic impact of the exaggerated snow depth increases ice area and volume. The initial increases in ice due to enhanced conductive flux triggers feedback mechanisms with the atmosphere and ocean, reinforcing the increase in ice. Finally, the 21st century projections of decreased Arctic Ocean snow depth in CCSM are reported and diagnosed. The changes in snow are dominated by reduced accumulation due to the lack of autumn ice cover. Without this platform, much of the early snowfall is lost directly to the ocean. While this decrease in snow results in enhanced conductive flux through the ice as in the validation sensitivity experiment, the decreased summer albedo is found to dominate, as in the CICE stand alone sensitivity experiment. As such, the decrease in snow projected by CCSM in the 21st century presents a mechanism to continued ice loss. These negative (ice growth due decreased insulation) and positive (ice melt due to decreased albedo) feedback mechanisms highlight the need for an accurate representation snow cover on the ice in order to accurately simulate the evolution of Arctic Ocean sea ice.

  20. Pragmatics Driven Land Cover Service Composition Utilizing Behavior-Intention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Chen, Jun; Xing, Huaqiao; Li, Songnian; Hu, Juju

    2016-06-01

    Web service composition is one of the key issues to develop a global land cover (GLC) information service portal. Aiming at the defect that traditional syntax and semantic service compositionare difficult to take pragmatic information into account, the paper firstly analyses three tiers of web service language and their succession relations, discusses the conceptual model of pragmatic web service, and proposes the idea of pragmatics-oriented adaptive composition method based on the analysis of some examples. On this basis it puts forward the pragmatic web service model based on Behavior-Intention through presetting and expression of service usability, users' intention, and other pragmatic information, develops the on-demand assembly method based on the agent theory and matching and reconstruction method on heterogeneous message, solves the key technological issue of algorithm applicability and heterogeneous message transformation in the process of covering web service composition on the ground, applies these methods into service combination, puts forward the pragmatic driven service composition method based on behavior-intention model, and effectively settles the issue of coordination and interaction of composite service invocation.

  1. A Distributed Monthly Water Balance Model for Analyzing Impacts of Land Cover Change on Flow Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; WANG Gang-Sheng; YE Ai-Zhong; NIU Cun-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The Miyun Reservoir is the most important water source for Beijing Municipality, the capital of China with a population of more than 12 million. In recent decades, the inflow to the reservoir has shown a decreasing trend, which has seriously threatened water use in Beijing. In order to analyze the influents of land use and cover change (LUCC)upon inflow to Miyun Reservoir, terrain and land use information from remote sensing were utilized with a revised evapotranspiration estimation formula; a water loss model under conditions of human impacts was introduced; and a distributed monthly water balance model was established and applied to the Chaobai River Basin controlled by the Miyun Reservoir. The model simulation suggested that not only the impact of land cover change on evapotranspiration, but also the extra water loss caused by human activities, such as the water and soil conservation development projects should be considered. Although these development projects were of great benefit to human and ecological protection, they could reallocate water resources in time and space, and in a sense thereby influence the stream flow.

  2. Modeling the Thickness of Perennial Ice Covers on Stratified Lakes of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obryk, M. K.; Doran, P. T.; Hicks, J. A.; McKay, C. P.; Priscu, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional ice cover model was developed to predict and constrain drivers of long term ice thickness trends in chemically stratified lakes of Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The model is driven by surface radiative heat fluxes and heat fluxes from the underlying water column. The model successfully reproduced 16 years (between 1996 and 2012) of ice thickness changes for west lobe of Lake Bonney (average ice thickness = 3.53 m; RMSE = 0.09 m, n = 118) and Lake Fryxell (average ice thickness = 4.22 m; RMSE = 0.21 m, n = 128). Long-term ice thickness trends require coupling with the thermal structure of the water column. The heat stored within the temperature maximum of lakes exceeding a liquid water column depth of 20 m can either impede or facilitate ice thickness change depending on the predominant climatic trend (temperature cooling or warming). As such, shallow (< 20 m deep water columns) perennially ice-covered lakes without deep temperature maxima are more sensitive indicators of climate change. The long-term ice thickness trends are a result of surface energy flux and heat flux from the deep temperature maximum in the water column, the latter of which results from absorbed solar radiation.

  3. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  4. Integrating Land Cover Modeling and Adaptive Management to Conserve Endangered Species and Reduce Catastrophic Fire Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources and then decision makers can use this to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision making, where science allows us to learn to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuels monitoring with decision making focused on dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy, but habitat trajectories suggest tradeoffs. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state and by ideas about fire behavior. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility for and cover modeling programs intended to inform decision making.

  5. PRAGMATICS DRIVEN LAND COVER SERVICE COMPOSITION UTILIZING BEHAVIOR-INTENTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web service composition is one of the key issues to develop a global land cover (GLC information service portal. Aiming at the defect that traditional syntax and semantic service compositionare difficult to take pragmatic information into account, the paper firstly analyses three tiers of web service language and their succession relations, discusses the conceptual model of pragmatic web service, and proposes the idea of pragmatics-oriented adaptive composition method based on the analysis of some examples. On this basis it puts forward the pragmatic web service model based on Behavior-Intention through presetting and expression of service usability, users' intention, and other pragmatic information, develops the on-demand assembly method based on the agent theory and matching and reconstruction method on heterogeneous message, solves the key technological issue of algorithm applicability and heterogeneous message transformation in the process of covering web service composition on the ground, applies these methods into service combination, puts forward the pragmatic driven service composition method based on behavior-intention model, and effectively settles the issue of coordination and interaction of composite service invocation.

  6. Facility Location Using Maximum Covering Model: An Application In Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Alabaş Uslu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a store location problem has been addressed for service sector, and a real application problem for a leading firm in modern retail sector in Turkey has been solved by modeling with mathematical programming. Since imitating a store location in retail sector is hard and provides an important competitive edge, determining accurate store locations becomes a critical issue for the management. Application problem solved in this study is to choose appropriate areas for opening stores with different capacities and quantities in Umraniye, Istanbul. The problem has been converted to a maximum set covering model by considering after sales forecasts and also by taking into account several decision criteria foreseen by the management. Optimum solutions of the developed model for different scenarios has been obtained using a package program and presented to the firm management.

  7. Estimation of Fractional Vegetation Cover Based on Digital Camera Survey Data and a Remote Sensing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-qi; HE Fen-qin; YIN Jian-zhong; LU Xia; TANG Shi-lu; WANG Lin-lin; LI Xiao-jing

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the monitoring speed and precision of fractional vegetation cover (fc). It mainly focuses onfc estimation when fcmax andfcmin are not approximately equal to 100% and 0%, respectively due to using remote sensing image with medium or low spatial resolution. Meanwhile, we present a new method offc estimation based on a random set offc maximum and minimum values from digital camera (DC) survey data and a dimidiate pixel model. The results show that this is a convenient, efficient and accurate method forfc monitoring, with the maximum error -0.172 and correlation coefficient of 0.974 between DC survey data and the estimated value of the remote sensing model. The remaining DC survey data can be used as verification data for the precision of thefc estimation. In general, the estimation offc based on DC survey data and a remote sensing model is a brand-new development trend and deserves further extensive utilization.

  8. Evaluation of the MSG-SEVIRI snow-cover product potential in hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surer, Serdar; Parajka, Juraj; Akyurek, Zuhal; Blöschl, Günter

    2013-04-01

    Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on board of METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite enables snow cover monitoring at very high temporal resolution of 15 min. It is one of the key components of the recent EUMETSAT program for Satellite Application Facility on Support to operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The main goal of the project is to develop, and test new satellite products in order to comply the requirements for operational hydrology and water resources management. The objective of this study is i) to compare snow cover product (H10) derived from MSG-SEVIRI with MODIS (MOD10A1) snow cover product, ii) to observe H10 product accuracy against in situ snow observations, and iii) to test potential of H10 product for calibration and validation of a conceptual hydrologic model. We compare MSG-SEVIRI, MODIS grid maps and daily snow depth measurements at 272 climate stations over Austria in the period from October 2007 to June 2012. The results indicate that temporal merging of 15 minutes MSG-SEVIRI observations allows a significant reduction of cloud coverage at daily time scale. The relative number of days with cloud coverage in winter season is on average 35% for MSG-SEVIRI, compared to 65% for MODIS dataset. The coarser spatial resolution of MSG-SEVIRI, namely 0.05o, however, resulted in lower mapping accuracy. The overall snow cover mapping error is 5% for MODIS and 15% for MSG-SEVIRI, respectively. Our results showed that for MSG-SEVIRI dataset, the underestimation errors dominate, and tend to increase with increasing altitude of climate stations. The potential of H10 for hydrological modeling is examined in two different mountain catchments, one in Austria, and the other in Turkey. We will evaluate the potential of snow H10 product for calibrating and validating a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological model. Our results will discuss the strength and weaknesses of H10 product in

  9. Modeling of Electromagnetic Waves Scattering from Snow Covered First Year Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, A. S.; Barber, D. G.; Isleifson, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Modeling of electromagnetic wave interaction with sea ice is required for various remote sensing applications, such as an interpretation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery over sea ice. In this study, we present numerical modeling of the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) at vertical and horizontal polarizations from snow covered First Year (FY) sea ice. We consider sea ice as a layered medium with an arbitrary profile of dielectric constant, and the snow cover as a homogeneous layer on the top of the sea ice. Surface scattering at the snow-sea ice interface was taken into account by the first-order approximation of the small perturbation method. We obtained an analytical formulation for radar cross-sections at vertical and horizontal polarizations and conducted numerical modeling of the backscattering characteristics. The solution derived for NRCSs includes reflection coefficients from snow and sea ice. The calculation of reflection coefficients from the stratified sea ice is considered separately as an auxiliary problem. In-situ geophysical properties of snow and sea ice collected during the Circumpolar Flow Lead (CFL) system study project were used to estimate the dielectric constants of snow and sea ice for several case studies. The dielectric constant of the sea ice was calculated using the Polder-van-Santen/de Loor (PVD) mixture model, while the dielectric constant of the snow was estimated using a Debye-like model. The calculated angular dependencies of the NRCSs (HH- and VV- polarizations) and co-polarization ratios were compared with in-situ C-band scatterometer measurements. These comparisons demonstrate a good agreement between simulated and observed scattering characteristics.

  10. Modelling and optimization of land use/land cover change in a developing urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Gao, Fei; He, Junchao; Ren, Xinxin; Xi, Weijin

    2017-06-01

    The impacts of land use/cover change (LUCC) on hydrological processes and water resources are mainly reflected in changes in runoff and pollutant variations. Low impact development (LID) technology is utilized as an effective strategy to control urban stormwater runoff and pollution in the urban catchment. In this study, the impact of LUCC on runoff and pollutants in an urbanizing catchment of Guang-Ming New District in Shenzhen, China, were quantified using a dynamic rainfall-runoff model with the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Based on the simulations and observations, the main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the catchment runoff and pollutant variations with LUCC, (2) to select and optimize the appropriate layout of LID in a planning scenario for reducing the growth of runoff and pollutants under LUCC, (3) to assess the optimal planning schemes for land use/cover. The results showed that compared to 2013, the runoff volume, peak flow and pollution load of suspended solids (SS), and chemical oxygen demand increased by 35.1%, 33.6% and 248.5%, and 54.5% respectively in a traditional planning scenario. The assessment result of optimal planning of land use showed that annual rainfall control of land use for an optimal planning scenario with LID technology was 65%, and SS pollutant load reduction efficiency 65.6%.

  11. Interpretation by numerical modeling of data monitored at a cover for a nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, M.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Two pilot covers have been set up at the Spanish facility for disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste located at El Cabril (southern Spain). Their objective is to test the effectiveness in reducing or preventing surface erosion and runoff, infiltration and biointrusion. They consist of multilayer systems that profit from capillary barrier concepts. A complete monitoring system involving more than 200 sensors has been installed. At the same time, a complete meteorological station records meteorological data. This information is used to define initial and boundary conditions of a numerical model and also to test its validity. Here we discuss results of a preliminary 1D non isothermal multiphase flow model with an atmospheric boundary (whose fluxes depend on meteorological data) at the top. Furthermore a sink-source term has been developed to simulate the effect of lateral flow caused by the steep slope (40%) of the cover. Joint analysis of numerical simulation results together with field data allows us to study the behaviour of the liquid, gas and energy fluxes in a layered slope and to study the effects of different hydraulic properties, capillary pressures and degrees of saturation of the materials on the magnitude and direction of these flows.

