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Sample records for model weak base

  1. A toy model for weak interaction based on condensed gauge bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We construct a toy model for weak interaction based on the assumption that gauge bosons form condensates. We then discuss the model predictions calculated from the effective Feynman rules which are derived through computing the effective action.

  2. Model-based detector and extraction of weak signal frequencies from chaotic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangtao; Cai, Tianxing; Heng Lai, Choy; Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    Detecting a weak signal from chaotic time series is of general interest in science and engineering. In this work we introduce and investigate a signal detection algorithm for which chaos theory, nonlinear dynamical reconstruction techniques, neural networks, and time-frequency analysis are put together in a synergistic manner. By applying the scheme to numerical simulation and different experimental measurement data sets (Henon map, chaotic circuit, and NH(3) laser data sets), we demonstrate that weak signals hidden beneath the noise floor can be detected by using a model-based detector. Particularly, the signal frequencies can be extracted accurately in the time-frequency space. By comparing the model-based method with the standard denoising wavelet technique as well as supervised principal components analysis detector, we further show that the nonlinear dynamics and neural network-based approach performs better in extracting frequencies of weak signals hidden in chaotic time series.

  3. Social Engineering: I-E based Model of Human Weakness for Attack and Defense Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is the attack aimed to manipulate dupe to divulge sensitive information or take actions to help the adversary bypass the secure perimeter in front of the information-related resources so that the attacking goals can be completed. Though there are a number of security tools, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems which are used to protect machines from being attacked, widely accepted mechanism to prevent dupe from fraud is lacking. However, the human element is often the weakest link of an information security chain, especially, in a human-centered environment. In this paper, we reveal that the human psychological weaknesses result in the main vulnerabilities that can be exploited by social engineering attacks. Also, we capture two essential levels, internal characteristics of human nature and external circumstance influences, to explore the root cause of the human weaknesses. We unveil that the internal characteristics of human nature can be converted into weaknesses by external circumstance influences. So, we propose the I-E based model of human weakness for social engineering investigation. Based on this model, we analyzed the vulnerabilities exploited by different techniques of social engineering, and also, we conclude several defense approaches to fix the human weaknesses. This work can help the security researchers to gain insights into social engineering from a different perspective, and in particular, enhance the current and future research on social engineering defense mechanisms.

  4. AVAZ inversion for fracture weakness parameters based on the rock physics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Yin, Xingyao; Qu, Shouli; Zhang, Guangzhi

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface fractures within many carbonates and unconventional resources play an important role in the storage and movement of fluid. The more reliably the detection of fractures could be performed, the more finely the reservoir description could be made. In this paper, we aim to propose a method which uses two important tools, a fractured anisotropic rock physics effective model and AVAZ (amplitude versus incident and azimuthal angle) inversion, to predict fractures from azimuthal seismic data. We assume that the rock, which contains one or more sets of vertical or sub-vertical fractures, shows transverse isotropy with a horizontal axis of symmetry (HTI). Firstly, we develop one improved fractured anisotropic rock physics effective model. Using this model, we estimate P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and fracture weaknesses from well-logging data. Then the method is proposed to predict fractures from azimuthal seismic data based on AVAZ inversion, and well A is used to verify the reliability of the improved rock physics effective model. Results show that the estimated results are consistent with the real log value, and the variation of fracture weaknesses may detect the locations of fractures. The damped least squares method, which uses the estimated results as initial constraints during the inversion, is more stable. Tests on synthetic data show that fracture weaknesses parameters are still estimated reasonably with moderate noise. A test on real data shows that the estimated results are in good agreement with the drilling.

  5. 3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

  6. Muscle weakness in respiratory and peripheral skeletal muscles in a mouse model for nebulin-based nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joureau, Barbara; de Winter, Josine M; Stam, Kelly; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2017-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies, and is characterized by the presence of nemaline rods in skeletal muscles fibers, general muscle weakness, and hypotonia. Although respiratory failure is the main cause of death in nemaline myopathy, only little is known regarding the contractile strength of the diaphragm, the main muscle of inspiration. To investigate diaphragm contractility, in the present study we took advantage of a mouse model for nebulin-based nemaline myopathy that we recently developed. In this mouse model, exon 55 of Neb is deleted (Neb(ΔExon55)), a mutation frequently found in patients. Diaphragm contractility was determined in permeabilized muscle fibers and was compared to the contractility of permeabilized fibers from three peripheral skeletal muscles: soleus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius. The force generating capacity of diaphragm muscle fibers of Neb(ΔExon55) mice was reduced to 25% of wildtype levels, indicating severe contractile weakness. The contractile weakness of diaphragm fibers was more pronounced than that observed in soleus muscle, but not more pronounced than that observed in extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius muscles. The reduced muscle contractility was at least partly caused by changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics which reduced the number of bound cross-bridges. The severe diaphragm weakness likely contributes to the development of respiratory failure in Neb(ΔExon55) mice and might explain their early, postnatal death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  8. Model-based drug development: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for broad application of pharmacometrics in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Pfister, Marc; Banfield, Christopher; Stone, Julie A; Krishna, Rajesh; Allerheiligen, Sandy; Grasela, Dennis M

    2010-09-01

    Systematic implementation of model-based drug development (MBDD) to drug discovery and development has the potential to significantly increase the rate of medical breakthroughs and make available new and better treatments to patients. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (ie, SWOT) was conducted through focus group discussions that included 24 members representing 8 pharmaceutical companies to systematically assess the challenges to implementing MBDD into the drug development decision-making process. The application of the SWOT analysis to the successful implementation of MBDD yielded 19 strengths, 27 weaknesses, 34 opportunities, and 22 threats, which support the following conclusions. The shift from empirical drug development to MBDD requires a question-based mentality; early, proactive planning; dynamic access to multisource data; quantitative knowledge integration; multidisciplinary collaboration; effective communication and leadership skills; and innovative, impactful application of pharmacometrics focused on enhancing quantitative decision making. The ultimate goal of MBDD is to streamline discovery and development of innovative medicines to benefit patients.

  9. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  10. An extended model based on the modified Nernst-Planck equation for describing transdermal iontophoresis of weak electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanidis, Georgios; Luetolf, Peter

    2006-07-01

    An extended model for iontophoretic enhancement of transdermal drug permeation under constant voltage is described based on the previously modified Nernst-Planck equation, which included the effect of convective solvent flow. This model resulted in an analytical expression for the enhancement factor as a function of applied voltage, convective flow velocity due to electroosmosis, ratio of lipid to aqueous pathway passive permeability, and weighted average net ionic valence of the permeant in the aqueous epidermis domain. The shift of pH in the epidermis compared to bulk caused by the electrical double layer at the lipid-aqueous domain interface was evaluated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This was solved numerically for representative surface charge densities and yielded pH differences between bulk and epidermal aqueous domain between 0.05 and 0.4 pH units. The developed model was used to analyze the experimental enhancement of an amphoteric weak electrolyte measured in vitro using human cadaver epidermis and a voltage of 250 mV at different pH values. Parameter values characterizing the involved factors were determined that yielded the experimental enhancement factors and passive permeability coefficients at all pH values. The model provided a very good agreement between experimental and calculated enhancement and passive permeability. The deduced parameters showed (i) that the pH shift in the aqueous permeation pathway had a notable effect on the ionic valence and the partitioning of the drug in this domain for a high surface charge density and depending on the pK(a) and pI of the drug in relation to the bulk pH; (ii) the magnitude and the direction of convective transport due to electroosmosis typically reflected the density and sign, respectively, of surface charge of the tissue and its effect on enhancement was substantial for bulk pH values differing from the pI of epidermal tissue; (iii) the aqueous pathway predominantly determined passive

  11. Vibration diagnostics of weak base embankments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evgenij Ashpiz; Vladimir Kapustin; Svetlana Klepikova; Maxim Shirobokov

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical background was analyzed for vibration diagnostics method and experience in its application for weak base embankments. General schemes of survey and recommendations on hardware systems and further prospective development are outlined.

  12. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Steven James Cox; Bosen eDu; Danny eSorensen

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio–tem...

  13. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  14. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  15. Strong Relationships in Acid-Base Chemistry – Modeling Protons Based on Predictable Concentrations of Strong Ions, Total Weak Acid Concentrations, and pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellum, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acid-base regulation is often reduced to pigeonholing clinical states into categories of disorders based on arterial blood sampling. An earlier ambition to quantitatively explain disorders by measuring production and elimination of acid has not become standard clinical practice. Seeking back to classical physical chemistry we propose that in any compartment, the requirement of electroneutrality leads to a strong relationship between charged moieties. This relationship is derived in the form of a general equation stating charge balance, making it possible to calculate [H+] and pH based on all other charged moieties. Therefore, to validate this construct we investigated a large number of blood samples from intensive care patients, where both data and pathology is plentiful, by comparing the measured pH to the modeled pH. We were able to predict both the mean pattern and the individual fluctuation in pH based on all other measured charges with a correlation of approximately 90% in individual patient series. However, there was a shift in pH so that fitted pH in general is overestimated (95% confidence interval -0.072–0.210) and we examine some explanations for this shift. Having confirmed the relationship between charged species we then examine some of the classical and recent literature concerning the importance of charge balance. We conclude that focusing on the charges which are predictable such as strong ions and total concentrations of weak acids leads to new insights with important implications for medicine and physiology. Importantly this construct should pave the way for quantitative acid-base models looking into the underlying mechanisms of disorders rather than just classifying them. PMID:27631369

  16. Model Reduction of Strong-Weak Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travelfrom the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous workwe have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell modelsmay be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of stronglyexcitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude,without sacrificing thespatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs. We combine the best of these twostrategies via a predictor--corrector decomposition scheme andachieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  17. Dynamical Model of Weak Pion Production Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T; Lee, T S H

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical model of pion electroproduction has been extended to investigate the weak pion production reactions. The predicted cross sections of neutrino-induced pion production reactions are in good agreement with the existing data. We show that the renormalized(dressed) axial N-$\\Delta$ form factor contains large dynamical pion cloud effects and this renormalization effects are crucial in getting agreement with the data. We conclude that the N-$\\Delta$ transitions predicted by the constituent quark model are consistent with the existing neutrino induced pion production data in the $\\Delta$ region.

  18. McMC-based AVAZ direct inversion for fracture weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinpeng; Zhang, Guangzhi; Chen, Huaizhen; Yin, Xingyao

    2017-03-01

    Considering that wide-azimuth seismic data contains abundant azimuthal amplitude information about the fractured reservoir with obvious characteristics of amplitude variation with incident angle and azimuth (AVAZ), azimuthal seismic data can be used for the inversion of anisotropic parameters in fractured reservoir. Fractured reservoir with a single set of vertically aligned fractures embedded in a purely isotropic background medium may be considered as a long-wavelength effective transversely isotropic medium with a horizontal symmetry axis (HTI). The normal and tangential fracture weaknesses are two key parameters to the evaluation of fracture properties in HTI media, thus the inversion of fracture weaknesses may be used for characterizing the anisotropy in fractured reservoir. The elastic properties of background isotropic media without fractures, however, do not cause azimuthal changes in AVAZ data compared to the fracture anisotropic properties, therefore simultaneous inversion for the background elastic parameters and fracture anisotropic parameters may be not stable. Thus we propose a method of azimuth-difference-based AVAZ direct inversion for fracture weaknesses. First, we extract the fracture symmetry axis azimuth based on the least square ellipse fitting (LSEF) method to obtain a linear AVAZ approximation. Then we build a fractured anisotropic rock-physics model for the estimation of anisotropic well-log information, building the initial background low-frequency trend of fracture weaknesses. Finally, an AVAZ direct inversion method of normal and tangential fracture weaknesses is proposed with the nonlinear Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) strategy. So we can eliminate the influence of isotropic background elastic properties on the fracture weakness properties and obtain the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses more stably. Tests on both 2D over-thrust model and real data demonstrate that the normal and tangential fracture weaknesses may be estimated

  19. Strong Relationships in Acid-Base Chemistry - Modeling Protons Based on Predictable Concentrations of Strong Ions, Total Weak Acid Concentrations, and pCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Troels; Kellum, John A

    2016-01-01

    confirmed the relationship between charged species we then examine some of the classical and recent literature concerning the importance of charge balance. We conclude that focusing on the charges which are predictable such as strong ions and total concentrations of weak acids leads to new insights......Understanding acid-base regulation is often reduced to pigeonholing clinical states into categories of disorders based on arterial blood sampling. An earlier ambition to quantitatively explain disorders by measuring production and elimination of acid has not become standard clinical practice....... Seeking back to classical physical chemistry we propose that in any compartment, the requirement of electroneutrality leads to a strong relationship between charged moieties. This relationship is derived in the form of a general equation stating charge balance, making it possible to calculate [H+] and p...

  20. Lipid-Based Formulations Can Enable the Model Poorly Water-Soluble Weakly Basic Drug Cinnarizine to Precipitate in an Amorphous-Salt Form during in Vitro Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Jamal; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    The tendency for poorly water-soluble weakly basic drugs to precipitate in a noncrystalline form during the in vitro digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) was linked to an ionic interaction between drug and fatty acid molecules produced upon lipid digestion. Cinnarizine was chosen as a mod...

  1. Quantum trajectories based on the weak value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2015-04-01

    The notion of the trajectory of an individual particle is strictly inhibited in quantum mechanics because of the uncertainty principle. Nonetheless, the weak value, which has been proposed as a novel and measurable quantity definable to any quantum observable, can offer a possible description of trajectory on account of its statistical nature. In this paper, we explore the physical significance provided by this "weak trajectory" by considering various situations where interference takes place simultaneously with the observation of particles, that is, in prototypical quantum situations for which no classical treatment is available. These include the double slit experiment and Lloyd's mirror, where in the former case it is argued that the real part of the weak trajectory describes an average over the possible classical trajectories involved in the process, and that the imaginary part is related to the variation of interference. It is shown that this average interpretation of the weak trajectory holds universally under the complex probability defined from the given transition process. These features remain essentially unaltered in the case of Lloyd's mirror where interference occurs with a single slit.

  2. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color-weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color-normal observer, and the compensation of color images in a way that a color-weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color-normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticeable-differences between the colors which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are the isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared with the previously used methods, this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations, and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyze the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color-matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential tests.

  3. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  4. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  5. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  6. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  7. Advances and challenges in PBPK modeling--Analysis of factors contributing to the oral absorption of atazanavir, a poorly soluble weak base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark; Ruff, Aaron; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Xu, Wei; Wang, Michael Hong; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2015-06-01

    Many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) exhibit a highly variable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. This behavior may be attributable to pre-absorptive, absorptive and/or post-absorptive factors. Pre-absorptive factors are those related to dosage form disintegration, drug dissolution, supersaturation, precipitation and gastric emptying. Absorptive factors are involved with drug absorption and efflux mechanisms, while drug distribution and clearance are post-absorptive factors. This study aimed to investigate the relative influence of the aforementioned parameters on the pharmacokinetic profile of atazanavir, a poorly soluble weakly basic compound with highly variable pharmacokinetics. The pre-absorptive behavior of the drug was examined by applying biorelevant in vitro tests to reflect upper gastrointestinal behavior in the fasted and fed states. The in vitro results were implemented, along with permeability and post-absorptive data obtained from the literature, into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. Sensitivity analysis of the resulting plasma profiles revealed that the pharmacokinetic profile of atazanavir is affected by an array of factors rather than one standout factor. According to the in silico model, pre-absorptive and absorptive factors had less impact on atazanavir bioavailability compared to post-absorptive parameters, although active drug efflux and extraction appear to account for the sub-proportional pharmacokinetic response to lower atazanavir doses in the fasted state. From the PBPK models it was concluded that further enhancement of the formulation would bring little improvement in the pharmacokinetic response to atazanavir. This approach may prove useful in assessing the potential benefits of formulation enhancement of other existing drug products on the market.

  8. Evaluation of FRP Confinement Models for Substandard Rectangular RC Columns Based on Full-Scale Reversed Cyclic Lateral Loading Tests in Strong and Weak Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farrokh Ghatte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many theoretical and experimental studies are available on external confinement of columns using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jackets, as well as numerous models proposed for the axial stress-axial strain relation of concrete confined with FRP jackets, they have not been validated with a sufficient amount and variety of experimental data obtained through full-scale tests of reinforced concrete (RC columns with different geometrical and mechanical characteristics. Particularly, no systematical experimental data have been presented on full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns subjected to reversed cyclic lateral loads along either their strong or weak axes. In this study, firstly, test results of five full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns with a cross-sectional aspect ratio of two (300 mm × 600 mm are briefly summarized. The columns were tested under constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral loads along their strong or weak axes before and after retrofitting with external FRP jackets. In the second stage, inelastic lateral force-displacement relationships of the columns are obtained analytically, making use of the plastic hinge assumption and different FRP confinement models available in the literature. Finally, the analytical findings are compared with the test results for both strong and weak directions of the columns. Comparisons showed that use of different models for the stress-strain relationship of FRP-confined concrete can yield significantly non-conservative or too conservative retrofit designs, particularly in terms of deformation capacity.

  9. Modeling and analysis of magnetic dipoles in weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic leakage field distribution resulting from linear defects of a tube sample in the geomagnetic field is modeled according to the magnetic dipole theory.The formula to compute the normal component of the weak magnetic field is deduced based on the spatial distribution of the magnetic dipole.The shape and characteristics of the zero line (an important criterion for magnetic memory testing) of the normal field is analyzed under different longitudinal magnetizations.Results show that the characteristics of the zero line should be considered when the metal magnetic memory testing method is used to find and locate the defect.

  10. Constraints on Dark Energy Models from Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-Ming; LIU Jie; GONG Yun-Gui

    2008-01-01

    @@ We study the constraints on the dark energy model with constant equation of state parameter w = p/p and the holographic dark energy model by using the weak gravity conjecture. The combination of weak gravity conjecture and the observational data gives w < -0.7 at the 3σ confidence level. The holographic dark energy model realized by a scalar field is in swampland.

  11. Efficient topological compilation for a weakly integral anyonic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Alex; Cui, Xingshan; Kliuchnikov, Vadym; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-01-01

    A class of anyonic models for universal quantum computation based on weakly-integral anyons has been recently proposed. While universal set of gates cannot be obtained in this context by anyon braiding alone, designing a certain type of sector charge measurement provides universality. In this paper we develop a compilation algorithm to approximate arbitrary n -qutrit unitaries with asymptotically efficient circuits over the metaplectic anyon model. One flavor of our algorithm produces efficient circuits with upper complexity bound asymptotically in O (32 nlog1 /ɛ ) and entanglement cost that is exponential in n . Another flavor of the algorithm produces efficient circuits with upper complexity bound in O (n 32 nlog1 /ɛ ) and no additional entanglement cost.

  12. Precision phase estimation based on weak-value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Liu, Xiong; Luo, Lan; Li, Zhaoxue; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a precision method for phase estimation based on the weak-value amplification (WVA) technique using a monochromatic light source. The anomalous WVA significantly suppresses the technical noise with respect to the intensity difference signal induced by the phase delay when the post-selection procedure comes into play. The phase measured precision of this method is proportional to the weak-value of a polarization operator in the experimental range. Our results compete well with the wide spectrum light phase weak measurements and outperform the standard homodyne phase detection technique.

  13. Strong Relationships in Acid-Base Chemistry – Modeling Protons Based on Predictable Concentrations of Strong Ions, Total Weak Acid Concentrations, and pCO2

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acid-base regulation is often reduced to pigeonholing clinical states into categories of disorders based on arterial blood sampling. An earlier ambition to quantitatively explain disorders by measuring production and elimination of acid has not become standard clinical practice. Seeking back to classical physical chemistry we propose that in any compartment, the requirement of electroneutrality leads to a strong relationship between charged moieties. This relationship is derived...

  14. Fast weak-lensing simulations with halo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Di Meo, Sandra; Meneghetti, Massimo; Jullo, Eric; de la Torre, Sylvain; Moscardini, Lauro; Baldi, Marco; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2017-09-01

    Full ray-tracing maps of gravitational lensing, constructed from N-body simulations, represent a fundamental tool to interpret present and future weak-lensing data. However, the limitation of computational resources and storage capabilities severely restricts the number of realizations that can be performed in order to accurately sample both the cosmic shear models and covariance matrices. In this paper, we present a halo model formalism for weak gravitational lensing that alleviates these issues by producing weak-lensing mocks at a reduced computational cost. Our model takes as input the halo population within a desired light cone and the linear power spectrum of the underlined cosmological model. We examine the contribution given by the presence of substructures within haloes to the cosmic shear power spectrum and quantify it to the percent level. Our method allows us to reconstruct high-resolution convergence maps, for any desired source redshifts, of light cones that realistically trace the matter density distribution in the universe, account for masked area and sample selections. We compare our analysis on the same large-scale structures constructed using ray-tracing techniques and find very good agreements in both the linear and non-linear regimes up to few percent levels. The accuracy and speed of our method demonstrate the potential of our halo model for weak-lensing statistics and the possibility to generate a large sample of convergence maps for different cosmological models as needed for the analysis of large galaxy redshift surveys.

  15. RF Circuit linearity optimization using a general weak nonlinearity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.; Oude Alink, M.S.; Annema, Anne J.; Croon, Jeroen A.; Nauta, Bram

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimizing the linearity in known RF circuits, by exploring the circuit design space that is usually available in today’s deep submicron CMOS technologies. Instead of using brute force numerical optimizers we apply a generalized weak nonlinearity model that only involves AC

  16. Overcoming Microsoft Excel's Weaknesses for Crop Model Building and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Christopher Teh Boon

    2011-01-01

    Using spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel for building crop models and running simulations can be beneficial. Excel is easy to use, powerful, and versatile, and it requires the least proficiency in computer programming compared to other programming platforms. Excel, however, has several weaknesses: it does not directly support loops for iterative…

  17. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Jos J.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests [i.e., tests with the same test information function (TIF)]. A mathematical programming model that constructs tests containing a prespecified TIF and a heuristic that assigns items to tests with information functions that are

  18. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  19. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  20. DETERMINATION OF ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS FOR THE WEAK ACID CATION AND THE WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOZuyi; WANGChangshou

    1992-01-01

    The general procedure based on the potentiometric titration has developed.According to the procedure,the rational equilibrium constants of the ion exchange reactions RH/Na,RH/Ca,RH/Sr,RH/Ba for the weak acid cation exchange resin D725 and ROH/Cl for the weak base anion exchange resin D705 have been determined.

  1. Overview of DFIG-based Wind Power System Resonances under Weak Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The wind power generation techniques are continuing to develop and increasing numbers of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-based wind power systems are connecting to the on-shore and off-shore grids, local standalone weak networks, and also micro grid applications. The impedances of the weak...... weak network respectively. This paper will discuss the SSR and the HFR phenomena based on the impedance modeling of the DFIG system and the weak networks, and the cause of these two resonances will be explained in details. The following factors including 1) transformer configuration; 2) different power...... networks are too large to be neglected and require careful attention. Due to the impedance interaction between the weak network and the DFIG system, both Sub- Synchronous Resonance (SSR) and High Frequency Resonance (HFR) may occur when the DFIG system is connected to the series or parallel compensated...

  2. Weak self-interactions of globular proteins studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and structure-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Plivelic, Tomás S; Halle, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate protein-protein interactions in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and theoretical modeling. The structure factor for solutions of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), myoglobin (Mb), and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) is determined from SAXS measurements at multiple concentrations, from Monte Carlo simulations with a coarse-grained structure-based interaction model, and from analytic approximate solutions of two idealized colloidal interaction models without adjustable parameters. By combining these approaches, we find that the structure factor is essentially determined by hard-core and screened electrostatic interactions. Other soft short-ranged interactions (van der Waals and solvation-related) are either individually insignificant or tend to cancel out. The structure factor is also not significantly affected by charge fluctuations. For Mb and IFABP, with small net charge and relatively symmetric charge distribution, the structure factor is well described b...

  3. Weak Signal Frequency Detection Method Based on Generalized Duffing Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Si-Hong; YUAN Yong; WANG Hui-Qi; LUO Mao-Kang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The sensitive characteristic to the initial value of chaos system sufficiently demonstrates the superiority in weak signal parameters detection.Analyzing the current chaos-based frequency detection method, a novel generalized Duffing equation is proposed to detect weak signal frequency.By choosing a suitable adjusting factor, when the outside driving force frequency is equal to that of the detected signal, the generalized Duffing oscillator is in great period state, which can obtain the frequency information of the detected signal.The simulation results indicate this method is rapidly convenient and shows better accuracy.%The sensitive characteristic to the initial value of chaos system sufficiently demonstrates the superiority in weak signal parameters detection. Analyzing the current chaos-based frequency detection method, a novel generalized Duffing equation is proposed to detect weak signal frequency. By choosing a suitable adjusting factor, when the outside driving force frequency is equal to that of the detected signal, the generalized Duffing oscillator is in great period state, which can obtain the frequency information of the detected signal. The simulation results indicate this method is rapidly convenient and shows better accuracy.

  4. Reaction times to weak test lights. [psychophysics biological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.; Ahumada, P.; Welsh, D.

    1984-01-01

    Maloney and Wandell (1984) describe a model of the response of a single visual channel to weak test lights. The initial channel response is a linearly filtered version of the stimulus. The filter output is randomly sampled over time. Each time a sample occurs there is some probability increasing with the magnitude of the sampled response - that a discrete detection event is generated. Maloney and Wandell derive the statistics of the detection events. In this paper a test is conducted of the hypothesis that the reaction time responses to the presence of a weak test light are initiated at the first detection event. This makes it possible to extend the application of the model to lights that are slightly above threshold, but still within the linear operating range of the visual system. A parameter-free prediction of the model proposed by Maloney and Wandell for lights detected by this statistic is tested. The data are in agreement with the prediction.

  5. Inflationary Weak Anisotropic Model with General Dissipation Coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of warm intermediate and logamediate inflationary models during weak dissipative regime with a general form of dissipative coefficient. We analyze these models within the framework of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe. In both cases, we evaluate solution of inflaton, effective scalar potential, dissipative coefficient, slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and tensor to scalar ratio under slow-roll approximation. We constrain the model parameters using recent data and conclude that anisotropic inflationary universe model with generalized dissipation coefficient remains compatible with WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data.

  6. Numerical Verification of the Weak Turbulent Model for Swell Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Resio, D; Zakharov, V E

    2007-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of an ensemble of nonlinearly interacting free gravity waves (swell) by two different methods: solution of primordial dynamical equations describing potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface and, solution of the kinetic Hasselmann equation, describing the wave ensemble in the framework of the theory of weak turbulence. Comparison of the results demonstrates applicability of the weak turbulent approach. In both cases we observed effects predicted by this theory: frequency downshift, angular spreading and formation of Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum $I_{\\omega} \\sim \\omega^{-4}$. One of the results of our article consists in the fact that physical processes in finite size laboratory wave tanks and in the ocean are quite different, and the results of such laboratory experiments can be applied to modeling of the ocean phenomena with extra care. We also present the estimate on the minimum size of the laboratory installation, allowing to model open ocean surface wave dynami...

  7. "Weak quantum chaos" and its resistor network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; Pecora, Louis M; Cohen, Doron

    2011-06-01

    Weakly chaotic or weakly interacting systems have a wide regime where the common random matrix theory modeling does not apply. As an example we consider cold atoms in a nearly integrable optical billiard with a displaceable wall (piston). The motion is completely chaotic but with a small Lyapunov exponent. The Hamiltonian matrix does not look like one taken from a Gaussian ensemble, but rather it is very sparse and textured. This can be characterized by parameters s and g which reflect the percentage of large elements and their connectivity, respectively. For g we use a resistor network calculation that has a direct relation to the semilinear response characteristics of the system, hence leading to a prediction regarding the energy absorption rate of cold atoms in optical billiards with vibrating walls.

  8. "Weak Quantum Chaos" and its resistor network modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Stotland, Alexander; Cohen, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Weakly chaotic or weakly interacting systems have a wide regime where the common random matrix theory modeling does not apply. As an example we consider cold atoms in a nearly integrable optical billiard with displaceable wall ("piston"). The motion is completely chaotic but with small Lyapunov exponent. The Hamiltonian matrix does not look like one taken from a Gaussian ensemble, but rather it is very sparse and textured. This can be characterized by parameters $s$ and $g$ that reflect the percentage of large elements, and their connectivity, respectively. For $g$ we use a resistor network calculation that has a direct relation to the semi-linear response characteristics of the system, hence leading to a novel prediction regarding the rate of heating of cold atoms in optical billiards with vibrating walls.

  9. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa .

  10. Policy-based benchmarking of weak heaps and their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Asger; Edelkamp, Stefan; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental study where we evaluated the practical efficiency of three worst-case efficient priority queues: 1) a weak heap that is a binary tree fulfilling half-heap ordering, 2) a weak queue that is a forest of perfect weak heaps, and 3) a runrelaxed weak queue...

  11. Weak diffusion limits of dynamic conditional correlation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Christian M.; Laurent, Sebastien; Violante, Francesco

    The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized by a dif......The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized...... by a diffusion matrix of reduced rank. The degeneracy is due to perfect collinearity between the innovations of the volatility and correlation dynamics. For the special case of constant conditional correlations, a non-degenerate diffusion limit can be obtained. Alternative sets of conditions are considered...... for the rate of convergence of the parameters, obtaining time-varying but deterministic variances and/or correlations. A Monte Carlo experiment confirms that the quasi approximate maximum likelihood (QAML) method to estimate the diffusion parameters is inconsistent for any fixed frequency, but that it may...

  12. Multiple Discrete Endogenous Variables in Weakly-Separable Triangular Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jae Jun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a model in which an outcome depends on two discrete treatment variables, where one treatment is given before the other. We formulate a three-equation triangular system with weak separability conditions. Without assuming assignment is random, we establish the identification of an average structural function using two-step matching. We also consider decomposing the effect of the first treatment into direct and indirect effects, which are shown to be identified by the proposed methodology. We allow for both of the treatment variables to be non-binary and do not appeal to an identification-at-infinity argument.

  13. A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

  14. An analytic function approach to weak mutually unbiased bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupitan, T.; Lei, C.; Vourdas, A.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum systems with variables in Z(d) are considered, and three different structures are studied. The first is weak mutually unbiased bases, for which the absolute value of the overlap of any two vectors in two different bases is 1 /√{ k } (where k | d) or 0. The second is maximal lines through the origin in the Z(d) × Z(d) phase space. The third is an analytic representation in the complex plane based on Theta functions, and their zeros. It is shown that there is a correspondence (triality) that links strongly these three apparently different structures. For simplicity, the case where d =p1 ×p2, where p1 ,p2 are odd prime numbers different from each other, is considered.

  15. The conditional resampling model STARS: weaknesses of the modeling concept and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The Statistical Analogue Resampling Scheme (STARS) is based on a modeling concept of Werner and Gerstengarbe (1997). The model uses a conditional resampling technique to create a simulation time series from daily observations. Unlike other time series generators (such as stochastic weather generators) STARS only needs a linear regression specification of a single variable as the target condition for the resampling. Since its first implementation the algorithm was further extended in order to allow for a spatially distributed trend signal, to preserve the seasonal cycle and the autocorrelation of the observation time series (Orlovsky, 2007; Orlovsky et al., 2008). This evolved version was successfully used in several climate impact studies. However a detaild evaluation of the simulations revealed two fundamental weaknesses of the utilized resampling technique. 1. The restriction of the resampling condition on a single individual variable can lead to a misinterpretation of the change signal of other variables when the model is applied to a mulvariate time series. (F. Wechsung and M. Wechsung, 2014). As one example, the short-term correlations between precipitation and temperature (cooling of the near-surface air layer after a rainfall event) can be misinterpreted as a climatic change signal in the simulation series. 2. The model restricts the linear regression specification to the annual mean time series, refusing the specification of seasonal varying trends. To overcome these fundamental weaknesses a redevelopment of the whole algorithm was done. The poster discusses the main weaknesses of the earlier model implementation and the methods applied to overcome these in the new version. Based on the new model idealized simulations were conducted to illustrate the enhancement.