  12. Spatial modelling of land use/cover change (LUCC) in South Tangerang City, Banten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, K.; Barus, B.; Rustiadi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban expansion in peri-urban region remains a major issue for regional planning and development, as it converts most of the land cover into built-up settlements rapidly and extensively beyond its spatial allocation plan (RTRW). South Tangerang City is one of municipalities in Jabodetabek with the most rapid annual population growth rate reached 6.87%. LUCC analysis from three LANDSAT land cover maps (1990, 2002, and 2014) shows that the built-up area has increased 8 times (8650 ha) in 1990-2014 with the average annual growth rate of 10.83% per sub-district (kelurahan). The most extensive land conversion type in 1990-2002 was vegetated land to open land (3605ha), while in 2002-2014 land conversion type was dominated by open land to built-up (3446ha). In general, the built-up area expansion in 1990-2002 shows irregular ribbon development pattern in district Serpong Utara, Pondok Aren, Ciputat Timur, Ciputat, and Pamulang, while district Serpong tends to represent leap frog development pattern. The expansion in 2002-2014 shows infill and ribbon development pattern continuation across the city. MLP was used to model LUCC sensitivity prediction. The model performance shows 73.16% accuracy with ROC validation of prediction output reaches 0.804 for 2014, which is qualified to predict LUCC sensitivity in 2032.

  13. Using formal concept analysis for the verification of process-data matrices in conceptual domain models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Dedene, G.; Snoeck, M.; Viaene, S.; Fox, R.; Golubski, W.

    2010-01-01

    One of the first steps in a software engineering process is the elaboration of the conceptual domain model. In this paper, we investigate how Formal Concept Analysis can be used to formally underpin the construction of a conceptual domain model. In particular, we demonstrate that intuitive verificat

  14. The value of snow cover maps for hydrological model calibration in snow dominated catchments in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duethmann, Doris; Güntner, Andreas; Peters, Juliane; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the value of snow cover data in addition to discharge data for the calibration of a hydrological model in six headwater catchments of the Karadarya basin, Central Asia. If a hydrological model is to be used for the investigation of potential impacts of climate change, it is important that also internal variables are simulated correctly. Snow melt is of particular relevance, as it is probably the most important runoff generation process in these catchments. The study investigates whether there is a trade-off between good simulations with respect to discharge and with respect to snow cover area. Furthermore, we are interested in the information content of snow cover data, i.e. how many snow cover images would be sufficient for effective calibration of a hydrological model. As suitable precipitation data for the study area are only available up to 1990, MODIS snow cover data could not be used and we instead resorted to AVHRR data. Processing of the AVHRR snow cover data is time consuming, because georeferencing has to be performed manually. If only few images could already exclude parameter sets resulting in low model performance with respect to snow cover area, this would be a very valuable piece of information. In order to investigate this, a varying number of snow cover images is used for model calibration within a Monte-Carlo framework, and the effect on model performance with respect to snow cover area in the validation period is evaluated. The selected study period is 1986-1989, in which both AVHRR data and other input data are available. It is split into two parts with up to around 20 snow cover scenes for model calibration and about the same number for model validation. In most of the catchments we found only a small trade-off between good simulations with respect to discharge and with respect to snow cover area, but if the parameters were selected based on the discharge objective function only, this could also include

  15. Domain engineering product lines, languages, and conceptual models

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhartz-Berger, Iris; Clark, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Domain engineering is a set of activities intended to develop, maintain, and manage the creation and evolution of an area of knowledge suitable for processing by a range of software systems.  It is of considerable practical significance, as it provides methods and techniques that help reduce time-to-market, development costs, and project risks on one hand, and helps improve system quality and performance on a consistent basis on the other. In this book, the editors present a collection of invited chapters from various fields related to domain engineering. The individual chapters pres

  16. Clouds and relative humidity in climate models; or what really regulates cloud cover?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walcek, C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The response and impact of clouds remains one of the largest outstanding questions in GCMs. Clouds are not homogeneous, though they are treated as such in the models. When averaged over areas typically used as numerical grid elements by GCMs, observations suggest that there are some clouds at all relative humidities. Fractional cloud cover at 100% relative humidity is rarely 100%, and totally clear skies rarely occur, even for low relative humidities. Relative humidity is the best single indicator of cloud coverage. However, if there is a relationship between cloud coverage and relative humidity, our current models and observations are inadequate to reveal exactly what that relationship is. It does appear that cloud coverage decreases exponentially as humidity falls below 100%. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Calibration of a distributed snow model using MODIS snow covered area data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Kristie J.; Karsten, Logan R.

    2013-06-01

    Spatial ground-based observations of snow are often limited at the watershed-scale, therefore the snow modeling component of a hydrologic modeling system is often calibrated along with the rainfall-runoff model using watershed discharge observations. This practice works relatively well for lumped modeling applications when the accuracy of sub-watershed processes is generally not of concern. However, with the increasing use of distributed models, realistic representation of processes, such as snow areal depletion, become more important. In this study, we test the use of snow covered area (SCA) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra satellite for calibration of four key parameters in the distributed US National Weather Service (NWS) SNOW17 model in the North Fork of the American River basin in California, USA. Three tests are conducted; two rely solely on MODIS SCA data and one includes discharge in the calibration procedure. The three calibrations are compared to the use of parameters obtained from the NWS California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). The calibration approach that utilizes both MODIS SCA and discharge data produces the most accurate spatial (gridded) SCA and basin discharge simulations but not the best SCA summary statistics. In general it was found that improvement in simulated SCA when averaged and evaluated by elevation zone using standard summary statistics, does not necessarily coincide with more accurate discharge simulations.

  18. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  19. Spatial sensitivity analysis of snow cover data in a distributed rainfall-runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, T.; Nossent, J.; Chormański, J.; Batelaan, O.

    2015-04-01

    As the availability of spatially distributed data sets for distributed rainfall-runoff modelling is strongly increasing, more attention should be paid to the influence of the quality of the data on the calibration. While a lot of progress has been made on using distributed data in simulations of hydrological models, sensitivity of spatial data with respect to model results is not well understood. In this paper we develop a spatial sensitivity analysis method for spatial input data (snow cover fraction - SCF) for a distributed rainfall-runoff model to investigate when the model is differently subjected to SCF uncertainty in different zones of the model. The analysis was focussed on the relation between the SCF sensitivity and the physical and spatial parameters and processes of a distributed rainfall-runoff model. The methodology is tested for the Biebrza River catchment, Poland, for which a distributed WetSpa model is set up to simulate 2 years of daily runoff. The sensitivity analysis uses the Latin-Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT) algorithm, which employs different response functions for each spatial parameter representing a 4 × 4 km snow zone. The results show that the spatial patterns of sensitivity can be easily interpreted by co-occurrence of different environmental factors such as geomorphology, soil texture, land use, precipitation and temperature. Moreover, the spatial pattern of sensitivity under different response functions is related to different spatial parameters and physical processes. The results clearly show that the LH-OAT algorithm is suitable for our spatial sensitivity analysis approach and that the SCF is spatially sensitive in the WetSpa model. The developed method can be easily applied to other models and other spatial data.

  20. Assessing the use of subgrid land model output to study impacts of land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Natalie M.; Lee, Xuhui; Lawrence, Peter J.; Lawrence, David M.; Zhao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Subgrid information from land models has the potential to be a powerful tool for investigating land-atmosphere interactions, but relatively few studies have attempted to exploit subgrid output. In this study, we modify the configuration of the Community Land Model version CLM4.5 so that each plant functional type (PFT) is assigned its own soil column. We compare subgrid and grid cell-averaged air temperature and surface energy fluxes from this modified case (PFTCOL) to a case with the default configuration—a shared soil column for all PFTs (CTRL)—and examine the difference in simulated surface air temperature between grass and tree PFTs within the same grid cells (ΔTGT). The magnitude and spatial patterns of ΔTGT from PFTCOL agree more closely with observations, ranging from -1.5 K in boreal regions to +0.6 K in the tropics. We find that the column configuration has a large effect on PFT-level energy fluxes. In the CTRL configuration, the PFT-level annual mean ground heat flux (G) differs substantially from zero. For example, at a typical tropical grid cell, the annual G is 31.8 W m-2 for the tree PFTs and -14.7 W m-2 for grass PFTs. In PFTCOL, G is always close to zero. These results suggest that care must be taken when assessing local land cover change impacts with subgrid information. For models with PFTs on separate columns, it may be possible to isolate the differences in land surface fluxes between vegetation types that would be associated with land cover change from other climate forcings and feedbacks in climate model simulations.

  1. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working with a sys...

  2. From forest to farmland and moraine to meadow: Integrated modeling of Holocene land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Did humans affect global climate over the before the Industrial Era? While this question is hotly debated, the co-evolution of humans and the natural environment over the last 11,700 years had an undisputed role in influencing the development and present state of terrestrial ecosystems, many of which are highly valued today as economic, cultural, and ecological resources. Yet we still have a very incomplete picture of human-environment interactions over the Holocene, both spatially and temporally. In order to address this problem, we combined a global dynamic vegetation model with a new model of preindustrial anthropogenic land cover change. We drive these integrated models with paleoclimate from GCM scenarios, a new synthesis of global demographic, technological, and economic development over preindustrial time, and a global database of historical urbanization covering the last 8000 years. We simulate land cover and land use change, fire, soil erosion, and emissions of CO2 and methane (CH4) from 11,700 years before present to AD 1850. We evaluate our simulations in part with a new set of continental-scale reconstructions of land cover based on records from the Global Pollen Database. Our model results show that climate and tectonic change controlled global land cover in the early Holocene, e.g., shifts in forest biomes in northern continents show an expansion of temperate tree types far to the north of their present day limits, but that by the early Iron Age (1000 BC), humans in Europe, east Asia, and Mesoamerica had a larger influence than natural processes on the landscape. 3000 years before present, anthropogenic deforestation was widespread with most areas of temperate Europe and southwest Asia, east-central China, northern India, and Mesoamerica occupied by a matrix of natural vegetation, cropland and pastures. Burned area and emissions of CO2 and CH4 from wildfires declined slowly over the entire Holocene, as landscape fragmentation and changing agricultural

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_002886.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002886.2 chr20 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr20/NP_002886.2/NP_002886.2_apo_18-332.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_005602.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005602.2 chr16 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr16/NP_005602.2/NP_005602.2_apo_49-357.pdb blast 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_000312.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000312.2 chr13 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr13/NP_000312.2/NP_000312.2_apo_52-355.pdb blast 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_899662.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_899662.1 chr20 Crystal structure of the Retinoblastoma protein N-domain provides insight into tumor suppr...ession, ligand interaction and holoprotein architecture p2qdja_ chr20/NP_899662.1/NP_899662.1_apo_18-332.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001035906.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035906.1 chr5 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR A...NTIGEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr5/NP_001035906.1/NP_001035906.1_holo_348-483.pdb swppa 348D,403Y,479I CAC 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_001092096.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001092096.1 chr19 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats o...f murine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr19/NP_001092096.1/NP_001092096.1_holo_175-290.pdb blast 3

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_006476.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006476.2 chr22 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRILLIN-1 DOMAINS CBEGF9HYB2CBEGF10, CALCI...UM SATURATED FORM p2w86a_ chr22/NP_006476.2/NP_006476.2_holo_527-599.pdb swppa 527D,528E,544N,545I,546Q,547G

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_085116.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_085116.2 chr5 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr5/NP_085116.2/NP_085116.2_holo_209-322.pdb blast 216C,218E,21

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_940886.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_940886.1 chr3 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr3/NP_940886.1/NP_940886.1_holo_320-436.pdb psi-blast 321C,323

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_002796.4 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002796.4 chr17 PROTEASOME-ACTIVATING NUCLEOTIDASE (PAN) N-DOMAIN (57-134) FROM A...RCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS FUSED TO GCN4 p2wg5l_ chr17/NP_002796.4/NP_002796.4_apo_42-128.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_055306.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055306.1 chr7 Structure of the DNA binding domains of NFAT and FOXP2 bound speci...fically to DNA. c2as5g_ chr7/NP_055306.1/NP_055306.1_holo_503-584.pdb blast 503V,504R,507F,508T,509Y,527L,52

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_852466.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_852466.1 chr3 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr3/NP_852466.1/NP_852466.1_holo_673-813.pdb blast 926R,928P,92

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_694946.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_694946.1 chr2 NMR Study of the Fibrillin-1 cbEGF12-13 Pair of Ca2+ Binding Epide...rmal Growth Factor-like Domains c1lmja_ chr2/NP_694946.1/NP_694946.1_holo_178-268.pdb psi-blast 179A,180P,18

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_073738.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_073738.2 chr17 atomic resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the electron transfer cata...lyst DsbD (reduced form at pH7) d2fwga1 chr17/NP_073738.2/NP_073738.2_apo_91-215.pd