  16. A weak-scattering model for turbine-tone haystacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, A.; Powles, C. J.; Tester, B. J.

    2013-08-01

    Noise and emissions are critical technical issues in the development of aircraft engines. This necessitates the development of accurate models to predict the noise radiated from aero-engines. Turbine tones radiated from the exhaust nozzle of a turbofan engine propagate through turbulent jet shear layers which causes scattering of sound. In the far-field, measurements of the tones may exhibit spectral broadening, where owing to scattering, the tones are no longer narrow band peaks in the spectrum. This effect is known colloquially as 'haystacking'. In this article a comprehensive analytical model to predict spectral broadening for a tone radiated through a circular jet, for an observer in the far field, is presented. This model extends previous work by the authors which considered the prediction of spectral broadening at far-field observer locations outside the cone of silence. The modelling uses high-frequency asymptotic methods and a weak-scattering assumption. A realistic shear layer velocity profile and turbulence characteristics are included in the model. The mathematical formulation which details the spectral broadening, or haystacking, of a single-frequency, single azimuthal order turbine tone is outlined. In order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results, albeit only at polar angle equal to 90°. A range of source frequencies from 4 to 20kHz, and jet velocities from 20 to 60ms-1, are examined for validation purposes. The model correctly predicts how the spectral broadening is affected when the source frequency and jet velocity are varied.

  17. A mathematical model for the Fermi weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L; Guillot, J C

    2006-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model of the Fermi theory of weak interactions as patterned according to the well-known current-current coupling of quantum electrodynamics. We focuss on the example of the decay of the muons into electrons, positrons and neutrinos but other examples are considered in the same way. We prove that the Hamiltonian describing this model has a ground state in the fermionic Fock space for a sufficiently small coupling constant. Furthermore we determine the absolutely continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian and by commutator estimates we prove that the spectrum is absolutely continuous away from a small neighborhood of the thresholds of the free Hamiltonian. For all these results we do not use any infrared cutoff or infrared regularization even if fermions with zero mass are involved.

  18. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of weak lensing - the golden goal

    CERN Document Server

    Heavens, Alan; Jaffe, Andrew; Hoffmann, Till; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    To accomplish correct Bayesian inference from weak lensing shear data requires a complete statistical description of the data. The natural framework to do this is a Bayesian Hierarchical Model, which divides the chain of reasoning into component steps. Starting with a catalogue of shear estimates in tomographic bins, we build a model that allows us to sample simultaneously from the the underlying tomographic shear fields and the relevant power spectra (E-mode, B-mode, and E-B, for auto- and cross-power spectra). The procedure deals easily with masked data and intrinsic alignments. Using Gibbs sampling and messenger fields, we show with simulated data that the large (over 67000-)dimensional parameter space can be efficiently sampled and the full joint posterior probability density function for the parameters can feasibly be obtained. The method correctly recovers the underlying shear fields and all of the power spectra, including at levels well below the shot noise.

  19. Reasons For The Experimental Research Of Gas Outflows Based On The Signals Of Weak Interactions Between The Tested Model Of The Gas Pipeline, And Tested Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grądzki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies diagnosing issues outflows of gas pipelines using specialized research equipment - equalizers. Variant with only two measuring devices (equalizers, arranged on the inlet and outlet of the pipeline, and the standard pressure transducers and flow rate were considered. The signals from the system and research equipment (equalizers are the basis for the development of new method to test outflow of gas pipeline, which is based on the quotient of the power spectral density of signals generated by the equalizer (diagnoser and signals measured using standard pressure transducers and flow rate. Possible use to analysis the signals power will allow go from signal diagnostic for more effective parametric diagnostic.

  20. Effect of a weak layer at the base of an oceanic plate on subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluccio, Roberta; Kaus, Boris

    2017-04-01

    The plate tectonics model relies on the concept of a relatively rigid lithospheric lid moving over a weaker asthenosphere. In this frame, the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is a first-order discontinuity that accommodates differential motions between tectonic plates and the underlying mantle. Recent seismic studies have revealed the existence of a low velocity and high electrical conductivity layer at the base of subducting tectonic plates. This thin layer has been interpreted as being weak and slightly buoyant and was suggested to affect the dynamics of subducting plates. However, geodynamically, the role of a weak layer at the base of the lithosphere remains poorly studied, especially at subduction zones. Therefore, we here use numerical models to investigate the first-order effects of a weak buoyant layer at the LAB on subduction dynamics. We employ both 2-D and 3-D models in which the slab and mantle are either linear viscous or have a more realistic temperature-dependent visco-elastic-plastic rheology. Results show that a weak layer affects the dynamics of the plates, foremost by increasing the subduction speed. The impact of this effect depends on the thickness of the layer and the viscosity contrast between the mantle and the weak layer. For moderate viscosity contrasts (1000), it can also change the morphology of the subduction itself, perhaps because this changes the overall effective viscosity contrast between the slab the and the mantle. For thinner layers, the overall effect is reduced. Yet, if seismological observations are correct that suggests that this layer is 10 km thick and partially molten, such that the viscosity is 1000 times lower than that of the mantle, our models suggest that this effect should be measurable. Some of our models also show a pile-up of weak material in the bending zone of the subducting plate, consistent with recent seismological observations.

  1. Weak versus strong wave turbulence in the MMT model

    CERN Document Server

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Onorato, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Within the spirit of fluid turbulence, we consider the one-dimensional Majda-McLaughlin-Tabak (MMT) model that describes the interactions of nonlinear dispersive waves. We perform a detailed numerical study of the direct energy cascade in the defocusing regime. In particular, we consider a configuration with large-scale forcing and small scale dissipation, and we introduce three non- dimensional parameters: the ratio between nonlinearity and dispersion, {\\epsilon}, and the analogues of the Reynolds number, Re, i.e. the ratio between the nonlinear and dissipative time-scales, both at large and small scales. Our numerical experiments show that (i) in the limit of small {\\epsilon} the spectral slope observed in the statistical steady regime corresponds to the one predicted by the Weak Wave Turbulence (WWT) theory. (ii) As the nonlinearity is increased, the WWT theory breaks down and deviations from its predictions are observed. (iii) It is shown that such departures from the WWT theoretical predictions are accom...

  2. Time Slice Analysis Method Based on OTCA Used in fMRI Weak Signal Function Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sen-lin; LI Li; ZHANG Xin-li; ZHANG Tie-mei

    2007-01-01

    The original temporal clustering analysis (OTCA) is an effective technique for obtaining brain activation maps when the timing and location of the activation are completely unknown, but its deficiency of sensitivity is exposed in processing brain activation signal which is relatively weak. The time slice analysis method based on OTCA is proposed considering the weakness of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal of the rat model. By dividing the stimulation period into several time slices and analyzing each slice to detect the activated pixels respectively after the background removal, the sensitivity is significantly improved. The inhibitory response in the hypothalamus after glucose loading is detected successfully with this method in the experiment on rat. Combined with the OTCA method, the time slice analysis method based on OTCA is effective on detecting when, where and which type of response will happen after stimulation, even if the fMRI signal is weak.

  3. Disentangling dark sector models using weak lensing statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Giocoli, Carlo; Baldi, Marco; Meneghetti, Massimo; Moscardini, Lauro; Petkova, Margarita; -,; Astronomia, Dipartimento di Fisica e; di Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum Università; di Bologna, INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico; di Bologna, INFN - Sezione; Université, Aix Marseille; CNRS,; LAM,; France,; Laboratory, Jet Propulsion; Physics, Department of; Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet),

    2015-01-01

    We perform multi-plane ray-tracing using the GLAMER gravitational lensing code within high-resolution light-cones extracted from the CoDECS simulations: a suite of cosmological runs featuring a coupling between Dark Energy and Cold Dark Matter. We show that the presence of the coupling is evident not only in the redshift evolution of the normalisation of the convergence power spectrum, but also in differences in non-linear structure formation with respect to {\\Lambda}CDM. Using a tomographic approach under the assumption of a {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, we demonstrate that weak lensing measurements would result in a {\\sigma}8 value that changes with the source redshift if the true underlying cosmology is a coupled Dark Energy one. This provides a generic null test for these types of models. We also find that different models of coupled Dark Energy can show either an enhanced or a suppressed correlation between convergence maps with differing source redshifts as compared to {\\Lambda}CDM. This would provide a direc...

  4. Existence of Global Weak Solutions to a Hybrid Vlasov-MHD Model for Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Bin; Tronci, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    We prove the global-in-time existence of large-data finite-energy weak solutions to an incompressible hybrid Vlasov-magnetohydrodynamic model in three space dimensions. The model couples three essential ingredients of magnetized plasmas: a transport equation for the probability density function, which models energetic rarefied particles of one species; the incompressible Navier--Stokes system for the bulk fluid; and a parabolic evolution equation, involving magnetic diffusivity, for the magnetic field. The physical derivation of our model is given. It is also shown that the weak solution, whose existence is established, has nonincreasing total energy, and that it satisfies a number of physically relevant properties, including conservation of the total momentum, conservation of the total mass, and nonnegativity of the probability density function for the energetic particles. The proof is based on a one-level approximation scheme, which is carefully devised to avoid increase of the total energy for the sequence...

  5. Impedance-Based High Frequency Resonance Analysis of DFIG System in Weak Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The impedance-based model of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) systems, including the rotor part (Rotor Side Converter (RSC) and induction machine), and the grid part (Grid Side Converter (GSC) and its output filter), has been developed for analysis and mitigation of the Sub- Synchronous Resonance (SSR). However, the High Frequency Resonance (HFR) of DFIG systems due to the impedance interaction between DFIG system and parallel compensated weak network is often overlooked. This paper thus...

  6. A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts II. Parameter constraint strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chieh-An

    2015-01-01

    Peak counts have been shown to be an excellent tool to extract the non-Gaussian part of the weak lensing signal. Recently, we developped a fast stochastic forward model to predict weak-lensing peak counts. Our model is able to reconstruct the underlying distribution of observables for analyses. In this work, we explore and compare various strategies for constraining parameter using our model, focusing on the matter density $\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}$ and the density fluctuation amplitude $\\sigma_8$. First, we examine the impact from the cosmological dependency of covariances (CDC). Second, we perform the analysis with the copula likelihood, a technique which makes a weaker assumption compared to the Gaussian likelihood. Third, direct, non-analytic parameter estimations are applied using the full information of the distribution. Fourth, we obtain constraints with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), an efficient, robust, and likelihood-free algorithm based on accept-reject sampling. We find that neglecting the CDC ...

  7. Scheduling Algorithms Based on Weakly Hard Real-Time Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Gang (涂刚); YANG FuMin (阳富民); LU YanSheng (卢炎生)

    2003-01-01

    The problem of scheduling weakly hard real-time tasks is addressed in this paper.The paper first analyzes the characters ofμ-pattern and weakly hard real-time constraints, then,presents two scheduling algorithms, Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm, for weakly hard real-time systems. Different from traditional algorithms used to guarantee deadlines, Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm can guarantee both deadlines and constraints. Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm try to find out the probabilities of tasks breaking constraints and increase task's priority in advance, but not till the last moment. Simulation results show that these two algorithms are better than other scheduling algorithms dealing with constraints and can largely decrease worst-case computation time of real-time tasks.

  8. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I., E-mail: igalsz@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3100 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  9. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  10. Weak constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a model of the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.; Smith, Polly J.; Milliff, Ralph F.; Fiechter, Jerome; Wikle, Christopher K.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.

    2016-12-01

    A new approach is explored for computing estimates of the error covariance associated with the intrinsic errors of a numerical forecast model in regions characterized by upwelling and downwelling. The approach used is based on a combination of strong constraint data assimilation, twin model experiments, linear inverse modeling, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling. The resulting model error covariance estimates Q are applied to a model of the California Current System using weak constraint four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation to compute estimates of the ocean circulation. The results of this study show that the estimates of Q derived following our approach lead to demonstrable improvements in the model circulation estimates and isolate regions where model errors are likely to be important and that have been independently identified in the same model in previously published work.

  11. Simple statistical channel model for weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-06-16

    In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.

  12. Effective weak Lagrangians in the Standard Model and B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Weak processes (e.g., B decays) with characteristic energies <

  13. On the weakness of disc models in bright ULXs

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, A C; Goncalves, Anabela C.; Soria, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that phenomenological power-law plus cool disc-blackbody models represent the simplest, most robust interpretation of the X-ray spectra of bright ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs); this has been taken as evidence for the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (BHs) (M ~ 10^3 Msun) in those sources. Here, we assess this claim by comparing the cool disc-blackbody model with a range of other models. For example, we show that the same ULX spectra can be fitted equally well by subtracting a disc-blackbody component from a dominant power-law component, thus turning a soft excess into a soft deficit. Then, we propose a more complex physical model, based on a power-law component slightly modified at various energies by smeared emission and absorption lines from highly-ionized, fast-moving gas. We use the XMM-Newton/EPIC spectra of two ULXs in Holmberg II and NGC 4559 as examples. Our main conclusion is that the presence of a soft excess or a soft deficit depends on the energy range over ...

  14. Boosting-Based On-Road Obstacle Sensing Using Discriminative Weak Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shyam Prasad; Yoo, Hyeon-Joong; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the weak classifiers derived from the Haar-like features for their use in the Viola-Jones object detection system. These weak classifiers differ from the traditional single threshold ones, in that no specific threshold is needed and these classifiers give a more general solution to the non-trivial task of finding thresholds for the Haar-like features. The proposed quadratic discriminant analysis based extension prominently improves the ability of the weak classifiers to discriminate objects and non-objects. The proposed weak classifiers were evaluated by boosting a single stage classifier to detect rear of car. The experiments demonstrate that the object detector based on the proposed weak classifiers yields higher classification performance with less number of weak classifiers than the detector built with traditional single threshold weak classifiers. PMID:22163852

  15. Weak leptonic decay of light and heavy pseudoscalar mesons in an independent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N.; Dash, P.C. (Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India))

    1993-04-01

    Weak leptonic decays of light and heavy pseudoscalar mesons are studied in a field-theoretic framework based on the independent quark model with a scalar-vector harmonic potential. Defining the quark-antiquark momentum distribution amplitude obtainable from the bound quark eigenmodes of the model with the assumption of a strong correlation between quark-antiquark momenta inside the decaying meson in its rest frame, we derive the partial decay width with correct kinematical factors from which we extract an expression for the pseudoscalar decay constants [ital f][sub [ital M

  16. Impedance-Based High Frequency Resonance Analysis of DFIG System in Weak Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The impedance-based model of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) systems, including the rotor part (Rotor Side Converter (RSC) and induction machine), and the grid part (Grid Side Converter (GSC) and its output filter), has been developed for analysis and mitigation of the Sub- Synchronous...... Resonance (SSR). However, the High Frequency Resonance (HFR) of DFIG systems due to the impedance interaction between DFIG system and parallel compensated weak network is often overlooked. This paper thus investigates the impedance characteristics of DFIG systems for the analysis of HFR. The influences...... of the rotor speed variation, the machine mutual inductance and the digital control delay are evaluated. Two resonances phenomena are revealed, i.e., 1) the series HFR between the DFIG system and weak power grid; 2) the parallel HFR between the rotor part and the grid part of DFIG system. The impedance...

  17. Topic Detection Based on Weak Tie Analysis: A Case Study of LIS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Based on the weak tie theory, this paper proposes a series of connection indicators of weak tie subnets and weak tie nodes to detect research topics, recognize their connections, and understand their evolution. Design/methodology/approach: First, keywords are extracted from article titles and preprocessed. Second, high-frequency keywords are selected to generate weak tie co-occurrence networks. By removing the internal lines of clustered sub-topic networks, we focus on the analysis of weak tie subnets' composition and functions and the weak tie nodes' roles. Findings: The research topics' clusters and themes changed yearly; the subnets clustered with technique-related and methodology-related topics have been the core, important subnets for years; while close subnets are highly independent, research topics are generally concentrated and most topics are application-related; the roles and functions of nodes and weak ties are diversified. Research limitations: The parameter values are somewhat inconsistent; the weak tie subnets and nodes are classified based on empirical observations, and the conclusions are not verified or compared to other methods. Practical implications: The research is valuable for detecting important research topics as well as their roles, interrelations, and evolution trends. Originality/value: To contribute to the strength of weak tie theory, the research translates weak and strong ties concepts to co-occurrence strength, and analyzes weak ties' functions. Also, the research proposes a quantitative method to classify and measure the topics' clusters and nodes.

  18. From strong to weak coupling in holographic models of thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, Andrei O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-29

    We investigate the analytic structure of thermal energy-momentum tensor correlators at large but finite coupling in quantum field theories with gravity duals. We compute corrections to the quasinormal spectra of black branes due to the presence of higher derivative R{sup 2} and R{sup 4} terms in the action, focusing on the dual to N=4 SYM theory and Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We observe the appearance of new poles in the complex frequency plane at finite coupling. The new poles interfere with hydrodynamic poles of the correlators leading to the breakdown of hydrodynamic description at a coupling-dependent critical value of the wave-vector. The dependence of the critical wave vector on the coupling implies that the range of validity of the hydrodynamic description increases monotonically with the coupling. The behavior of the quasinormal spectrum at large but finite coupling may be contrasted with the known properties of the hierarchy of relaxation times determined by the spectrum of a linearized kinetic operator at weak coupling. We find that the ratio of a transport coefficient such as viscosity to the relaxation time determined by the fundamental non-hydrodynamic quasinormal frequency changes rapidly in the vicinity of infinite coupling but flattens out for weaker coupling, suggesting an extrapolation from strong coupling to the kinetic theory result. We note that the behavior of the quasinormal spectrum is qualitatively different depending on whether the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density is greater or less than the universal, infinite coupling value of ℏ/4πk{sub B}. In the former case, the density of poles increases, indicating a formation of branch cuts in the weak coupling limit, and the spectral function shows the appearance of narrow peaks. We also discuss the relation of the viscosity-entropy ratio to conjectured bounds on relaxation time in quantum systems.

  19. Weak-Keys in Public Key Cryptosystems Based on Discrete Logarithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Suiyan; LUO Ping; PENG Xiaoning; WANG Daoshun

    2005-01-01

    The discrete logarithm method is the foundation of many public key algorithms. However, one type of key, defined as a weak-key, reduces the security of public key cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm method. The weak-key occurs if the public key is a factor or multiple of the primitive element, in which case the user's private key is not needed but can be obtained based on the character of the public key. An algorithm is presented that can easily test whether there is a weak-key in the cryptosystem. An example is given to show that an attack can be completed for the Elgamal digital signature if a weak-key exists, therefore validating the danger of weak-keys. Methods are given to prevent the generation of these weak-keys.

  20. A weakly compressible formulation for modelling liquid-gas sloshing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development and extension of free-surface modelling techniques with the purpose of improving the modelling accuracy for liquid-gas sloshing. Considering high density ratio fluids under low Mach number conditions...

  1. Weak solutions for a bioconvection model related to Bacillus subtilis

    CERN Document Server

    Vorotnikov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We consider the initial-boundary value problem for the coupled Navier-Stokes-Keller-Segel-Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov system in two- and three-dimensional domains. The problem describes oxytaxis and growth of Bacillus subtilis in moving water. We prove existence of global weak solutions to the problem. We distinguish between two cases determined by the cell diffusion term and the space dimension, which are referred as the supercritical and subcritical ones. At the first case, the choice of the growth function enjoys wide range of possibilities: in particular, it can be zero. Our results are new even at the absence of the growth term. At the second case, the restrictions on the growth function are less relaxed: for instance, it cannot be zero but can be Fisher-like. In the case of linear cell diffusion, the solution is regular and unique provided the domain is the whole plane. In addition, we study the long-time behaviour of the problem, find dissipative estimates, and construct attractors.

  2. Limitations for shapelet-based weak-lensing measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, P; Lombardi, M; Bartelmann, M

    2009-01-01

    We seek to understand the impact on shape estimators obtained from circular and elliptical shapelet models under two realistic conditions: (a) only a limited number of shapelet modes is available for the model, and (b) the intrinsic galactic shapes are not restricted to shapelet models. We create a set of simplistic simulations, in which the galactic shapes follow a Sersic profile. By varying the Sersic index and applied shear, we quantify the amount of bias on shear estimates which arises from insufficient modeling. Additional complications due to PSF convolution, pixelation and pixel noise are also discussed. Steep and highly elliptical galaxy shapes cannot be accurately modeled within the circular shapelet basis system and are biased towards shallower and less elongated shapes. This problem can be cured partially by allowing elliptical basis functions, but for steep profiles elliptical shapelet models still depend critically on accurate ellipticity priors. As a result, shear estimates are typically biased ...

  3. Strong and weak interactions in a simple field-theoretical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Léon van

    2006-01-01

    An exactly renormalizable model of quantum fields, introduced earlier by Th. W. Ruijgrok and the present author, is considered for large but finite cut-off. It gives rise to strong and weak interaction effects. In the limit of infinite cut-off the weak interactions vanish and the strong interactions

  4. Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhenhua.guo.math@gmail.com; Li, Zilai, E-mail: lizilai0917@163.com; Yao, Lei, E-mail: yaolei1056@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics and CNS, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China)

    2013-12-15

    We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.

  5. Mechanistic modelling of weak interlayers in flexible and semi-flexible road pavements: Part 2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper (Part 2 of a two-part set of papers) discusses models and illustrates the adverse effects of weak layers, interlayers, laminations and/or weak interfaces in flexible and semi-flexible pavements, also incorporating lightly cemented layers...

  6. Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ximing; Pan, Nana; Gong, Yungui

    2010-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.

  7. Weak Gravity Conjecture and Holographic Dark Energy Model with Interaction and Spatial Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, we apply the weak gravity conjecture to the holographic quintessence model of dark energy.Three different holographic dark energy models are considered: without the interaction in the non-flat universe; with interaction in the flat universe; with interaction in the non-flat universe. We find that only in the models with the spatial curvature and interaction term proportional to the energy density of matter, it is possible for the weak gravity conjecture to be satisfied. And it seems that the weak gravity conjecture favors an open universe and the decaying of matter into dark energy.

  8. Modeling of crack propagation in weak snowpack layers using the discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gaume

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry-snow slab avalanches are generally caused by a sequence of fracture processes including (1 failure initiation in a weak snow layer underlying a cohesive slab, (2 crack propagation within the weak layer and (3 tensile fracture through the slab which leads to its detachment. During the past decades, theoretical and experimental work has gradually led to a better understanding of the fracture process in snow involving the collapse of the structure in the weak layer during fracture. This now allows us to better model failure initiation and the onset of crack propagation, i.e. to estimate the critical length required for crack propagation. On the other hand, our understanding of dynamic crack propagation and fracture arrest propensity is still very limited. For instance, it is not uncommon to perform field measurements with widespread crack propagation on one day, while a few days later, with very little changes to the snowpack, crack propagation does not occur anymore. Thus far, there is no clear theoretical framework to interpret such observations, and it is not clear how and which snowpack properties affect dynamic crack propagation. To shed more light on this issue, we performed numerical propagation saw test (PST experiments applying the discrete element (DE method and compared the numerical results with field measurements based on particle tracking. The goal is to investigate the influence of weak layer failure and the mechanical properties of the slab on crack propagation and fracture arrest propensity. Crack propagation speeds and distances before fracture arrest were derived from the DE simulations for different snowpack configurations and mechanical properties. Then, the relation between mechanical parameters of the snowpack was taken into account so as to compare numerical and experimental results, which were in good agreement, suggesting that the simulations can reproduce crack propagation in PSTs. Finally, an in-depth analysis of the

  9. Strengthening the weak link: Built Environment modelling for loss analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millinship, I.

    2012-04-01

    Methods to analyse insured losses from a range of natural perils, including pricing by primary insurers and catastrophe modelling by reinsurers, typically lack sufficient exposure information. Understanding the hazard intensity in terms of spatial severity and frequency is only the first step towards quantifying the risk of a catastrophic event. For any given event we need to know: Are any structures affected? What type of buildings are they? How much damaged occurred? How much will the repairs cost? To achieve this, detailed exposure information is required to assess the likely damage and to effectively calculate the resultant loss. Modelling exposures in the Built Environment therefore plays as important a role in understanding re/insurance risk as characterising the physical hazard. Across both primary insurance books and aggregated reinsurance portfolios, the location of a property (a risk) and its monetary value is typically known. Exactly what that risk is in terms of detailed property descriptors including structure type and rebuild cost - and therefore its vulnerability to loss - is often omitted. This data deficiency is a primary source of variations between modelled losses and the actual claims value. Built Environment models are therefore required at a high resolution to describe building attributes that relate vulnerability to property damage. However, national-scale household-level datasets are often not computationally practical in catastrophe models and data must be aggregated. In order to provide more accurate risk analysis, we have developed and applied a methodology for Built Environment modelling for incorporation into a range of re/insurance applications, including operational models for different international regions and different perils and covering residential, commercial and industry exposures. Illustrated examples are presented, including exposure modelling suitable for aggregated reinsurance analysis for the UK and bespoke high resolution

  10. Analysis of the effects of weak floor strata on longwall face stability using finite element modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jin-rong; Debasis Deb; Y. P. Chugh

    2001-01-01

    Higher production, better safety standard, and potential for automation are some of the benefits of longwall mining. Today, longwall face advances at a faster rate exposing many diversified rock layers in a short period of time. It is now a serious challenge to cope with ground control problems such as roof falls, face and floor failure, and excessive shield loading as fast as possible to minimize production and monetary losses. In Illinois Coal Mines, the existence of week floor strata blow the coal seam may pose additional problems related to floor heaving,shield base punching, and associated roof and face falls. In this study, the effects of week floor on longwall grouJd control are analyzed using two-dimensional finite element models. A two-leg 635.6 ton (700-short-ton) yielding capacity shield is included in the models to evaluate the effects of different thicknees and material properties of the weak floor. The study indicates that the thickness and material properties of weak floor have significant effects on shield loading, the distribution and intensity of front abutment stress, failure zones in the surrounding strata, roof-to-floor convergence, and floor punching by the shield base.

  11. Italian industrial districts: A model of success or a weak productive system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution focuses on two issues. The first one concerns the characteristics of industrial districts and the increasing weight of these districts in the Italian system of production. The second issue is about the competitiveness of the Italian industrial districts, if they represent a model of success or rather a weak system of production. Thus, the transformation of the industrial districts is examined and the strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. One argument that comes out of this investigation is that industrial districts are strongly influenced by institutions, territory, and also by the social and cultural environment. The second argument regards the competitiveness of this Italian industrial development model, based on SMEs, which is founded on the specialization of productions, on innovation and internationalization. The paper argues that this model, which represents the ``Made in Italy'', is still a strong and dynamic system which has shown good performances and it represents a paradigm of lasting competitiveness, even if it is restrained by many external chronic constraints.

  12. Light weakly coupled axial forces: models, constraints, and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Yonatan; Krnjaic, Gordan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in π0 and 8Be∗ decay.

  13. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Yonatan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevan...

  14. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Yonatan [Princeton U.; Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Princeton U.; Tait, Tim P. [UC, Irvine

    2016-09-28

    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in pi^0 and 8-Be* decay.

  15. Introduction to the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, J

    2016-01-01

    These lectures notes cover the basic ideas of gauge symmetries and the phe- nomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking which are used in the construc- tion of the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions.

  16. A method based on stochastic resonance for the detection of weak analytical signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Guo, Weiming; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang; Pan, Zhongxiao

    2003-12-23

    An effective method for detection of weak analytical signals with strong noise background is proposed based on the theory of stochastic resonance (SR). Compared with the conventional SR-based algorithms, the proposed algorithm is simplified by changing only one parameter to realize the weak signal detection. Simulation studies revealed that the method performs well in detection of analytical signals in very high level of noise background and is suitable for detecting signals with the different noise level by changing the parameter. Applications of the method to experimental weak signals of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum are also investigated. It is found that reliable results can be obtained.

  17. Self-Consistent Dynamic Models of Steady Ionization Fronts I. Weak-D and Weak-R Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, W J; Williams, R J R; Ferland, G J; Henney, William J.; Williams, Robin J. R.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for including steady-state gas flows in the plasma physics code Cloudy, which was previously restricted to modeling static configurations. The numerical algorithms are described in detail, together with an example application to plane-parallel ionization-bounded HII regions. As well as providing the foundation for future applications to more complex flows, we find the following specific results regarding the effect of advection upon ionization fronts in HII regions: 1. Significant direct effects of advection on the global emission properties occur only when the ionization parameter is lower than is typical for HII regions. 2. The overheating of partially ionized gas in the front is not large, even for supersonic (R-type) fronts. 3. The most significant morphological signature of advective fronts is an electron density spike that occurs at the ionization front. Observational evidence for such a spike is found in images of the Orion bar. 4. Plane-parallel, weak-D fronts are found to show at ...

  18. BOOTSTRAP WAVELET IN THE NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION MODEL WITH WEAKLY DEPENDENT PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林路; 张润楚

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of bootstrap wavelet estimation in a nonparametric regression model with weakly dependent processes for both fixed and random designs. The asymptotic bounds for the bias and variance of the bootstrap wavelet estimators are given in the fixed design model. The conditional normality for a modified version of the bootstrap wavelet estimators is obtained in the fixed model. The consistency for the bootstrap wavelet estimator is also proved in the random design model. These results show that the bootstrap wavelet method is valid for the model with weakly dependent processes.

  19. Evidence-based practice and speech-language pathology: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists are increasingly required to demonstrate that their practice is based on evidence. While the concept of evidence-based practice has strengths, there have been some weaknesses in its application in speech-language pathology. Nevertheless, since current health care demands compliance, the profession must consider the opportunities and threats that evidence-based practice poses. This paper reviews the literature to provide an understanding of the relevance of evidence-based practice for speech-language pathology. It considers the assumptions on which definitions of evidenced-based practice rely and reviews the ways in which clinicians might base their practice on evidence. While the medical model of evidence-based practice research is controversial even in the medical field, the concept provides opportunities for the profession of speech-language pathology. Evidence-based practice has the potential to improve intervention for people with communication disorders, increase resources for services and enhance perception of the profession. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Feasibility of Diagrammatic Monte-Carlo based on weak-coupling expansion in asymptotically free theories: case study of $O(N)$ sigma-model in the large-$N$ limit

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of applying Diagrammatic Monte-Carlo algorithms to the weak-coupling expansions of asymptotically free quantum field theories, taking the large-$N$ limit of the $O(N)$ sigma-model as the simplest example where exact results are available. We use stereographic mapping from the sphere to the real plane to set up the perturbation theory, which results in a small bare mass term proportional to the coupling $\\lambda$. Counting the powers of coupling associated with higher-order interaction vertices, we arrive at the double-series representation for the dynamically generated mass gap in powers of both $\\lambda$ and $\\log(\\lambda)$, which converges quite quickly to the exact non-perturbative answer. We also demonstrate that it is feasible to obtain the coefficients of these double series by a Monte-Carlo sampling in the space of Feynman diagrams. In particular, the sign problem of such sampling becomes milder at small $\\lambda$, that is, close to the continuum limit.

  1. Development of a multivariate empirical model for predicting weak rock mass modulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallu Raj R.; Keffeler Evan R.; Watters Robert J.; Agharazi Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Estimating weak rock mass modulus has historically proven difficult although this mechanical property is an important input to many types of geotechnical analyses. An empirical database of weak rock mass modulus with associated detailed geotechnical parameters was assembled from plate loading tests per-formed at underground mines in Nevada, the Bakhtiary Dam project, and Portugues Dam project. The database was used to assess the accuracy of published single-variate models and to develop a multivari-ate model for predicting in-situ weak rock mass modulus when limited geotechnical data are available. Only two of the published models were adequate for predicting modulus of weak rock masses over lim-ited ranges of alteration intensities, and none of the models provided good estimates of modulus over a range of geotechnical properties. In light of this shortcoming, a multivariate model was developed from the weak rock mass modulus dataset, and the new model is exponential in form and has the following independent variables:(1) average block size or joint spacing, (2) field estimated rock strength, (3) dis-continuity roughness, and (4) discontinuity infilling hardness. The multivariate model provided better estimates of modulus for both hard-blocky rock masses and intensely-altered rock masses.