  17. Domain minimization and beyond: Modeling prepositional phrase ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiechmann, D.; Lohmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    An important account of linear ordering in syntax is John A. Hawkins' (2004) theory of cognitive efficiency and the principles of domain minimization formulated therein. In its latest formulation, the theory postulates syntactic and semantic minimization principles. With regard to the relative stren

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_113674.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_113674.1 chr9 Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domain... Bound to DNA p2prta_ chr9/NP_113674.1/NP_113674.1_holo_300-406.pdb blast 414C,415T,416E,417C,419K,430H,434H

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_056154.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056154.1 chr20 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr20/NP_056154.1/NP_056154.1_holo_623-739.pdb psi-blast 624C,6

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_150634.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_150634.1 chr11 Procaspase-1 zymogen domain crystal strucutre p3e4cb_ chr11/NP_150634.1/NP_150634....1_holo_128-404.pdb blast 148K,365D,367E,368E 130E,132N,133V,134K,135L,136C,137S,138L,141A,1

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_852114.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_852114.1 chr17 The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular Domain of the Inhibito...r Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells IREM-1 p2nmsa_ chr17/NP_852114.1/NP_852114.1_apo_14-131.pdb blast 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_065184.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065184.2 chr1 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr1/NP_065184.2/NP_065184.2_holo_267-376.pdb psi-blast 274A,276

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_058634.2 [SAHG[Archive

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    Full Text Available NP_058634.2 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRILLIN-1 DOMAINS CBEGF9HYB2CBEGF10, CALCI...UM SATURATED FORM p2w86a_ chr11/NP_058634.2/NP_058634.2_holo_14-160.pdb psi-blast 14L,15W,16A,17L,31E,32E,33

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_777594.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_777594.1 chr11 Solution structure of the first ig-like domain of signal-regulato...ry protein beta-1 (SIRP-beta-1) p2d9ca_ chr11/NP_777594.1/NP_777594.1_apo_24-167.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_004984.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004984.2 chr14 De-ubiquitinating function of ataxin-3: insights from the solutio...n structure of the Josephin domain p2agaa_ chr14/NP_004984.2/NP_004984.2_apo_1-185.pdb blast 14C,119H,134N 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_004524.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004524.3 chr19 Solution structure of the third ig-like domain from human Myosin-...binding protein C, fast-type p2edka_ chr19/NP_004524.3/NP_004524.3_apo_345-438.pdb blast 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001035845.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s: Role of Inter-Domain Dynamics in Catalysis and Specificity p1yr2a_ chr2/NP_001035845.1/NP_001035845.1_apo_15-650.pdb psi-blast 0 ... ...NP_001035845.1 chr2 Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Two Prolyl Endopeptidase

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_006027.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006027.2 chr2 Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Two Prolyl Endopeptidases: Role of Inter-Domain Dyna...mics in Catalysis and Specificity p1yr2a_ chr2/NP_006027.2/NP_006027.2_apo_44-716.pdb psi-blast 559S,645D,690H 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_689585.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_689585.3 chr1 Solution structure of the fibronectin type-III domain of mouse myo...sin-binding protein C, Fast-type homolog c1x5ya_ chr1/NP_689585.3/NP_689585.3_apo_1004-1106.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_055758.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055758.1 chr8 Solution Structure of the second Homeobox Domain of Human Homeodomain Leucine Zipper-Encodi...ng Gene (Homez) c2ecca_ chr8/NP_055758.1/NP_055758.1_apo_628-698.pdb blast 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_009133.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_009133.2 chr17 THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN G-PROTEIN SUBUNIT ALPHA (GNAI3) IN COMPLEX WITH AN ENGI...NEERED REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING TYPE 2 DOMAIN (RGS2) p2v4zb_ chr17/NP_009133.2/NP_009133.2_apo_368-505.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_003794.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003794.3 chr18 Crystal structure of a prolactin receptor antagonist bound to the... extracellular domain of the prolactin receptor c3d48r_ chr18/NP_003794.3/NP_003794.3_holo_933-1136.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_660281.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_660281.2 chr1 Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domain... Bound to DNA p2prta_ chr1/NP_660281.2/NP_660281.2_holo_261-368.pdb psi-blast 265T,266S,267E,268K,270Q,271G,

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_722581.4 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_722581.4 chr6 EGF DOMAINS 1,2,5 OF HUMAN EMR2, A 7-TM IMMUNE SYSTEM MOLECULE, IN... COMPLEX WITH STRONTIUM. p2boxa_ chr6/NP_722581.4/NP_722581.4_holo_4-128.pdb psi-blast 24Q,37P,38H,39G,40V,4

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_115871.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115871.1 chr19 Catalytic, N-terminal domain of histone methyltransferase Dot1l d1nw3a_ chr19/NP_115871....1/NP_115871.1_holo_5-332.pdb blast 133P,134E,135V,136Y,137G,138E,139T,161D,162L,163G,

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_055062.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available formation of the Tandem PDZ Domains c1u3ba_ chr4/NP_055062.1/NP_055062.1_apo_249-480.pdb swppa 0 ... ...NP_055062.1 chr4 Auto-inhibition Mechanism of X11s/Mints Family Scaffold Proteins Revealed by the Closed Con

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_001154.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available formation of the Tandem PDZ Domains c1u3ba_ chr9/NP_001154.2/NP_001154.2_apo_655-837.pdb blast 0 ... ...NP_001154.2 chr9 Auto-inhibition Mechanism of X11s/Mints Family Scaffold Proteins Revealed by the Closed Con

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_005494.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Revealed by the Closed Conformation of the Tandem PDZ Domains c1u3ba_ chr15/NP_005494.2/NP_005494.2_apo_567-749.pdb blast 0 ... ...NP_005494.2 chr15 Auto-inhibition Mechanism of X11s/Mints Family Scaffold Proteins

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_057547.5 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_057547.5 chr5 SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF THE NONMETHYL-CPG-BINDING CXXC DOMAIN OF THE... LEUKAEMIA-ASSOCIATED MLL HISTONE METHYLTRANSFERASE p2j2sa_ chr5/NP_057547.5/NP_057547.5_holo_252-316.pdb ps

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_066971.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066971.2 chr7 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of mu...rine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr7/NP_066971.2/NP_066971.2_holo_341-454.pdb blast 348C,350E,35

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_006291.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006291.2 chr19 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr19/NP_006291.2/NP_006291.2_holo_163-276.pdb blast 170C,172E,

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_000431.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000431.1 chr5 Crystal Structure of the Tandem GAF Domains from a Cyanobacterial ...Adenylyl Cyclase: Novel Modes of Ligand-Binding and Dimerization p1ykdb_ chr5/NP_000431.1/NP_000431.1_holo_68-441.

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_872621.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_872621.1 chrX CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chrX/NP_872621.1/NP_872621.1_holo_42-181.pdb swppa 42N,97H,177P,179Q CAC 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_003791.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003791.3 chr6 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE RNA TRIPHOSPHATASE DOMAIN OF MOUSE MRNA C...APPING ENZYME p2c46d_ chr6/NP_003791.3/NP_003791.3_apo_4-200.pdb p1i9sa_ chr6/NP_003791.3/NP_003791.3_holo_4

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_071911.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_071911.3 chr10 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr10/NP_071911.3/NP_071911.3_holo_111-217.pdb psi-blast 112C,1

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_981961.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_981961.1 chr12 Crystal structure analysis of the monomeric SRCR domain of mouse ...MARCO p2oyaa_ chr12/NP_981961.1/NP_981961.1_apo_479-577.pdb p2oy3a_ chr12/NP_981961.1/NP_981961.1_holo_479-5

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001096121.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001096121.1 chr19 CO-CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN YY1 ZINC FINGER DOMAIN BOUND TO ...THE ADENO-ASSOCIATED VIRUS P5 INITIATOR ELEMENT c1ubdc_ chr19/NP_001096121.1/NP_001096121.1_holo_273-375.pdb

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_733751.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_733751.2 chr7 Methyltransferase domain of human suppressor of variegation 3-9 ho...molog 2 p2r3aa_ chr7/NP_733751.2/NP_733751.2_holo_4641-4911.pdb swppa 4707G,4708C,4709A,4710R,4711S,4712E,47

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_775751.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_775751.1 chr19 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr19/NP_775751.1/NP_775751.1_holo_331-443.pdb blast 338C,340H,

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_001070991.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001070991.1 chr19 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE ALPHA-ADAPTIN APPENDAGE DOMAIN, FROM ...ANIN P170 c1b9ka_ chr19/NP_001070991.1/NP_001070991.1_apo_861-1109.pdb c2vj0a_ chr19/NP_001070991.1/NP_001070991.

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_008881.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_008881.2 chrX Crystal Structure of Rat Synapsin I C Domain Complexed to Ca.ATP (...Form 1) c1px2b_ chrX/NP_008881.2/NP_008881.2_holo_113-417.pdb blast 188H,225K,267V,269K,273A,274H,275S,276G,

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_002370.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002370.1 chr1 HIGH-RESOLUTION SOLUTION NMR STRUCTURE OF THE TRIMERIC COILED-COIL... DOMAIN OF CHICKEN CARTILAGE MATRIX PROTEIN, 20 STRUCTURES c1aq5c_ chr1/NP_002370.1/NP_002370.1_apo_453-496.pdb blast E2M 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_064562.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_064562.1 chr5 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr5/NP_064562.1/NP_064562.1_apo_474-612.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_065070.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065070.1 chr4 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr4/NP_065070.1/NP_065070.1_apo_969-1098.pdb blast 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_149417.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_149417.1 chr6 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr6/NP_149417.1/NP_149417.1_apo_1-124.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_060314.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060314.2 chr2 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr2/NP_060314.2/NP_060314.2_apo_19-138.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_075392.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_075392.2 chr2 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr2/NP_075392.2/NP_075392.2_apo_402-524.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_653309.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_653309.2 chr2 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr2/NP_653309.2/NP_653309.2_apo_357-481.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_064562.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_064562.1 chr5 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr5/NP_064562.1/NP_064562.1_apo_314-468.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_932326.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_932326.2 chr10 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Prese...rve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr10/NP_932326.2/NP_932326.2_apo_230-367.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_060405.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060405.3 chr4 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr4/NP_060405.3/NP_060405.3_apo_653-782.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_569058.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_569058.1 chr3 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr3/NP_569058.1/NP_569058.1_apo_128-246.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_064562.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_064562.1 chr5 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr5/NP_064562.1/NP_064562.1_apo_174-308.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_004534.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004534.2 chr2 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr2/NP_004534.2/NP_004534.2_apo_2171-2302.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  5. Partitioning of Lipids at Domain Boundaries in Model Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, Lars V.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2010-01-01

    Line-active molecules ("linactants") that bind to the boundary interface between different fluid lipid domains in membranes have a strong potential as regulators of the lateral heterogeneity that is important for many biological processes. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in combination w

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_005332.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005332.1 chr1 Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domain... Bound to DNA p2prta_ chr1/NP_005332.1/NP_005332.1_holo_463-600.pdb blast 467C,468E,469F,470C,472H,483H,487H

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_036472.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_036472.2 chr20 Structure of the DNA binding domains of NFAT and FOXP2 bound spec...ifically to DNA. c2as5n_ chr20/NP_036472.2/NP_036472.2_holo_392-678.pdb blast 421R,424Y,426T,427E,428G,429S,

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_006052.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006052.1 chr6 The cysteine-rich secretory protein domain of Tpx-1 is related to ...ion channel toxins and regulates Ryanodine receptor Ca2+ signaling p2a05a_ chr6/NP_006052.1/NP_006052.1_apo_189-245.pdb blast 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_003990.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available leukin-6 receptor c2arwa_ chr5/NP_003990.1/NP_003990.1_apo_28-139.pdb psi-blast 0 ... ...NP_003990.1 chr5 The solution structure of the membrane proximal cytokine receptor domain of the human inter

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_071431.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available leukin-6 receptor c2arwa_ chrX/NP_071431.2/NP_071431.2_apo_116-210.pdb psi-blast 0 ... ...NP_071431.2 chrX The solution structure of the membrane proximal cytokine receptor domain of the human inter

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_071431.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available leukin-6 receptor c2arwa_ chrY/NP_071431.2/NP_071431.2_apo_116-210.pdb psi-blast 0 ... ...NP_071431.2 chrY The solution structure of the membrane proximal cytokine receptor domain of the human inter

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_690007.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_690007.1 chr19 Crystal structure of a high affinity heterodimer of HIF2 alpha an...d ARNT C-terminal PAS domains p3f1pa_ chr19/NP_690007.1/NP_690007.1_apo_234-344.pdb blast 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_996777.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_996777.2 chr19 Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domai...n Bound to DNA p2prta_ chr19/NP_996777.2/NP_996777.2_holo_504-611.pdb blast 508C,509E,511C,513K,524H,528H,53

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_002837.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002837.1 chr2 Crystal structure of the phosphatase domain of human PTP IA-2 p2i1yb_ chr2/NP_002837....1/NP_002837.1_apo_687-976.pdb blast 706R,710A,814E,815D,847E,876P,877A,878E,879G,880T,882

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_005627.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005627.1 chrX Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domain... Bound to DNA p2prta_ chrX/NP_005627.1/NP_005627.1_holo_79-178.pdb psi-blast 83D,84F,95E,96R,98Q,99M,104L,10

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_065137.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065137.1 chr11 NMR Study of the Fibrillin-1 cbEGF12-13 Pair of Ca2+ Binding Epid...ermal Growth Factor-like Domains c1lmja_ chr11/NP_065137.1/NP_065137.1_holo_269-351.pdb psi-blast 540G,541T,

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_001093587.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001093587.1 chr8 STRUCTURAL BASIS FOR A MUNC13-1 DIMERIC - MUNC13-1 - RIM HETERO...DIMER SWITCH: C2-DOMAINS AS VERSATILE PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION MODULES p2cjsc_ chr8/NP_001093587.1/NP_001093587.