  2. Composite Weak Vector Bosons in a Left-Right Symmetric Preon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Ishida, S.; Wada, H.

    1996-09-01

    We take the viewpoint that the standard model is a low energy effective theory among composite quarks, leptons and weak bosons in a left-right (LR) symmetric preon model with a hypercolor SU(N)HC gauge interaction. Starting from NJL-type interactions with global SU(2)L × SU(2)R symmetry, we construct the composite weak vector bosons from a pair of spinor preons and derive their effective interactions with quarks and leptons, which are essentially identical, at the tree-diagram level, to those in the LR symmetric gauge model. Through the process of this approach, some physical aspects of the LR gauge model are clarified.

  3. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in Incompressible Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-Feng; YE Wen-Hua; FAN Zheng-Feng; XUE Chuang; LI Ying-Jun

    2009-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear model is proposed for the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in two-dimensional incompressible fluids by expanding the perturbation velocity potential to third order. The third-order harmonic generation effects of single-mode perturbation are analyzed, as well as the nonlinear correction to the exponential growth of the fundamental modulation. The weakly nonlinear results are supported by numerical simulations. Density and resonance effects exist in the development of mode coupling.

  4. Preparation of Weak Cation Exchange Packings Based on Monodisperse Poly (chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene) Particles and Its Chromatographic Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫引茂; 陈强; 耿信笃

    2001-01-01

    Monodisperse poly ( chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene )particles were firstly prepared by a two-step swelling method.Based on this media, one kind of weak cation ion exchange packings was prepared. It was demonstrated that the prepared packings have comparative advantages for biopolymer separation with high column efficiency, low interstitial volume and low column backpressure, and have good resolution to proteins. The effects of salt concentration and pH of mobile phase on protein retentions were investigated. The properties of the weak cation ion exchange packings were evaluated by the unified retention model for mixed-mode interaction mechanison in ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

  5. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  6. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  7. Existence and regularity of weak solutions to a model for coarsening in molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the occurrence of a zero of the surface diffusion current and the requirement of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, Siegert et al \\cite{Siegert94} formulate a model of Langevin type that describes the growth of pyramidlike structures on a surface under conditions of molecular beam epitaxy, and that the slope of these pyramids is selected by the crystalline symmetries of the growing film. In this article, the existence and uniqueness of weak solution to an initial boundary value problem for this model is proved, in the case that the noise is neglected. The regularity of the weak solution to models, with/without slope selection, is also investigated.

  8. Experimental Demonstration of Higher Precision Weak-Value-Based Metrology Using Power Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Hu, Gang; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shang; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Cheng, Ze-Di; Xu, Jin-Shi; Fang, Sen-Zhi; Wu, Qing-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-12-01

    The weak-value-based metrology is very promising and has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because of its remarkable ability in signal amplification. However, it is suggested that the upper limit of the precision of this metrology cannot exceed that of classical metrology because of the low sample size caused by the probe loss during postselection. Nevertheless, a recent proposal shows that this probe loss can be reduced by the power-recycling technique, and thus enhance the precision of weak-value-based metrology. Here we experimentally realize the power-recycled interferometric weak-value-based beam-deflection measurement and obtain the amplitude of the detected signal and white noise by discrete Fourier transform. Our results show that the detected signal can be strengthened by power recycling, and the power-recycled weak-value-based signal-to-noise ratio can surpass the upper limit of the classical scheme, corresponding to the shot-noise limit. This work sheds light on higher precision metrology and explores the real advantage of the weak-value-based metrology over classical metrology.

  9. Optimization-Based Drift Prevention for Learning Control of Underdetermined Linear and Weakly Nonlinear Time-Varying Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRIESSEN,BRIAN JAMES; SADEGH,NADER; KWOK,KWAN S.

    2000-10-20

    In this paper an optimization-based method of drift prevention is presented for learning control of underdetermined linear and weakly nonlinear time-varying dynamic systems. By defining a fictitious cost function and the associated model-based sub-optimality conditions, a new set of equations results, whose solution is unique, thus preventing large drifts from the initial input. Moreover, in the limiting case where the modeling error approaches zero, the input that the proposed method converges to is the unique feasible (zero error) input that minimizes the fictitious cost function, in the linear case, and locally minimizes it in the (weakly) nonlinear case. Otherwise, under mild restrictions on the modeling error, the method converges to a feasible sub-optimal input.

  10. Probing cosmology with weak lensing selected clusters II: Dark energy and f(R) gravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys can be used to locate a number of clusters of galaxies with cosmic shear measurement alone. We study constraints on cosmological models using statistics of weak lensing selected galaxy clusters. We extend our previous theoretical framework to model the statistical properties of clusters in variants of cosmological models as well as in the standard LCDM model. Weak lensing selection of clusters does not rely on the conventional assumption such as the relation between luminosity and mass and/or hydrostatic equilibrium, but a number of observational effects compromise robust identification. We use a large set of realistic mock weak-lensing catalogs as well as analytic models to perform a Fisher analysis and make forecast for constraining two competing cosmological models, wCDM model and f(R) model proposed by Hu & Sawicki, with our lensing statistics. We show that weak lensing selected clusters are excellent probe of cosmology when combined with cosmic shear power...

  11. Limits from Weak Gravity Conjecture on Chaplygin-Gas-Type Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xing; ZHU Zong-Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The weak gravity conjecture is proposed as a criterion to distinguish the landscape from the swampland in string theory. As an application in cosmology of this conjecture, we use it to impose theoretical constraint on parameters of the Chaplygin-gas-type models. Our analysis indicates that the Chaplygin-gas-type models realized in quintessence field are in the swampland.

  12. Weak electric and magnetic form factors for semileptonic baryon decays in an independent-quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N.; Dash, B.K.; Das, M.

    1985-10-01

    Weak electric and magnetic form factors for semileptonic baryon decays are calculated in a relativistic quark model based on the Dirac equation with the independent-quark confining potential of the form (1+..gamma../sup 0/)V(r). The values obtained for (g/sub 2//g/sub 1/), for various decay modes in a model with V(r) = a'r/sup 2/, are roughly of the same order as those predicted in the MIT bag model. However in a similar model with V(r) = (a/sup nu+1/r/sup ..nu../+V/sub 0/), the (g/sub 2//g/sub 1/) values agree with the nonrelativistic results of Donoghue and Holstein. Incorporating phenomenologically the effect of nonzero g/sub 2/ in the ratio (g/sub 1//f/sub 1/), we have estimated the values for (f/sub 2//f/sub 1/) for various semileptonic transitions. It is observed that SU(3)-symmetry breaking does not generate significant departures in (f/sub 2//f/sub 1/) values from the corresponding Cabibbo values.

  13. Weak Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Gearboxes Based on MED-LMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the problem that the fault signal of the rolling bearing is weak and the fault feature is difficult to extract in the strong noise environment, a method based on minimum entropy deconvolution (MED and local mean deconvolution (LMD is proposed to extract the weak fault features of the rolling bearing. Through the analysis of the simulation signal, we find that LMD has many limitations for the feature extraction of weak signals under strong background noise. In order to eliminate the noise interference and extract the characteristics of the weak fault, MED is employed as the pre-filter to remove noise. This method is applied to the weak fault feature extraction of rolling bearings; that is, using MED to reduce the noise of the wind turbine gearbox test bench under strong background noise, and then using the LMD method to decompose the denoised signals into several product functions (PFs, and finally analyzing the PF components that have strong correlation by a cyclic autocorrelation function. The finding is that the failure of the wind power gearbox is generated from the micro-bending of the high-speed shaft and the pitting of the #10 bearing outer race at the output end of the high-speed shaft. This method is compared with LMD, which shows the effectiveness of this method. This paper provides a new method for the extraction of multiple faults and weak features in strong background noise.

  14. Area-based conservation: The strengths and weaknesses of the Egyptian emerging experience in area-based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman G. Abdel Tawab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in securing and sustaining the townscape and urban values of the historic environment has escalated as a response to the writings of intellectuals, such as Kevin Lynch and Gordon Cullen. Such interest has been construed by the governments’ introduction of statutory tools allowing them the right to designate urban areas within the boundaries of which the historic environment can be provided a statutory protection. The earliest European attempt to introduce such tools has been the Dutch establishment of the model of conservation areas known as “Protected Town and Village Views” in 1961. In 1962, the renowned Malraux Act has officially established the French similar model of protected areas known as “Secteurs Sauvegardés”. The introduction of such tools has marked the emergence of what has been later called area-based conservation. In Egypt, the enactment of the Act No. 119, in 2008, and the establishment of the model of protected areas known as “Areas Enjoying a Distinctive Value”, seem to have marked the emergence of the Egyptian official experience in area-based conservation. The main aim of this study was to preview the key features of the Egyptian emerging experience in area-based conservation and to unveil its strengths and weaknesses. The study approached the issue by means of a comparative analysis conducted among a group of adopted case studies. The adopted case studies included the British, the Dutch, the Egyptian, the French, the Irish and the Maltese experiences in area-based conservation, in addition to the international institutions’ experiences. The findings indicated that adopting the centralized approach to designate the Egyptian “Areas Enjoying a Distinctive Value” seems to be the major weakness of the Egyptian experience. The findings suggest the further boosting of the role of the Egyptian local authorities in the management of such designated areas.

  15. Huge capacity fiber-optic sensing network based on ultra-weak draw tower gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghong; Bai, Wei; Guo, Huiyong; Wen, Hongqiao; Yu, Haihu; Jiang, Desheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper reviews the work on huge capacity fiber-optic sensing network based on ultra-weak draw tower gratings developed at the National Engineering Laboratory for Fiber Optic Sensing Technology (NEL-FOST), Wuhan University of Technology, China. A versatile drawing tower grating sensor network based on ultra-weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is firstly proposed and demonstrated. The sensing network is interrogated with time- and wavelength-division multiplexing method, which is very promising for the large-scale sensing network.

  16. High-speed demodulation system of identical weak FBGs based on FDML wavelength swept laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiming; Liu, Quan; Wang, Honghai; Hu, Chenchen; Zhang, Chun; Li, Zhengying

    2017-04-01

    An identical weak reflection FBGs demodulation system based on a FDML laser is proposed. The laser is developed to output a continuous wavelength-swept spectrum in the scanning frequency of 120 kHz over a spectral range of more than 10nm at 1.54 μm. Based on this high-speed wavelength-swept light and the optical transmission delay effect, the demodulation system obtains the location and wavelength information of all identical weak FBGs by the reflected spectrum within each scanning cycle. By accessing to a high-speed FPGA processing module, continuous demodulation of 120 kHz is realized. The system breakthroughs the bandwidth of the laser to expand the sensors capacity and greatly improves the demodulation speed of a TDM sensing network. The experiments show the system can distinguish and demodulate the identical weak FBGs and measure the 4 kHz vibration at 120 kHz demodulation speed.

  17. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  18. Weak solutions for a non-Newtonian diffuse interface model with different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Helmut; Breit, Dominic

    2016-11-01

    We consider weak solutions for a diffuse interface model of two non-Newtonian viscous, incompressible fluids of power-law type in the case of different densities in a bounded, sufficiently smooth domain. This leads to a coupled system of a nonhomogenouos generalized Navier-Stokes system and a Cahn-Hilliard equation. For the Cahn-Hilliard part a smooth free energy density and a constant, positive mobility is assumed. Using the {{L}∞} -truncation method we prove existence of weak solutions for a power-law exponent p>\\frac{2d+2}{d+2} , d  =  2, 3.

  19. Enhanced LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG-Based WECS in Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    An enhanced coordinated low voltage ride-through, LVRT, control strategy for a Doubly-fed Induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system, WECS, connected to a weak grid is presented in this paper. The compliance with the grid code commitments is also considered. A proposed decoupled...... the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy using MATLAB/SIMULINK platform....

  20. Characteristics of weak base-induced vacuoles formed around individual acidic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Hiromi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that the weak base 4-aminopyridine induces Brownian motion of acidic organelles around which vacuoles are formed, causing organelle traffic disorder in neurons. Our present study investigated the characteristics of vacuoles induced by weak bases (NH(4)Cl, aminopyridines, and chloroquine) using mouse cells. Individual vacuoles included acidic organelles identified by fluorescent protein expression. Mitochondria and actin filaments were extruded outside the vacuoles, composing the vacuole rim. Staining with amine-reactive fluorescence showed no protein/amino acid content in vacuoles. Thus, serous vacuolar contents are probably partitioned by viscous cytosol, other organelles, and cytoskeletons, but not membrane. The weak base (chloroquine) was immunochemically detected in intravacuolar organelles, but not in vacuoles. Early vacuolization was reversible, but long-term vacuolization caused cell death. The vacuolization and cell death were blocked by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor and Cl--free medium. Staining with LysoTracker or LysoSensor indicated that intravacuolar organelles were strongly acidic and vacuoles were slightly acidic. This suggests that vacuolization is caused by accumulation of weak base and H(+) in acidic organelles, driven by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase associated with Cl(-) entering, and probably by subsequent extrusion of H(+) and water from organelles to the surrounding cytoplasm.

  1. Critical currents in ballistic two-dimensional InAs-based superconducting weak links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. van; Klapwijk, T.M.; Borghs, G.

    1999-01-01

    The critical supercurrent Ic carried by a short (0.3 to 0.8 µm) ballistic two-dimensional InAs-based electron gas between superconducting niobium electrodes is studied. In relating the maximum value to the resistance of the weak link in the normal state Rn a much lower value is found than

  2. A new physics-based method for detecting weak nuclear signals via spectral decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Kung-Sik, E-mail: kung-sik-chan@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Li, Jinzheng, E-mail: jinzheng-li@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Eichinger, William, E-mail: william-eichinger@uiowa.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Bai, Erwei, E-mail: er-wei-bai@uiowa.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new physics-based method to determine the presence of the spectral signature of one or more nuclides from a poorly resolved spectra with weak signatures. The method is different from traditional methods that rely primarily on peak finding algorithms. The new approach considers each of the signatures in the library to be a linear combination of subspectra. These subspectra are obtained by assuming a signature consisting of just one of the unique gamma rays emitted by the nuclei. We propose a Poisson regression model for deducing which nuclei are present in the observed spectrum. In recognition that a radiation source generally comprises few nuclear materials, the underlying Poisson model is sparse, i.e. most of the regression coefficients are zero (positive coefficients correspond to the presence of nuclear materials). We develop an iterative algorithm for a penalized likelihood estimation that prompts sparsity. We illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method by simulations using a variety of poorly resolved, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations, which show that the proposed approach enjoys excellent empirical performance even with SNR as low as to -15 db.

  3. Detection of weak target for MIMO radar based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Jiankui; He Zishu

    2009-01-01

    An effective method of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar weak target detection is proposed based on the Hough transform. The detection time duration is divided into multiple coherent processing intervals (CPIs). Within each CPI, conventional methods such as fast Fourier transform (FFT) is exploit to coherent inte-grating in same range cell. Furthermore, noncoherent integration through several range cells can be implemented by Hough transform among all CPIs. Thus, higher integration gain can be obtained. Simulation results are also given to demonstrate that the detection performance of weak moving target can be dramatically improved.

  4. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao, E-mail: liberal.gentle.breeze@hotmail.com [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-02-15

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N{sup 2}) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm.

  5. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy and its application to weak signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The parameter-induced stochastic resonance based on spectral entropy (PSRSE) method is introduced for the detection of a very weak signal in the presence of strong noise. The effect of stochastic resonance on the detection is optimized using parameters obtained in spectral entropy analysis. Upon processing employing the PSRSE method, the amplitude of the weak signal is enhanced and the noise power is reduced, so that the frequency of the signal can be estimated with greater precision through spectral analysis. While the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to that obtained using the Duffing oscillator algorithm, the computational cost reduces from O(N(2)) to O(N). The PSRSE approach is applied to the frequency measurement of a weak signal made by a vortex flow meter. The results are compared with those obtained applying the Duffing oscillator algorithm.

  6. Supersymmetry approach to delocalization transitions in a network model of the weak-field quantum Hall effect and related models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, S [University of Chicago; Mkhitaryan, V V [Ames Laboratory; Gruzberg, I A [Ohio State University

    2014-06-01

    We consider a recently proposed network model of the integer quantum Hall (IQH) effect in a weak magnetic field. Using a supersymmetry approach, we reformulate the network model in terms of a superspin ladder. A subsequent analysis of the superspin ladder and the corresponding supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model allows us to establish the phase diagram of the network model, and the form of the critical line of the weak-field IQH transition. Our results confirm the universality of the IQH transition, which is described by the same sigma model in strong and weak magnetic fields. We apply the suspersymmetry method to several related network models that were introduced in the literature to describe the quantum Hall effect in graphene, the spin-degenerate Landau levels, and localization of electrons in a random magnetic field.

  7. Retrieval-based Face Annotation by Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Hoi, Steven C H; He, Ying; Zhu, Jianke; Mei, Tao; Luo, Jiebo

    2013-08-01

    Retrieval-based face annotation is a promising paradigm of mining massive web facial images for automated face annotation. This paper addresses a critical problem of such paradigm, i.e., how to effectively perform annotation by exploiting the similar facial images and their weak labels which are often noisy and incomplete. In particular, we propose an effective Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding (WLRLCC) technique, which exploits the principle of local coordinate coding in learning sparse features, and employs the idea of graph-based weak label regularization to enhance the weak labels of the similar facial images. We present an efficient optimization algorithm to solve the WLRLCC task. We conduct extensive empirical studies on two large-scale web facial image databases: (i) a Western celebrity database with a total of $6,025$ persons and $714,454$ web facial images, and (ii)an Asian celebrity database with $1,200$ persons and $126,070$ web facial images. The encouraging results validate the efficacy of the proposed WLRLCC algorithm. To further improve the efficiency and scalability, we also propose a PCA-based approximation scheme and an offline approximation scheme (AWLRLCC), which generally maintains comparable results but significantly saves much time cost. Finally, we show that WLRLCC can also tackle two existing face annotation tasks with promising performance.

  8. Global Existence of Weak Solutions to a Fractional Model in Magnetoelastic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ellahiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with global existence of weak solutions to a one-dimensional mathematical model describing magnetoelastic interactions. The model is described by a fractional Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the magnetization field coupled to an evolution equation for the displacement. We prove global existence by using Faedo-Galerkin/penalty method. Some commutator estimates are used to prove the convergence of nonlinear terms.

  9. A WEAKLY NONLINEAR WATER WAVE MODEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DISPERSION OF WAVE PHASE VELOCITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞杰; 李东永

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a weakly nonlinear water wave model using a mild slope equation and a new explicit formulation which takes into account dispersion of wave phase velocity, approximates Hedges' (1987) nonlinear dispersion relationship, and accords well with the original empirical formula. Comparison of the calculating results with those obtained from the experimental data and those obtained from linear wave theory showed that the present water wave model considering the dispersion of phase velocity is rational and in good agreement with experiment data.

  10. Self-consistent Keldysh approach to quenches in the weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a nonequilibrium Green's-functional approach to study the dynamics following a quench in weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). The technique is based on the self-consistent solution of a set of equations which represents a particular case of the most general set of Hedin's equations for the interacting single-particle Green's function. We use the ladder approximation as a skeleton diagram for the two-particle scattering amplitude useful, through the self-energy in the Dyson equation, for finding the interacting single-particle Green's function. This scheme is then implemented numerically by a parallelized code. We exploit this approach to study the correlation propagation after a quench in the interaction parameter, for one and two dimensions. In particular, we show how our approach is able to recover the crossover from the ballistic to the diffusive regime by increasing the boson-boson interaction. Finally we also discuss the role of a thermal initial state on the dynamics both for one- and two-dimensional BHMs, finding that, surprisingly, at high temperature a ballistic evolution is restored.

  11. Prediction of oral absorption of cinnarizine--a highly supersaturating poorly soluble weak base with borderline permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark; Przyklenk, Karl-Heinz; Richtberg, Annette; Baumann, Wolfgang; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-11-01

    Two important driving forces for oral absorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients are drug dissolution and permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. Poorly soluble weak bases typically exhibit high solubility under fasted gastric conditions. However, the solubility of such drugs usually decreases drastically in the fasted small intestine, constraining drug absorption. Since there is a discrepancy in solubility between the fasted state stomach and intestine, it is crucial to examine the influence of dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation on the oral absorption of poorly soluble weak bases during and after fasted state gastric emptying. Cinnarizine is a poorly soluble weak base with borderline permeability, exhibiting supersaturation and precipitation under simulated fasted state gastric emptying conditions. Interestingly, supersaturation and precipitation of cinnarizine under fed state conditions is not expected to occur, since the drug shows good solubility in fed state biorelevant media and exhibits a positive food effect in pharmacokinetic studies. The present work is aimed at investigating the dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation behavior of marketed cinnarizine tablets under fasted and fed state conditions using biorelevant dissolution and transfer methods. In order to predict the in vivo performance of these cinnarizine formulations, the in vitro results were then coupled with different physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, which considered either only dissolution or a combination of dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation kinetics. The results of the in silico predictions were then compared with in vivo observations. The study revealed that under fasting conditions, plasma profiles could be accurately predicted only when supersaturation and precipitation as well as dissolution were taken into account. It was concluded that for poorly soluble weak bases with moderate permeability, supersaturation and precipitation

  12. Hamiltonian dynamics with a weak noise and the echo effect for the rotator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, Giorgio [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Bassi, Gabriele [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bazzani, Armando [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Giorgini, Bruno [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Mais, Helmut [DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We analyse the effect of a weak noise on the Hamiltonian transport from the analytical and numerical viewpoint. A solvable model, the noisy rotator, is proposed to illustrate the basic phenomena. In the absence of noise, the phase space evolution is a shear flow, whose angular correlations decay following a power law, which depends on the smoothness of the initial action distribution. If the action has a fluctuating component, given by a Wiener process, then the angular correlations decay exponentially according to e{sup -{epsilon}{sup 2}}{sup t{sup 3/6}} or faster, where {epsilon} is the noise amplitude. The echo effect is well suited to investigate the competition between the decorrelation due to filamentation and noise. The noisy rotator model allows an exhaustive analytical investigation of the process for a wide class of initial conditions and a generic disturbance. The echo time is proportional to the delay {tau} of the disturbance and its amplitude is proportional to {lambda}{tau}, where {lambda} is the amplitude of the disturbance. The noise reduces the echo amplitude by e{sup -c{epsilon}{sup 2}}{sup t{sup 3}}, where c depends on the Fourier components of the initial angular distribution, and of the disturbance applied at time {tau}. The analytical results, derived in the limit {lambda} {yields} 0, {tau} {yields} {infinity}, with {lambda}{tau} finite and sufficiently small to justify a first-order expansion, are checked numerically. For more realistic models the analytical procedure would provide qualitative results and scaling laws. Quantitative results are obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation with a numerical scheme based on splitting: back propagation and biquadratic interpolation for the integrable part, implicit finite difference scheme for the noise component. The application to a noisy pendulum describing the longitudinal dynamics in a particle accelerator is considered, and we determine the value of the noise amplitude {epsilon}, below

  13. Frequency modulated weak signal detection based on stochastic resonance and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Hongyan; LU; Chunxia; ZHANG; Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic resonance system is subject to the restriction of small frequency parameter in weak signal detection,in order to solve this problem,a frequency modulated weak signal detection method based on stochastic resonance and genetic algorithm is presented in this paper. The frequency limit of stochastic resonance is eliminated by introducing carrier signal,which is multiplied with the measured signal to be injected in the stochastic resonance system,meanwhile,using genetic algorithm to optimize the carrier signal frequency,which determine the generated difference-frequency signal in the lowfrequency range,so as to achieve the stochastic resonance weak signal detection. Results showthat the proposed method is feasible and effective,which can significantly improve the output SNR of stochastic resonance,in addition,the system has the better self-adaptability,according to the operation result and output phenomenon,the unknown frequency of the signal to be measured can be obtained,so as to realize the weak signal detection of arbitrary frequency.

  14. Molecular alignment and filamentation: comparison between weak and strong field models

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, N; Wolf, J -P; Faucher, O

    2014-01-01

    The impact of nonadiabatic laser-induced molecular alignment on filamentation is numerically studied. Weak and strong field model of impulsive molecular alignment are compared in the context of nonlinear pulse propagation. It is shown that the widely used weak field model describing the refractive index modification induced by impulsive molecular alignment accurately reproduces the propagation dynamics providing that only a single pulse is involved during the experiment. On the contrary, it fails at reproducing the nonlinear propagation experienced by an intense laser pulse traveling in the wake of a second strong laser pulse. The discrepancy depends on the relative delay between the two pulses and is maximal for delays corresponding to half the rotational period of the molecule.

  15. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Durmus A. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica de Altas Energias (LAFEX)

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  16. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Durmus A. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica de Altas Energias (LAFEX)

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  17. The Recovery of Weak Impulsive Signals Based on Stochastic Resonance and Moving Least Squares Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuosheng Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a stochastic resonance (SR-based method for recovering weak impulsive signals is developed for quantitative diagnosis of faults in rotating machinery. It was shown in theory that weak impulsive signals follow the mechanism of SR, but the SR produces a nonlinear distortion of the shape of the impulsive signal. To eliminate the distortion a moving least squares fitting method is introduced to reconstruct the signal from the output of the SR process. This proposed method is verified by comparing its detection results with that of a morphological filter based on both simulated and experimental signals. The experimental results show that the background noise is suppressed effectively and the key features of impulsive signals are reconstructed with a good degree of accuracy, which leads to an accurate diagnosis of faults in roller bearings in a run-to failure test.

  18. Weak-strong uniqueness for measure-valued solutions of some compressible fluid models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka; Wiedemann, Emil

    2015-10-01

    We prove weak-strong uniqueness in the class of admissible measure-valued solutions for the isentropic Euler equations in any space dimension and for the Savage-Hutter model of granular flows in one and two space dimensions. For the latter system, we also show the complete dissipation of momentum in finite time, thus rigorously justifying an assumption that has been made in the engineering and numerical literature.

  19. Weak-strong uniqueness for measure-valued solutions of some compressible fluid models

    CERN Document Server

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Wiedemann, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We prove weak-strong uniqueness in the class of admissible measure-valued solutions for the isentropic Euler equations in any space dimension and for the Savage-Hutter model of granular flows in one and two space dimensions. For the latter system, we also show the complete dissipation of momentum in finite time, thus rigorously justifying an assumption that has been made in the engineering and numerical literature.

  20. Weak solutions to a thin film model with capillary effects and insoluble surfactant

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurencot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on a model describing the spreading of an insoluble surfactant on a thin viscous film with capillary effects taken into account. The governing equation for the film height is degenerate parabolic of fourth order and coupled to a second order parabolic equation for the surfactant concentration. It is shown that nonnegative weak solutions exist under natural assumptions on the surface tension coefficient.

  1. Negative differential mobility of weakly driven particles in models of glass formers

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Robert L.; Kelsey, David; Juan P Garrahan; Chandler, David

    2008-01-01

    We study the response of probe particles to weak constant driving in kinetically constrained models of glassy systems, and show that the probe's response can be non-monotonic and give rise to negative differential mobility: increasing the applied force can reduce the probe's drift velocity in the force direction. Oth er significant non-linear effects are also demonstrated, such as the enhancement with increasing force of the probe's fluctuations away from the average path, a phenomenon known ...

  2. Weak decay constant of pseudscalar meson in a QCD-inspired model

    CERN Document Server

    Salcedo, L A M; Hadj-Michef, D; Frederico, T

    2003-01-01

    We show that a linear scaling between the weak decay constants of pseudoscalar and the vector mesons masses is supported by the available experimental data. The decay constant scale as $f_m/f_{pi}=M_V/M_{\\rho}$ (f_m is decay constant and M_V vector meson ground state mass). This simple form is justified within a renormalized light-front QCD-inpired model for quark-antiquark bound states.

  3. A Radiative Model for the Weak Scale and Neutrino Mass via Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-loop model of neutrino mass in which both the weak scale and neutrino mass arise as radiative effects. In this approach, the scales for electroweak symmetry breaking, dark matter, and the exotics responsible for neutrino mass, are related due to an underlying scale-invariance. This motivates the otherwise-independent O(TeV) exotic masses usually found in three-loop models of neutrino mass. We demonstrate the existence of viable parameter space and show that the model can be probed at colliders, precision experiments, and dark matter direct-detection experiments.

  4. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  5. Weak localization as a definitive test of diffusive models in the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocca, Andrew; Wilson, Justin; Galitski, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Results from many measurements of the Casimir effect suggest that the metallic plates in these experiments should be modeled with the plasma model of free electrons as opposed to the naive diffusive Drude model, while other experiments seem to indicate the exact opposite, with results more in line with a diffusive model. We study the Casimir effect at low temperatures between a thick disordered plate and purely two-dimensional disordered system where the Drude conductivity decreases logarithmically at low temperatures due to weak localization. This effect can be tuned with either temperature or applied magnetic field leading to a measurable change in the Casimir force. On the other hand, a ballistic model cannot experience such an effect and is only weakly dependent on temperature and magnetic field. As a result, we propose that an experiment would unambiguously differentiate between diffusive and ballistic models by measuring the effect at low temperatures with an applied magnetic field. Additionally, we calculate the impact that fluctuations in the disorder distribution have on the Casimir effect. Assuming the validity of a diffusive model, we find that the Drude model is a good approximation of a more exact treatment of disorder. This work was supported by the DOE-BES (Grant No. DESC0001911) (A.A. and V.G.), the JQI-PFC (J.W.), and the Simons Foundation.

  6. Weak bases affect late stages of Mayaro virus replication cycle in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D F; Santo, M P; Rebello, M A; Rebello, M C

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the effect of two weak bases (ammonium chloride and chloroquine) on the morphogenesis of Mayaro virus. When Mayaro virus-infected TC7 (monkey kidney) cells were treated with these agents it was observed that weak bases caused a significant reduction in virus yield. Also, cellular protein synthesis, which is inhibited by Mayaro virus infection, recovered to nearly normal levels. However, the synthesis of Mayaro virus proteins was affected. These phenomena were dose-dependent. The process of Mayaro virus infection in vertebrate cells is very rapid. Virus precursors are not observed in cell cytoplasm and budding through the plasma membrane seems to be the only way of virus release. Electron microscopy of cells infected with Mayaro virus and treated with weak bases revealed an accumulation of virus structures in cell cytoplasm. The study also noted an inhibition of budding through the plasma membrane and the appearance of virus particles inside intracytoplasmic vacuoles. These observations indicate an impairment at the final stages of the virus replication cycle.

  7. Multi Dark Lens Simulations: weak lensing light-cones and data base presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Jullo, Eric; Metcalf, R. Benton; de la Torre, Sylvain; Yepes, Gustavo; Prada, Francisco; Comparat, Johan; Göttlober, Stefan; Kyplin, Anatoly; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Petkova, Margarita; Shan, Huan Yuan; Tessore, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a large data base of weak lensing light cones constructed using different snapshots from the Big MultiDark simulation (BigMDPL). The ray-tracing through different multiple plane has been performed with the GLAMER code accounting both for single source redshifts and for sources distributed along the cosmic time. This first paper presents weak lensing forecasts and results according to the geometry of the VIPERS-W1 and VIPERS-W4 field of view. Additional fields will be available on our data base and new ones can be run upon request. Our data base also contains some tools for lensing analysis. In this paper we present results for convergence power spectra, one point and high order weak lensing statistics useful for forecasts and for cosmological studies. Covariance matrices have also been computed for the different realizations of the W1 and W4 fields. In addition we compute also galaxy-shear and projected density contrasts for different halo masses at two lens redshift according to the CFHTLS source redshift distribution both using stacking and cross-correlation techniques, finding very good agreement.