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_005797.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005797.1 chr21 Crystal Structure of the basic-helix-loop-helix domains of the he...terodimer E47/NeuroD1 bound to DNA p2ql2d_ chr21/NP_005797.1/NP_005797.1_holo_110-166.pdb blast 113I,114N,11

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_001035932.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035932.1 chr2 Crystal structure of the small GTPase Rab27B complexed with the... Slp homology domain of Slac2-a/melanophilin p2zetd_ chr2/NP_001035932.1/NP_001035932.1_holo_4-144.pdb blast

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_001001662.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001662.1 chr9 CO-CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN YY1 ZINC FINGER DOMAIN BOUND TO T...HE ADENO-ASSOCIATED VIRUS P5 INITIATOR ELEMENT c1ubdc_ chr9/NP_001001662.1/NP_001001662.1_holo_483-585.pdb b

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_006652.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006652.1 chr6 Crystal structure of the C-terminal GAF domain of human phosphodie...sterase 10A p2zmfb_ chr6/NP_006652.1/NP_006652.1_holo_74-240.pdb psi-blast 286R,287C,288A,290F,304F,305D,306

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_473452.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_473452.2 chr6 Crystal Structure of the Catalytic and CaM-Binding domains of Inos...itol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase B p2aqxb_ chr6/NP_473452.2/NP_473452.2_holo_126-408.pdb psi-blast 141K,142

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_001007472.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001007472.2 chr9 Crystal Structure of the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of Trpv1 p2pnna_ chr9/NP_001007472....2/NP_001007472.2_holo_484-756.pdb psi-blast 491L,536Y,539V,540R,570Y,575T,578R,583Y,586L,587F,607R ATP 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_109592.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_109592.1 chr12 Structure of the catalytic domain of the chick retinal neurite in...hibitor-Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase CRYP-2/cPTPRO p2pi7b_ chr12/NP_109592.1/NP_109592.1_holo_912-1

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_115622.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115622.2 chr15 Crystal structure of the third KH domain of human Poly(C)-Binding... Protein-2 in complex with C-rich strand of human telomeric DNA p2p2ra_ chr15/NP_115622.2/NP_115622.2_holo_3

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_002832.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002832.2 chr3 Crystal structure of D1 and D2 catalytic domains of human Protein ...Tyrosine Phosphatase Gamma (D1+D2 PTPRG) p2nlka_ chr3/NP_002832.2/NP_002832.2_apo_827-1412.pdb blast 1028D,1

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_115992.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115992.1 chr2 Crystal structure analysis of the monomeric SRCR domain of mouse M...ARCO p2oyab_ chr2/NP_115992.1/NP_115992.1_apo_306-406.pdb p2oy3a_ chr2/NP_115992.1/NP_115992.1_holo_306-406.

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_001017992.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001017992.1 chr5 Ternary complex of the WH2 domain of WASP with Actin-DNAse I p3byha_ chr5/NP_001017992....1/NP_001017992.1_apo_3-376.pdb p2a3za_ chr5/NP_001017992.1/NP_001017992.1_holo_3-376

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_056363.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056363.2 chr6 Crystal Structure of a protease resistant fragment of the plakin d...omain of Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen1 (BPAG1) p2iaka_ chr6/NP_056363.2/NP_056363.2_apo_2084-2313.pdb swppa 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_150643.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_150643.2 chr1 INTEGRIN BINDING CBEGF22-TB4-CBEGF33 FRAGMENT OF HUMAN FIBRILLIN-1..., CA BOUND TO CBEGF23 DOMAIN ONLY c1uzpa_ chr1/NP_150643.2/NP_150643.2_apo_593-752.pdb c1uzka_ chr1/NP_150643.2/NP_150643.

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_955533.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_955533.1 chr1 ADR1 DNA-BINDING DOMAIN FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, NMR, 25 STR...UCTURES c2adra_ chr1/NP_955533.1/NP_955533.1_holo_421-472.pdb psi-blast 636D,637K,639K,641K,656P,669Y,671Q,672H,673S _ZN 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_115873.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115873.1 chr17 Crystal structure of a domain of phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase ...from Bacteroides vulgatus ATCC 8482 p3gxsa_ chr17/NP_115873.1/NP_115873.1_apo_386-519.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_115823.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115823.3 chr19 NMR Study of the Fibrillin-1 cbEGF12-13 Pair of Ca2+ Binding Epid...ermal Growth Factor-like Domains c1lmja_ chr19/NP_115823.3/NP_115823.3_holo_723-805.pdb blast 2733L,2734E,27

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_066003.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_066003.3 chr9 Crystal Structure of an antiparallel coiled-coil tetramerization d...omain from TRPM7 channels p3e7kh_ chr9/NP_066003.3/NP_066003.3_apo_1066-1117.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_055243.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055243.1 chr19 Solution Structure of the RIM1alpha PDZ Domain in Complex with an... ELKS1b C-terminal Peptide c1zuba_ chr19/NP_055243.1/NP_055243.1_holo_394-494.pdb psi-blast 413D,415R,424S,4

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_008877.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available olution p2eyna_ chr11/NP_008877.1/NP_008877.1_apo_52-281.pdb blast 0 ... ...NP_008877.1 chr11 Crystal structure of the actin-binding domain of human alpha-actinin 1 at 1.8 Angstrom res

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_057199.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_057199.1 chr2 The Crystal Structure of a Partial Mouse Notch-1 Ankyrin Domain: Repeats 4 Through 7 Preser...ve an Ankyrin Fold p1ympb_ chr2/NP_057199.1/NP_057199.1_apo_239-364.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_000368.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000368.1 chrX Solution Structure of the GTPase Binding Domain of WASP in Complex with EspFU, an EHEC Effe...ctor p2k42a_ chrX/NP_000368.1/NP_000368.1_apo_239-310.pdb blast 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_003932.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003932.3 chr7 Solution Structure of the GTPase Binding Domain of WASP in Complex with EspFU, an EHEC Effe...ctor p2k42a_ chr7/NP_003932.3/NP_003932.3_apo_204-275.pdb blast 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_055672.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055672.3 chr1 Solution structure of the chimera of the C-terminal PID domain of ...Fe65L and the C-terminal tail peptide of APP p2ysza_ chr1/NP_055672.3/NP_055672.3_apo_116-314.pdb swppa 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_002002.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002002.3 chr5 Crystal Structure of Unphosphorylated Unactivated Wild Type FGF Re...ceptor 2 (FGFR2) Kinase Domain c2psqb_ chr5/NP_002002.3/NP_002002.3_apo_453-752.pdb blast 477C,478F,479G,503K,612D,614A,616R 0 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_037512.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_037512.3 chr19 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr19/NP_037512.3/NP_037512.3_holo_542-655.pdb blast 549C,551E,

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_787052.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_787052.3 chr5 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr5/NP_787052.3/NP_787052.3_holo_32-158.pdb swppa 32A,80R CAC 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_006732.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006732.3 chr12 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANT...IGEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr12/NP_006732.3/NP_006732.3_holo_32-167.pdb swppa 32R,87M,89E,163L CAC 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_060562.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060562.3 chr16 Crystal Structure of the CUB1-EGF Interaction Domain of Complemen...t Protease C1s c1nzib_ chr16/NP_060562.3/NP_060562.3_holo_183-338.pdb psi-blast 197E,216K,229E,237N,276A,277

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_060142.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060142.3 chr15 Crystal Structure of an antiparallel coiled-coil tetramerization ...domain from TRPM7 channels p3e7kh_ chr15/NP_060142.3/NP_060142.3_apo_1198-1249.pdb blast 1200T,1201F,1203R,1

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_067072.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_067072.3 chr14 The crystal structure of the BAR domain from human Bin1/Amphiphys...in II and its implications for molecular recognition p2ficb_ chr14/NP_067072.3/NP_067072.3_holo_90-290.pdb swppa 257F,258R,261L _XE 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_060142.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060142.3 chr15 Crystal structure of the ankyrin repeat domain of TRPV2 p2etcb_ chr15/NP_060142.3.../NP_060142.3_apo_483-742.pdb p2etba_ chr15/NP_060142.3/NP_060142.3_holo_483-742.pdb psi-blas

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_002218.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ation Responsible for Crouzon Syndrome p1gjoa_ chr1/NP_002218.2/NP_002218.2_apo_863...NP_002218.2 chr1 Crystal Strucure of FGF Receptor 2 (FGFR2) Kinase Domain Harboring the Pathogenic K526E Mut

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_004231.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004231.1 chr19 NMR Structure Analysis of the Hematopoetic Cell Kinase SH3 Domain complexed with an artifi...cial high affinity ligand (PD1) p2oj2a_ chr19/NP_004231.1/NP_004231.1_holo_466-544.

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001020119.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ficial high affinity ligand (PD1) p2oj2a_ chr1/NP_001020119.1/NP_001020119.1_holo_4...NP_001020119.1 chr1 NMR Structure Analysis of the Hematopoetic Cell Kinase SH3 Domain complexed with an arti

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_620641.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_620641.1 chr1 NMR Structure Analysis of the Hematopoetic Cell Kinase SH3 Domain complexed with an artific...ial high affinity ligand (PD1) p2oj2a_ chr1/NP_620641.1/NP_620641.1_holo_435-512.pd

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_004471.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004471.3 chr14 NMR Structure Analysis of the Hematopoetic Cell Kinase SH3 Domain complexed with an artifi...cial high affinity ligand (PD1) p2oj2a_ chr14/NP_004471.3/NP_004471.3_holo_352-436.

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_596867.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_596867.1 chr10 A novel adaptation of the integrin PSI domain revealed from its c...rystal structure c1u8cb_ chr10/NP_596867.1/NP_596867.1_holo_25-726.pdb blast 130T,154S,155M,157D,158D,343P,3

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_001098547.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001098547.2 chr3 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of... murine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr3/NP_001098547.2/NP_001098547.2_holo_540-654.pdb psi-blast

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_006517.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006517.1 chr20 Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domai...n Bound to DNA p2prta_ chr20/NP_006517.1/NP_006517.1_holo_126-238.pdb psi-blast 130C,131E,133C,135Q,146H,149

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_006477.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006477.2 chr22 NMR STUDY OF A PAIR OF FIBRILLIN CA2+ BINDING EPIDERMAL GROWTH FA...CTOR-LIKE DOMAINS, 22 STRUCTURES c1emoa_ chr22/NP_006477.2/NP_006477.2_holo_613-689.pdb psi-blast 614E,615I,

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_003437.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003437.2 chrX Structure of the Wilms Tumor Suppressor Protein Zinc Finger Domain... Bound to DNA p2prta_ chrX/NP_003437.2/NP_003437.2_holo_300-408.pdb blast 304C,305G,306E,307C,308G,309K,320H

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_115597.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115597.3 chr20 Crystal Structure of ALIX/AIP1 in complex with the HIV-1 YPLASL L...ate Domain p2oeva_ chr20/NP_115597.3/NP_115597.3_apo_963-1562.pdb p2r05a_ chr20/NP_115597.3/NP_115597.3_holo

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_002217.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002217.3 chr14 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF FIBRILLIN-1 DOMAINS CBEGF9HYB2CBEGF10, CALCI...UM SATURATED FORM p2w86a_ chr14/NP_002217.3/NP_002217.3_holo_497-634.pdb swppa 498E,499R,500D,501E,515D,516L