  8. Effective Model for Massless Dirac Electrons on a Surface of Weak Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Takashi; Takane, Yositake

    2014-12-01

    In a typical situation, gapless surface states of a three-dimensional (3D) weak topological insulator (WTI) appear only on the sides, leaving the top and bottom surfaces gapped. To describe massless Dirac electrons emergent on such side surfaces of a WTI, a two-dimensional (2D) model consisting of a series of one-dimensional helical channels is usually employed. However, an explicit derivation of such a model from a 3D bulk Hamiltonian has been lacking. Here, we explicitly derive an effective 2D model for the WTI surface states starting from the Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian for the bulk WTI and establish a firm basis for the hitherto hypothesized 2D model. We show that the resulting 2D model accurately reproduces the excitation spectrum of surface Dirac electrons determined by the 3D model. We also show that the 2D model is applicable to a side surface with atomic steps.

  9. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain); Azanza, María J., E-mail: mjazanza@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B{sub 0}≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f{sub M}=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons.

  10. Computational modeling of electric imaging in weakly electric fish: insights for physiology, behavior and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Pedraja, Federico; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I; Budelli, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Weakly electric fish can sense electric signals produced by other animals whether they are conspecifics, preys or predators. These signals, sensed by passive electroreception, sustain electrocommunication, mating and agonistic behavior. Weakly electric fish can also generate a weak electrical discharge with which they can actively sense the animate and inanimate objects in their surroundings. Understanding both sensory modalities depends on our knowledge of how pre-receptorial electric images are formed and how movements modify them during behavior. The inability of effectively measuring pre-receptorial fields at the level of the skin contrasts with the amount of knowledge on electric fields and the availability of computational methods for estimating them. In this work we review past work on modeling of electric organ discharge and electric images, showing the usefulness of these methods to calculate the field and providing a brief explanation of their principles. In addition, we focus on recent work demonstrating the potential of electric image modeling and what the method has to offer for experimentalists studying sensory physiology, behavior and evolution.

  11. The Weak Charge of the Proton. A Search For Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacEwan, Scott J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    The Qweak experiment, which completed running in May of 2012 at Jefferson Laboratory, has measured the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at four-momentum transfer Q2 =0.025 (GeV/c)2 in order to provide the first direct measurement of the proton's weak charge, QWp. The Standard Model makes firm predictions for the weak charge; deviations from the predicted value would provide strong evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Using an 89% polarized electron beam at 145 microA scattering from a 34.4 cm long liquid hydrogen target, scattered electrons were detected using an array of eight fused-silica detectors placed symmetric about the beam axis. The parity-violating asymmetry was then measured by reversing the helicity of the incoming electrons and measuring the normalized difference in rate seen in the detectors. The low Q2 enables a theoretically clean measurement; the higher-order hadronic corrections are constrained using previous parity-violating electron scattering world data. The experimental method will be discussed, with recent results constituting 4% of our total data and projections of our proposed uncertainties on the full data set.

  12. The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N.Shalaev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.

  13. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, A.; Azanza, María J.

    2015-03-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate ("frequency"), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD-CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD-CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B0 ≅0.2-15 mT) AC-MF of frequency fM=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation.

  14. High Frequency Resonance Damping of DFIG based Wind Power System under Weak Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    When operating in a micro or weak grid which has a relatively large network impedance, the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power generation system is prone to suffer high frequency resonance due to the impedance interaction between DFIG system and the parallel compensated network...... (series RL + shunt C). In order to improve the performance of the DFIG system as well as other units and loads connected to the weak grid, the high frequency resonance needs to be effectively damped. In this paper, the proposed active damping control strategy is able to implement effective damping either...... in the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) or in the Grid Side Converter (GSC), through the introduction of virtual positive capacitor or virtual negative inductor to reshape the DFIG system impedance and mitigate the high frequency resonance. A detailed theoretical explanation on the virtual positive capacitor...

  15. Adaptive stochastic resonance method for weak signal detection based on particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Hongyan; ZHANG; Qiang; LU; Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the parameter adjustment problems of adaptive stochastic resonance system in the areas of weak signal detection,this article presents a new method to enhance the detection efficiency and availability in the system of two-dimensional Duffing based on particle swarm optimization.First,the influence of different parameters on the detection performance is analyzed respectively.The correlation between parameter adjustment and stochastic resonance effect is also discussed and converted to the problem of multi-parameter optimization.Second,the experiments including typical system and sea clutter data are conducted to verify the effect of the proposed method.Results show that the proposed method is highly effective to detect weak signal from chaotic background,and enhance the output SNR greatly.

  16. A Quantum Multi-Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, LiLi; Chang, Yan; Zhang, ShiBin; Han, GuiHua; Sheng, ZhiWei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a multi-proxy weak blind signature scheme based on quantum entanglement swapping of Bell states. In the scheme, proxy signers can finish the signature instead of original singer with his/her authority. It can be applied to the electronic voting system, electronic paying system, etc. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. It could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. The security analysis shows the scheme satisfies the security features of multi-proxy weak signature, singers cannot disavowal his/her signature while the signature cannot be forged by others, and the message owner can be traced.

  17. High Frequency Resonance Damping of DFIG based Wind Power System under Weak Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    When operating in a micro or weak grid which has a relatively large network impedance, the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power generation system is prone to suffer high frequency resonance due to the impedance interaction between DFIG system and the parallel compensated network...... (series RL + shunt C). In order to improve the performance of the DFIG system as well as other units and loads connected to the weak grid, the high frequency resonance needs to be effectively damped. In this paper, the proposed active damping control strategy is able to implement effective damping either...... in the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) or in the Grid Side Converter (GSC), through the introduction of virtual positive capacitor or virtual negative inductor to reshape the DFIG system impedance and mitigate the high frequency resonance. A detailed theoretical explanation on the virtual positive capacitor...

  18. Weak signal detection based on the information fusion and chaotic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiuqiao; Shi, Baochang

    2010-03-01

    Based on the chaotic oscillator, a method for weak signal detection using information fusion technology is proposed in this paper. On the one hand, various methods are employed to the amplitude detection of the same weak periodic signal, then the detection outcomes are fused by the adaptive weighted fusion method. On the other hand, during the detection course, information entropy, statistic distance, and Walsh transform are, respectively, used in the state recognition of chaotic oscillator from the viewpoint of time domain or frequency domain, then the recognition results are fused by the k/l fusion method. Numerical results show that the proposed approach detects signal more precisely, identifies state more accurately, and represents information more completely compared with traditional methods.

  19. Weak Interaction Models with New Quarks and Right-handed Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Kingsley, R. L.; Treiman, S. B.

    1975-06-01

    We discuss various weak interaction issues for a general class of models within the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory framework, with special emphasis on the effects of right-handed, charged currents and of quarks bearing new quantum numbers. In particular we consider the restrictions on model building which are imposed by the small KL - KS mass difference and by the .I = = rule; and we classify various possibilities for neutral current interactions and, in the case of heavy mesons with new quantum numbers, various possibilities for mixing effects analogous to KL - KS mixing.

  20. Testing the Standard Model by precision measurement of the weak charges of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Young; Roger Carlini; Anthony Thomas; Julie Roche

    2007-05-01

    In a global analysis of the latest parity-violating electron scattering measurements on nuclear targets, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the experimental knowledge of the weak neutral-current lepton-quark interactions at low-energy. The precision of this new result, combined with earlier atomic parity-violation measurements, limits the magnitude of possible contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model - setting a model-independent, lower-bound on the scale of new physics at ~1 TeV.

  1. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  2. 基于混合主动轮廓模型和区域间差别最大化的细胞弱边界分割%HYBRID ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL AND INTER-REGIONAL DIFFERENCE MAXIMIZATION BASED CELL WEAK BORDER SEGMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明珠; 陈胜勇; 管秋

    2011-01-01

    Accurate segmentation is the key to image processing and analysis. However there are problems with microscopic cell images like target contour obscure or existing weak borders etc. Which usually produces unsatisfactory segmenting results. To tackle the problem,the paper proposes a hybrid active contour model and inter-regional difference maximization based cell weak border segmentation method. The method conforms to region maximization principle, taking local and global gray information as model's driving force, on the one hand ensures the detection of global dissimilarities, and on the other hand captures local differences. The models energy functional are composed of local and global fitting items by introducing a strategy weight parameter which makes use of graded information to explain how do local fitting items and global fitting items combine together to form hybrid fitting items. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid active contour model and inter-regional difference maximization based cell segmentation method can effectively capture weak borders and separate cell nucleus apart.%准确分割是图像处理与分析的关键.然而显微细胞图像的目标轮廓模糊、存在弱边界等问题,使得分割结果往往不尽人意.针对这一问题,提出基于混合主动轮廓模型和区域间差别最大化的细胞弱边界分割方法.该模型根据区域最大化的原则,并采用局部和全局灰度信息作模型的驱动力,在确保检测出全局差异的同时,捕捉到局部差异性.模型的能量泛函是由局部和全局拟合项组成的,并引入策略权重参数,这个参数利用梯度信息来解释局部拟合项和全局拟合项是如何组成混合拟合项的.实验结果表明,这种基于混合主动轮廓模型和区域间差别最大化的细胞分割方法能有效地捕获弱边界并分割出细胞核.

  3. Directional Solidification Microstructure of a Ni-Based Superalloy: Influence of a Weak Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1 and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC. The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic.

  4. A Complexity-Based Approach for the Detection of Weak Signals in Ocean Ambient Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Siddagangaiah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies showing that there is a constant increase in the ocean ambient noise level and the ever-growing demand for developing algorithms for detecting weak signals in ambient noise. In this study, we utilize dynamical and statistical complexity to detect the presence of weak ship noise embedded in ambient noise. The ambient noise and ship noise were recorded in the South China Sea. The multiscale entropy (MSE method and the complexity-entropy causality plane (C-H plane were used to quantify the dynamical and statistical complexity of the measured time series, respectively. We generated signals with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by varying the amplification of a ship signal. The simulation results indicate that the complexity is sensitive to change in the information in the ambient noise and the change in SNR, a finding that enables the detection of weak ship signals in strong background ambient noise. The simulation results also illustrate that complexity is better than the traditional spectrogram method, particularly effective for detecting low SNR signals in ambient noise. In addition, complexity-based MSE and C-H plane methods are simple, robust and do not assume any underlying dynamics in time series. Hence, complexity should be used in practical situations.

  5. Super-weak asthenosphere models in light of plate motions and azimuthal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and azimuthal seismic anisotropy from surface waves are consistent with a strong, oceanic lithosphere that is predominantly dragged by slabs, and weakened upon subduction. Plates are underlain and sustained by a moderately weak asthenosphere, as expected from the temperature and pressure dependence of olivine viscosity for the upper mantle. However, recent observations from active source seismology, magneto-tellurics, body wave anisotropy, and postseismic surface deformation can be interpreted to imply the existence of a very weak channel of low viscosity material, potentially decoupling plates, not unlike a plume-fed asthenosphere scenario in several ways. Here, I explore the implications of such a decoupling channel for plate driving forces as well as observations of seismic anisotropy. The thickness and viscosity reduction of the channel are expected to trade off with each other, and plate motions are sensitive to the lateral extent of this super-weak asthenosphere. While there is some ambiguity of plate motion metrics with the strength of slabs, seismic anisotropy is expected to be sensitive to how shear is localized with depth. The overall good fit of azimuthal anisotropy patterns to flow model predictions brakes down for a number of the more extreme lateral and depth-dependent viscosity scenarios. This may imply that weakening mechanisms may not apply globally under plates, but are rather limited to isolated regions, perhaps associated with melt rich pockets that have limited connectivity.

  6. An independent quark model study of weak leptonic decays of pseudoscalar mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S. N.; Nanda, P. K.; Sahoo, S.; Panda, S.

    2015-05-01

    An independent quark model with a relativistic power-law potential is used to study the weak leptonic decays of light and heavy pseudoscalar mesons. The partial decay width and the decay constant for the weak leptonic decay are derived from the quark-antiquark momentum distribution amplitude which is obtained from the bound quark eigenfunction with the assumption of a strong correlation existing between quark-antiquark momenta inside the decaying meson in its rest frame. The model parameters are first determined from the application of the model to study the ground state hyperfine splitting of ρ, K, D, Ds, B, Bs and Bc mesons. The same model with no adjustable parameters is then used to evaluate the decay constants fM and the decay widths of pseudoscalar mesons. The model predictions agree quite well with the available experimental data as well as with those of several other models. The decay constant for pion and kaon are obtained as fπ = 132 MeV and fk = 161 MeV which closely agree with experimental values. But in case of heavier mesons for which experimental data are not yet available, the present model gives its predictions as fBC > fBS > fB, fDS > fD, fD > fB and fπ > fB which are in conformity with most of other model predictions. The model predictions of the corresponding decay widths and the branching ratios for the (l\\bar {ν }l) and (τ \\bar {ν }τ ) decay modes are in close agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

  8. Sensitivity of the model error parameter specification in weak-constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jeremy A.; Daescu, Dacian N.

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the mathematical framework to evaluate the sensitivity of a forecast error aspect to the input parameters of a weak-constraint four-dimensional variational data assimilation system (w4D-Var DAS), extending the established theory from strong-constraint 4D-Var. Emphasis is placed on the derivation of the equations for evaluating the forecast sensitivity to parameters in the DAS representation of the model error statistics, including bias, standard deviation, and correlation structure. A novel adjoint-based procedure for adaptive tuning of the specified model error covariance matrix is introduced. Results from numerical convergence tests establish the validity of the model error sensitivity equations. Preliminary experiments providing a proof-of-concept are performed using the Lorenz multi-scale model to illustrate the theoretical concepts and potential benefits for practical applications.

  9. Energetics of slope flows: linear and weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Ivan; Marinović, Ivana; Večenaj, Željko; Grisogono, Branko

    2016-07-01

    The Prandtl model succinctly combines the 1D stationary boundary-layer dynamics and thermodynamics of simple anabatic and katabatic flows over uniformly inclined surfaces. It assumes a balance between the along-the-slope buoyancy component and adiabatic warming/cooling, and the turbulent mixing of momentum and heat. In this study, energetics of the Prandtl model is addressed in terms of the total energy (TE) concept. Furthermore, since the authors recently developed a weakly nonlinear version of the Prandtl model, the TE approach is also exercised on this extended model version, which includes an additional nonlinear term in the thermodynamic equation. Hence, interplay among diffusion, dissipation and temperature-wind interaction of the mean slope flow is further explored. The TE of the nonlinear Prandtl model is assessed in an ensemble of solutions where the Prandtl number, the slope angle and the nonlinearity parameter are perturbed. It is shown that nonlinear effects have the lowest impact on variability in the ensemble of solutions of the weakly nonlinear Prandtl model when compared to the other two governing parameters. The general behavior of the nonlinear solution is similar to the linear solution, except that the maximum of the along-the-slope wind speed in the nonlinear solution reduces for larger slopes. Also, the dominance of PE near the sloped surface, and the elevated maximum of KE in the linear and nonlinear energetics of the extended Prandtl model are found in the PASTEX-94 measurements. The corresponding level where KE>PE most likely marks the bottom of the sublayer subject to shear-driven instabilities. Finally, possible limitations of the weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model are raised. In linear solutions, the local storage of TE term is zero, reflecting the stationarity of solutions by definition. However, in nonlinear solutions, the diffusion, dissipation and interaction terms (where the height of the maximum interaction is

  10. Testing the standard model by precision measurement of the weak charges of quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R D; Carlini, R D; Thomas, A W; Roche, J

    2007-09-21

    In a global analysis of the latest parity-violating electron scattering measurements on nuclear targets, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the experimental knowledge of the weak neutral-current lepton-quark interactions at low energy. The precision of this new result, combined with earlier atomic parity-violation measurements, places tight constraints on the size of possible contributions from physics beyond the standard model. Consequently, this result improves the lower-bound on the scale of relevant new physics to approximately 1 TeV.

  11. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  12. Weak Coupling Phase Structureof the Abelian Higgs Model at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovác, A

    1993-01-01

    Using the 1-loop reduced 3D action of the Abelian Higgs-model we discuss the order of its finite temperature phase transition. A two-variable saddle point approximation is proposed for the evaluation of the effective potential. The strength of the first order case scales like \\sim e^{3-6}. Analytic asymptotic weak coupling and numerical small coupling solutions are compared with special emphasis on the cancellation of divergences. (Figures are not included, can be sent upon request from jako@hercules.elte.hu .)

  13. Weak first-order orientational transition in the Lebwohl-Lasher model for liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1992-01-01

    The nature of the orientational phase transition in the three-dimensional Lebwohl-Lasher model of liquid crystals has been studied by computer simulation using reweighting techniques and finite-size scaling analysis. Unambiguous numerical evidence is found in favor of a weak first-order transition...... and the presence of pseudospinodal points, T±*, which are extremely close to the equilibrium transition temperature, ‖Tc-T±*‖/Tc≲0.5×10-3, in good agreement with experimental data for the nematic-isotropic transition....

  14. Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\

  15. Existence and stability of weak solutions for a degenerate parabolic system modelling two-phase flows in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2011-01-01

    We prove global existence of nonnegative weak solutions to a degenerate parabolic system which models the interaction of two thin fluid films in a porous medium. Furthermore, we show that these weak solutions converge at an exponential rate towards flat equilibria.

  16. REGAL: A Regularization based Algorithm for Reinforcement Learning in Weakly Communicating MDPs

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    We provide an algorithm that achieves the optimal regret rate in an unknown weakly communicating Markov Decision Process (MDP). The algorithm proceeds in episodes where, in each episode, it picks a policy using regularization based on the span of the optimal bias vector. For an MDP with S states and A actions whose optimal bias vector has span bounded by H, we show a regret bound of ~O(HSpAT). We also relate the span to various diameter-like quantities associated with the MDP, demonstrating how our results improve on previous regret bounds.

  17. General analytical procedure for determination of acidity parameters of weak acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Bogusław; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Młodzianowski, Janusz; Balińska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pK a values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pK a values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pK a values and the reference literature data for compounds studied.

  18. Applications of weakly compressible model to turbulent flow problem towards adaptive turbulence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takuya; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko

    2002-11-01

    We have been engaged in the development of multi-scale adaptive simulation technique for incompressible turbulent flow. This is designed as that important scale components in the flow field are detected automatically by lifting wavelet and solved selectively. In conventional incompressible scheme, it is very common to solve Poisson equation of pressure to meet the divergence free constraints of incompressible flow. It may be not impossible to solve the Poisson eq. in the adaptive way, but this is very troublesome because it requires generation of control volume at each time step. We gave an eye on weakly compressible model proposed by Bao(2001). This model was derived from zero Mach limit asymptotic analysis of compressible Navier-Stokes eq. and does not need to solve the Poisson eq. at all. But it is relatively new and it requires demonstration study before the combination with the adaptation by wavelet. In present study, 2-D and 3-D Backstep flow were selected as test problems and applicability to turbulent flow is verified in detail. Besides, combination of adaptation by wavelet with weakly compressible model towards the adaptive turbulence simulation is discussed.

  19. Higgs Production via Weak Boson Fusion in the Standard Model and the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Figy, Terrance; Weiglein, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO which includes the NLO QCD corrections. Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the liter...

  20. Phase diagram of the t U2 Hamiltonian of the weak coupling Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    We determine the symmetry of Cooper pairs, on the basis of the perturbation theory in terms of the Coulomb interaction U, for the two-dimensional Hubbard model on the square lattice. The phase diagram is investigated in detail. The Hubbard model for small U is mapped on to an effective Hamiltonian with the attractive interaction using the canonical transformation: Heff = eSHe-S. The gap equation of the weak coupling formulation is solved without numerical ambiguity to determine the symmetry of Cooper pairs. The superconducting gap crucially depends on the position of the van Hove singularity. We show the phase diagram in the plane of the electron filling ne and the next nearest-neighbor transfer t'. The d-wave pairing is dominant for the square lattice in a wide range of ne and t'. The d-wave pairing is also stable for the square lattice with anisotropic t'. The three-band d-p model is also investigated, for which the d-wave pairing is stable in a wide range of ne and tpp (the transfer between neighboring oxygen atoms). In the weak coupling analysis, the second-neighbor transfer parameter -t' could not be so large so that the optimum doping rate is in the range of 0.8 < ne < 0.85.

  1. Weakly swirling flow in a model of blood vessel with stenosis: Numerical and experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov A. Gataulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of weakly swirling flow in a model of a blood vessel with asymmetrical stenosis has been performed using both experimental flow measurement techniques (ultrasound Doppler and computational fluid dynamics methods. A special attention is paid to getting data for the length of the reverse-flow zone occurring past the stenosis. It has been established that the laminar steady-state flow model is acceptable for numerical analysis of flow past the given-geometry stenosis at Reynolds number values less than 300. At higher values of this parameter, application of the semi-empirical k-ω SST turbulence model is preferable. It has been shown that flow swirl can lead to an increase of the reverse-flow zone.

  2. Cannabis social clubs in Belgium: organizational strengths and weaknesses, and threats to the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are private organizations or clubs of users that produce cannabis for non-profit distribution to adult members to meet their personal needs without having to turn to the black market. CSCs can be found in many countries, but the term often covers very different empirical realities. Inspired by the Spanish CSCs and similarly taking advantage of a grey area in the Belgian cannabis legislation, Belgian cannabis activists set up the first Belgian CSC in 2006, and there are now at least 5 Belgian CSCs. The paper's main objective is to analyse the (internal) strengths and weaknesses and the (external) opportunities and threats of the model, as it exists today. The paper draws on a review of international literature and qualitative data on the Belgian cannabis social clubs. Field visits and interviews were conducted with each club. We analysed membership application forms, cultivation protocols and contracts with growers, cannabis ownership certificates of members, information leaflets, the clubs' websites, and all media articles and documentaries on the clubs in the Belgian media. The paper describes the membership criteria and house rules, the members' profile, the organization and protocols for cannabis production, the distribution of cannabis through 'exchange fairs', the administrative features of the clubs and their contacts with other CSCs and with local authorities, the drug sector and the media. Belgian CSCs seem not profit-driven, and operate as a system in which cannabis is not too easily available. The clubs have fairly direct control over the quality and the potency of the cannabis they distribute. The model offers important potential opportunities, in terms of economic advantages and monitoring consumption patterns. The main threats to Belgian CSCs consist of attempts to criminalize the model, the emergence of profit-driven clubs and systemic violence from criminal entrepreneurs. Weaknesses of the model relate to the unstable or

  3. Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cónsul-Giribet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups.METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups.RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice.CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life.

  4. On some problems of weak consistency of quasi-maximum likelihood estimates in generalized linear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we explore some weakly consistent properties of quasi-maximum likelihood estimates(QMLE) concerning the quasi-likelihood equation in=1 Xi(yi-μ(Xiβ)) = 0 for univariate generalized linear model E(y |X) = μ(X’β).Given uncorrelated residuals {ei = Yi-μ(Xiβ0),1 i n} and other conditions,we prove that βn-β0 = Op(λn-1/2) holds,where βn is a root of the above equation,β0 is the true value of parameter β and λn denotes the smallest eigenvalue of the matrix Sn = ni=1 XiXi.We also show that the convergence rate above is sharp,provided independent non-asymptotically degenerate residual sequence and other conditions.Moreover,paralleling to the elegant result of Drygas(1976) for classical linear regression models,we point out that the necessary condition guaranteeing the weak consistency of QMLE is Sn-1→ 0,as the sample size n →∞.

  5. On some problems of weak consistency of quasi-maximum likelihood estimates in generalized linear models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG SanGuo; LIAO Yuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore some weakly consistent properties of quasi-maximum likelihood estimates(QMLE)concerning the quasi-likelihood equation ∑ni=1 Xi(yi-μ(X1iβ)) =0 for univariate generalized linear model E(y|X) =μ(X1β). Given uncorrelated residuals{ei=Yi-μ(X1iβ0), 1≤i≤n}and other conditions, we prove that (β)n-β0=Op(λ--1/2n)holds, where (β)n is a root of the above equation,β0 is the true value of parameter β and λ-n denotes the smallest eigenvalue of the matrix Sn=Σni=1 XiX1i. We also show that the convergence rate above is sharp, provided independent nonasymptotically degenerate residual sequence and other conditions. Moreover, paralleling to the elegant result of Drygas(1976)for classical linear regression models,we point out that the necessary condition guaranteeing the weak consistency of QMLE is S-1n→0, as the sample size n→∞.

  6. Moving waves and spatiotemporal patterns due to weak thermal effects in models of catalytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhamkina, Olga; Sheintuch, Moshe

    2005-05-01

    We analyze the behavior of a microkinetic model of a catalytic reaction coupled with weak enthalpy effects to show that under fixed gas-phase concentrations it can produce moving waves with an intrinsic length scale, when the underlying kinetics is oscillatory. The kinetic model incorporates dissociative oxygen adsorption, reactant adsorption and desorption, and surface reaction. Three typical patterns may emerge in a one-dimensional system (a long wire or a ring): homogeneous oscillations, a family of moving waves propagating with constant velocities, and patterns with multiple source/sink points. Pattern selection depends on the ratio of the system length to the intrinsic wave length and the governing parameters. We complement these analysis with simulations that revealed a plethora of patterned states on one- and two-dimensional systems (a disk or a cylinder). This work shows that weak long-range coupling due to high feed rates maintains such patterns, while low feed rates or strong long-range interaction can gradually suppress the emerging patterns.

  7. Comparative study on sample stacking by moving reaction boundary formed with weak acid and weak or strong base in capillary electrophoresis: II. Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Liuyin; Shao, Jing; Li, Si; Li, Shan; Cao, Chengxi

    2011-04-15

    To demonstrate the theoretic method on the stacking of zwitterion with moving reaction boundary (MRB) in the accompanying paper, the relevant experiments were performed. The experimental results quantitatively show that (1) MRB velocity, including the comparisons between MRB and zwitterionic velocities, possesses key importance to the design of MRB stacking; (2) a much long front alkaline plug without sample should be injected before the sample injection for a complete stacking of zwitterion if sample buffer is prepared with strong base, conversely no such plug is needed if using a weak base as the sample buffer with proper concentration and pH value; (3) the presence of salt in MRB system holds dramatic effect on the MRB stacking if sample solution is a strong base, but has no effect if a weak alkali is used as sample solution; (4) all of the experiments of this paper, including the previous work, quantitatively manifest the theory and predictions shown in the accompanying paper. In addition, the so-called derivative MRB-induced re-stacking and transient FASI-induced re-stacking were also observed during the experiments, and the relevant mechanisms were briefly demonstrated with the results. The theory and its calculation procedures developed in the accompanying paper can be well used for the predictions to the MRB stacking of zwitterion in CE.

  8. Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic

  9. Analisis Internal Perusahaan (Strength & Weakness, Menggunakankonsep Resource-Based View of the Firm dengan Kerangka VRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Wandrial

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the company's internal environmental analysis is to determine the strengths and weaknesses (internal resources, we did not have reasonable grounds to determine whether the company's internal resources as a strength or weakness. Before we can determine whether a resource can be categorized as strengths or weaknesses, we must have a certain criteria so that appropriate resources are said to be a strength or weakness

  10. A collisional-radiative model for low-pressure weakly magnetized Ar plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Marchuk, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    Collisional-radiative (CR) models are widely investigated in plasma physics for describing the kinetics of reactive species and for optical emission spectroscopy. This work reports a new Ar CR model used in low-pressure (0.01-10 Pa) weakly magnetized (<0.1 Tesla) plasmas, including ECR, helicon, and NLD discharges. In this model 108 realistic levels are individually studied, i.e. 51 lowest levels of the Ar atom and 57 lowest levels of the Ar ion. We abandon the concept of an ``effective level'' usually adopted in previous models for glow discharges. Only in this way the model can correctly predict the non-equilibrium population distribution of close energy levels. In addition to studying atomic metastable and radiative levels, this model describes the kinetic processes of ionic metastable and radiative levels in detail for the first time. This is important for investigation of plasma-surface interaction and for optical diagnostics using atomic and ionic line-ratios. This model could also be used for studying Ar impurities in tokamaks and astrophysical plasmas.

  11. Weak turbulence theory and simulation of the gyro-water-bag model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne

    2008-05-01

    The thermal confinement time of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. To achieve the study of turbulent thermal diffusivities, Vlasov gyrokinetic description of the magnetically confined plasmas is now commonly adopted, and offers the advantage over fluid models (MHD, gyrofluid) to take into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions which may impact significantly the predicted turbulent transport. Nevertheless kinetic codes require a huge amount of computer resources and this constitutes the main drawback of this approach. A unifying approach is to consider the water-bag representation of the statistical distribution function because it allows us to keep the underlying kinetic features of the problem, while reducing the Vlasov kinetic model into a set of hydrodynamic equations, resulting in a numerical cost comparable to that needed for solving multifluid models. The present paper addresses the gyro-water-bag model derived as a water-bag-like weak solution of the Vlasov gyrokinetic models. We propose a quasilinear analysis of this model to retrieve transport coefficients allowing us to estimate turbulent thermal diffusivities without computing the full fluctuations. We next derive another self-consistent quasilinear model, suitable for numerical simulation, that we approximate by means of discontinuous Galerkin methods.

  12. Three species one-dimensional kinetic model for weakly ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, J; Tierno, S P

    2016-01-01

    A three species one-dimensional kinetic model is presented for a spatially homogeneous weakly ionized plasma subjected to the action of a time varying electric field. Planar geometry is assumed, which means that the plasma dynamics evolves in the privileged direction of the field. The energy transmitted to the charges is be channelized to the neutrals thanks to collisions and impacting the plasma dynamics. Charge-charge interactions have been designed as a one dimensional collision term equivalent to the Landau operator used for fully ionized plasmas. Charge-neutral collisions are modelled by a conservative drift diffusion operator in the Doughertys form. The resulting set of coupled drift diffusion equations is solved with the stable and robust Propagator Integral Method. This method feasibility accounts for non-linear effects without appealing to linearisation or simplifications, providing conservative physically meaningful solutions. It is found that charge neutral collisions exert a significant effect sin...

  13. Relativistic model for the nonmesonic weak decay of single-lambda hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fontoura, C E; Galeão, A P; De Conti, C; Krein, G

    2015-01-01

    Having in mind its future extension for theoretical investigations related to charmed nuclei, we develop a relativistic formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of single-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in the framework of the independent-particle shell model and with the dynamics represented by the $(\\pi,K)$ one-meson-exchange model. Numerical results for the one-nucleon-induced transition rates of ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\textrm{C}$ are presented and compared with those obtained in the analogous nonrelativistic calculation. There is satisfactory agreement between the two approaches, and the most noteworthy difference is that the ratio $\\Gamma_{n}/\\Gamma_{p}$ is appreciably higher and closer to the experimental value in the relativistic calculation. Large discrepancies between ours and previous relativistic calculations are found, for which we do not encounter any fully satisfactory explanation. The most recent experimental data is well reproduced by our results. In summary, we have achieved our purpose to develop a reliable...

  14. A splitting approach for the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Green-Naghdi model

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneton, Philippe; Lannes, David; Marche, Fabien; Tissier, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Green-Naghdi model for shallow water waves of large amplitude is studied. The original model is first recast under a new formulation more suitable for numerical resolution. An hybrid finite volume and finite difference splitting approach is then proposed. The hyperbolic part of the equations is handled with a high-order finite volume scheme allowing for breaking waves and dry areas. The dispersive part is treated with a classical finite difference approach. Extensive numerical validations are then performed in one horizontal dimension, relying both on analytical solutions and experimental data. The results show that our approach gives a good account of all the processes of wave transformation in coastal areas: shoaling, wave breaking and run-up.