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_803187.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_803187.1 chr14 Structure of RNaseIIIb and dsRNA binding domains of mouse Dicer p3c4ta_ chr14/NP_803187....1/NP_803187.1_holo_1654-1913.pdb blast 1661H,1685Q,1688T,1689H,1690A,1698T,1699D,1700

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_002217.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002217.3 chr14 INTEGRIN BINDING CBEGF22-TB4-CBEGF33 FRAGMENT OF HUMAN FIBRILLIN-...1, APO FORM CBEGF23 DOMAIN ONLY. c1uzqa_ chr14/NP_002217.3/NP_002217.3_apo_826-975.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_109377.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_109377.1 chr7 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr7/NP_109377.1/NP_109377.1_holo_301-438.pdb swppa 304T,434I CAC 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_389647.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_389647.1 chr10 Solution structure of the talin F3 domain in complex with a chime...ric beta3 integrin-PIP kinase peptide- minimized average structure p2h7eb_ chr10/NP_389647.1/NP_389647.1_apo_752-786.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_004307.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004307.2 chr12 Crystal Structure of the basic-helix-loop-helix domains of the he...terodimer E47/NeuroD1 bound to DNA p2ql2d_ chr12/NP_004307.2/NP_004307.2_holo_119-175.pdb psi-blast 120V,122

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_954871.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_954871.1 chr17 Solution structure of three tandem repeats of zf-C2H2 domains fro...m human Kruppel-like factor 5 p2ebta_ chr17/NP_954871.1/NP_954871.1_holo_244-338.pdb blast 256C,258I,261C,26

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_068741.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_068741.1 chr6 Crystal structure of human Fanconi Anemia protein E C-terminal dom...ain p2ilra_ chr6/NP_068741.1/NP_068741.1_apo_275-535.pdb blast 276E,277S,278L,320S,321P,322S,323Q,325D,356S,

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_004001.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004001.1 chrX STRUCTURE OF A DYSTROPHIN WW DOMAIN FRAGMENT IN COMPLEX WITH A BET...A-DYSTROGLYCAN PEPTIDE c1eg3a_ chrX/NP_004001.1/NP_004001.1_apo_2924-3183.pdb c1eg4a_ chrX/NP_004001.1/NP_004001.1

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_002691.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002691.1 chr5 TERNARY COMPLEX OF THE DNA BINDING DOMAINS OF THE OCT1 AND SOX2 TR...ANSCRIPTION FACTORS WITH A 19MER OLIGONUCLEOTIDE FROM THE HOXB1 REGULATORY ELEMENT c1o4xa_ chr5/NP_002691.1/NP_002691.1

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_001074421.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001074421.1 chr6 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of... murine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr6/NP_001074421.1/NP_001074421.1_holo_6-118.pdb blast 6C,8L

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001008701.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001008701.1 chr19 EGF DOMAINS 1,2,5 OF HUMAN EMR2, A 7-TM IMMUNE SYSTEM MOLECULE..., IN COMPLEX WITH STRONTIUM. p2boxa_ chr19/NP_001008701.1/NP_001008701.1_holo_314-452.pdb psi-blast 335D,355

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_006201.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006201.1 chr19 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr19/NP_006201.1/NP_006201.1_holo_165-272.pdb psi-blast 1308P,

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_899051.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_899051.1 chr17 Solution structure of the tandem four zf-C2H2 domain repeats of m...urine GLI-Kruppel family member HKR3 c2dlqa_ chr17/NP_899051.1/NP_899051.1_holo_199-297.pdb psi-blast 200L,2

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_000631.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000631.1 chrX CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TERNARY COMPLEX BETWEEN OVINE PLACENTAL L...ACTOGEN AND THE EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF THE RAT PROLACTIN RECEPTOR c1f6fc_ chrX/NP_000631.1/NP_000631.1_apo_135-332.pdb blast 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_006281.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006281.1 chr6 STRUCTURE OF THE A20 OVARIAN TUMOUR (OTU) DOMAIN p3dkbf_ chr6/NP_006281.1/NP_006281.1..._apo_3-362.pdb p2vfjd_ chr6/NP_006281.1/NP_006281.1_holo_3-362.pdb blast 300E,304K,311E,3

  16. Spatial sensitivity analysis of snow cover data in a distributed rainfall–runoff model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Berezowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the availability of spatially distributed data sets for distributed rainfall–runoff modelling is strongly growing, more attention should be paid to the influence of the quality of the data on the calibration. While a lot of progress has been made on using distributed data in simulations of hydrological models, sensitivity of spatial data with respect to model results is not well understood. In this paper we develop a spatial sensitivity analysis (SA method for snow cover fraction input data (SCF for a distributed rainfall–runoff model to investigate if the model is differently subjected to SCF uncertainty in different zones of the model. The analysis was focused on the relation between the SCF sensitivity and the physical, spatial parameters and processes of a distributed rainfall–runoff model. The methodology is tested for the Biebrza River catchment, Poland for which a distributed WetSpa model is setup to simulate two years of daily runoff. The SA uses the Latin-Hypercube One-factor-At-a-Time (LH-OAT algorithm, which uses different response functions for each 4 km × 4 km snow zone. The results show that the spatial patterns of sensitivity can be easily interpreted by co-occurrence of different environmental factors such as: geomorphology, soil texture, land-use, precipitation and temperature. Moreover, the spatial pattern of sensitivity under different response functions is related to different spatial parameters and physical processes. The results clearly show that the LH-OAT algorithm is suitable for the spatial sensitivity analysis approach and that the SCF is spatially sensitive in the WetSpa model.

  17. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-07-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as 1 of 13 essential climate variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases: first responding to a survey of user needs; developing a global, moderate-resolution land cover data set for three time periods, or epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010); and the last phase resulting in a user tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFTs). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users, and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT data set and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The main difference between the new LC_CCI product and PFT data sets used currently by three different dynamic global vegetation modeling teams is a reduction in high-latitude grassland cover, a reduction in tropical tree cover and an expansion in temperate forest cover in Europe. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  18. Hydrogeological characterisation and modelling of deformation zones and fracture domains, Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (SE)); Leven, Jakob (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB))

    2007-09-15

    The work reported here collates the structural-hydraulic information gathered in 21 cored boreholes and 32 percussion-drilled boreholes belonging to Forsmark site description, modelling stage 2.2. The analyses carried out provide the hydrogeological input descriptions of the bedrock in Forsmark needed by the end users Repository Engineering, Safety Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment; that is, hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains. The same information is also needed for constructing 3D groundwater flow models of the Forsmark site and surrounding area. The analyses carried out render the following conceptual model regarding the observed heterogeneity in deformation zone transmissivity: We find the geological division of the deterministically modelled deformation zones into eight categories (sets) useful from a hydrogeological point of view. Seven of the eight categories are steeply dipping, WNW, NW, NNW, NNE, NE, ENE and EW, and on is gently dipping, G. All deformation zones, regardless of orientation (strike and dip), are subjected to a substantial decrease in transmissivity with depth. The data gathered suggest a contrast of c. 20,000 times for the uppermost one kilometre of bedrock, i.e. more than four orders of magnitude. The hydraulic properties below this depth are not investigated. The lateral heterogeneity is also substantial but more irregular in its appearance. For instance, for a given elevation and deformation zone category (orientation), the spatial variability in transmissivity within a particular deformation zone appears to be as large as the variability between all deformation zones. This suggests that the lateral correlation length is shorter than the shortest distance between two adjacent observation points and shorter than the category spacing. The observation that the mean transmissivity of the gently-dipping deformation zones is c. one to two orders of magnitude greater than the mean transmissivities of all

  19. An analytical model of hydrogen evolution and oxidation reactions on electrodes partially covered with a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Erno; Halme, Janne; Lund, Peter D

    2016-05-11

    Our previous theoretical study on the performance limits of the platinum (Pt) nanoparticle catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) had shown that the mass transport losses at a partially catalyst-covered planar electrode are independent of the catalyst loading. This suggests that the two-dimensional (2D) numerical model used could be simplified to a one-dimensional (1D) model to provide an easier but equally accurate description of the operation of these HER electrodes. In this article, we derive an analytical 1D model and show that it indeed gives results that are practically identical to the 2D numerical simulations. We discuss the general principles of the model and how it can be used to extend the applicability of existing electrochemical models of planar electrodes to low catalyst loadings suitable for operating photoelectrochemical devices under unconcentrated sunlight. Since the mass transport losses of the HER are often very sensitive to the H2 concentration, we also discuss the limiting current density of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and how it is not necessarily independent of the reaction kinetics. The results give insight into the interplay of kinetic and mass-transport limitations at HER/HOR electrodes with implications for the design of kinetic experiments and the optimization of catalyst loadings in the photoelectrochemical cells.

  20. Assimilation of MODIS Snow Cover Area Data in a Distributed Hydrological Model Using the Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kalas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an important component of the water cycle, and its estimation in hydrological models is of great significance concerning the simulation and forecasting of flood events due to snow-melt. The assimilation of Snow Cover Area (SCA in physical distributed hydrological models is a possible source of improvement of snowmelt-related floods. In this study, the assimilation in the LISFLOOD model of the MODIS sensor SCA has been evaluated, in order to improve the streamflow simulations of the model. This work is realized with the final scope of improving the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS pan-European flood forecasts in the future. For this purpose daily 500 m resolution MODIS satellite SCA data have been used. Tests were performed in the Morava basin, a tributary of the Danube, for three years. The particle filter method has been chosen for assimilating the MODIS SCA data with different frequencies. Synthetic experiments were first performed to validate the assimilation schemes, before assimilating MODIS SCA data. Results of the synthetic experiments could improve modelled SCA and discharges in all cases. The assimilation of MODIS SCA data with the particle filter shows a net improvement of SCA. The Nash of resulting discharge is consequently increased in many cases.

  1. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  2. Modeling the Long-Term Evolution of Supraglacial Ice Cliffs on Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2016-12-01

    Supraglacial ice cliffs are present on debris-covered glaciers worldwide and provide the only direct atmosphere-ice interface over the lower sections of these glaciers. Low albedo and high longwave emissions from surrounding debris cause very high melt rates, accounting for a significant portion of total glacier mass loss. As a result, ice cliffs affect glacier downwasting and mass balance. Additionally, and in contrast to the debris-covered ice, high melt at cliffs turns them into dynamic features, directly affecting glacier surface evolution. While conceptual ideas about the formation, evolution and collapse of ice cliffs exist, their life cycles have never been thoroughly documented. Based on observations obtained from high-resolution aerial and terrestrial images analyzed with Structure-from-Motion and with data from automatic weather stations on two glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya, we simulate the evolution of selected ice cliffs over several seasons using a new physically-based model of cliff backwasting. The 3D model calculates the energy-balance at the cliff scale and includes the cliff interaction with supraglacial ponds and reburial by debris. We consider cliffs of different shape, orientation and slope, and we show that backwasting leads to a variety of evolution typologies, with cliffs that maintain a constant, self-similar geometry, cliffs that grow laterally and cliffs that disappear through slope shallowing and debris melt-out. Most cliffs persist over several seasons. The presence of a pond appears to be the key control for cliffs to survive, while east and west facing cliffs grow because of higher radiation receipts. We use the model to test the hypothesis that south-facing cliffs do not survive. We show that most south-facing cliffs demise after one melt season on both glaciers, because of high input of solar radiation exceeding the longwave radiation receipt. For north facing features, the longwave radiation receipts at lower cliff sections

  3. Land Surface Models Evaluation for Two Different Land-Cover Types: Cropland and Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Model (LSM is an important tool used to understand the complicated hydro-meteorological flux interaction systems between the land surface and atmosphere in hydrological cycles. Over the past few decades, LSMs have further developed to more accurately estimate weather and climate hydrological processes. Common Land Model (CLM and Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM are used in this paper to estimate the hydro-meteorological fluxes for model applicability assessment at two different flux tower sites in Korea during the summer monsoon season. The estimated fluxes such as net radiation (RN, sensible heat flux (H, latent heat flux (LE, ground heat flux (G, and soil temperature (Ts were compared with the observed data from flux towers. The simulated RN from both models corresponded well with the in situ data. The root-mean-square error (RMSE values were 39 - 44 W m-2 for the CLM and 45 - 50 W m-2 for the Noah LSM while the H and LE showed relatively larger discrepancies with each observation. The estimated Ts from the CLM corresponded comparatively well with the observed soil temperature. The CLM estimations generally showed better statistical results than those from the Noah LSM, even though the estimated hydro-meteorological fluxes from both models corresponded reasonably with the observations. A sensitivity test indicated that differences according to different locations between the estimations from models and observations were caused by field conditions including the land-cover type and soil texture. In addition the estimated RN, H, LE, and G were more sensitive than the estimated Ts in both models.