  15. Towards a spectrum-based bar code for identification of weakly fluorescent microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášek, Zdeněk; Wiedemann, Jens; Schwille, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Spectrally resolved detection of fluorescent probes can be used to identify multiple labeled target molecules in an unknown mixture. We study how the spectral shape, the experimental noise, and the number of spectral detection channels affect the success of identification of weakly fluorescent beads on basis of their emission spectra. The proposed formalism allows to estimate the performance of the spectral identification procedure with a given set of spectral codes on the basis of the reference spectra only. We constructed a simple prism-based setup for spectral detection and demonstrate that seven distinct but overlapping spectral codes realized by combining up to three fluorescent dyes bound to a single bead in a barcode-based manner can be reliably identified. The procedure allows correct identification even in the presence of known autofluorescence background stronger than the actual signal.

  16. Enhanced LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG-Based WECS in Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    An enhanced coordinated low voltage ride-through, LVRT, control strategy for a Doubly-fed Induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system, WECS, connected to a weak grid is presented in this paper. The compliance with the grid code commitments is also considered. A proposed decoupled...... double synchronous reference frame (DDSRF) current controller is adopted for the design of grid side converter, GSC, controller to counteract current oscillations during asymmetrical faults and tackle the DC link voltage run-away. For a precise detection of the grid voltage position even under severe...... voltage dips/unbalanced conditions, A DDSRF-PLL is proposed and analyzed to extract clean synchronization signal in order to improve the overall system performance. Moreover, a fast decomposition based positive and negative sequence algorithm is utilized for rapid fault detection and to engage the LVRT...

  17. Flag-based detection of weak gas signatures in long-wave infrared hyperspectral image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrinan, Timothy; Beveridge, J. Ross; Draper, Bruce; Kirby, Michael; Peterson, Chris

    2016-05-01

    We present a flag manifold based method for detecting chemical plumes in long-wave infrared hyperspectral movies. The method encodes temporal and spatial information related to a hyperspectral pixel into a flag, or nested sequence of linear subspaces. The technique used to create the flags pushes information about the background clutter, ambient conditions, and potential chemical agents into the leading elements of the flags. Exploiting this temporal information allows for a detection algorithm that is sensitive to the presence of weak signals. This method is compared to existing techniques qualitatively on real data and quantitatively on synthetic data to show that the flag-based algorithm consistently performs better on data when the SINRdB is low, and beats the ACE and MF algorithms in probability of detection for low probabilities of false alarm even when the SINRdB is high.

  18. The Existence and Long-Time Behavior of Weak Solution to Bipolar Quantum Drift-Diffusion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuqing CHEN; Li CHEN; Huaiyu JIAN

    2007-01-01

    The authors study the existence and long-time behavior of weak solutions to the bipolar transient quantum drift-diffusion model, a fourth order parabolic system. Using semi-discretization in time and entropy estimate, the authors get the global existence of nonnegative weak solutions to the one-dimensional model with nonnegative initial and homogenous Neumann (or periodic) boundary conditions. Furthermore, by a logarithmic Sobolev inequality, it is proved that the periodic weak solution exponentially approaches its mean value as time increases to infinity.

  19. Nonstationary weak signal detection based on normalization stochastic resonance with varying parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HAIBIN ZHANG; WEI XIONG; SHANGBIN ZHANG; QINGBO HE; FANRANG KONG

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear stochastic resonance system possesses the ability of taking advantage of background noise to enhance the weak signal. It provides a new approach to detect the weak signal embedded with heavy noise. This study proposes a new varying parameter stochastic resonance employing the fourth-order Runge–Kutta numerical method as well as the normalized transformation of a bistable stochastic resonance system. The model performs well in the detection of a time-varying signal with background noise for denoising and signal recovery. We take the fitness coefficient and cross-correlation coefficient as the criteria and analyze the influence of different parameters. The simulating results indicate its availability, validity and that it generates a betterperformance than the traditional stochastic resonance. The method develops the area of time-varying signal detection with stochastic resonance and presents new strategy for detection and denoising of a time-varying signal. It can be expected to be widely used in the areas of aperiodic signal processing, radar communication,etc

  20. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  1. Reduced motor neuron excitability is an important contributor to weakness in a rat model of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Paul; Vincent, Jacob A; Powers, Randall; Cope, Tim C; Rich, Mark M

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms by which sepsis triggers intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICUAW) remain unclear. We previously identified difficulty with motor unit recruitment in patients as a novel contributor to ICUAW. To study the mechanism underlying poor recruitment of motor units we used the rat cecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis. We identified striking dysfunction of alpha motor neurons during repetitive firing. Firing was more erratic, and often intermittent. Our data raised the possibility that reduced excitability of motor neurons was a significant contributor to weakness induced by sepsis. In this study we quantified the contribution of reduced motor neuron excitability and compared its magnitude to the contributions of myopathy, neuropathy and failure of neuromuscular transmission. We injected constant depolarizing current pulses (5s) into the soma of alpha motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anesthetized rats to trigger repetitive firing. In response to constant depolarization, motor neurons in untreated control rats fired at steady and continuous firing rates and generated smooth and sustained tetanic motor unit force as expected. In contrast, following induction of sepsis, motor neurons were often unable to sustain firing throughout the 5s current injection such that force production was reduced. Even when firing, motor neurons from septic rats fired erratically and discontinuously, leading to irregular production of motor unit force. Both fast and slow type motor neurons had similar disruption of excitability. We followed rats after recovery from sepsis to determine the time course of resolution of the defect in motor neuron excitability. By one week, rats appeared to have recovered from sepsis as they had no piloerection and appeared to be in no distress. The defects in motor neuron repetitive firing were still striking at 2weeks and, although improved, were present at one month. We infer that rats suffered from weakness due to reduced

  2. Weak Target Detection within the Nonhomogeneous Ionospheric Clutter Background of HFSWR Based on STAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR can perform the functions of ocean environment monitoring, target detection, and target tracking over the horizon. However, its system's performance is always limited by the severe ionospheric clutter environment, especially by the nonhomogeneous component. The nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter generally can cover a few Doppler shift units and a few angle units. Consequently, weak targets masked by the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter are difficult to be detected. In this paper, a novel algorithm based on angle-Doppler joint eigenvector which considers the angle-Doppler map of radar echoes is adopted to analyze the characteristics of the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter. Given the measured data set, we first investigate the correlation between the signal of interest (SOI and the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter and then the correlation between the nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutters in different two ranges. Finally, a new strategy of training data selection is proposed to improve the joint domain localised (JDL algorithm. Simulation results show that the improved-JDL algorithm is effective and the performance of weak target detection within nonhomogeneous ionospheric clutter is improved.

  3. Improved Algorithm for Weak GPS Signal Acquisition Based on Delay-accumulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new improved algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of GPS weak signal capture that the traditional algorithms are unavailable to capture under a weak signal environment. This algorithm is based on the analysis of double block zero padding (DBZP algorithm and it adopts the delay-accumulation method to retain the operation results temporarily which are discarded in DBZP algorithm. Waiting for delaying 1 ms, the corresponding correlation calculation results are obtained. Then superimpose the obtained results with the operation results retained temporarily and compare the coherent accumulation results with the threshold value. The data measurements are increased by improving the utilization rate of correlation operation results in the improved algorithm on the premise of increasing little computation. Simulation results showed that the improved algorithm can improve the acquisition algorithm processing gain and it is able to capture the signals whose carrier-to-noise ratio(C/N0 is 17 dB-Hz and the detection probability can achieve to 91%.

  4. Deep Generative Models of Galaxy Images for the Calibration of the Next Generation of Weak Lensing Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, Francois; Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schneider, Jeff; Poczos, Barnabas

    2017-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has long been identified as one of the most powerful probes to investigate the nature of dark energy. As such, weak lensing is at the heart of the next generation of cosmological surveys such as LSST, Euclid or WFIRST.One particularly crititcal source of systematic errors in these surveys comes from the shape measurement algorithms tasked with estimating galaxy shapes. GREAT3, the last community challenge to assess the quality of state-of-the-art shape measurement algorithms has in particular demonstrated that all current methods are biased to various degrees and, more importantly, that these biases depend on the details of the galaxy morphologies. These biases can be measured and calibrated by generating mock observations where a known lensing signal has been introduced and comparing the resulting measurements to the ground-truth. Producing these mock observations however requires input galaxy images of higher resolution and S/N than the simulated survey, which typically implies acquiring extremely expensive space-based observations.The goal of this work is to train a deep generative model on already available Hubble Space Telescope data which can then be used to sample new galaxy images conditioned on parameters such as magnitude, size or redshift and exhibiting complex morphologies. Such model can allow us to inexpensively produce large set of realistic realistic images for calibration purposes.We implement a conditional generative model based on state-of-the-art deep learning methods and fit it to deep galaxy images from the COSMOS survey. The quality of the model is assessed by computing an extensive set of galaxy morphology statistics on the generated images. Beyond simple second moment statistics such as size and ellipticity, we apply more complex statistics specifically designed to be sensitive to disturbed galaxy morphologies. We find excellent agreement between the morphologies of real and model generated galaxies.Our results

  5. The dynamics of stock exchange based on the formalism of weak continuous quantum measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, S.; Tuluzov, I.

    2010-07-01

    The problem of measurement in economic models and the possibility of their quantum-mechanical description are considered. It is revealed that the apparent paradox of such a description is associated with a priori requirement of conformity of the model to all the alternatives of free choice of the observer. The measurement of the state of a trader on a stock exchange is formally defined as his responses to the proposals of sale at a fixed price. It is shown that an analogue of Bell's inequalities for this measurement model is violated at the most general assumptions related to the strategy of the trader and requires a quantum-mechanical description of the dynamics of his condition. In the framework of the theory of weak continuous quantum measurements, the equation of stock price dynamics and the quantum-mechanical generalization of the F. Black and M. Scholes model for pricing options are obtained. The fundamental distinctions between the obtained model and the classical one are discussed.

  6. Statistical mechanical model for a closed loop plectoneme with weak helix specific forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dominic J O'

    2017-04-12

    We develop a statistical mechanical framework, based on a variational approximation, to describe closed loop plectonemes. This framework incorporates weak helix structure dependent forces into the determination of the free energy and average structure of a plectoneme. Notably, due to their chiral nature, helix structure dependent forces break the symmetry between left and right handed supercoiling. The theoretical approach, presented here, also provides a systematic way of enforcing the topological constraint of closed loop supercoiling in the variational approximation. At large plectoneme lengths, by considering correlation functions in an expansion in terms of the spatial mean twist density about its thermally averaged value, it can be argued that topological constraint may be approximated by replacing twist and writhe by their thermal averages. A Lagrange multiplier, containing the sum of average twist and writhe, can be added to the free energy to conveniently inforce this result. The average writhe can be calculated through the thermal average of the Gauss' integral in the variational approximation. Furthermore, this approach allows for a possible way to calculate finite size corrections due to the topological constraint. Using interaction energy terms from the mean-field Kornyshev-Leikin theory, for parameter values that correspond to weak helix dependent forces, we calculate the free energy, fluctuation magnitudes and mean geometric parameters for the plectoneme. We see a slight asymmetry, where interestingly, left handed supercoils have a looser structure than right handed ones, although with a lower free energy, unlike what the previous ground state calculations would suggest.

  7. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  8. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  9. Negative differential mobility of weakly driven particles in models of glass formers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, Robert L.; Kelsey, David; Garrahan, Juan P.; Chandler, David

    2008-04-01

    We study the response of probe particles to weak constant driving in kinetically constrained models of glassy systems, and show that the probe's response can be non-monotonic and give rise to negative differential mobility: increasing the applied force can reduce the probe's drift velocity in the force direction. Other significant non-linear effects are also demonstrated, such as the enhancement with increasing force of the probe's fluctuations away from the average path, a phenomenon known in other contexts as giant diffusivity. We show that these results can be explained analytically by a continuous-time random walk approximation where there is decoupling between persistence and exchange times for local displacements of the probe. This decoupling is due to dynamic heterogeneity in the glassy system, which also leads to bimodal distributions of probe particle displacements. We discuss the relevance of our results to experiments.

  10. Weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic excitations in a relativistic model for dense quantum plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behery, E E; Haas, F; Kourakis, I

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of linear and nonlinear ionic-scale electrostatic excitations propagating in a magnetized relativistic quantum plasma is studied. A quantum-hydrodynamic model is adopted and degenerate statistics for the electrons is taken into account. The dispersion properties of linear ion acoustic waves are examined in detail. A modified characteristic charge screening length and "sound speed" are introduced, for relativistic quantum plasmas. By employing the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetzov-type equation is derived. Using the small-k expansion method, the stability profile of weakly nonlinear slightly supersonic electrostatic pulses is also discussed. The effect of electron degeneracy on the basic characteristics of electrostatic excitations is investigated. The entire analysis is valid in a three-dimensional as well as in two-dimensional geometry. A brief discussion of possible applications in laboratory and space plasmas is included.

  11. Landau pole in the Standard Model with weakly interacting scalar fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Hamada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model with a new scalar field X which is an nX representation of the SU(2L with a hypercharge YX. The renormalization group running effects on the new scalar quartic coupling constants are evaluated. Even if we set the scalar quartic coupling constants to be zero at the scale of the new scalar field, the coupling constants are induced by the one-loop effect of the weak gauge bosons. Once non-vanishing couplings are generated, the couplings rapidly increase by renormalization group effect of the quartic coupling constant itself. As a result, the Landau pole appears below Planck scale if nX≥4. We find that the scale of the obtained Landau pole is much lower than that evaluated by solving the one-loop beta function of the gauge coupling constants.

  12. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  13. Weak-lensing measurement of the mass-richness relation using the SDSS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth Johana; Rodriguez, Facundo; García Lambas, Diego; Merchán, Manuel; Foëx, Gael; Chalela, Martín

    2017-02-01

    We study the mass-richness relation using galaxy catalogues and images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use two independent methods: In the first one, we calibrate the scaling relation with weak-lensing mass estimates. In the second procedure, we apply a background subtraction technique to derive the probability distribution, P(M∣N), that groups with N-members have a virialized halo mass M. Lensing masses are derived in different richness bins for two galaxy systems sets: the maxBCG catalogue and a catalogue based on a group finder algorithm developed by Yang et al. Results of maxBCG are used to test the lensing methodology. The lensing mass-richness relation for the Yang et al. group sample shows a good agreement with P(M∣N) obtained independently with a straightforward procedure.

  14. NEW METHOD FOR WEAK FAULT FEATURE EXTRACTION BASED ON SECOND GENERATION WAVELET TRANSFORM AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Chendong; He Zhengjia; Jiang Hongkai

    2004-01-01

    A new time-domain analysis method that uses second generation wavelet transform (SGWT) for weak fault feature extraction is proposed. To extract incipient fault feature, a biorthogonal wavelet with the characteristics of impact is constructed by using SGWT. Processing detail signal of SGWT with a sliding window devised on the basis of rotating operation cycle, and extracting modulus maximum from each window, fault features in time-domain are highlighted. To make further analysis on the reason of the fault, wavelet package transform based on SGWT is used to process vibration data again. Calculating the energy of each frequency-band, the energy distribution features of the signal are attained. Then taking account of the fault features and the energy distribution, the reason of the fault is worked out. An early impact-rub fault caused by axis misalignment and rotor imbalance is successfully detected by using this method in an oil refinery.

  15. Cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based axion and weakly interacting slim particle searches

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Stephen R; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), such as axions, are highly motivated dark matter candidates. The most sensitive experimental searches for these particles exploit WISP-to-photon conversion mechanisms and use resonant cavity structures to enhance the resulting power signal. For WISPs to constitute Cold Dark Matter their required masses correspond to photons in the microwave spectrum. As such, searches for these types of WISPs are primarily limited by the thermal cavity noise and the broadband first-stage amplifier noise. In this work we propose and then verify two cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based WISP searches. These are two channel measurement schemes where the cross-spectrum is computed, rejecting uncorrelated noise sources while still retaining correlated signals such as those generated by WISPs. The first technique allows for the cavity thermal spectrum to be observed with an enhanced resolution. The second technique cross-correlates two individual cavity/amplifier system...

  16. Quantum Key Distribution Based on a Weak-Coupling Cavity QED Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 李岩松

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum key distribution scheme using a weak-coupling cavity QED regime based on quantum dense coding.Hybrid entanglement states of photons and electrons are used to distribute information.We just need to transmit photons without storing them in the scheme.The electron confined in a quantum dot,which is embedded in a microcavity,is held by one of the legitimate users throughout the whole communication process.Only the polarization of a single photon and spin of electron measurements are applied in this protocol,which are easier to perform than collective-Bell state measurements.Linear optical apparatus,such as a special polarizing beam splitter in a circular basis and single photon operations,make it more flexible to realize under current technology.Its efficiency will approach 100% in the ideal case.The security of the scheme is also discussed.%We present a quantum key distribution scheme using a weak-coupling cavity QED regime based on quantum dense coding. Hybrid entanglement states of photons and electrons are used to distribute information. We just need to transmit photons without storing them in the scheme. The electron confined in a quantum dot, which is embedded in a microcavity, is held by one of the legitimate users throughout the whole communication process. Only the polarization of a single photon and spin of electron measurements are applied in this protocol, which are easier to perform than collective-Bell state measurements. Linear optical apparatus, such as a speciai polarizing beam splitter in a circular basis and single photon operations, make it more flexible to realize under current technology. Its efficiency will approach 100% in the ideal case. The security of the scheme is also discussed.

  17. Resistivity due to weak double layers - A model for auroral arc thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manju; Lysak, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    We have calculated the resistivity due to a sequence of fluctuating weak double layers aligned parallel to the ambient magnetic field line. The average response of an electron drifting through a 1D randomly oriented array of WDLs is studied using a test particle approach. The average is taken over the randomly fluctuating values of the electric field associated with the double layers. Based on our calculations, we estimate that a 350 eV electron energy the thickness of the visual auroral arc is about 2.5 km and that of the auroral fine structure as about 250 m when mapped down to the ionosphere. The significance of our calculations is discussed in the context of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  18. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    An important fact in studying the link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a common structure property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is generally better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which furt...

  19. Playing the role of weak clique property in link prediction: A friend recommendation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-07-01

    An important fact in studying link prediction is that the structural properties of networks have significant impacts on the performance of algorithms. Therefore, how to improve the performance of link prediction with the aid of structural properties of networks is an essential problem. By analyzing many real networks, we find a typical structural property: nodes are preferentially linked to the nodes with the weak clique structure (abbreviated as PWCS to simplify descriptions). Based on this PWCS phenomenon, we propose a local friend recommendation (FR) index to facilitate link prediction. Our experiments show that the performance of FR index is better than some famous local similarity indices, such as Common Neighbor (CN) index, Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index. We then explain why PWCS can give rise to the better performance of FR index in link prediction. Finally, a mixed friend recommendation index (labelled MFR) is proposed by utilizing the PWCS phenomenon, which further improves the accuracy of link prediction.

  20. Stress Analysis of Vertical Dome Tank and Influencing Factors Analysis of Weak roof Based on Three -dimensional Model%基于三维模型的立式拱顶储罐应力分析与弱顶影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宇奇; 刘巨保; 武铜柱; 张维忠

    2011-01-01

    Researching for 3 × 103 m3 vertical dome tank, according to the weak roof requirement of GB 50341 standard, the weak roof performance of tank was evaluated. Establishing tank space model, u-sing the finite element method for tank stress analysis, stress distribution and intensity breakdown pressure of empty tank, half tank and full tank were calculated. The main factors of weak roof performance of tank are found out, and the possibility of which the tanks are designed into weak roof tanks is discussed through the influencing factors analysis of weak roof.%以3×103 m3立式拱顶储罐为研究对象,针对GB 50341对弱顶结构的要求,评价储罐的弱顶性能.建立储罐的空间模型,采用有限元法对储罐进行应力分析,计算得到储罐在空罐、半罐、满罐下的应力分布和强度破坏压力.通过对储罐弱顶影响因素的分析,找出影响储罐弱顶性能的主要因素,并探讨了使该类储罐设计成弱顶的可能性.

  1. Exploiting Attribute Correlations: A Novel Trace Lasso-Based Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Wang, Yang; Pan, Shirui

    2016-10-04

    It is now well established that sparse representation models are working effectively for many visual recognition tasks, and have pushed forward the success of dictionary learning therein. Recent studies over dictionary learning focus on learning discriminative atoms instead of purely reconstructive ones. However, the existence of intraclass diversities (i.e., data objects within the same category but exhibit large visual dissimilarities), and interclass similarities (i.e., data objects from distinct classes but share much visual similarities), makes it challenging to learn effective recognition models. To this end, a large number of labeled data objects are required to learn models which can effectively characterize these subtle differences. However, labeled data objects are always limited to access, committing it difficult to learn a monolithic dictionary that can be discriminative enough. To address the above limitations, in this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised dictionary learning method to automatically learn a discriminative dictionary by fully exploiting visual attribute correlations rather than label priors. In particular, the intrinsic attribute correlations are deployed as a critical cue to guide the process of object categorization, and then a set of subdictionaries are jointly learned with respect to each category. The resulting dictionary is highly discriminative and leads to intraclass diversity aware sparse representations. Extensive experiments on image classification and object recognition are conducted to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  2. Testing a Phenomenologically Extended DGP Model with Upcoming Weak Lensing Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Camera, Stefano; Cardone, Vincenzo F

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension sigma on the brane, and an extra parameter alpha tunes the cross-over scale r_c, the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same LCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernov\\ae, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear p...

  3. Geometrical model for martensitic phase transitions: Understanding criticality and weak universality during microstructure growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents, Genís; Illa, Xavier; Vives, Eduard; Planes, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    A simple model for the growth of elongated domains (needle-like) during a martensitic phase transition is presented. The model is purely geometric and the only interactions are due to the sequentiality of the kinetic problem and to the excluded volume, since domains cannot retransform back to the original phase. Despite this very simple interaction, numerical simulations show that the final observed microstructure can be described as being a consequence of dipolar-like interactions. The model is analytically solved in 2D for the case in which two symmetry related domains can grow in the horizontal and vertical directions. It is remarkable that the solution is analytic both for a finite system of size L ×L and in the thermodynamic limit L →∞ , where the elongated domains become lines. Results prove the existence of criticality, i.e., that the domain sizes observed in the final microstructure show a power-law distribution characterized by a critical exponent. The exponent, nevertheless, depends on the relative probabilities of the different equivalent variants. The results provide a plausible explanation of the weak universality of the critical exponents measured during martensitic transformations in metallic alloys. Experimental exponents show a monotonous dependence with the number of equivalent variants that grow during the transition.

  4. CFHTLenS: Combined probe cosmological model comparison using 2D weak gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbinger, Martin; Heymans, Catherine; Simpson, Fergus; Benjamin, Jonathan; Erben, Thomas; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Hoekstra, Henk; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kitching, Thomas D; Mellier, Yannick; Miller, Lance; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Benabed, Karim; Bonnett, Christopher; Coupon, Jean; Hudson, Michael J; Kuijken, Konrad; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Vafaei, Sanaz; Velander, Malin

    2012-01-01

    We present cosmological constraints from 2D weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) which spans 154 square degrees in five optical bands. Using accurate photometric redshifts and measured shapes for 4.2 million galaxies between redshifts of 0.2 and 1.3, we compute the 2D cosmic shear correlation function over angular scales ranging between 0.8 and 350 arcmin. Using non-linear models of the dark-matter power spectrum, we constrain cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. The best constraints from lensing alone are obtained for the small-scale density-fluctuations amplitude sigma_8 scaled with the total matter density Omega_m. For a flat LambdaCDM model we obtain sigma_8(Omega_m/0.27)^0.6 = 0.79+-0.03. We combine the CFHTLenS data with WMAP7, BOSS and an HST distance-ladder prior on the Hubble constant to get joint constraints. For a flat LambdaCDM model, we find Omega_m = 0.283+...

  5. A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts III. Filtering technique comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chieh-An; Pires, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    This is the third in a series of papers that develop a new and flexible model to predict weak-lensing (WL) peak counts, which have been shown to be a very valuable non-Gaussian probe of cosmology. In this paper, we compare the cosmological information extracted from WL peak counts using different filtering techniques of the galaxy shear data, including linear filtering with a Gaussian and two compensated filters (the starlet wavelet and the aperture mass), and the nonlinear filtering method MRLens. We present improvements to our model that account for realistic survey conditions, which are masks, shear-to-convergence transformations, and non-constant noise. We create simulated peak counts from our stochastic model, from which we obtain constraints on the matter density $\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}$, the power spectrum normalization $\\sigma_8$, and the dark-energy parameter $w_0^\\mathrm{de}$. We use two methods for parameter inference, a copula likelihood, and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). We measure the conto...

  6. Measurement and modeling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, M S; Maloney, L T; Johnston, E B; Young, M

    1995-02-01

    Various visual cues provide information about depth and shape in a scene. When several of these cues are simultaneously available in a single location in the scene, the visual system attempts to combine them. In this paper, we discuss three key issues relevant to the experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision: cue promotion, dynamic weighting of cues, and robustness of cue combination. We review recent psychophysical studies of human depth cue combination in light of these issues. We organize the discussion and review as the development of a model of the depth cue combination process termed modified weak fusion (MWF). We relate the MWF framework to Bayesian theories of cue combination. We argue that the MWF model is consistent with previous experimental results and is a parsimonious summary of these results. While the MWF model is motivated by normative considerations, it is primarily intended to guide experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision. We describe experimental methods, analogous to perturbation analysis, that permit us to analyze depth cue combination in novel ways. In particular these methods allow us to investigate the key issues we have raised. We summarize recent experimental tests of the MWF framework that use these methods.

  7. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.

  8. Overview of Physical Models and Statistical Approaches for Weak Gaseous Plume Detection using Passive Infrared Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hengartner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance of weak gaseous plume-detection methods in hyperspectral long-wave infrared imagery depends on scene-specific conditions such at the ability to properly estimate atmospheric transmission, the accuracy of estimated chemical signatures, and background clutter. This paper reviews commonly-applied physical models in the context of weak plume identification and quantification, identifies inherent error sources as well as those introduced by making simplifying assumptions, and indicates research areas.

  9. Modeling the adsorption of weak organic acids on goethite: the ligand and charge distribution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study is presented in which the CD-MUSIC modeling approach is used in a new modeling approach that can describe the binding of large organic molecules by metal (hydr)oxides taking the full speciation of the adsorbed molecule into account. Batch equilibration experiments were performed usi

  10. Reconstruction of Cluster Masses using Particle Based Lensing I: Application to Weak Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Sanghamitra; Ramdass, Vede J

    2008-01-01

    Combining strong and weak (S+W) lensing is becoming an important tool in mass measurements of clusters. Determining mass maps of clusters using S+W analysis can be challenging because of the difference in length scales associated with the different signals. Traditionally researchers have used grid based methods to reconstruct the density fields. In this paper we develop PBL, a particle based method that incorporates these two scales without the necessity of regularization. We apply the particle based method to do mass reconstruction using ellipticities only, but show that PBL can be easily generalized to include strong lensing information as well. We apply these techniques to a number of test cases and find excellent agreement between the reconstructed and input mass distribution. In particular we reconstruct the mass distribution of a softened isothermal sphere with a $\\chi^2$ of 1.1. We have also applied PBL to ``Bullet Cluster'' (1E0657-56) data and compared the resulting mass distribution with the publicl...

  11. A Nanotechnology-Ready Computing Scheme based on a Weakly Coupled Oscillator Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarevic, Damir; Locatelli, Nicolas; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With conventional transistor technologies reaching their limits, alternative computing schemes based on novel technologies are currently gaining considerable interest. Notably, promising computing approaches have proposed to leverage the complex dynamics emerging in networks of coupled oscillators based on nanotechnologies. The physical implementation of such architectures remains a true challenge, however, as most proposed ideas are not robust to nanotechnology devices’ non-idealities. In this work, we propose and investigate the implementation of an oscillator-based architecture, which can be used to carry out pattern recognition tasks, and which is tailored to the specificities of nanotechnologies. This scheme relies on a weak coupling between oscillators, and does not require a fine tuning of the coupling values. After evaluating its reliability under the severe constraints associated to nanotechnologies, we explore the scalability of such an architecture, suggesting its potential to realize pattern recognition tasks using limited resources. We show that it is robust to issues like noise, variability and oscillator non-linearity. Defining network optimization design rules, we show that nano-oscillator networks could be used for efficient cognitive processing. PMID:28322262

  12. A Nanotechnology-Ready Computing Scheme based on a Weakly Coupled Oscillator Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarevic, Damir; Locatelli, Nicolas; Abreu Araujo, Flavio; Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien

    2017-03-01

    With conventional transistor technologies reaching their limits, alternative computing schemes based on novel technologies are currently gaining considerable interest. Notably, promising computing approaches have proposed to leverage the complex dynamics emerging in networks of coupled oscillators based on nanotechnologies. The physical implementation of such architectures remains a true challenge, however, as most proposed ideas are not robust to nanotechnology devices’ non-idealities. In this work, we propose and investigate the implementation of an oscillator-based architecture, which can be used to carry out pattern recognition tasks, and which is tailored to the specificities of nanotechnologies. This scheme relies on a weak coupling between oscillators, and does not require a fine tuning of the coupling values. After evaluating its reliability under the severe constraints associated to nanotechnologies, we explore the scalability of such an architecture, suggesting its potential to realize pattern recognition tasks using limited resources. We show that it is robust to issues like noise, variability and oscillator non-linearity. Defining network optimization design rules, we show that nano-oscillator networks could be used for efficient cognitive processing.

  13. Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' ' A. Avogadro' ' , Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cardone, Vincenzo F., E-mail: camera@ph.unito.it, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: winnyenodrac@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r{sub c}, the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼models differ at most by the 1σ uncertainty over the range 500∼

  14. Electrolocation based on tail-bending movements in weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Miyoung; Kim, DaeEun

    2011-07-15

    Weakly electric fish generate an electric field with their electric organ to navigate in space, detect objects and communicate with conspecifics. Several studies have examined how electric fish identify objects with their electroreceptors and use electric images for electrolocation. It has been argued that sensor readings from electroreceptors along the rostrocaudal line allow fish to determine the location of a target object. It is well known that the ratio between the maximal slope and the maximal amplitude of the electric image can allow the discrimination of object distances, regardless of object size and conductivity. In order to understand the temporal pattern of electric images, we used a model of electric field perturbation. Using the model, we suggest that the temporal pattern generated at an electrosensor during tail bending is another cue that can be used by the fish to discriminate object distances. The time course of electric sensor signals from a specific electroreceptor when tail-bending movements are applied can provide information about the lateral distance of a target object.

  15. Synaptic organizations and dynamical properties of weakly connected neural oscillators. I. Analysis of a canonical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppensteadt, F C; Izhikevich, E M

    1996-08-01

    We study weakly connected networks of neural oscillators near multiple Andronov-Hopf bifurcation points. We analyze relationships between synaptic organizations (anatomy) of the networks and their dynamical properties (function). Our principal assumptions are: (1) Each neural oscillator comprises two populations of neurons; excitatory and inhibitory ones; (2) activity of each population of neurons is described by a scalar (one-dimensional) variable; (3) each neural oscillator is near a nondegenerate supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation point; (4) the synaptic connections between the neural oscillators are weak. All neural networks satisfying these hypotheses are governed by the same dynamical system, which we call the canonical model. Studying the canonical model shows that: (1) A neural oscillator can communicate only with those oscillators which have roughly the same natural frequency. That is, synaptic connections between a pair of oscillators having different natural frequencies are functionally insignificant. (2) Two neural oscillators having the same natural frequencies might not communicate if the connections between them are from among a class of pathological synaptic configurations. In both cases the anatomical presence of synaptic connections between neural oscillators does not necessarily guarantee that the connections are functionally significant. (3) There can be substantial phase differences (time delays) between the neural oscillators, which result from the synaptic organization of the network, not from the transmission delays. Using the canonical model we can illustrate self-ignition and autonomous quiescence (oscillator death) phenomena. That is, a network of passive elements can exhibit active properties and vice versa. We also study how Dale's principle affects dynamics of the networks, in particular, the phase differences that the network can reproduce. We present a complete classification of all possible synaptic organizations from this

  16. Three species one-dimensional kinetic model for weakly ionized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J.; Donoso, J. M.; Tierno, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    A three species one-dimensional kinetic model is presented for a spatially homogeneous weakly ionized plasma subjected to the action of a time varying electric field. Planar geometry is assumed, which means that the plasma evolves in the privileged direction of the field. The energy transmitted to the electric charges is channelized to the neutrals thanks to collisions, a mechanism that influences the plasma dynamics. Charge-charge interactions have been designed as a one-dimensional collision term equivalent to the Landau operator used for fully ionized plasmas. Charge-neutral collisions are modelled by a conservative drift-diffusion operator in the Dougherty's form. The resulting set of coupled integro-differential equations is solved with the stable and robust propagator integral method. This semi-analytical method feasibility accounts for non-linear effects without appealing to linearisation or simplifications, providing conservative physically meaningful solutions even for initial or emerging sharp velocity distribution function profiles. It is found that charge-neutral collisions exert a significant effect since a quite different plasma evolution arises if compared to the collisionless limit. In addition, substantial differences in the system motion are found for constant and temperature dependent collision frequencies cases.