  4. User Requirements from the Climate Modelling Community for Next Generation Global Products from Land Cover CCI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; van Groenestijn, Annemarie; Kalogirou, Vasileios; Arino, Olivier; Herold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Land Cover has been selected as one of 11 Essential Climate Variables which will be elaborated during the first phase of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (2010- 2013). In the first stage of the Land Cover CCI project, an user requirements analysis has been carried out on the basis of which the detailed specifications of a global land cover product can be defined which match the requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the climate modelling community. As part of the requirements analysis, an user consultation mechanism was set-up to actively involve different climate modelling groups by setting out surveys to different type of users within the climate modelling community and the broad land cover data user community. The evolution of requirements from current models to future new modelling approaches was specifically taken into account. In addition, requirements from the GCOS Implementation Plan 2004 and 2010 and associated strategic earth observation documents for land cover were assessed and a detailed literature review was carried out. The outcome of the user requirements assessment shows that although the range of requirements coming from the climate modelling community is broad, there is a good match among the requirements coming from different user groups and the broader requirements derived from GCOS, CMUG and other relevant international panels. More specific requirements highlight that future land cover datasets should be both stable and have a dynamic component; deal with the consistency in relationships between land cover classes and land surface parameters; should provide flexibility to serve different scales and purposes; and should provide transparency of product quality. As a next step within the Land Cover CCI project, the outcome of this user requirements analysis will be used as input for the product specification of the next generation Global Land Cover datasets.

  5. A mathematical model of thrombin production in blood coagulation, Part I: The sparsely covered membrane case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, S A; Basmadjian, D

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to model the blood coagulation reactions in flowing blood. The model focuses on the common pathway and includes activation of factor X and prothrombin, including feedback activation of cofactors VIII and V by thrombin, and plasma inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin. In this paper, the first of two, the sparsely covered membrane (SCM) case is presented. This considers the limiting situation where platelet membrane binding sites are in excess, such that no membrane saturation or binding competition occurs. Under these conditions, the model predicts that the two positive feedback loops lead to multiple steady-state behavior in the range of intermediate mass transfer rates. It will be shown that this results in three parameter regions exhibiting very different thrombin production patterns. The model predicts the effect of flow on steady-state and dynamic thrombin production and attempts to explain the difference between venous and arterial thrombi. The reliance of thrombin production on precursor procoagulant protein concentrations is also assessed.

  6. Using the FORE-SCE model to project land-cover change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T.; Sayler, K.

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of ecological applications require spatially explicit current and projected land-use and land-cover data. The southeastern United States has experienced massive land-use change since European settlement and continues to experience extremely high rates of forest cutting, significant urban development, and changes in agricultural land use. Forest-cover patterns and structure are projected to change dramatically in the southeastern United States in the next 50 years due to population growth and demand for wood products [Wear, D.N., Greis, J.G. (Eds.), 2002. Southern Forest Resource Assessment. General Technical Report SRS-53. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, 635 pp]. Along with our climate partners, we are examining the potential effects of southeastern U.S. land-cover change on regional climate. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is analyzing contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change in the conterminous United States, providing ecoregion-by-ecoregion estimates of the rates of change, descriptive transition matrices, and changes in landscape metrics. The FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-cover (FORE-SCE) model used Land Cover Trends data and theoretical, statistical, and deterministic modeling techniques to project future land-cover change through 2050 for the southeastern United States. Prescriptions for future proportions of land cover for this application were provided by ecoregion-based extrapolations of historical change. Logistic regression was used to develop relationships between suspected drivers of land-cover change and land cover, resulting in the development of probability-of-occurrence surfaces for each unique land-cover type. Forest stand age was initially established with Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and tracked through model iterations. The spatial allocation procedure placed patches of new land cover on the landscape until the scenario

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_009116.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_009116.3 chr1 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p2r6qa_ chr1/NP_009116.3/NP_009116.3_apo_238-373.pdb p1wcka_ chr1/NP_009116....3/NP_009116.3_holo_238-373.pdb swppa 294A,369Q,371Q CAC 1 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_919434.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_919434.1 chr11 Solution structure of the Zinc finger, C3HC4 type (RING finger) d...omain of RING finger protein 126 p2ecta_ chr11/NP_919434.1/NP_919434.1_holo_96-187.pdb swppa 119C,121V,122C,142L,144C,146H,148F,149H,152C,165C,167Y,168C,169K,170E _ZN 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_077084.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_077084.1 chr6 Solution structure of the PHD domain of Metal-response element-bin...ding transcription factor 2 p2yt5a_ chr6/NP_077084.1/NP_077084.1_holo_85-147.pdb blast 90C,92V,93C,94R,95S,107C,109K,110C,115H,118C,135V,136C,139C _ZN 0 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_060484.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060484.2 chr2 ADR1 DNA-BINDING DOMAIN FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, NMR, 25 STR...UCTURES c2adra_ chr2/NP_060484.2/NP_060484.2_holo_16-72.pdb psi-blast 284A,286E,287M,289L,300V,304N,312A,320R,321E,322L,323A,324G,336P,340Q _ZN 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_008844.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_008844.1 chr6 Solution Structure of the RING domain of the Tripartite motif prot...ein 32 p2ct2a_ chr6/NP_008844.1/NP_008844.1_holo_14-98.pdb psi-blast 27C,29I,30C,42C,44H,47C,50C,64C,66V,67C,68K _ZN 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_690874.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_690874.2 chr13 Solution structure of the first C1 domain from human protein kina...se C theta p2enna_ chr13/NP_690874.2/NP_690874.2_holo_158-229.pdb psi-blast 175M,176H,177N,189C,191V,192C,193R,206C,208V,209C,210K,211F,213A,214H,217C,225C _ZN 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_006501.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006501.1 chr6 Solution structure of the RING-finger domain from human Tripartite... motif protein 34 p2egpa_ chr6/NP_006501.1/NP_006501.1_holo_2-76.pdb blast 16C,18V,19C,23F,29L,31C,33H,36C,39C,53C,55Q,56C,57R _ZN 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_079291.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079291.2 chr10 Crystal structure of ATPase domain of Ssb1 chaperone, a member of... the HSP70 family, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae p3gl1b_ chr10/NP_079291.2/NP_079291.2_holo_53-521.pdb psi-blast 62D,133W,284R,285R,287R,315D,481V,486E,488P,491Q,512L _MG 0 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_115821.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115821.1 chr15 The crystal structure of the PSI/Hybrid domain/ I-EGF1 segment fr...om the human integrin beta2 at 1.8 resolution p1yukb_ chr15/NP_115821.1/NP_115821.1_holo_582-705.pdb swppa 591L,619S,621A,703H NDG 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_710141.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_710141.1 chr20 Forkhead DNA-binding domain d1jxsa_ chr20/NP_710141.1/NP_710141.1..._apo_158-254.pdb d2c6ya1 chr20/NP_710141.1/NP_710141.1_holo_158-254.pdb blast 159K,162Y,163S,164Y,165I,181T,

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_003931.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003931.1 chr3 Co-crystal structure of znf ubp domain from the deubiquitinating e...nzyme isopeptidase T (isot) in complex with ubiquitin c2g45d_ chr3/NP_003931.1/NP_003931.1_holo_186-301.pdb blast 211C,213R,214C,231C,242N,244H _ZN 0 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_001035531.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035531.1 chr1 ADR1 DNA-BINDING DOMAIN FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, NMR, 25 ...STRUCTURES c2adra_ chr1/NP_001035531.1/NP_001035531.1_holo_282-335.pdb blast 284C,286Y,287C,289H,300H,304H,312C,314A,315C,316G,328H,333H _ZN 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_001001991.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001991.1 chr11 CUB1-EGF-CUB2 domain of HUMAN MASP-1/3 p3demb_ chr11/NP_001001991.1/NP_001001991....1_holo_134-341.pdb psi-blast 172E,180D,220S,221D,223S,224K,258Y,281S,288N,326K,327R,329C,330Q,332N _CA 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_002011.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002011.2 chr5 Crystal structure of the exctracellular domain of the receptor tyr...osine kinase, Kit p2ec8a_ chr5/NP_002011.2/NP_002011.2_holo_26-549.pdb psi-blast 149N,150R,151K,152D,227N,263T,311K,313N,314N,315G,318R,320R,340G,343L,380S,381P NAG 0 ...

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_006831.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_006831.1 chr19 I set domains d1b6ua2 chr19/NP_006831.1/NP_006831.1_apo_437-545.p...db d1efxd2 chr19/NP_006831.1/NP_006831.1_holo_437-545.pdb psi-blast 437P,438E,523I,525N LEU 1 ...

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_000081.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000081.1 chr2 The 1.9-A crystal structure of the noncollagenous (NC1) domain of ...human placenta collagen IV shows stabilization via a novel type of covalent Met-Lys cross-link c1li1e_ chr2/NP_000081.1/NP_000081.1_apo_1220-1465.pdb psi-blast 0 ...

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_258411.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_258411.2 chr17 Solution structure of the RING-finger domain from human Tripartit...e motif protein 34 p2egpa_ chr17/NP_258411.2/NP_258411.2_holo_2-78.pdb psi-blast 9C,11I,12C,16L,22L,24C,26H,28F,29C,32C,54C,56L,57C,58Q _ZN 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_065971.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065971.2 chr14 Chromo domain d2b2tb1 chr14/NP_065971.2/NP_065971.2_apo_340-431.p...db d2b2va2 chr14/NP_065971.2/NP_065971.2_holo_340-431.pdb psi-blast 361D,364I,366D,367K,396Y,400H ARG,GLN 1 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_056372.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056372.1 chr1 Solution structure of the PHD domain in PHD finger protein 21A p2yqla_ chr1/NP_056372....1/NP_056372.1_holo_335-390.pdb blast 346C,348V,349C,350Q,358C,360T,361C,366H,369C,383S,384C,387C _ZN 0 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_005072.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_005072.2 chr2 Solution structure of the N-terminal C2H2 type zinc-binding domain... of the Zinc finger protein 64, isoforms 1 and 2 c2dmda_ chr2/NP_005072.2/NP_005072.2_holo_380-476.pdb psi-blast 383C,386C,388Y,399H,404H,412C,415C,428H,429K,447A,449Q,450E _ZN 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001607.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001607.1 chr2 Crystal structure of Activin receptor type II kinase domain from h...uman p2qlua_ chr2/NP_001607.1/NP_001607.1_holo_192-485.pdb blast 198K,199A,206V,217A,247L,267T,268A,269F,270H,271E,273G,329L 322D,324K,326K __A 0 ...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_003017.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003017.1 chr9 Crystal structure of endophilin-A1 BAR domain c1zwwb_ chr9/NP_003017.1/NP_003017....1_holo_28-247.pdb blast 48M,106D,108C,123E,126E,147H,153E,157H,196I,205L,206E 38R,39K,42V,45R

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_056532.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_056532.2 chr2 C-type lectin domain d1xarb_ chr2/NP_056532.2/NP_056532.2_apo_170-322....pdb d1k9ja_ chr2/NP_056532.2/NP_056532.2_holo_170-322.pdb blast 244K,245T,246A,248G,249L,257K,261E,264W,

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_079402.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_079402.2 chr12 Crystal Structure of a FYVE-type domain from caspase regulator CA...RP2 c1y02a_ chr12/NP_079402.2/NP_079402.2_holo_58-153.pdb blast 61V,62C,64A,65C,66G,78C,80D,81C,85F,86C,89C,99C,101T,102C,129L _ZN 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_000032.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_000032.1 chr19 NMR solution structure of complete receptor binding domain of hum...an apolipoprotein E p2kc3a_ chr19/NP_000032.1/NP_000032.1_apo_19-201.pdb blast 113K,114E,116Q,120A,121R,124A,128D,132R,135Q,142A,143M,144L,146Q,154R,161K,165R 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_001073312.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001073312.1 chr1 ADR1 DNA-BINDING DOMAIN FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, NMR, 25 ...STRUCTURES c2adra_ chr1/NP_001073312.1/NP_001073312.1_holo_1543-1602.pdb psi-blast 1545A,1548F,1550Q,1561D,1573C,1575F,1578C,1579R,1591H,1594K,1595H _ZN 0 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_001001662.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001001662.1 chr9 ADR1 DNA-BINDING DOMAIN FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, NMR, 25 ...STRUCTURES c2adra_ chr9/NP_001001662.1/NP_001001662.1_holo_644-699.pdb blast 648C,650Q,651C,653E,664H,668H,676C,678K,679C,680G,681R,692H,696H _ZN 0 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_057953.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_057953.1 chr9 INHIBITED FRAGMENT OF ETS-1 AND PAIRED DOMAIN OF PAX5 BOUND TO DNA c1mdma_ chr9/NP_057953....1/NP_057953.1_holo_19-142.pdb blast 20V,21N,22Q,23L,27F,29N,30G,31R,32P,33L,38R,50R,

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_001099023.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001099023.1 chr19 Solution structure of C2H2 type Zinc finger domain 345 in Zinc... finger protein 278 c2yt9a_ chr19/NP_001099023.1/NP_001099023.1_holo_89-173.pdb blast 95C,97E,98R,99G,111H,115H,123C,125I,126C,139H,143H,151C,153E,154C,155G,167H,171H _ZN 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_001993.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001993.2 chr19 C-type lectin domain d1xarb_ chr19/NP_001993.2/NP_001993.2_apo_14...4-288.pdb d1k9ja_ chr19/NP_001993.2/NP_001993.2_holo_144-288.pdb blast 214A,215S,216H,217T,218G,225N,229K,23

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_055872.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055872.3 chr13 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BTB DOMAIN FROM BTBD6 p2vkpa_ chr13/NP_055872.3/NP_055872.3..._apo_1412-1533.pdb p2vkpb_ chr13/NP_055872.3/NP_055872.3_holo_1412-1533.pdb psi-blast 1490L,1491S,1494L,1502Q EDO 1 ...