  17. Three species one-dimensional kinetic model for weakly ionized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jorge.gonzalez@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Tierno, S. P. [Department of Applied Physics, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    A three species one-dimensional kinetic model is presented for a spatially homogeneous weakly ionized plasma subjected to the action of a time varying electric field. Planar geometry is assumed, which means that the plasma evolves in the privileged direction of the field. The energy transmitted to the electric charges is channelized to the neutrals thanks to collisions, a mechanism that influences the plasma dynamics. Charge-charge interactions have been designed as a one-dimensional collision term equivalent to the Landau operator used for fully ionized plasmas. Charge-neutral collisions are modelled by a conservative drift-diffusion operator in the Dougherty's form. The resulting set of coupled integro-differential equations is solved with the stable and robust propagator integral method. This semi–analytical method feasibility accounts for non–linear effects without appealing to linearisation or simplifications, providing conservative physically meaningful solutions even for initial or emerging sharp velocity distribution function profiles. It is found that charge-neutral collisions exert a significant effect since a quite different plasma evolution arises if compared to the collisionless limit. In addition, substantial differences in the system motion are found for constant and temperature dependent collision frequencies cases.

  18. Finite-key analysis for quantum key distribution with weak coherent pulses based on Bernoulli sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2017-07-01

    An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.

  19. Weak Measurement-Based Entanglement Protection of Two-Qubit X-States from Amplitude Damping Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao-Hua; Tao, Ya-Ping; Tan, Yong-Gang; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Considering X-states the density matrixes of which look like the letter X, we propose a weak measurement-based entanglement protection protocol of two-qubit X-states under local amplitude damping channels using weak measurement and reversal operation. It is shown that, with increase of the decoherence parameter, the entanglement attenuates rapidly owing to the amplitude damping noise and even experiences entanglement sudden death (ESD). However, the entanglement under the weak measurement and reversal operation is always much stronger than the entanglement undergoing the amplitude damping decoherence. These results reflect that entanglement of two-qubit X-states from amplitude damping decoherence can be protected, and ESD can be circumvented by increasing the weak measurement strength.

  20. The Importance and Weaknesses of the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roland S.

    2010-01-01

    To view contemporary Science as an industry is a very apt and timely stance. Ghassib's (2010) historical analysis of knowledge production, which he terms "A Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production," is an interesting one. It is important, however, to observe that the outline of this model is based entirely on the production of…

  1. Weak Dual Pairs and Jetlet Methods for Ideal Incompressible Fluid Models in n ≥ 2 Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, C. J.; Eldering, J.; Holm, D. D.; Jacobs, H. O.; Meier, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We review the role of dual pairs in mechanics and use them to derive particle-like solutions to regularized incompressible fluid systems. In our case we have a dual pair resulting from the action of diffeomorphisms on point particles (essentially by moving the points). We then augment our dual pair by considering the action of diffeomorphisms on Taylor series, also known as jets. The augmented weak dual pairs induce a hierarchy of particle-like solutions and conservation laws with particles carrying a copy of a jet group. We call these augmented particles jetlets. The jet groups serve as finite-dimensional models of the diffeomorphism group itself, and so the jetlet particles serve as a finite-dimensional model of the self-similarity exhibited by ideal incompressible fluids. The conservation law associated to jetlet solutions is shown to be a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. Finally, we study the dynamics of infinite time particle mergers. We prove that two merging particles at the zeroth level in the hierarchy yield dynamics which asymptotically approach that of a single particle in the first level in the hierarchy. This merging behavior is then verified numerically as well as the exchange of angular momentum which must occur during a near collision of two particles. The resulting particle-like solutions suggest a new class of meshless methods which work in dimensions n ≥ 2 and which exhibit a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. More broadly, this provides one of the first finite-dimensional models of self-similarity in ideal fluids.

  2. A weakly-constrained data assimilation approach to address rainfall-runoff model structural inadequacy in streamflow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haksu; Seo, Dong-Jun; Noh, Seong Jin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a simple yet effective weakly-constrained (WC) data assimilation (DA) approach for hydrologic models which accounts for model structural inadequacies associated with rainfall-runoff transformation processes. Compared to the strongly-constrained (SC) DA, WC DA adjusts the control variables less while producing similarly or more accurate analysis. Hence the adjusted model states are dynamically more consistent with those of the base model. The inadequacy of a rainfall-runoff model was modeled as an additive error to runoff components prior to routing and penalized in the objective function. Two example modeling applications, distributed and lumped, were carried out to investigate the effects of the WC DA approach on DA results. For distributed modeling, the distributed Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model was applied to the TIFM7 Basin in Missouri, USA. For lumped modeling, the lumped SAC-SMA model was applied to nineteen basins in Texas. In both cases, the variational DA (VAR) technique was used to assimilate discharge data at the basin outlet. For distributed SAC-SMA, spatially homogeneous error modeling yielded updated states that are spatially much more similar to the a priori states, as quantified by Earth Mover's Distance (EMD), than spatially heterogeneous error modeling by up to ∼10 times. DA experiments using both lumped and distributed SAC-SMA modeling indicated that assimilating outlet flow using the WC approach generally produce smaller mean absolute difference as well as higher correlation between the a priori and the updated states than the SC approach, while producing similar or smaller root mean square error of streamflow analysis and prediction. Large differences were found in both lumped and distributed modeling cases between the updated and the a priori lower zone tension and primary free water contents for both WC and SC approaches, indicating possible model structural deficiency in describing low flows or

  3. Selective and regulated trapping of nicotinic receptor weak base ligands and relevance to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Anitha P; Vallejo, Yolanda F; Stolz, Jacob R; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Swanson, Geoffrey T; Green, William N

    2017-07-18

    To better understand smoking cessation, we examined the actions of varenicline (Chantix) during long-term nicotine exposure. Varenicline reduced nicotine upregulation of α4β2-type nicotinic receptors (α4β2Rs) in live cells and neurons, but not for membrane preparations. Effects on upregulation depended on intracellular pH homeostasis and were not observed if acidic pH in intracellular compartments was neutralized. Varenicline was trapped as a weak base in acidic compartments and slowly released, blocking (125)I-epibatidine binding and desensitizing α4β2Rs. Epibatidine itself was trapped; (125)I-epibatidine slow release from acidic vesicles was directly measured and required the presence of α4β2Rs. Nicotine exposure increased epibatidine trapping by increasing the numbers of acidic vesicles containing α4β2Rs. We conclude that varenicline as a smoking cessation agent differs from nicotine through trapping in α4β2R-containing acidic vesicles that is selective and nicotine-regulated. Our results provide a new paradigm for how smoking cessation occurs and suggest how more effective smoking cessation reagents can be designed.

  4. New polyelectrolyte complex particles as colloidal dispersions based on weak synthetic and/or natural polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evidence the formation of stable polyelectrolyte complex particles as colloidal dispersions using some weak polyelectrolytes: chitosan and poly(allylamine hydrochloride as polycations and poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid – co – acrylic acid (PAMPSAA as polyanions. Polyelectrolyte complex particles as colloidal dispersion were prepared by controlled mixing of the oppositely charged polymers, with a constant addition rate. The influences of the polyelectrolytes structure and the molar ratio between ionic charges on the morphology, size, and colloidal stability of the complex particles have been deeply investigated by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. A strong influence of polyanion structure on the values of molar ratio n–/n+ when neutral complex particles were obtained has been noticed, which shifts from the theoretical value of 1.0, observed when PAA was used, to 0.7 for PAMPSAA based complexes. The polyions chain characteristics influenced the size and shape of the complexes, larger particles being obtained when chitosan was used, for the same polyanion, and when PAMPSAA was used, for the same polycation.

  5. Evaluating the effect of stellar multiplicity on the PSF of space-based weak lensing surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntzer, T; Meylan, G

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of space-based telescopes used for weak lensing surveys will require exquisite point spread function (PSF) determination. Previously negligible effects may become important in the reconstruction of the PSF, in part because of the improved spatial resolution. In this paper, we show that unresolved multiple star systems can affect the ellipticity and size of the PSF and that this effect is not cancelled even when using many stars in the reconstruction process. We estimate the error in the reconstruction of the PSF due to the binaries in the star sample both analytically and with image simulations for different PSFs and stellar populations. The simulations support our analytical finding that the error on the size of the PSF is a function of the multiple stars distribution and of the intrinsic value of the size of the PSF, i.e. if all stars were single. Similarly, the modification of each of the complex ellipticity components (e1,e2) depends on the distribution of multiple stars and on the int...

  6. Standard systems for measurement of pK values and ionic mobilities: 2. Univalent weak bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slampová, Andrea; Krivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Bocek, Petr

    2009-04-24

    This paper contributes to the methodology of measuring pK values and ionic mobilities by capillary zone electrophoresis by introducing the principle of constant ionic strength and minimum interaction of analytes with counterionic components and presenting a standard system of cationic buffers for measurements of weak bases. The system is designed so that all buffers comprise the same concentration of Cl(-) present as the only counter anion. This minimizes problems caused by interactions between the counterion and the analytes which may otherwise bring biased values of obtained effective mobilities. Further, the buffer system provides constant and accurately known ionic strength for an entire set of measurements. When additionally all measurements are performed with constant Joule heating, one correction for ionic strength and temperature is then needed for the obtained set of experimental data. This considerably facilitates their evaluation and regression analysis as the corrections for ionic strength and Joule heating need not be implemented in the computation software and may be applied only once to the final regression results. An experimental example of the proposed methodology is presented and the reliability and the advantages of the proposed system are shown, where the known problematic groups of amines and pyridine were measured with high accuracy and without any notice of anomalous behavior.

  7. Weak transient fault feature extraction based on an optimized Morlet wavelet and kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Xing, Jianfeng; Mao, Yongfang

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at solving the key problem in weak transient detection, the present study proposes a new transient feature extraction approach using the optimized Morlet wavelet transform, kurtosis index and soft-thresholding. Firstly, a fast optimization algorithm based on the Shannon entropy is developed to obtain the optimized Morlet wavelet parameter. Compared to the existing Morlet wavelet parameter optimization algorithm, this algorithm has lower computation complexity. After performing the optimized Morlet wavelet transform on the analyzed signal, the kurtosis index is used to select the characteristic scales and obtain the corresponding wavelet coefficients. From the time-frequency distribution of the periodic impulsive signal, it is found that the transient signal can be reconstructed by the wavelet coefficients at several characteristic scales, rather than the wavelet coefficients at just one characteristic scale, so as to improve the accuracy of transient detection. Due to the noise influence on the characteristic wavelet coefficients, the adaptive soft-thresholding method is applied to denoise these coefficients. With the denoised wavelet coefficients, the transient signal can be reconstructed. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of two simulated signals, and the diagnosis of a rolling bearing fault and a gearbox fault. The superiority of the method over the fast kurtogram method was verified by the results of simulation analysis and real experiments. It is concluded that the proposed method is extremely suitable for extracting the periodic impulsive feature from strong background noise.

  8. Nonmesonic weak decay of Lambda-hypernuclei within independent-particle shell-model

    CERN Document Server

    Krmpotić, Franjo; Hussein, Mahir S

    2012-01-01

    After a short introduction to the nonmesonic weak decay (NMWD) $\\Lambda N\\go nN$ of $\\Lambda$-hypernuclei we discuss the long-standing puzzle on the ratio $\\Gamma_n/\\Gamma_p$, and some recent experimental evidences that signalized towards its final solution. Two versions of the Independent-Particle-Shell-Model (IPSM) are employed to account for the nuclear structure of the final residual nuclei. They are: (a) IPSM-a, where no correlation, except for the Pauli principle, is taken into account, and (b) IPSM-b, where the highly excited hole states are considered to be quasi-stationary and are described by Breit-Wigner distributions, whose widths are estimated from the experimental data. We evaluate the coincidence spectra in $^{4}_\\Lambda$He, $^{5}_\\Lambda$He, $^{12}_\\Lambda$C, $^{16}_\\Lambda$O, and $^{28}_\\Lambda$Si, as a function of the sum of kinetic energies $E_{nN}=E_n+E_N$ for $N=n,p$. The recent Brookhaven National Laboratory experiment E788 on $^4_\\Lambda$He, is interpreted within the IPSM . We found tha...

  9. Limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Howes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas are explored using quantitative comparisons to Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic theory over a wide range of parameter space. The validity of Hall MHD in the cold ion limit is shown, but spurious undamped wave modes exist in Hall MHD when the ion temperature is finite. It is argued that turbulence in the dissipation range of the solar wind must be one, or a mixture, of three electromagnetic wave modes: the parallel whistler, oblique whistler, or kinetic Alfvén waves. These modes are generally well described by Hall MHD. Determining the applicability of linear kinetic damping rates in turbulent plasmas requires a suite of fluid and kinetic nonlinear numerical simulations. Contrasting fluid and kinetic simulations will also shed light on whether the presence of spurious wave modes alters the nonlinear couplings inherent in turbulence and will illuminate the turbulent dynamics and energy transfer in the regime of the characteristic ion kinetic scales.

  10. Deleting exon 55 from the nebulin gene induces severe muscle weakness in a mouse model for nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Buck, Danielle; de Winter, Josine M; Ferrara, Claudia; Piroddi, Nicoletta; Tesi, Chiara; Jasper, Jeffrey R; Malik, Fady I; Meng, Hui; Stienen, Ger J M; Beggs, Alan H; Labeit, Siegfried; Poggesi, Corrado; Lawlor, Michael W; Granzier, Henk

    2013-06-01

    Nebulin--a giant sarcomeric protein--plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle contractility by specifying thin filament length and function. Although mutations in the gene encoding nebulin (NEB) are a frequent cause of nemaline myopathy, the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, the mechanisms by which mutations in NEB cause muscle weakness remain largely unknown. To better understand these mechanisms, we have generated a mouse model in which Neb exon 55 is deleted (Neb(ΔExon55)) to replicate a founder mutation seen frequently in patients with nemaline myopathy with Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. Neb(ΔExon55) mice are born close to Mendelian ratios, but show growth retardation after birth. Electron microscopy studies show nemaline bodies--a hallmark feature of nemaline myopathy--in muscle fibres from Neb(ΔExon55) mice. Western blotting studies with nebulin-specific antibodies reveal reduced nebulin levels in muscle from Neb(ΔExon55) mice, and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy studies with tropomodulin antibodies and phalloidin reveal that thin filament length is significantly reduced. In line with reduced thin filament length, the maximal force generating capacity of permeabilized muscle fibres and single myofibrils is reduced in Neb(ΔExon55) mice with a more pronounced reduction at longer sarcomere lengths. Finally, in Neb(ΔExon55) mice the regulation of contraction is impaired, as evidenced by marked changes in crossbridge cycling kinetics and by a reduction of the calcium sensitivity of force generation. A novel drug that facilitates calcium binding to the thin filament significantly augmented the calcium sensitivity of submaximal force to levels that exceed those observed in untreated control muscle. In conclusion, we have characterized the first nebulin-based nemaline myopathy model, which recapitulates important features of the phenotype observed in patients harbouring this particular mutation, and which has severe muscle weakness caused by

  11. Nonnegative global weak solutions for a degenerate parabolic system modeling thin films driven by capillarity

    CERN Document Server

    Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2011-01-01

    We prove global existence of nonnegative weak solutions for a strongly coupled, fourth order degenerate parabolic system governing the motion of two thin fluid layers in a porous medium when capillarity is the sole driving mechanism.

  12. Gaussian Weak Classifiers Based on Haar-Like Features with Four Rectangles for Real-time Face Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Sri-Kaushik; Delgado Gomez, David; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    This paper proposes Gaussian weak classifiers (GWCs) for use in real-time face detection systems. GWCs are based on Haar-like features (HFs) with four rectangles (HF4s), which constitute the majority of the HFs used to train a face detector. To label an image as face or clutter (non-face), GWC uses the responses of the two HF2s in a HF4 to compute a Mahalanobis distance which is later compared to a threshold to make decisions. For a fixed accuracy on the face class, GWCs can classify clutter images with more accuracy than the existing weak classifier types. Our experiments compare the accuracy and speed of the face detectors built with four different weak classifier types: GWCs, Viola & Jones’s, Rasolzadeh et al.’s and Mita et al.’s. On the standard MIT+CMU image database, the GWC-based face detector provided 40% less false positives and required 32% less time for the scanning process when compared to the detector that used Viola & Jones’s weak classifiers. When compared to detectors that used Rasolzadeh et al.’s and Mita et al.’s weak classifiers, the GWC-based detector produced 11% and 9% fewer false positives. Simultaneously, it required 37% and 42% less time for the scanning process.

  13. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  14. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  15. Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

  16. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  17. Weak Fault Feature Extraction of Rolling Bearings Based on an Improved Kurtogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianglong; Feng, Fuzhou; Zhang, Bingzhi

    2016-09-13

    Kurtograms have been verified to be an efficient tool in bearing fault detection and diagnosis because of their superiority in extracting transient features. However, the short-time Fourier Transform is insufficient in time-frequency analysis and kurtosis is deficient in detecting cyclic transients. Those factors weaken the performance of the original kurtogram in extracting weak fault features. Correlated Kurtosis (CK) is then designed, as a more effective solution, in detecting cyclic transients. Redundant Second Generation Wavelet Packet Transform (RSGWPT) is deemed to be effective in capturing more detailed local time-frequency description of the signal, and restricting the frequency aliasing components of the analysis results. The authors in this manuscript, combining the CK with the RSGWPT, propose an improved kurtogram to extract weak fault features from bearing vibration signals. The analysis of simulation signals and real application cases demonstrate that the proposed method is relatively more accurate and effective in extracting weak fault features.

  18. Weak Fault Feature Extraction of Rolling Bearings Based on an Improved Kurtogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kurtograms have been verified to be an efficient tool in bearing fault detection and diagnosis because of their superiority in extracting transient features. However, the short-time Fourier Transform is insufficient in time-frequency analysis and kurtosis is deficient in detecting cyclic transients. Those factors weaken the performance of the original kurtogram in extracting weak fault features. Correlated Kurtosis (CK is then designed, as a more effective solution, in detecting cyclic transients. Redundant Second Generation Wavelet Packet Transform (RSGWPT is deemed to be effective in capturing more detailed local time-frequency description of the signal, and restricting the frequency aliasing components of the analysis results. The authors in this manuscript, combining the CK with the RSGWPT, propose an improved kurtogram to extract weak fault features from bearing vibration signals. The analysis of simulation signals and real application cases demonstrate that the proposed method is relatively more accurate and effective in extracting weak fault features.

  19. STATIONARY STRUCTURES FOR A WEAKLY COUPLED ELLIPTIC SYSTEM ARISING IN TWO-PREDATOR, TWO-PREY MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平; 林支桂

    2001-01-01

    Weakly-coupled elliptic system arising in the two-predator, two-prey model is discussed. It is proved that there is no non-constant solution if diffusions or inter-specific competitions are strong, or if the intrinsic growths of the prey are slow and the intrinsic drop rates of predator are fast.

  20. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration of stochastic differential equations. This approach is illustrated with the constructions of new methods of weak order two, in particular, semi-implicit integrators well suited for stiff (meansquare stable) stochastic problems, and implicit integrators that exactly conserve all quadratic first integrals of a stochastic dynamical system. Numerical examples confirm the theoretical results and show the versatility of our methodology.

  1. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, M.; Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Wietmarschen, H. van; Wijk, R. van; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal

  2. Limits on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in a 331 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A. [Facultad de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas Apartado, Postal C-580, 98060 Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Hernández-Ruíz, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas Apartado, Postal 585, 98060 Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Castañeda-Almanza, C.P.; Espinoza-Garrido, A.; Chubykalo, A. [Facultad de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas Apartado, Postal C-580, 98060 Zacatecas, México (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Using as an input the data obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}γ at the Z{sub 1}-pole, we obtained bounds on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton in the context of a 331 model. Our bounds on the electromagnetic moments are consistent with the bounds obtained by the L3 and OPAL Collaborations for the reaction e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}γ. We also obtained bounds on the tau weak dipole moments which are consistent with the bounds obtained recently by the DELPHI, ALEPH and BELLE Collaborations from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup −}→τ{sup +}τ{sup −}. Our work complements other studies on the electromagnetic and weak dipole moments of the tau-lepton.

  3. An entropy-based multi-criterion group decision analysis method of selecting the optimum weak-subgrade treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jun-jun; ZHENG Jun-jie; SUN Ling; ZHANG Shi-biao

    2008-01-01

    Proper treatment of weak subgrade soil is very important to building a highway of good quality. We proposed an entropy-based multi-criterion group decision analysis method for a group of experts to evaluate alternatives of weak subgrade treatment, with an aim to select the optimum technique which is technically, economically and socially viable. We used fuzzy theory to analyze multiple experts' evaluation on various factors of each alterative treatment. Different experts' evaluations are integrated by the group eigenvalue method. An entropy weight is introduced to minimize the negative influences of subjective human factors of experts. The optimum alternative is identified with ideal point discriminant analysis to calculate the distance of each alternative to the ideal point and prioritize all alternatives according to their distances. A case study on a section of the Shiman Expressway verified that the proposed method can give a rational decision on the optimum method of weak subgrade treatment.

  4. Gastrointestinal dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation of the weak base indinavir in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbens, Jari; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of relevant gastrointestinal conditions on the intraluminal dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation behavior of the weakly basic drug indinavir. The influence of (i) concomitant PPI intake and (ii) the nutritional state on the gastrointestinal behavior of indinavir was assessed in order to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for previously reported interactions. Five healthy volunteers were recruited into a crossover study containing the following arms: fasted state, fed state and fasted state with concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. In each condition, one Crixivan® capsule (400mg indinavir) was orally administered with 240mL of water. Gastric and duodenal fluids, aspirated as a function of time, were monitored for total and dissolved indinavir concentrations on a UPLC-MS/MS system. Indinavir's thermodynamic solubility was determined in individual aspirates to evaluate supersaturation. The bioaccessible fraction of indinavir in aspirated duodenal fluids was determined in an ex vivo permeation experiment through an artificial membrane. A nearly complete dissolution of indinavir in the fasted stomach was observed (90±3%). Regardless of dosing conditions, less indinavir was in solution in the duodenum compared to the stomach. Duodenal supersaturation was observed in all three testing conditions. The highest degrees of duodenal supersaturation (6.5±5.9) were observed in the fasted state. Concomitant PPI use resulted in an increased gastric pH and a smaller fraction of indinavir being dissolved (58±24%), eventually resulting in lower intestinal concentrations. In fed state conditions, drug release from the capsule was delayed and more gradually, although a similar fraction of the intragastric indinavir dissolved compared to the fasted state (83±12%). Indinavir was still present in the lumen of the duodenum three hours after oral administration, although it already reached 70% (on average) of the fasted

  5. Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of community-based education from the viewpoint of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH MOKHTARPOUR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Responsive medicine is an appropriate training method which trains the graduates who can act effectively in initial and secondary aspects of health issues in the society. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study which was done using quantitative method. The target population of this study was all the students of the Nutrition and Health School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample was randomly selected in this study and 75 students were selected based on the methodologist’s comments and similar studies and randomnumber table from a list obtained from the school’s department of education. This questionnaire was a researcher-made one which consisted of 23 questions in 2 sections with 21 closedended questions and 2 open-ended questions; 70 questionnaires were completed correctly. The closed-ended questions had 4 aspects (completely agree to completely disagree answered in 5-point Likert scale type. Its face validity was confirmed by 4 faculty members. The construct validity of the questionnaire was analyzed by factor analysis test and its reliability was assessed by a pilot on 20 students with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests (mean, standard deviation, … and the Pearson coefficient (p<0.001. Results: The results of this study showed that the maximum mean score was 3.58±0.65 which was related to the context of these courses and the minimum mean was 2.66±1.14 which was related to the logbook implementation. The 2 open-ended questions indicated that the most important strengths were the use of logbooks as a guide and determining the minimum training; of the weaknesses was the mismatch between the theoretical education and the practical activities. Also, developing the minimum training that an expert should know and using the common topics related to theoretical education were the most important points mentioned by the respondents

  6. Weakly nonlinear models for internal waves: inverse scattering transform and solitary wave contents

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shengqian

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution emanating from ``internal dam-break'' initial conditions is studied for a class of models of stratified Euler fluids in configurations close to two-homogeneous layers separated by a thin diffused interface. Direct numerical simulations and experiments in wave tanks show that such initial conditions eventually give rise to coherent structures that are close to solitary-wave solutions moving ahead of a region of dispersive wave motion and turbulent mixing close to the location of the initial dam step. A priori theoretical predictions of the main features of these solitary waves, such as their amplitudes and speeds, appear to be unavailable, even for simplified models of wave evolution in stratified fluids. With the aim of providing estimates of the existence, amplitude and speed of such solitary waves, an approach based on Inverse Scattering Transform (IST) for completely integrable models is developed here and tested against direct numerical simulations of Euler fluids and some of their mode...

  7. Deep-Trap Stress Induced Leakage Current Model for Nominal and Weak Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamohara, Shiro; Hu, Chenming; Okumura, Tsugunori

    2008-08-01

    We have developed a model of the stress-induced leakage current (SILC) based on the inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) by introducing a trap with a deep energy level of 3.6 eV from the bottom of the conduction band. This model can explain both of two field dependencies, i.e., a field dependence of the direct tunneling (DT) for A-mode SILC and that of the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling for B-mode SILC by analytical equations of a common form. For simple analytical equations, we introduce the most favorable trap position (MFTP), which gives the largest contribution to the leakage current. The trap area density for A-mode SILC of around 1×1010 cm-2 and the area density of the leakage paths for B-mode SILC of 1×102 cm-2 were obtained by comparisons between the experimental results and the present model.

  8. Review and analysis of strengths and weaknesses of agro-ecosystem models for simulating C and N fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Bechini, Luca; Bindi, Marco; Carozzi, Marco; Cavalli, Daniele; Conant, Richard; Dorich, Cristopher D; Doro, Luca; Ehrhardt, Fiona; Farina, Roberta; Ferrise, Roberto; Fitton, Nuala; Francaviglia, Rosa; Grace, Peter; Iocola, Ileana; Klumpp, Katja; Léonard, Joël; Martin, Raphaël; Massad, Raia Silvia; Recous, Sylvie; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Sharp, Joanna; Smith, Pete; Smith, Ward N; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2017-11-15

    Biogeochemical simulation models are important tools for describing and quantifying the contribution of agricultural systems to C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The abundance of simulation tools developed over recent decades, however, creates a difficulty because predictions from different models show large variability. Discrepancies between the conclusions of different modelling studies are often ascribed to differences in the physical and biogeochemical processes incorporated in equations of C and N cycles and their interactions. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modelling agricultural (crop and grassland) systems. In order to carry out this study, we selected the range of biogeochemical models used by the CN-MIP consortium of FACCE-JPI (http://www.faccejpi.com): APSIM, CERES-EGC, DayCent, DNDC, DSSAT, EPIC, PaSim, RothC and STICS. In our analysis, these models were assessed for the quality and comprehensiveness of underlying processes related to pedo-climatic conditions and management practices, but also with respect to time and space of application, and for their accuracy in multiple contexts. Overall, it emerged that there is a possible impact of ill-defined pedo-climatic conditions in the unsatisfactory performance of the models (46.2%), followed by limitations in the algorithms simulating the effects of management practices (33.1%). The multiplicity of scales in both time and space is a fundamental feature, which explains the remaining weaknesses (i.e. 20.7%). Innovative aspects have been identified for future development of C and N models. They include the explicit representation of soil microbial biomass to drive soil organic matter turnover, the effect of N shortage on SOM decomposition, the improvements related to the production and consumption of gases and an adequate simulations of gas transport in soil. On these bases, the assessment of trends and gaps in the modelling approaches currently employed to

  9. Shear Nulling after PSF Gaussianisation: moment-based weak lensing measurements with subpercent noise bias

    CERN Document Server

    Herbonnet, Ricardo; Kuijken, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Current optical imaging surveys for cosmology are covering large areas of sky. To exploit the statistical power of these surveys for weak lensing measurements requires shape measurement methods with subpercent systematic errors. We introduce a new weak lensing shear measurement algorithm, Shear Nulling after PSF Gaussianisation (SNAPG), designed to avoid the noise biases that affect most other methods. SNAPG operates on images that have been convolved with a kernel that renders the Point Spread Function (PSF) a circular Gaussian, and uses weighted second moments of the sources. The response of such second moments to a shear of the pre-seeing galaxy image can be predicted analytically, allowing us to construct a shear nulling scheme that finds the shear parameters for which the observed galaxies are consistent with an unsheared, isotropically oriented population of sources. The inverse of this nulling shear is then an estimate of the gravitational lensing shear. We identify the uncertainty of the estimated cen...

  10. Fick's Law for the Lorentz Model in a weak coupling regime

    OpenAIRE

    Nota, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we deal with further recent developments, strictly connected to the recent result obtained by Basile, Nota, Pezzotti and Pulvirenti. We consider the Lorentz gas out of equilibrium in a weak coupling regime. Each obstacle of the Lorentz gas generates a smooth radially symmetric potential with compact support. We prove that the macroscopic current in the stationary state is given by the Fick's law of diffusion. The diffusion coefficient is given by the Green-Kubo formula associate...

  11. A strategy for the preparation of thioantimonates based on the concept of weak acids and corresponding strong bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderer, Carolin; Delwa de Alarcón, Natalie; Näther, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2014-12-15

    By following a new synthetic approach, which is based on the in situ formation of a basic medium by the reaction between the strong base Sb(V)S4 (3-) and the weak acid H2 O, it was possible to prepare three layered thioantimonate(III) compounds of composition [TM(2,2'-bipyridine)3 ][Sb6 S10 ] (TM=Ni, Fe) and [Ni(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)3 ][Sb6 S10 ] under hydrothermal conditions featuring two different thioantimonate(III) network topologies. The antimony source, Na3 SbS4 ⋅ 9 H2 O, undergoes several decomposition reactions and produces the Sb(III) S3 species, which condenses to generate the layered anion. The application of transition-metal complexes avoids crystallization of dense phases. The reactions are very fast compared to conventional hydrothermal/solvothermal syntheses and are much less sensitive to changes of the reaction parameters. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Detection of weak transient signals based on wavelet packet transform and manifold learning for rolling element bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Xu, Guanghua; Liang, Lin; Jiang, Kuosheng

    2015-03-01

    The kurtogram-based methods have been proved powerful and practical to detect and characterize transient components in a signal. The basic idea of the kurtogram-based methods is to use the kurtosis as a measure to discover the presence of transient impulse components and to indicate the frequency band where these occur. However, the performance of the kurtogram-based methods is poor due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. As the weak transient signal with a wide spread frequency band can be easily masked by noise. Besides, selecting signal just in one frequency band will leave out some transient features. Aiming at these shortcomings, different frequency bands signal fusion is adopted in this paper. Considering that manifold learning aims at discovering the nonlinear intrinsic structure which embedded in high dimensional data, this paper proposes a waveform feature manifold (WFM) method to extract the weak signature from waveform feature space which obtained by binary wavelet packet transform. Minimum permutation entropy is used to select the optimal parameter in a manifold learning algorithm. A simulated bearing fault signal and two real bearing fault signals are used to validate the improved performance of the proposed method through the comparison with the kurtogram-based methods. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the kurtogram-based methods and is effective in weak signature extraction.

  13. Constitutive modeling of weak and strong shock-initiation of porous explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, L.S.

    1998-12-31

    A continuum based reactive burn model for shocked loaded high explosives has been developed that uses heterogeneous distribution of pore collapse energy to one or more of the constituents (a hot spot) as an ignition source, represents constituents with independent equations of state and has multiple competing and sequential chemical reactions. Reaction propagates from the hot spot to the remainder of the material through either a pressure or temperature dependence of heat transfer through a film layer. The reaction may be quenched by heat transfer or shock release if it is not rapid enough.

  14. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  15. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; M. Finger; Flekova, L.(Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic); J. Hosek; Jary, V.(Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic); Jost, R.(Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, F-38000, Grenoble, France); Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.

    2014-01-01

    7 pages, 7 figures; International audience; Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over t...

  16. Deleting exon 55 from the nebulin gene induces severe muscle weakness in a mouse model for nemaline myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenheijm, Coen A. C.; Buck, Danielle; de Winter, Josine M; Ferrara, Claudia; Piroddi, Nicoletta; Tesi, Chiara; Jasper, Jeffrey R.; Malik, Fady I.; Meng, Hui; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Beggs, Alan H.; Labeit, Siegfried; Poggesi, Corrado; Lawlor, Michael W.; Granzier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Nebulin—a giant sarcomeric protein—plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle contractility by specifying thin filament length and function. Although mutations in the gene encoding nebulin (NEB) are a frequent cause of nemaline myopathy, the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, the mechanisms by which mutations in NEB cause muscle weakness remain largely unknown. To better understand these mechanisms, we have generated a mouse model in which Neb exon 55 is deleted (NebΔExon55) to repl...

  17. Electric and Weak Electric Dipole Form Factors for Heavy Fermions in a General Two Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Dumm, D; Gomez-Dumm, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The electric and weak electric dipole form factors for heavy fermions are calculated in the context of the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). We find that the large top mass can produce a significant enhancement of the electric dipole form factor in the case of the b and c quarks. This effect can be used to distinguish between different 2HDM scenarios.

  18. Wave-Packet Collapse Based on Weak Repeatability or Covariant Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-Qi; Zhu, Chuan-Xi; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The conflict between the dynamics postulate (unitary evolution) and the measurement postulate (wave-packet collapse) of quantum mechanics has been reconciled by Zurek from an information transfer perspective [Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 052110], and has further been extended to a more general scenario [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 052111]. In this paper, we reconsider Zurek's new derivation by using weak repeatability postulate or covariant condition instead of repeatability postulate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11461045, 11326099, 11361042, 11265010, and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province of China under Grant Nos. 20142BAB211016, 20132BAB201001, 20132BAB212009

  19. Compressed sensing video processing based on stagewise weak selection and backtracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhemin; Li, Fenlan; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of mobile video raises higher requirements for video coding. As video coding can be seen as a Simultaneous Sparse Approximation (SSA) problem, a novel algorithm called Backtracking Simultaneous Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (BSStOMP) is proposed in the paper. The algorithm can obtain multiple atoms with highly comprehensive correlation at each iteration through simultaneous stagewise weak selection. Moreover, in order to improve recovery quality, local backtracking strategy is employed to optimize the selected atoms. The experiments results verified the effectiveness and practicality of our algorithm.

  20. A Redox-Controllable Molecular Switch Based on Weak Recognition of BPX26C6 at a Diphenylurea Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Na+ ion–assisted recognition of urea derivatives by BPX26C6 has allowed the construction of a redox-controllable [2]rotaxane-type molecular switch based on two originally very weakly interacting host/guest systems. Using NOBF4 to oxidize the triarylamine terminus into a corresponding radical cation attracted the macrocyclic component toward its adjacent carbamate station; subsequent addition of Zn powder moved the macrocyclic component back to its urea station.

  1. Role of polar nanoregions with weak random fields in Pb-based perovskite ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M. A.; Aftabuzzaman, M.; Tsukada, S.; Kojima, S.

    2017-01-01

    In relaxor ferroelectrics, the role of randomly orientated polar nanoregions (PNRs) with weak random fields (RFs) is one of the most puzzling issues of materials science. The relaxation time of polarization fluctuations of PNRs, which manifests themselves as a central peak (CP) in inelastic light scattering, is the important physical quantity to understand the dynamics of PNRs. Here, the angular and temperature dependences of depolarized and polarized CPs in 0.44Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.56PbTiO3 single crystals with weak RFs have been studied by Raman and Brillouin scattering, respectively. The CPs observed in Raman scattering show the very clear angular dependence which is consistent with the local tetragonal symmetry. It is different from the well-known local rhombohedral symmetry with strong RFs for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3. In Brillouin scattering, depolarized and polarized CPs show two relaxation processes corresponding to transverse and longitudinal fluctuations of PNRs. The remarkable slowing down towards the Curie temperature was observed for transverse fluctuations in local tetragonal symmetry. PMID:28300152

  2. Shear nulling after PSF Gaussianisation: Moment-based weak lensing measurements with subpercent noise bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbonnet, Ricardo; Buddendiek, Axel; Kuijken, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    Context. Current optical imaging surveys for cosmology cover large areas of sky. Exploiting the statistical power of these surveys for weak lensing measurements requires shape measurement methods with subpercent systematic errors. Aims: We introduce a new weak lensing shear measurement algorithm, shear nulling after PSF Gaussianisation (SNAPG), designed to avoid the noise biases that affect most other methods. Methods: SNAPG operates on images that have been convolved with a kernel that renders the point spread function (PSF) a circular Gaussian, and uses weighted second moments of the sources. The response of such second moments to a shear of the pre-seeing galaxy image can be predicted analytically, allowing us to construct a shear nulling scheme that finds the shear parameters for which the observed galaxies are consistent with an unsheared, isotropically oriented population of sources. The inverse of this nulling shear is then an estimate of the gravitational lensing shear. Results: We identify the uncertainty of the estimated centre of each galaxy as the source of noise bias, and incorporate an approximate estimate of the centroid covariance into the scheme. We test the method on extensive suites of simulated galaxies of increasing complexity, and find that it is capable of shear measurements with multiplicative bias below 0.5 percent.

  3. A research of weak absorption measurements in crystal based on photothermal interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Liu, Zongkai; Wang, Shiwu

    2013-07-01

    It is important for testing the process of crystal growing and crystal quality. This paper built a mathematical model based on principle of photothermal common-path interferometry, the index change induced in the crystal by the heating pump beam and the phase distortion of probe beam in the heated area are presented then obtain the intensity distribution of the interference in the near filed. Optical geometry of focusing pump beam and intersecting pump and probe beams at waist position of the pump beam is used. This optical instruction can be adjusted easily and stabilized. Now CRYSTECH have the largest NLO crystals product line in the world, especially KTP crystals. With absorption measurements in nonlinear laser crystal KTP as an example to investigate the experimental parameters affecting the photothermal interference signal and high measuring precision. The analysis of experimental data showed this kind of instruction can reach the measurement accuracy of 0.1ppm.

  4. A systems perspective of waste and energy - Strengths and weaknesses of the ORWARE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2000-11-01

    Waste management of today in Sweden is a complex phenomenon that demands for a scientific and systematic approach. The complexity is a result of a wide variety of actors, technologies, and impact on the environment, health, and the economy. Waste management also has a high relevance with respect to energy. There are direct connections as e.g. energy recovery from waste, but also indirect as the systems complexity and the environmental and economical impacts. Helpful tools in the planning of waste management are different types of models of which ORWARE is one. Based on principles from Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and complemented with a simple Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ORWARE can provide some help in finding environmentally sound solutions for waste management systems. The model does not answer all questions raised by practitioners but can still be used for advisory purposes. The model does not include sociological or political aspects but it covers the area of physical flows with impacts on environment, society and economy. Other impacts have to be considered with other methods. The experiences from using ORWARE in Swedish municipalities during more than a half decade clearly shows the advantages and disadvantages of the tool. The model is very flexible when it comes to the possibility of site-specific adjustments of input data and process functions. With help of the model the complexity of the studied system can be illustrated by e.g. a map of the number of connections between different types of information. In this way ORWARE supports dialogue between different stakeholders and collects knowledge in a unique way. On the other hand, modelling such an extensive and complex system often leads to errors that takes time to find and correct. The model can not be considered as user friendly and does not cover all aspects wanted by the society. There are also educational problems with different time frames and space boundaries in the analysis that make the results hard

  5. Investigation of a Bubble Detector based on Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M.; Mayekar, K.; Zhou, R.; von der Emde, G.; Bousack, H.

    2013-04-01

    Weakly electric fish employ active electrolocation for navigation and object detection. They emit an electric signal with their electric organ in the tail and sense the electric field with electroreceptors that are distributed over their skin. We adopted this principle to design a bubble detector that can detect gas bubbles in a fluid or, in principle, objects with different electric conductivity than the surrounding fluid. The evaluation of the influence of electrode diameter on detecting a given bubble size showed that the signal increases with electrode diameter. Therefore it appears that this detector will be more appropriate for large sized applications such as bubble columns than small sized applications such as bubble detectors in dialysis.

  6. Analysis of weak signal detection based on tri-stable system under Levy noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Fang, He; Ying-Ying, Cui; Tian-Qi, Zhang; Gang, Zhang; Ying, Song

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic resonance system is an effective method to extract weak signal. However, system output is directly influenced by system parameters. Aiming at this, the Levy noise is combined with a tri-stable stochastic resonance system. The average signal-to-noise ratio gain is regarded as an index to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. The characteristics of tri-stable stochastic resonance under Levy noise is analyzed in depth. First, the method of generating Levy noise, the effect of tri-stable system parameters on the potential function and corresponding potential force are presented in detail. Then, the effects of tri-stable system parameters w, a, b, and Levy noise intensity amplification factor D on the resonant output can be explored with different Levy noises. Finally, the tri-stable stochastic resonance system is applied to the bearing fault detection. Simulation results show that the stochastic resonance phenomenon can be induced by tuning the system parameters w, a, and b under different distributions of Levy noise, then the weak signal can be detected. The parameter intervals which can induce stochastic resonances are approximately equal. Moreover, by adjusting the intensity amplification factor D of Levy noise, the stochastic resonances can happen similarly. In bearing fault detection, the detection effect of the tri-stable stochastic resonance system is superior to the bistable stochastic resonance system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61371164), the Chongqing Municipal Distinguished Youth Foundation, China (Grant No. CSTC2011jjjq40002), and the Research Project of Chongqing Municipal Educational Commission, China (Grant No. KJ130524).

  7. Weak-signal detection based on the stochastic resonance of bistable Duffing oscillator and its application in incipient fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhi-hui; Leng, Yong-gang

    2016-12-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is an important approach to detect weak vibration signals from heavy background noise and further realize mechanical incipient fault diagnosis. The stochastic resonance of a bistable Duffing oscillator is limited by strict small-parameter conditions, i.e., SR can only take place under small values of signal parameters (signal amplitude, frequency, and noise intensity). We propose a method to treat the large-parameter SR for this oscillator. The linear amplitude-transformed, time/frequency scale-transformed, and parameter-adjusted methods are presented and used to produce SR for signals with large-amplitude, large-frequency and/or large-intensity noise. Furthermore, we propose the weak-signal detection approach based on large-parameter SR in the oscillator. Finally, we employ two practical examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in incipient fault diagnosis.

  8. Electromagnetic structure and weak decay of pseudoscalar mesons in a light-front QCD-inspired model

    CERN Document Server

    Salcedo, L A M; Hadj-Michef, D; Frederico, T

    2006-01-01

    We study the scaling of the $^3S_1-^1S_0$ meson mass splitting and the pseudoscalar weak decay constants with the mass of the meson, as seen in the available experimental data. We use an effective light-front QCD-inspired dynamical model regulated at short-distances to describe the valence component of the pseudoscalar mesons. The experimentally known values of the mass splittings, decay constants (from global lattice-QCD averages) and the pion charge form factor up to 4 [GeV/c]$^2$ are reasonably described by the model

  9. Towards a better preclinical model of PTSD: characterizing animals with weak extinction, maladaptive stress responses and low plasma corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Roman; Diwan, Mustansir; Nobrega, José N; Hamani, Clement

    2015-02-01

    Most of the available preclinical models of PTSD have focused on isolated behavioural aspects and have not considered individual variations in response to stress. We employed behavioural criteria to identify and characterize a subpopulation of rats that present several features analogous to PTSD-like states after exposure to classical fear conditioning. Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were segregated into weak- and strong-extinction groups on the basis of behavioural scores during extinction of conditioned fear responses. Animals were subsequently tested for anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) and elevated plus maze (EPM). Baseline plasma corticosterone was measured prior to any behavioural manipulation. In a second experiment, rats underwent OFT, NSF and EPM prior to being subjected to fear conditioning to ascertain whether or not pre-stress levels of anxiety-like behaviours could predict extinction scores. We found that 25% of rats exhibit low extinction rates of conditioned fear, a feature that was associated with increased anxiety-like behaviour across multiple tests in comparison to rats showing strong extinction. In addition, weak-extinction animals showed low levels of corticosterone prior to fear conditioning, a variable that seemed to predict extinction recall scores. In a separate experiment, anxiety measures taken prior to fear conditioning were not predictive of a weak-extinction phenotype, suggesting that weak-extinction animals do not show detectable traits of anxiety in the absence of a stressful experience. These findings suggest that extinction impairment may be used to identify stress-vulnerable rats, thus providing a useful model for elucidating mechanisms and investigating potential treatments for PTSD.

  10. Modelling of Anti-Tumour Immune Response: Immunocorrective Effect of Weak Centimetre Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Isaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate the dynamical model for the anti-tumour immune response based on intercellular cytokine-mediated interactions with the interleukin-2 (IL-2 taken into account. The analysis shows that the expression level of tumour antigens on antigen presenting cells has a distinct influence on the tumour dynamics. At low antigen presentation, a progressive tumour growth takes place to the highest possible value. At high antigen presentation, there is a decrease in tumour size to some value when the dynamical equilibrium between the tumour and the immune system is reached. In the case of the medium antigen presentation, both these regimes can be realized depending on the initial tumour size and the condition of the immune system. A pronounced immunomodulating effect (the suppression of tumour growth and the normalization of IL-2 concentration is established by considering the influence of low-intensity electromagnetic microwaves as a parametric perturbation of the dynamical system. This finding is in qualitative agreement with the recent experimental results on immunocorrective effects of centimetre electromagnetic waves in tumour-bearing mice.

  11. Hydrological model parameter dimensionality is a weak measure of prediction uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that instability of hydrological system representation in response to different pieces of information and associated prediction uncertainty is a function of model complexity. After demonstrating the connection between unstable model representation and model complexity, complexity is analyzed in a step by step manner. This is done measuring differences between simulations of a model under different realizations of input forcings. Algorithms are then suggested to estimate model complexity. Model complexities of the two model structures, SAC-SMA (Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting and its simplified version SIXPAR (Six Parameter Model, are computed on resampled input data sets from basins that span across the continental US. The model complexities for SIXPAR are estimated for various parameter ranges. It is shown that complexity of SIXPAR increases with lower storage capacity and/or higher recession coefficients. Thus it is argued that a conceptually simple model structure, such as SIXPAR, can be more complex than an intuitively more complex model structure, such as SAC-SMA for certain parameter ranges. We therefore contend that magnitudes of feasible model parameters influence the complexity of the model selection problem just as parameter dimensionality (number of parameters does and that parameter dimensionality is an incomplete indicator of stability of hydrological model selection and prediction problems.

  12. Anomalous magnetic and weak magnetic dipole moments of the τ lepton in the simplest little Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-Urena, M.A.; Tavares-Velasco, G. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, PUE (Mexico); Hernandez-Tome, G. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, PUE (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    We obtain analytical expressions, both in terms of parametric integrals and Passarino-Veltman scalar functions, for the one-loop contributions to the anomalous weak magnetic dipole moment (AWMDM) of a charged lepton in the framework of the simplest little Higgs model (SLHM). Our results are general and can be useful to compute the weak properties of a charged lepton in other extensions of the standard model (SM). As a by-product we obtain generic contributions to the anomalous magnetic dipole moment (AMDM), which agree with previous results. We then study numerically the potential contributions from this model to the τ lepton AMDM and AWMDM for values of the parameter space consistent with current experimental data. It is found that they depend mainly on the energy scale f at which the global symmetry is broken and the t{sub β} parameter, whereas there is little sensitivity to a mild change in the values of other parameters of the model. While the τ AMDM is of the order of 10{sup -9}, the real (imaginary) part of its AWMDM is of the order of 10{sup -9} (10{sup -10}). These values seem to be out of the reach of the expected experimental sensitivity of future experiments. (orig.)

  13. Model of Reconnection of Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Field and its Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the model of magnetic field reconnection in the presence of turbulence introduced by us approximately ten years ago. The model does not require any plasma effects to be involved in order to make the reconnection fast. In fact, it shows that the degree of magnetic field stochasticity controls the reconnection. The turbulence in the model is assumed to be subAlfvenic, with the magnetic field only slightly perturbed. This ensures that the reconnection happens in generic astrophysical environments and the model does not appeal to any unphysical concepts, similar to the turbulent magnetic diffusivity concept, which is employed in the kinematic magnetic dynamo. The interest to that model has recently increased due to successful numerical testings of the model predictions. In view of this, we discuss implications of the model, including the first-order Fermi acceleration of cosmic rays, that the model naturally entails, bursts of reconnection, that can be associated with Solar flares, as well as, removal ...

  14. Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles in Non-supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Natsumi; Zheng, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories provide a framework in which the stability of dark matter is explained while gauge coupling unification is realized. In this work, we systematically study this possibility by classifying weakly interacting DM candidates in terms of their quantum numbers of $\\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{U}(1)_Y$, $B-L$, and $\\text{SU}(2)_R$. We consider both scalar and fermion candidates. We show that the requirement of a sufficiently high unification scale to ensure a proton lifetime compatible with experimental constraints plays a strong role in selecting viable candidates. Among the scalar candidates originating from either a 16 or 144 of SO(10), only SU(2)$_L$ singlets with zero hypercharge or doublets with $Y=1/2$ satisfy all constraints for $\\text{SU}(4)_C \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_R$ and $\\text{SU}(3)_C \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_R \\otimes \\text{U}(1)_{B-L}$ intermediate scale gauge groups. Among fermion triplets with zero hypercharge, o...

  15. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  16. MODEL OF RECONNECTION OF WEAKLY STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lazarian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the model of magnetic eld reconnection in the presence of turbulence introduced by us ten years ago. The model does not require any plasma e ects to be involved in order to make the reconnection fast. In fact, it shows that the degree of magnetic eld stochasticity controls the reconnection. The turbulence in the model is assumed to be sub-Alfv nic, with the magnetic eld only slightly perturbed. This ensures that the reconnection happens in generic astrophysical environments and the model does not appeal to any unphysical concepts, similar to the turbulent magnetic di usivity concept, which is employed in the kinematic magnetic dynamo. The interest to that model has recently increased due to successful numerical testings of the model predictions. In view of this, we discuss implications of the model, including the rst-order Fermi acceleration of cosmic rays, that the model naturally entails, bursts of reconnection, that can be associated with Solar ares, as well as, removal of magnetic ux during star-formation.

  17. Boson-Jet Correlations in a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    We confront a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching to data from LHC heavy ion collisions. The model combines the perturbative QCD physics at high momentum transfer and the strongly coupled dynamics of non- abelian gauge theories plasmas in a phenomenological way. By performing a full Monte Carlo simulation, and after fitting one single parameter, we successfully describe several jet observables at the LHC, including dijet and photon jet measurements. Within current theoretical and experimental uncertainties, we find that such observables show little sensitivity to the specifics of the microscopic energy loss mechanism. We also present a new observable, the ratio of the fragmentation function of inclusive jets to that of the associated jets in dijet pairs, which can discriminate among different medium models. Finally, we discuss the importance of plasma response to jet passage in jet shapes.

  18. A liposomal fluorescence assay to study permeation kinetics of drug-like weak bases across the lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Klaus; Paech, Franziska; Schuler, Friedrich; Kuhn, Phillip; Kissner, Reinhard; Belli, Sara; Dittrich, Petra S; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2014-01-10

    Lipid bilayer permeation is considered the major route for in vivo barrier passage of drugs. Despite this fact, no technique is currently available to measure the kinetics of permeation across a single lipid bilayer of structurally unrelated drug-like solutes. We developed a liposomal fluorescence assay capable to determine permeation kinetics of basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The assay is based on the hypothesis that permeation of a weak base along a concentration gradient results in net proton release at the cis-side and net proton capture at the trans-side of the bilayer. The resulting pH changes were monitored with pH-sensitive fluorophores: Test compounds were incubated with liposomes containing a pH-sensitive fluorophore at the bilayer surfaces or in the aqueous lumen and fluorescence changes were monitored with a stopped-flow apparatus in solution or by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with surface-captured liposomes on a microfluidic platform. Incubation with lipophilic basic drugs resulted in the expected fluorescence changes while incubation with compounds without basic functionality or high polarity did not affect fluorescence. Kinetics of fluorescence changes followed bi-exponential functions. Logarithmic permeation coefficients (logPermapp) determined in solution and by microfluidics technology showed a good correlation (r(2)=0.94, n=7) and logPermapp increased with increasing lipophilicity. Neither diffusion in the aqueous phase nor partitioning into the bilayer was rate-limiting. PEGylation of 2% of the liposomal lipids reduced Permapp by a factor ~300. In conclusion, the presented liposomal fluorescence assay is capable to determine permeation kinetics of weak basic drug-like solutes across lipid bilayers. The method is adaptable to microfluidics technology for high-throughput measurements and can potentially be modified to work for weak acid solutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical modelling of EGS fracture stimulation applying weak and strong acid treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Sif Pind Aradottir, Edda

    2015-04-01

    Engineered Geothermal systems (EGS) provide geothermal power by tapping into the Earth's deep geothermal resources that are otherwise not exploitable due to lack of water and fractures, location or rock type. EGS technologies have the potential to cost effectively produce large amounts of electricity almost anywhere in the world. The EGS technology creates permeability in the rock by hydro-fracturing the reservoir with cold water pumped into the first well (the injection well) at a high pressure. The second well (the production well) intersects the stimulated fracture system and returns the hot water to the surface where electricity can be generated. A significant technological hurdle is ensuring effective connection between the wells and the fracture system and to control the deep-rooted fractures (can exceed 5 000 m depth). A large area for heat transfer and sufficient mass flow needs to be ensured between wells without creating fast flowing paths in the fracture network. Maintaining flow through the fracture system can cause considerable energy penalty to the overall process. Therefore, chemical methods to maintain fractures and prevent scaling can be necessary to prevent excessive pressure build up in the re-injection wells of EGS systems. The effect of different acid treatments on the porosity development of selected rock types was simulated with the aid of the Petrasim interface to the Toughreact simulation code. The thermodynamic and kinetic database of Aradottir et al. (2014) was expanded to include new minerals and the most important fluoride bearing species involved in mineral reactions during acid stimulation of geothermal systems. A series of simulations with injection waters containing fluoric acid, hydrochloric acid and CO2 or mixtures thereof were then carried out and porosity development in the fracture system monitored. The periodic injection of weak acid mixtures into EGS systems may be cost effective in some isolated cases to prevent pressure

  20. Model-based geostatistics

    CERN Document Server

    Diggle, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Model-based geostatistics refers to the application of general statistical principles of modeling and inference to geostatistical problems. This volume provides a treatment of model-based geostatistics and emphasizes on statistical methods and applications. It also features analyses of datasets from a range of scientific contexts.

  1. Weak magnetic field effects on chiral critical temperature in a nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Loewe, M; Villavicencio, C; Zamora, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with a Gaussian regulator in the chiral limit. Finite temperature effects and the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field are considered. The magnetic evolution of the critical temperature for chiral symmetry restoration is then obtained. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of low magnetic field values, being this a complementary discussion to the exisiting analysis in nonlocal models in the strong magnetic field regime.

  2. Influence of Weak Base Addition to Hole-Collecting Buffer Layers in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyeok Seo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of weak base addition to acidic polymer hole-collecting layers in normal-type polymer:fullerene solar cells. Varying amounts of the weak base aniline (AN were added to solutions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The acidity of the aniline-added PEDOT:PSS solutions gradually decreased from pH = 1.74 (AN = 0 mol% to pH = 4.24 (AN = 1.8 mol %. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS-AN films did not change much with the pH value, while the ratio of conductivity between out-of-plane and in-plane directions was dependent on the pH of solutions. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE was obtained at pH = 2.52, even though all devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers exhibited better PCE than those with the pristine PEDOT:PSS layers. Atomic force microscopy investigation revealed that the size of PEDOT:PSS domains became smaller as the pH increased. The stability test for 100 h illumination under one sun condition disclosed that the PCE decay was relatively slower for the devices with the PEDOT:PSS-AN layers than for those with pristine PEDOT:PSS layers.

  3. Entropy and weak solutions in the thermal model for the compressible Euler equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ran, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Among the existing models for compressible fluids, the one by Kataoka and Tsutahara (KT model, Phys. Rev. E 69, 056702, 2004) has a simple and rigorous theoretical background. The drawback of this KT model is that it can cause numerical instability if the local Mach number exceeds 1. The precise mechanism of this instability has not yet been clarified. In this paper, we derive entropy functions whose local equilibria are suitable to recover the Euler-like equations in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method for the KT model. Numerical examples are also given, which are consistent with the above theoretical arguments, and show that the entropy condition is not fully guaranteed in KT model. The negative entropy may be the inherent cause for the non-physical oscillations in the vicinity of the shock. In contrast to these Karlin's microscopic entropy approach, the corresponding subsidiary entropy condition in the LBM calculation could also be deduced explicitly from the macroscopic version, which provides s...

  4. Dynamics of low dimensional model for weakly relativistic Zakharov equations for plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India); Pal, Barnali; Poria, Swarup [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India)

    2013-05-15

    In the present paper, the nonlinear interaction between Langmuir waves and ion acoustic waves described by the one-dimensional Zakharov equations (ZEs) for relativistic plasmas are investigated formulating a low dimensional model. Equilibrium points of the model are found and it is shown that the existence and stability conditions of the equilibrium point depend on the relativistic parameter. Computational investigations are carried out to examine the effects of relativistic parameter and other plasma parameters on the dynamics of the model. Power spectrum analysis using fast fourier transform and also construction of first return map confirm that periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic type solution exist for both relativistic as well as in non-relativistic case. Existence of supercritical Hopf bifurcation is noted in the system for two critical plasmon numbers.

  5. LHT model and Higgs boson production in association with a weak gauge boson at the LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; YUE Chong-Xing; SU Xue-Song; WANG Yong-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Considering the process pp→VH+X(V=W or Z)is a significant channel for searching for a light Higgs boson,we calculate the contributions of the littlest Higgs model with T-parity(called LHT model)to its production cross section.We find that,in most of the parameter space,the value of the relative correction parameter R is very small.However,with reasonable values of the free parameters,its value can be significantly larger.

  6. Enhanced LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG-Based WECS in Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    voltage dips/unbalanced conditions, A DDSRF-PLL is proposed and analyzed to extract clean synchronization signal in order to improve the overall system performance. Moreover, a fast decomposition based positive and negative sequence algorithm is utilized for rapid fault detection and to engage the LVRT...

  7. Weakly coupled heat bath models for Gibbs-like invariant states in nonlinear wave equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bajars (Janis); J.E. Frank (Jason); B.J. Leimkuhler (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThermal bath coupling mechanisms as utilized in molecular dynamics are applied to partial differential equation models. Working from a semi-discrete (Fourier mode) formulation for the Burgers–Hopf or Korteweg–de Vries equation, we introduce auxiliary variables and stochastic

  8. -dependence of the effective weak hamiltonian and K -> 2 amplitudes in chiral-bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Ilakovac, A.; Tadic, D.

    1989-03-01

    This paper studies the -dependence of the operator matrix elements. Although the -dependence must in principle cancel as illustrated in the paper by using a simple pedagogical model, in practice the choice of markedly influences the theoretical predictions for K -> 2 decays.

  9. Analisis Internal Perusahaan (Strength & Weakness, Menggunakan konsep ‘Resource-Based View of the Firm’ dengan Kerangka VRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Wandrial

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the company's internal environmental analysis is to determine the strengths and weaknesses (internal resources, we did not have reasonable grounds to determine whether the company's internal resources as a strength or weakness. Before we can determine whether a resource can be categorized as strengths or weaknesses, we must have a certain criteria so that appropriate resources are said to be a strength or weakness

  10. Analisis Internal Perusahaan (Strength & Weakness), Menggunakan konsep ‘Resource-Based View of the Firm’ dengan Kerangka VRIO

    OpenAIRE

    Son Wandrial

    2011-01-01

    Problems in the company's internal environmental analysis is to determine the strengths and weaknesses (internal resources), we did not have reasonable grounds to determine whether the company's internal resources as a strength or weakness. Before we can determine whether a resource can be categorized as strengths or weaknesses, we must have a certain criteria so that appropriate resources are said to be a strength or weakness

  11. A weakly nonlinear model for multi-modal evolution of wind-generated long internal waves in a closed basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sakai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A weakly nonlinear evolution model that accounts for multi-modal interaction in a small, continuously stratified lake of variable depth is derived. In particular, an evolution model for the first two vertical modes in a lake that is subject to wind stress forcing is numerically simulated. Defining modal energies, energy transfer between the first and the second vertical modes is calculated for several different forms of the density stratification. Modal energy transfer mainly occurs during reflection of mode-one waves at the vertical end walls, and it is shown that the amount of energy transfer from the first to the second mode is greatly dependent on the shape of the stratification profile. Also, the initial modal energy partition at the wind setup is shown to depend significantly on the penetration depth of the internal shear stress induced by the wind stress, especially if the stress distribution extends into the upper levels of the metalimnion.

  12. Combinatoric Models of Information Retrieval Ranking Methods and Performance Measures for Weakly-Ordered Document Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation answers three research questions: (1) What are the characteristics of a combinatoric measure, based on the Average Search Length (ASL), that performs the same as a probabilistic version of the ASL?; (2) Does the combinatoric ASL measure produce the same performance result as the one that is obtained by ranking a collection of…

  13. Fast high-throughput method for the determination of acidity constants by capillary electrophoresis: I. Monoprotic weak acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2009-04-24

    A new and fast method to determine acidity constants of monoprotic weak acids and bases by capillary zone electrophoresis based on the use of an internal standard (compound of similar nature and acidity constant as the analyte) has been developed. This method requires only two electrophoretic runs for the determination of an acidity constant: a first one at a pH where both analyte and internal standard are totally ionized, and a second one at another pH where both are partially ionized. Furthermore, the method is not pH dependent, so an accurate measure of the pH of the buffer solutions is not needed. The acidity constants of several phenols and amines have been measured using internal standards of known pK(a), obtaining a mean deviation of 0.05 pH units compared to the literature values.