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_443202.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_443202.3 chr20 Crystal structure of ATPase domain of Ssb1 chaperone, a member of... the HSP70 family, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae p3gl1b_ chr20/NP_443202.3/NP_443202.3_holo_57-527.pdb psi-blast 66D,242E,318V,319A,320D,388T,486V,491E,493A,496Q,509R _MG 0 ...

  19. Domain Modeling: NP_060012.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060012.3 chr1 ADR1 DNA-BINDING DOMAIN FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE, NMR, 25 STR...UCTURES c2adra_ chr1/NP_060012.3/NP_060012.3_holo_242-299.pdb psi-blast 244A,246A,247M,249R,263D,275A,277G,278D,280I,296M,297N _ZN 0 ...

  20. Domain Modeling: NP_004841.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1237-1320.pdb blast 1261H,1274C,1275E,1276A,1277C,1278M,1279K,1293C,1295R,1296C,1297H,1298I,1301H,1304H,1311I,1315C,1316K _ZN 0 ... ...NP_004841.2 chr2 The C1 domain of ROCK II p2rowa_ chr2/NP_004841.2/NP_004841.2_holo

  1. Domain Modeling: NP_055832.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -130.pdb blast 39C,40P,41H,61C,63D,64C,66V,74C,76E,79C,81Y,83G,84C,89V,91H,95H,99T,101H,114C,116A,117C _ZN 0 ... ...NP_055832.3 chr1 ZF-UBP DOMAIN OF VDU1 c2uzga_ chr1/NP_055832.3/NP_055832.3_holo_36

  2. Domain Modeling: NP_963920.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -130.pdb blast 39C,40P,41H,61C,63D,64C,66V,74C,76E,79C,81Y,83G,84C,89V,91H,95H,99T,101H,114C,116A,117C _ZN 0 ... ...NP_963920.1 chr1 ZF-UBP DOMAIN OF VDU1 c2uzga_ chr1/NP_963920.1/NP_963920.1_holo_36

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_789847.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_789847.1 chr8 Solution structure of the LIM domain of alpha-actinin-2 associated... LIM protein c1x64a_ chr8/NP_789847.1/NP_789847.1_holo_260-342.pdb psi-blast 286C,288K,289C,291T,307H,310C,313C,315D,316C,317G,333M,336M _ZN 0 ...

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_065907.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_065907.2 chr19 Solution structure of the first and the second zf-C2H2 like domai...ns of human Teashirt homolog 3 p2dmia_ chr19/NP_065907.2/NP_065907.2_holo_200-303.pdb blast 216C,218D,219C,232H,236T,238H,277C,279Y,280C,281G,293H,294M,297T,299H _ZN 0 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_004231.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004231.1 chr19 Crystal structure of the EFC domain of formin-binding protein 17 c2efla_ chr19/NP_004231.1.../NP_004231.1_apo_1-288.pdb blast 9D,10Q,13V,14L,17H,20W,24L,27R,28Y,30K,31F,34E,35R

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_958781.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_958781.1 chr8 Crystal structure of a fragment of the plakin domain of plectin, C...ys to Ala mutant. p2odua_ chr8/NP_958781.1/NP_958781.1_apo_254-471.pdb p2odva_ chr8/NP_958781.1/NP_958781.1_holo_254-471.pdb blast 378K,381M,382E,385L PGO 1 ...

  7. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  8. Vegetation Cover Mapping Based on Remote Sensing and Digital Elevation Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korets, M. A.; Ryzhkova, V. A.; Danilova, I. V.; Prokushkin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    An algorithm of forest cover mapping based on combined GIS-based analysis of multi-band satellite imagery, digital elevation model, and ground truth data was developed. Using the classification principles and an approach of Russian forest scientist Kolesnikov, maps of forest types and forest growing conditions (FGC) were build. The first map is based on RS-composite classification, while the second map is constructed on the basis of DEM-composite classification. The spatial combination of this two layers were also used for extrapolation and mapping of ecosystem carbon stock values (kgC/m2). The proposed approach was applied for the test site area (~3600 km2), located in the Northern Siberia boreal forests of Evenkia near Tura settlement.

  9. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  10. Land cover uncertainty generates substantial uncertainty in earth system model carbon and climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2017-04-01

    Several climate adaptation and mitigation strategies incorporate Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) to address global carbon balance and climate. However, LULCC is not consistent across the CMIP5 model simulations because only the land use input is harmonized. The associated LULCC uncertainty generates uncertainty in regional and global carbon and climate dynamics that obfuscates the evaluation of whether such strategies are effective in meeting their goals. For example, the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) overestimates 2004 atmospheric CO2 concentration by 14 ppmv, and we explore the contribution of historical LULCC uncertainty to this bias in relation to the effects of CO2 fertilization, climate change, and nitrogen deposition on terrestrial carbon. Using identical land use input, a chronologically referenced LULCC that accounts for pasture, as opposed to the default year-2000 referenced LULCC, increases this bias to 20 ppmv because more forest needs to be cleared for land use. Assuming maximum forest retention for all land conversion reduces the new bias to 19 ppmv, while minimum forest retention increases the new bias to 24 ppmv. There is a 33 Pg land carbon uncertainty range due to maximizing versus minimizing forest area, which is 80% of the estimated 41 PgC gain in land carbon due to CO2 fertilization combined with climate change from 1850-2004 and 150% of the estimated 22 PgC gain due to nitrogen deposition. These results demonstrate that LULCC accuracy and uncertainty are critical for estimating the carbon cycle, and also that LULCC may be an important lever for constraining global carbon estimates. Furthermore, different land conversion assumptions can generate local differences of over 1.0 °C between the two forest retention cases with less than 5% difference in tree cover within a grid cell. Whether these temperature differences are positive or negative depends more on region than on latitude. Sensible heat appears to be more sensitive than

  11. Numerical modelling of methane oxidation efficiency and coupled water-gas-heat reactive transfer in a sloping landfill cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S; Ng, C W W; Leung, A K; Liu, H W

    2017-10-01

    Microbial aerobic methane oxidation in unsaturated landfill cover involves coupled water, gas and heat reactive transfer. The coupled process is complex and its influence on methane oxidation efficiency is not clear, especially in steep covers where spatial variations of water, gas and heat are significant. In this study, two-dimensional finite element numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the performance of unsaturated sloping cover. The numerical model was calibrated using a set of flume model test data, and was then subsequently used for parametric study. A new method that considers transient changes of methane concentration during the estimation of the methane oxidation efficiency was proposed and compared against existing methods. It was found that a steeper cover had a lower oxidation efficiency due to enhanced downslope water flow, during which desaturation of soil promoted gas transport and hence landfill gas emission. This effect was magnified as the cover angle and landfill gas generation rate at the bottom of the cover increased. Assuming the steady-state methane concentration in a cover would result in a non-conservative overestimation of oxidation efficiency, especially when a steep cover was subjected to rainfall infiltration. By considering the transient methane concentration, the newly-modified method can give a more accurate oxidation efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Graphical models and Bayesian domains in risk modelling: application in microbiological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Matthias; Smid, Joost; Havelaar, Arie H; Müller-Graf, Christine

    2013-05-15

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models are used to reflect knowledge about complex real-world scenarios for the propagation of microbiological hazards along the feed and food chain. The aim is to provide insight into interdependencies among model parameters, typically with an interest to characterise the effect of risk mitigation measures. A particular requirement is to achieve clarity about the reliability of conclusions from the model in the presence of uncertainty. To this end, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation modelling has become a standard in so-called probabilistic risk assessment. In this paper, we elaborate on the application of Bayesian computational statistics in the context of QMRA. It is useful to explore the analogy between MC modelling and Bayesian inference (BI). This pertains in particular to the procedures for deriving prior distributions for model parameters. We illustrate using a simple example that the inability to cope with feedback among model parameters is a major limitation of MC modelling. However, BI models can be easily integrated into MC modelling to overcome this limitation. We refer a BI submodel integrated into a MC model to as a "Bayes domain". We also demonstrate that an entire QMRA model can be formulated as Bayesian graphical model (BGM) and discuss the advantages of this approach. Finally, we show example graphs of MC, BI and BGM models, highlighting the similarities among the three approaches.

  13. Spatial object model[l]ing in fuzzy topological spaces : with applications to land cover change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Xinming

    2004-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis focuses on the accommodation of fuzzy spatial objects in a GIS. Several issues are discussed theoretically and practically, including the definition of fuzzy spatial objects, the topological relations between them, the modeling of fuzzy spatial objects, the generatio

  14. The damping model for sea waves covered by oil films of a finite thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanmin; ZHANG Jie; WANG Yunhua; MENG Junmin; ZHANG Xi

    2015-01-01

    In combination with a wave action balance equation, a damping model for sea waves covered by oil films of a finite thickness is proposed. The damping model is not only related to the physical parameters of the oil film, but also related to environment parameters. Meanwhile, the parametric analyses have been also conducted to understand the sensitivity of the damping model to these parameters. And numerical simulations demonstrate that a kinematic viscosity, a surface/interfacial elasticity, a thickness, and a fractional filling factor cause more significant effects on a damping ratio than the other physical parameters of the oil film. From the simulation it is also found that the influences induced by a wind speed and a wind direction are also remarkable. On the other hand, for a thick emulsified oil film, the damping effect on the radar signal induced by the reduction of an effective dielectric constant should also be taken into account. The simulated results are compared with the damping ratio evaluated by the 15 ENVISAT ASAR images acquired during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident.

  15. Dam breaking modeling on a river with ice cover : needs and tools : Hydro-Quebec perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchamen, G.W.; Quach, T.T.; Aubin, F.; Mellado, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Unite Barrages and Hydraulique

    2007-07-01

    In order to ensure public safety, owners and operators of high capacity dams in Quebec have a legal obligation to conduct dam break analysis for each of their dams. Several scenarios of dam failure have been modelled under open water conditions to anticipate the worst-case scenario in terms of downstream consequences. However, the province of Quebec is located north of the 45th parallel, and most of the surface waters are ice covered in the winter. The presence of ice influences the river flow characteristics. As such, it is important to evaluate how ice may change the propagation of a surge wave and other important hydraulic parameters following a dam break. This paper reviewed traditional hydraulic methodologies and models used to perform dam break analyses with particular attention to the presence of ice. The changes in hydraulic processes in river flow involve various physical phenomena, some of which are poorly understood from a theoretical point of view. In the past several years, robust numerical techniques borrowed from fluid mechanics and aerodynamics have resulted in the development of robust hydrodynamic codes that effectively handle irregular bottom geometries, dry bed and mixed flow regimes in reasonable computational times. However, advances are still needed in the understanding of several ice processes, their formulation and their modeling. Data collection that would improve the understanding of the processes is also needed in order to reduce the level of uncertainties associated with the results of dam-break analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Liqiang Liu; Yuntao Dai; Jinyu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules...

  17. Design of potentially active ligands for SH2 domains by molecular modeling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurmach V. V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Search for new chemical structures possessing specific biological activity is a complex problem that needs the use of the latest achievements of molecular modeling technologies. It is well known that SH2 domains play a major role in ontogenesis as intermediaries of specific protein-protein interactions. Aim. Developing an algorithm to investigate the properties of SH2 domain binding, search for new potential active compounds for the whole SH2 domains class. Methods. In this paper, we utilize a complex of computer modeling methods to create a generic set of potentially active compounds targeting universally at the whole class of SH2 domains. A cluster analysis of all available three-dimensional structures of SH2 domains was performed and general pharmacophore models were formulated. The models were used for virtual screening of collection of drug-like compounds provided by Enamine Ltd. Results. The design technique for library of potentially active compounds for SH2 domains class was proposed. Conclusions. The original algorithm of SH2 domains research with molecular docking method was developed. Using our algorithm, the active compounds for SH2 domains were found.

  18. Asymmetric cross-domain interference between two working memory tasks : Implications for models of working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; van der Reijden, Madeleine; Holweg, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Observations of higher dual-task costs for within-domain than cross-domain task combinations constitute classic evidence for multi-component models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Logie, 2011). However, we report an asymmetric pattern of interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks,

  19. The dissipative quantum model of brain how do memory localize in correlated neuronal domains

    CERN Document Server

    Alfinito, E

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of memory localization in extended domains is described in the framework of the parametric dissipative quantum model of brain. The size of the domains and the capability in memorizing depend on the number of links the system is able to establish with the external world.

  20. Asymmetric cross-domain interference between two working memory tasks : Implications for models of working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; van der Reijden, Madeleine; Holweg, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Observations of higher dual-task costs for within-domain than cross-domain task combinations constitute classic evidence for multi-component models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Logie, 2011). However, we report an asymmetric pattern of interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks,

  1. An Intelligent Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Domain Level Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An effective modeling method of domain level constraints in the constraint network for concurrent engineering (CE) was developed. The domain level constraints were analyzed and the framework of modeling of domain level constraints based on simulation and approximate technology was given. An intelligent response surface methodology (IRSM) was proposed, in which artificial intelligence technologies are introduced into the optimization process. The design of crank and connecting rod in the V6 engine as example was given to show the validity of the modeling method.

  2. A multi-domain trust management model for supporting RFID applications of IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Li, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The use of RFID technology in complex and distributed environments often leads to a multi-domain RFID system, in which trust establishment among entities from heterogeneous domains without past interaction or prior agreed policy, is a challenge. The current trust management mechanisms in the literature do not meet the specific requirements in multi-domain RFID systems. Therefore, this paper analyzes the special challenges on trust management in multi-domain RFID systems, and identifies the implications and the requirements of the challenges on the solutions to the trust management of multi-domain RFID systems. A multi-domain trust management model is proposed, which provides a hierarchical trust management framework include a diversity of trust evaluation and establishment approaches. The simulation results and analysis show that the proposed method has excellent ability to deal with the trust relationships, better security, and higher accuracy rate.

  3. Unsupervised spatial event detection in targeted domains with applications to civil unrest modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Twitter has become a popular data source as a surrogate for monitoring and detecting events. Targeted domains such as crime, election, and social unrest require the creation of algorithms capable of detecting events pertinent to these domains. Due to the unstructured language, short-length messages, dynamics, and heterogeneity typical of Twitter data streams, it is technically difficult and labor-intensive to develop and maintain supervised learning systems. We present a novel unsupervised approach for detecting spatial events in targeted domains and illustrate this approach using one specific domain, viz. civil unrest modeling. Given a targeted domain, we propose a dynamic query expansion algorithm to iteratively expand domain-related terms, and generate a tweet homogeneous graph. An anomaly identification method is utilized to detect spatial events over this graph by jointly maximizing local modularity and spatial scan statistics. Extensive experiments conducted in 10 Latin American countries demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_055336.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055336.1 chr2 SH3-domain d1srla_ chr2/NP_055336.1/NP_055336.1_apo_59-111.pdb d1qwfa_ chr2/NP_055336....1/NP_055336.1_holo_59-111.pdb blast 59E,60V,61I,62A,63I,64K,65D,66Y,70N,72T,73T,89G,90G,91E,92W,103Y,105P,106S,107S,108Y ALA,ARG,LEU,PRO,VAL 1 ...

  5. Domain Modeling: NP_055876.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055876.2 chr9 double tudor domain complex structure c2gf7a_ chr9/NP_055876.2/NP_055876....2_apo_879-991.pdb c2gfab_ chr9/NP_055876.2/NP_055876.2_holo_879-991.pdb blast 912F,914D,915G,916S,917F,918S,919R,920D,921T,922F,925D,946K,947W,948P,953Y ALA,ARG,GLN,M3L,THR 1 ...

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_976224.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_976224.2 chr15 SH2 domain d1mila_ chr15/NP_976224.2/NP_976224.2_apo_519-619.pdb d1tcea_ chr15/NP_976224....2/NP_976224.2_holo_519-619.pdb blast 570H,571L,572L,573L,574V,575D,576P,579K,580V,581R,582T,583K,587F,593L,604I,605I,606S,607S,609S GLN,GLY,LEU,SER,THR 1 ...

  7. Expert System Models in the Companies' Financial and Accounting Domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mates, D; Bostan, I; Grosu, V

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is based on studying, analyzing and implementing the expert systems in the financial and accounting domain of the companies, describing the use method of the informational systems that can be used in the multi-national companies, public interest institutions, and medium and small dimension economical entities, in order to optimize the managerial decisions and render efficient the financial-accounting functionality. The purpose of this paper is aimed to identifying the economical exigencies of the entities, based on the already used accounting instruments and the management software that could consent the control of the economical processes and patrimonial assets.

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_004691.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_004691.2 chr1 Crystal structure of a coiled-coil tetramerization domain from Kv7....4 channels p2ovca_ chr1/NP_004691.2/NP_004691.2_apo_611-640.pdb blast 612E,614S,615M,616M,618R,619V,620V,621K,622V,623E,625Q,626V,627Q,628S,629I,630E,632K,633L,634D,636L,637L 0 ...

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_057547.5 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_057547.5 chr5 Methyl-CpG-binding domain, MBD d1d9na_ chr5/NP_057547.5/NP_057547.5..._apo_23-101.pdb d1ig4a_ chr5/NP_057547.5/NP_057547.5_holo_23-101.pdb psi-blast 41V,43A,44A,45A,46P,47A,48S,49V,53T,65I,66S,67E,68P,69L,73L,74R 5CM,_DC,_DG,_DT 1 ...

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_055507.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055507.1 chr16 CRAL/TRIO domain d1olme3 chr16/NP_055507.1/NP_055507.1_holo_306-497.pdb blast 314Y,331L,...333L,336M,338T,341L,354V,383L,385L,388L,392H,393L,397G,398V,400A,401L,404M,408V,416L,419L,428F,431L,432W,435I,439I,443T,447F VTQ 0 ...

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_002994.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_002994.2 chr17 CRAL/TRIO domain d1olme3 chr17/NP_002994.2/NP_002994.2_holo_319-506.pdb blast 327Y,344L,...346L,349M,351T,363L,367V,396V,398L,401L,405H,406L,410G,411V,413A,414L,417I,418I,421V,429L,432L,441F,444L,445W,448V,452I,456T,460F VTQ 0 ...

  12. Domain Modeling: NP_060327.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060327.2 chr11 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANT...IGEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p2r6qa_ chr11/NP_060327.2/NP_060327.2_apo_508-643.pd...b p1wcka_ chr11/NP_060327.2/NP_060327.2_holo_508-643.pdb swppa 508G,511K,563F,639P,641S CAC 1 ...

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_115992.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_115992.1 chr2 Crystal structure analysis of the monomeric SRCR domain of mouse M...ARCO p2oyab_ chr2/NP_115992.1/NP_115992.1_apo_43-145.pdb p2oy3a_ chr2/NP_115992.1/NP_115992.1_holo_43-145.pdb blast 332C,334R,335K,336W,337D,340A,374V,375R,376C,395D,396C,400Q _MG 1 ...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_937821.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_937821.1 chr3 HLH, helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domain d1r05b_ chr3/NP_937821.1/NP_937821.1..._apo_281-368.pdb d1an2a_ chr3/NP_937821.1/NP_937821.1_holo_281-368.pdb psi-blast 282K,285H,286N,289E,290R,293R,294F,296I,297N,317W,318N,319K,320G _DA,_DC,_DG,_DT 1 ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_060551.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_060551.1 chr17 Two Seven-Bladed Beta-Propeller Domains Revealed By The Structure... Of A C. elegans Homologue Of Yeast Actin Interacting Protein 1 (AIP1). c1peva_ chr17/NP_060551.1/NP_060551.1..._apo_14-490.pdb c1nr0a_ chr17/NP_060551.1/NP_060551.1_holo_14-490.pdb psi-blast 75L,115E,117E,127K _MN 1 ...

  16. Hydrological model performance and parameter estimation in the wavelet-domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for rainfall-runoff model calibration and performance analysis in the wavelet-domain by fitting the estimated wavelet-power spectrum (a representation of the time-varying frequency content of a time series of a simulated discharge series to the one of the corresponding observed time series. As discussed in this paper, calibrating hydrological models so as to reproduce the time-varying frequency content of the observed signal can lead to different results than parameter estimation in the time-domain. Therefore, wavelet-domain parameter estimation has the potential to give new insights into model performance and to reveal model structural deficiencies. We apply the proposed method to synthetic case studies and a real-world discharge modeling case study and discuss how model diagnosis can benefit from an analysis in the wavelet-domain. The results show that for the real-world case study of precipitation – runoff modeling for a high alpine catchment, the calibrated discharge simulation captures the dynamics of the observed time series better than the results obtained through calibration in the time-domain. In addition, the wavelet-domain performance assessment of this case study highlights the frequencies that are not well reproduced by the model, which gives specific indications about how to improve the model structure.

  17. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of evolution emerge: (i) reclining cliffs that flatten during the ablation season; (ii) stable cliffs that maintain a self-similar geometry; and (iii) growing cliffs, expanding laterally. We use the insights from this unique data set to develop a 3-D model of cliff backwasting and evolution that is validated against observations and an independent data set of volume losses. The model includes ablation at the cliff surface driven by energy exchange with the atmosphere, reburial of cliff cells by surrounding debris, and the effect of adjacent ponds. The cliff geometry is updated monthly to account for the modifications induced by each of those processes. Model results indicate that a major factor affecting the survival of steep cliffs is the coupling with ponded water at its base, which prevents progressive flattening and possible disappearance of a cliff. The radial growth observed at one cliff is explained by higher receipts of longwave and shortwave radiation, calculated taking into account atmospheric fluxes, shading, and the emission of longwave radiation from debris surfaces. The model is a clear step forward compared to existing static approaches that calculate atmospheric melt over an invariant cliff geometry and can be used for long-term simulations of cliff evolution and to test existing hypotheses about cliffs' survival.

  18. A stepwise approach for defining the applicability domain of SAR and QSAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Sabcho; Dimitrova, Gergana; Pavlov, Todor;

    2005-01-01

    parametric requirements are imposed in the first stage, specifying in the domain only those chemicals that fall in the range of variation of the physicochemical properties of the chemicals in the training set. The second stage defines the structural similarity between chemicals that are correctly predicted......A stepwise approach for determining the model applicability domain is proposed. Four stages are applied to account for the diversity and complexity of the current SAR/QSAR models, reflecting their mechanistic rationality (including metabolic activation of chemicals) and transparency. General...... by the model. The structural neighborhood of atom-centered fragments is used to determine this similarity. The third stage in defining the domain is based on a mechanistic understanding of the modeled phenomenon. Here, the model domain combines the reliability of specific reactive groups hypothesized to cause...

  19. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  20. Characterizing Land-cover Changes Since 1650 in the Southeastern United States for Application to Regional Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Hostetler, S. W.; Sundquist, E. T.; Thompson, R. S.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover change is a fundamental contributor to changes in climate, hydrology, and carbon cycling. European settlers introduced a series of widespread land-cover changes in eastern North America beginning in the early 17th century. These changes varied both temporally and spatially, and were related to population growth, emerging technology, and land-use. To examine the potential influence of historical land-cover changes on local to regional climate, we adapted reconstructed fractional land cover from 1650, 1850, and 1920 as well as land cover interpreted from Landsat imagery circa 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008) as input for regional climate model experiments. Observed changes included: deforestation and conversion to agriculture in the mid-Atlantic region from 1650 to 1850, region-wide expansion of agriculture from 1850 to 1920, and wetland drainage, reforestation, and increased urbanization from 1920 to 1992. We translated the land cover datasets to the BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) thematic classification on a 20 km2 grid for ingestion into the RegCM4 regional climate model. In BATS, land-cover classifications determine biophysical parameters such as the seasonal albedo cycle, fractional vegetation condition, stomatal resistance, leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth. By defining and characterizing land cover in a consistent manner across the four time slices, we are able to explore interactions and feedbacks between land cover and regional climate in late prehistoric and historic times. Steyaert, L. T., & Knox, R. G. (2008). Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).