  14. Survey of Quantification and Distance Functions Used for Internet-based Weak-link Sociological Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    block of size N − nk. In general C1 is not invertible. We can write it in the following form: if C1 is of rank rk < nk, C1 = [ C11 0 0 0 ] , 15 where...algorithm for ranking the nodes of an urban network based on the concept of PageRank vector. Appl. Math. Comput. 219 (2012), no. 4, 2186- 2193. [2] F. K...which is new to the best of our knowledge. Mainly we study its convergence as it is an iterative method since the Google matrix is of huge size so that

  15. The Determination of the pKaof Multiprotic, Weak Acids by Analyzing Potentiometric Acid Base Titration Data with Difference Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Arno

    2003-05-01

    This paper discusses the pKa determination of mono-, di-, and triprotic weak acids with the help of difference (Bjerrum) plots, and the effect of strong acid base concentration errors, ligand weight errors, and nonlinear electrode response. Experimental examples are given for the titration of an acidic heterocycle, as well as glycine, ethylenediamine, and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (the last two after addition of excess HCl to ensure complete protonation) with standarized NaOH. The analysis procedure makes use of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and nonlinear least squares curve fitting of the experimental data to the theoretical Bjerrum function. In addition to providing pKa values for mono- and multiprotic acids, this approach has been found suitable for detecting small errors in parameters, such as strong acid and ligand concentration, and corrections can often become necessary to achieve the best fit. Difference plots allow the pKa values of monoprotic and multiprotic weak acids to be determined rapidly and with good precision.

  16. A high-resolution processing technique for improving the energy of weak signal based on matching pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to improve the resolution of the seismic signal and to compensate the energy of weak seismic signal based on matching pursuit. With a dictionary of Morlet wavelets, matching pursuit algorithm can decompose a seismic trace into a series of wavelets. We abstract complex-trace attributes from analytical expressions to shrink the search range of amplitude, frequency and phase. In addition, considering the level of correlation between constituent wavelets and average wavelet abstracted from well-seismic calibration, we can obtain the search range of scale which is an important adaptive parameter to control the width of wavelet in time and the bandwidth of frequency. Hence, the efficiency of selection of proper wavelets is improved by making first a preliminary estimate and refining a local selecting range. After removal of noise wavelets, we integrate useful wavelets which should be firstly executed by adaptive spectral whitening technique. This approach can improve the resolutions of seismic signal and enhance the energy of weak wavelets simultaneously. The application results of real seismic data show this method has a good perspective of application.

  17. Experimental verification of a weak zone model for timber in bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källsner, B.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Salmela, K.

    1997-01-01

    to 15% lower than is predicted by the proposed hierarchical model. Energy considerations show that the reduction in strength of long beams may not be solely a statistical effect caused by an increased number of possible failure modes in the long beams as compared to the short test specimens. The large...... elastic energy released in a long highly bend beam at the onset of failure may cause that a later higher external load level cannot be realised such as it can in a controlled slowly progressing failure....

  18. Model of stacked long Josephson junctions: Parallel algorithm and numerical results in case of weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Bashashin, M. V.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Atanasova, P. Kh.; Volokhova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We consider a model of system of long Josephson junctions (LJJ) with inductive and capacitive coupling. Corresponding system of nonlinear partial differential equations is solved by means of the standard three-point finite-difference approximation in the spatial coordinate and utilizing the Runge-Kutta method for solution of the resulting Cauchy problem. A parallel algorithm is developed and implemented on a basis of the MPI (Message Passing Interface) technology. Effect of the coupling between the JJs on the properties of LJJ system is demonstrated. Numerical results are discussed from the viewpoint of effectiveness of parallel implementation.

  19. Chasing equilibrium: measuring the intrinsic solubility of weak acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Martin; Box, Karl

    2005-02-15

    A novel procedure is described for rapid (20-80 min) measurement of intrinsic solubility values of organic acids, bases, and ampholytes. In this procedure, a quantity of substance was first dissolved at a pH where it exists predominantly in its ionized form, and then a precipitate of the neutral (un-ionized) species was formed by changing the pH. Subsequently, the rate of change of pH due to precipitation or dissolution was monitored and strong acid and base titrant were added to adjust the pH to discover its equilibrium conditions, and the intrinsic solubility of the neutral form of the compound could then be determined. The procedure was applied to a variety of monoprotic and diprotic pharmaceutical compounds. The results were highly repeatable and had a good correlation to available published values. Data collected during the procedure provided good diagnostic information. Kinetic solubility data were also collected but provided a poor guide to the intrinsic solubility.

  20. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  1. Tests of the electroweak standard model and measurement of the weak mixing angle with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, M.

    2011-09-15

    In this thesis the global Standard Model (SM) fit to the electroweak precision observables is revisted with respect to newest experimental results. Various consistency checks are performed showing no significant deviation from the SM. The Higgs boson mass is estimated by the electroweak fit to be M{sub H}=94{sub -24}{sup +30} GeV without any information from direct Higgs searches at LEP, Tevatron, and the LHC and the result is M{sub H}=125{sub -10}{sup +8} GeV when including the direct Higgs mass constraints. The strong coupling constant is extracted at fourth perturbative order as {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1194{+-}0.0028(exp){+-}0.0001 (theo). From the fit including the direct Higgs constraints the effective weak mixing angle is determined indirectly to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sup l}{sub eff}=0.23147{sub -0.00010}{sup +0.00012}. For the W mass the value of M{sub W}=80.360{sub -0.011}{sup +0.012} GeV is obtained indirectly from the fit including the direct Higgs constraints. The electroweak precision data is also exploited to constrain new physics models by using the concept of oblique parameters. In this thesis the following models are investigated: models with a sequential fourth fermion generation, the inert-Higgs doublet model, the littlest Higgs model with T-parity conservation, and models with large extra dimensions. In contrast to the SM, in these models heavy Higgs bosons are in agreement with the electroweak precision data. The forward-backward asymmetry as a function of the invariant mass is measured for pp{yields} Z/{gamma}{sup *}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} events collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data taken in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.4 pb{sup -1} is analyzed. The measured forward-backward asymmetry is in agreement with the SM expectation. From the measured forward-backward asymmetry the effective weak mixing angle is extracted as sin{sup 2} {theta}{sup l

  2. Field measurements and modeling of wave propagation and subsequent weak layer failure in snow due to explosive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Stephan; Sidler, Rolf; Dual, Jürg; Schweizer, Jürg

    2015-04-01

    Avalanche control by explosives is among the key temporary preventive measures. Yet, little is known about the mechanism involved in releasing avalanches by the effect of an explosion. Here, we test the hypothesis that the stress induced by acoustic waves exceeds the strength of weak snow layers. Consequently the snow fails and the onset of rapid crack propagation might finally lead to the release of a snow slab avalanche. We performed experiments with explosive charges over a snowpack. We installed microphones above the snowpack to measure near-surface air pressure and accelerometers within three snow pits. We also recorded pit walls of each pit with high speed cameras to detect weak layer failure. Empirical relationships and a priori information from ice and air were used to characterize a porous layered model from density measurements of snow profiles in the snow pits. This model was used to perform two-dimensional numerical simulations of wave propagation in Biot-type porous material. Locations of snow failure were identified in the simulation by comparing the axial and deviatoric stress field of the simulation to the corresponding snow strength. The identified snow failure locations corresponded well with the observed failure locations in the experiment. The acceleration measured in the snowpack best correlated with the modeled acceleration of the fluid relative to the ice frame. Even though the near field of the explosion is expected to be governed by non-linear effects as for example the observed supersonic wave propagation in the air above the snow surface, the results of the linear poroelastic simulation fit well with the measured air pressure and snowpack accelerations. The results of this comparison are an important step towards quantifying the effectiveness of avalanche control by explosives.

  3. Atom-Based Sensing of Weak Radio Frequency Electric Fields Using Homodyne Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Santosh; Kübler, Harald; Sheng, Jiteng; Shaffer, James P

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a homodyne detection technique to achieve a new sensitivity limit for atom-based, absolute radio-frequency electric field sensing of $\\mathrm{5 \\mu V cm^{-1} Hz^{-1/2} }$. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for the homodyne detection. With the increased sensitivity, we investigate the dominant dephasing mechanisms that affect the performance of the sensor. In particular, we present data on power broadening, collisional broadening and transit time broadening. Our results are compared to density matrix calculations. We show that photon shot noise in the signal readout is currently a limiting factor. We suggest that new approaches with superior readout with respect to photon shot noise are needed to increase the sensitivity further.

  4. Atom-Based Sensing of Weak Radio Frequency Electric Fields Using Homodyne Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Kübler, Harald; Sheng, Jiteng; Shaffer, James P.

    2017-01-01

    We utilize a homodyne detection technique to achieve a new sensitivity limit for atom-based, absolute radio-frequency electric field sensing of 5 μV cm−1 Hz−1/2. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for the homodyne detection. With the increased sensitivity, we investigate the dominant dephasing mechanisms that affect the performance of the sensor. In particular, we present data on power broadening, collisional broadening and transit time broadening. Our results are compared to density matrix calculations. We show that photon shot noise in the signal readout is currently a limiting factor. We suggest that new approaches with superior readout with respect to photon shot noise are needed to increase the sensitivity further. PMID:28218308

  5. An Extraction Method of Weak Low-Frequency Magnetic Communication Signals Based on Multisensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a technical challenge to effectively remove the influence of magnetic noise from the vicinity of the receiving sensors on low-frequency magnetic communication. The traditional denoising methods are difficult to extract high-quality original signals under the condition of low SNR (the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, we analyze the numerical characteristics of the low-frequency magnetic field and propose the algorithms of the fast optimization of blind source separation (FOBSS and the frequency-domain correlation extraction (FDCE. FOBSS is based on blind source separation (BSS. Signal extraction of low SNR can be implemented through FOBSS and FDCE. This signal extraction method is verified in multiple field experiments which can remove the magnetic noise by about 25 dB or more.

  6. Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Americas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol problems in the Americas. This is followed by an analysis of 32 prevention strategies and interventions in terms of the evidence for their effectiveness, amount of research support, cost to implement, and other feasibility issues. Overall, the strategies and interventions with the greatest amount of empirical support are low blood alcohol concentration levels for driving while intoxicated, controls on alcohol availability, age limits on alcohol purchases, and relatively high alcohol prices. The implications of the evidence are next discussed in relation to alcohol policy initiatives in the Americas, based on an analysis of the extent to which strategies and interventions currently used in 25 countries of the Americas are likely to have a public health impact on alcohol-related problems. The countries that have adopted the policies with the highest expected impact overall are Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that almost all the countries of the Americas could improve the likelihood of preventing alcohol-related problems. Policy efforts in the developing countries of Latin America should focus on improving countermeasures against driving while intoxicated, measures that alter the drinking context, and limits on physical availability. For the developed, high-income countries of North America the goal should be to prevent deterioration of current drinking patterns and to reduce the overall volume of drinking. Given the low to moderate cost of many of the policies reviewed in this article, it now seems possible for communities and nations to substantially reduce the

  7. Strengths and weaknesses of EST-based prediction of tissue-specific alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing contributes significantly to the complexity of the human transcriptome and proteome. Computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms are usually based on EST sequences that also allow to approximate the expression pattern of the related transcripts. However, the limited number of tissues represented in the EST data as well as the different cDNA construction protocols may influence the predictive capacity of ESTs to unravel tissue-specifically expressed transcripts. Methods We predict tissue and tumor specific splice isoforms based on the genomic mapping (SpliceNest of the EST consensus sequences and library annotation provided in the GeneNest database. We further ascertain the potentially rare tissue specific transcripts as the ones represented only by ESTs derived from normalized libraries. A subset of the predicted tissue and tumor specific isoforms are then validated via RT-PCR experiments over a spectrum of 40 tissue types. Results Our strategy revealed 427 genes with at least one tissue specific transcript as well as 1120 genes showing tumor specific isoforms. While our experimental evaluation of computationally predicted tissue-specific isoforms revealed a high success rate in confirming the expression of these isoforms in the respective tissue, the strategy frequently failed to detect the expected restricted expression pattern. The analysis of putative lowly expressed transcripts using normalized cDNA libraries suggests that our ability to detect tissue-specific isoforms strongly depends on the expression level of the respective transcript as well as on the sensitivity of the experimental methods. Especially splice isoforms predicted to be disease-specific tend to represent transcripts that are expressed in a set of healthy tissues rather than novel isoforms. Conclusions We propose to combine the computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms with experimental validation for

  8. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne Hamish R; Quinlan John F; Allison Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  9. Analysis of the electrosensory pyramidal cell bursting model for weakly electric fish: model prediction under low levels of dendritic potassium conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, T

    2012-09-01

    Pyramidal cells in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) of weakly electric fish produce burst discharge. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type model, called ghostburster, consisting of two compartments (soma and dendrite) reproduces ELL pyramidal cell bursting observed in vitro. A previous study analyzed the ghostburster by treating Is and gDr,d as bifurcation parameters (Is: current injected into the somatic compartment and gDr,d: maximal conductance of the delayed rectifying potassium current in the dendritic compartment) and indicated that when both Is and gDr,d are set at particular values, the ghostburster shows a codimension-two bifurcation at which both saddle-node bifurcation of fixed points and saddle-node bifurcation of limit cycles occur simultaneously. In the present study, the ghostburster was investigated to clarify the bursting that occurred at gDr,d values smaller than that at the codimension-two bifurcation. Based on the number of spikes per burst, various burst patterns were observed depending on the (Is, gDr,d) values. Depending on the (Is, gDr,d) values, the burst trajectory in a phase space of the ghostburster showed either a high or a low degree of periodicity. Compared to the previous study, the present findings contribute to a more detailed understanding of ghostburster bursting.

  10. Modelling excited states of weakly bound complexes with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Edward A; Besley, Nicholas A

    2014-07-28

    The binding within the ethene-argon and formaldehyde-methane complexes in the ground and electronically excited states is studied with equation of motion coupled cluster theory (EOM-CCSD), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and density functional theory with dispersion corrections (DFT-D). Electronically excited states are studied within MP2 and Kohn-Sham DFT formalisms by exploiting a procedure called the maximum overlap method that allows convergence of the relevant self-consistent field equations to higher energy (or excited state) solutions. Potential energy curves computed using MP2 are in good agreement with the EOM-CCSD calculations for both the valence and Rydberg excited states studied. For the DFT-D approach, B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations are found to be in agreement with EOM-CCSD for the ground and valence excited states. However, for the π3s Rydberg state of ethene-argon and the n3s Rydberg state of formaldehyde-methane significant deviation is observed, and this disagreement with EOM-CCSD is present for a variety of DFT-D based approaches. Variation of the parameters within the D2 dispersion correction results in closer agreement with EOM-CCSD for the Rydberg states but demonstrates that a different parameterisation from the ground state is required for these states. This indicates that time-dependent density functional theory calculations based upon a DFT-D reference may be satisfactory for excitations to valence states, but will potentially be inaccurate for excitations to Rydberg states, or more generally states where the nature of the electron density is significantly different from the ground state.

  11. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K. A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2014-08-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of $2 \\times 14.3$ m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than $8.0\\times10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.

  12. Optimal spike-based communication in excitable networks with strong-sparse and weak-dense links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramae, Jun-Nosuke; Tsubo, Yasuhiro; Fukai, Tomoki

    2012-07-01

    The connectivity of complex networks and functional implications has been attracting much interest in many physical, biological and social systems. However, the significance of the weight distributions of network links remains largely unknown except for uniformly- or Gaussian-weighted links. Here, we show analytically and numerically, that recurrent neural networks can robustly generate internal noise optimal for spike transmission between neurons with the help of a long-tailed distribution in the weights of recurrent connections. The structure of spontaneous activity in such networks involves weak-dense connections that redistribute excitatory activity over the network as noise sources to optimally enhance the responses of individual neurons to input at sparse-strong connections, thus opening multiple signal transmission pathways. Electrophysiological experiments confirm the importance of a highly broad connectivity spectrum supported by the model. Our results identify a simple network mechanism for internal noise generation by highly inhomogeneous connection strengths supporting both stability and optimal communication.

  13. Existence of global weak solutions to compressible isentropic finitely extensible nonlinear bead-spring chain models for dilute polymers: The two-dimensional case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W.; Süli, Endre

    2016-07-01

    We prove the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to a general class of models that arise from the kinetic theory of dilute solutions of nonhomogeneous polymeric liquids, where the polymer molecules are idealized as bead-spring chains with finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) type spring potentials. The class of models under consideration involves the unsteady, compressible, isentropic, isothermal Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain Ω in Rd, d = 2, for the density ρ, the velocity u ˜ and the pressure p of the fluid, with an equation of state of the form p (ρ) =cpργ, where cp is a positive constant and γ > 1. The right-hand side of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation includes an elastic extra-stress tensor, which is the classical Kramers expression. The elastic extra-stress tensor stems from the random movement of the polymer chains and is defined through the associated probability density function that satisfies a Fokker-Planck-type parabolic equation, a crucial feature of which is the presence of a centre-of-mass diffusion term. This extends the result in our paper J.W. Barrett and E. Süli (2016) [9], which established the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to the system for d ∈ { 2 , 3 } and γ >3/2, but the elastic extra-stress tensor required there the addition of a quadratic interaction term to the classical Kramers expression to complete the compactness argument on which the proof was based. We show here that in the case of d = 2 and γ > 1 the existence of global-in-time weak solutions can be proved in the absence of the quadratic interaction term. Our results require no structural assumptions on the drag term in the Fokker-Planck equation; in particular, the drag term need not be corotational. With a nonnegative initial density ρ0 ∈L∞ (Ω) for the continuity equation; a square-integrable initial velocity datum u˜0 for the Navier-Stokes momentum equation; and a nonnegative initial probability density function ψ0

  14. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY ON ADSORPTION OF AROMATIC SULFONIC ACIDS ONTO MACROPOROUS WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGER FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Long; Quan-xing Zhang; Ai-min Li; Jin-long Chen

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of three aromatic sulfonic acid compounds, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, ptoluenesulfonic acid and p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, from aqueous solutions by macroporous weak base anion exchanger within the temperature range of 293 K-313 K were obtained. Several isotherm equations were correlated with the equilibrium data, and the experimental data was found to fit the three-parameter Redlich-Peterson equation best within the entire range of concentrations. The study showed that the hydrophobicity of solute has distinct influence on adsorption capacity of the anion exchanger for the aromatic sulfonic acid. Moreover, estimations of the isosteric enthalpy, free energy,and entropy change of adsorption were also reported. The positive isosteric enthalpy and entropy change for adsorption indicate an endothermic and entropy driven process in the present study.

  16. Excessive Cold-tongue and Weak ENSO Asymmetry: Are These Two Common Biases in Climate Models Linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Among the biases in the tropical Pacific that are common in the climate models, two stand out. One is the excessive cold-tongue in the mean state---the pool of the cold water that is normally in the eastern tropical Pacific extends too far to the west. The other is the underestimate of the asymmetry of El Nino-Southern Oscillation—the fact that El Nino and La Nina are more or less a mirror image of each other in the models while they are not so in the observations. Results from an analysis from CMIP5 models, forced ocean GCM experiments, as well as an analytical model are presented to suggest that these two common biases in our state-of-the-art models are linked. Specifically, an excessive cold-tongue in the mean climatological state makes the ENSO system more stable and thus leads to a more symmetric ENSO, while a more symmetric ENSO in turn results in less nonlinear heating from the ENSO events to the cental equatorial Pacific which in turn contributes to the development of an excessive cold-tongue. The finding underscores that errors in the mean state and ENSO tend to reinforce each other and thus explains why it has been difficult to simulate the tropical Pacific climate. Further comparison with observations suggests that these two biases are the symptoms of a single structural inadequacy in the models: a weak dynamical coupling between the atmosphere and ocean which puts the ENSO system in the models to a different dynamic regime than the obsereved. Measures that may help push the models closer to the observations are suggested.

  17. Assessment of Bioequivalence of Weak Base Formulations Under Various Dosing Conditions Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Simulations in Virtual Populations. Case Examples: Ketoconazole and Posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Patel, Nikunjkumar; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-02-01

    Postabsorptive factors which can affect systemic drug exposure are assumed to be dependent on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and thus independent of formulation. In contrast, preabsorptive factors, for example, hypochlorhydria, might affect systemic exposure in both an API and a formulation-dependent way. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral absorption of 2 poorly soluble, weakly basic APIs, ketoconazole (KETO) and posaconazole (POSA), would be equally sensitive to changes in dissolution rate under the following dosing conditions-coadministration with water, with food, with carbonated drinks, and in drug-induced hypochlorhydria. The systems-components of validated absorption and PBPK models for KETO and POSA were modified to simulate the above-mentioned clinical scenarios. Virtual bioequivalence studies were then carried out to investigate whether formulation effects on the plasma profile vary with the dosing conditions. The slow precipitation of KETO upon reaching the upper part of the small intestine renders its absorption more sensitive to the completeness of gastric dissolution and thus to the gastric environment than POSA, which is subject to extensive precipitation in response to a pH shift. The virtual bioequivalence studies showed that hypothetical test and reference formulations containing KETO would be bioequivalent only if the microenvironment in the stomach enables complete gastric dissolution. We conclude that physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation has excellent potential to address issues close to bedside such as optimizing dosing conditions. By studying virtual populations adapted to various clinical situations, clinical strategies to reduce therapeutic failures can be identified.

  18. Estimating the position of illuminants in paintings under weak model assumptions: an application to the works of two Baroque masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, David; Stork, David G.

    2009-02-01

    The problems of estimating the position of an illuminant and the direction of illumination in realist paintings have been addressed using algorithms from computer vision. These algorithms fall into two general categories: In model-independent methods (cast-shadow analysis, occluding-contour analysis, ...), one does not need to know or assume the three-dimensional shapes of the objects in the scene. In model-dependent methods (shape-fromshading, full computer graphics synthesis, ...), one does need to know or assume the three-dimensional shapes. We explore the intermediate- or weak-model condition, where the three-dimensional object rendered is so simple one can very confidently assume its three-dimensional shape and, further, that this shape admits an analytic derivation of the appearance model. Specifically, we can assume that floors and walls are flat and that they are horizontal and vertical, respectively. We derived the maximum-likelihood estimator for the two-dimensional spatial location of a point source in an image as a function of the pattern of brightness (or grayscale value) over such a planar surface. We applied our methods to two paintings of the Baroque, paintings for which the question of the illuminant position is of interest to art historians: Georges de la Tour's Christ in the carpenter's studio (1645) and Caravaggio's The calling of St. Matthew (1599-1600). Our analyses show that a single point source (somewhat near to the depicted candle) is a slightly better explanation of the pattern of brightness on the floor in Christ than are two point sources, one in place of each of the figures. The luminance pattern on the rear wall in The calling implies the source is local, a few meters outside the picture frame-not the infinitely distant sun. Both results are consistent with previous rebuttals of the recent art historical claim that these paintings were executed by means of tracing optically projected images. Our method is the first application of such

  19. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  20. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Gulhan, Doga Can; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-12-01

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  2. Weak convergence of marked point processes generated by crossings of multivariate jump processes. Applications to neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Sacerdote, Laura; Jacobsen, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We consider the multivariate point process determined by the crossing times of the components of a multivariate jump process through a multivariate boundary, assuming to reset each component to an initial value after its boundary crossing. We prove that this point process converges weakly to the point process determined by the crossing times of the limit process. This holds for both diffusion and deterministic limit processes. The almost sure convergence of the first passage times under the almost sure convergence of the processes is also proved. The particular case of a multivariate Stein process converging to a multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is discussed as a guideline for applying diffusion limits for jump processes. We apply our theoretical findings to neural network modeling. The proposed model gives a mathematical foundation to the generalization of the class of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire models for single neural dynamics to the case of a firing network of neurons. This will help future study of dependent spike trains.

  3. The sensitivity of multiple equilibria in a cloud resolving model to sea surface temperature changes in weak temperature gradient simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentic, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon

    2012-10-01

    In the tropics, gravity waves quickly redistribute buoyancy anomalies, which leads to approximately weak temperature gradients (WTG) in the horizontal. In our cloud resolving model (CRM), the WTG approximation is enforced by relaxing potential temperature perturbations to a reference profile which represents the mean state of the atmosphere. To obtain reference profiles, the model is run in a non-WTG mode until radiative convective equilibrium (RCE). RCE vertical profiles of temperature and moisture are then used as reference profiles for WTG simulations. Continuing the work of Sessions et al (2010), we investigate the sensitivity of multiple equilibria in a CRM to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). Multiple equilibria refers to a precipitating or non-precipitating steady state under identical forcing conditions. Specifically, we run RCE simulations for different SSTs to generate reference profiles representing different large scale environments for WTG simulations. We then perform WTG experiments for each SST with varying surface wind speeds. The model domain is initialized either with a completely dry troposphere, or with a RCE moisture profile. We find that the range of wind speeds maintaining both a dry and a precipitating steady state is strongly dependent on SST.

  4. Web Based VRML Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a method to connect VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java components in a Web page using EAI (External Authoring Interface), which makes it possible to interactively generate and edit VRML meshes. The meshes used are based on regular grids, to provide an interaction and modeling

  5. Modelling the Propagation of a Weak Fast-Mode MHD Shock Wave near a 2D Magnetic Null Point Using Nonlinear Geometrical Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A. N.; Uralov, A. M.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of analytical modelling of fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation near a 2D magnetic null point. We consider both a linear wave and a weak shock and analyse their behaviour in cold and warm plasmas. We apply the nonlinear geometrical acoustics method based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We calculate the wave amplitude, using the ray approximation and the laws of solitary shock wave damping. We find that a complex caustic is formed around the null point. Plasma heating is distributed in space and occurs at a caustic as well as near the null point due to substantial nonlinear damping of the shock wave. The shock wave passes through the null point even in a cold plasma. The complex shape of the wave front can be explained by the caustic pattern.

  6. Quantum transport of vortices in a weakly dissipative ring threaded by an Aharonov-Casher flux: A tight-binding model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J. [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-5932 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Wang, Z.D. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    1997-11-01

    Based on the tight-binding model and taking into account the effect of dissipation as well as the disorder, we study quantum interference via the Aharonov-Casher effect for fluxons in a ring-shaped superconductor. The electrical resistance in terms of the transmission probability for a quantum vortex to traverse the ring is calculated. It is shown that a quantum interference effect is exhibited in the resistance in the presence of weak dissipation. Our analysis may also be applied to a Josephson-junction array system. In particular, by including the disorder effect, we are able to explain the experimental measurements in the dissipative regime done by Elion {ital et al.} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 71}, 2311 (1993)]. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Modelling the Propagation of a Weak Fast-Mode MHD Shock Wave near a 2D Magnetic Null Point Using Nonlinear Geometrical Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyev, Andrey N

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of analytical modelling of fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation near a 2D magnetic null point. We consider both a linear wave and a weak shock and analyse their behaviour in cold and warm plasmas. We apply the nonlinear geometrical acoustics method based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We calculate the wave amplitude, using the ray approximation and the laws of solitary shock wave damping. We find that a complex caustic is formed around the null point. Plasma heating is distributed in space and occurs at a caustic as well as near the null point due to substantial nonlinear damping of the shock wave. The shock wave passes through the null point even in a cold plasma. The complex shape of the wave front can be explained by the caustic pattern.

  8. Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Kono, M.; Sato, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)

  9. Tests of the electroweak standard model and measurement of the weak mixing angle with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Martin; Mnich, Joachim; Schleper, Peter

    In this thesis the global Standard Model (SM) fit to the electroweak precision observables is revisited with respect to newest experimental results. Various consistency checks are performed showing no significant deviation from the SM. The Higgs boson mass is estimated by the electroweak fit to be MH = 94+30−24 GeV without any information from direct Higgs searches at LEP, Tevatron, and the LHC and the result is MH = 125+8−10 GeV when including the direct Higgs mass constraints. The strong coupling constant is extracted at fourth perturbative order as αs(M2Z) = 0.1194 ± 0.0028 (exp) ± 0.0001 (theo). From the fit including the direct Higgs constraints the effective weak mixing angle is determined indirectly to be sin2 θleff = 0.23147+0.00012−0.00010. For the W mass the value of MW = 80.360+0.012−0.011 GeV is obtained indirectly from the fit including the direct Higgs constraints. The electroweak precision data is also exploited to constrain new physics models by using the concept of oblique paramet...

  10. Identifying P phase arrival of weak events: The Akaike Information Criterion picking application based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Shang, Xueyi; Morales-Esteban, A.; Wang, Zewei

    2017-03-01

    Seismic P phase arrival picking of weak events is a difficult problem in seismology. The algorithm proposed in this research is based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) picker. It has been called the EMD-AIC picker. The EMD is a self-adaptive signal decomposition method that not only improves Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) but also retains P phase arrival information. Then, P phase arrival picking has been determined by applying the AIC picker to the selected main Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The performance of the EMD-AIC picker has been evaluated on the basis of 1938 micro-seismic signals from the Yongshaba mine (China). The P phases identified by this algorithm have been compared with manual pickings. The evaluation results confirm that the EMD-AIC pickings are highly accurate for the majority of the micro-seismograms. Moreover, the pickings are independent of the kind of noise. Finally, the results obtained by this algorithm have been compared to the wavelet based Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)-AIC pickings. This comparison has demonstrated that the EMD-AIC picking method has a better picking accuracy than the DWT-AIC picking method, thus showing this method's reliability and potential.

  11. On the weak project construction cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  12. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  13. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugnat, P. [CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Ballou, R. [CNRS, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Schott, M. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Husek, T.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Slunecka, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Sulc, M.; Kunc, S. [Technical University of Liberec, Liberec (Czech Republic); Deferne, G.; Siemko, A. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Duvillaret, L.; Vitrant, G. [Grenoble INP - Minatec and CNRS, IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble (France); Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Kral, M.; Macuchova, K.; Zicha, J. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Jost, R.; Romanini, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LIPhy, Grenoble (France); Meissner, K.A. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Morville, J. [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Institut Lumiere Matiere, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, Institut Lumiere Matiere, Villeurbanne (France)

    2014-08-15

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for ''Light Shining through a Wall'' from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'', like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of 2 x 14.3 m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than 8.0 x 10{sup -8} GeV{sup -1}. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented. (orig.)

  14. Space-time model for migration of weak earthquakes along the northern boundary of the Amurian microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimenko, S. V.; Bykov, V. G.; Merkulova, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we aimed to investigate the statistical distributions of shallow earthquakes with 2 ≤ M ≤ 4, located in 13 rectangular areas (clusters) bounded by 120°E and 144°E along the northern boundary of the Amurian microplate. As a result of our study, the displacement of seismicity maxima has been determined and three recurrent spatial cycles have been observed. The clusters with similar distribution of earthquakes are suggested to alternate being equally spaced at 7.26° (360-420 km). A comparison of investigation results on the structure of seismicity in various segments of the Amurian microplate reveals the identity between the alternation pattern observed for meridional zones of large earthquakes and a distinguished spatial period. The displacement vector for seismicity in the annual cycles is determined, and the correspondence between its E-W direction and the displacement of the fronts of large earthquakes is established. The elaborated model of seismic and deformation processes is considered, in which subsequent activation of clusters of weak earthquakes (2 ≤ M ≤ 4), tending to extend from the Japanese-Sakhalin island arc to the eastern closure of the Baikal rift zone, is initiated by the displacement of the strain wave front.

  15. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao; Xiang, Qian-Fei

    2016-01-01

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may...

  16. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao [Southeast University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Xiang, Qian-Fei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may reduce the NS radii significantly, satisfying both the NS radius and mass constraints well. (orig.)

  17. pH-dependent drug-drug interactions for weak base drugs: potential implications for new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L

    2014-08-01

    Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated.

  18. Study of atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma as surface compatibilization technique for improved plastic composites loaded with cellulose based fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William Pimakouon

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained considerable interest from researchers recently for their unique prospective of engineering surfaces with plasma without the need of vacuum systems. They offer the advantage of low energy consumption, minimal capital cost and their simplicity as compared to conventional low pressure plasmas make them easy to upscale from laboratory to industry size. The present dissertation summarizes results of our attempt at applying atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) to the engineering of plastic composites filled with cellulose based substrates. An APWIP reactor was designed and built based on a multipoint-to-grounded ring and screen configurations. The carrier gas was argon and acetylene serves as the precursor molecule. The APWIP reactors showed capability of depositing plasma polymerized coating rich in carbon on substrates positioned within the electrode gap as well as downstream of the plasma discharge into the afterglow region. Our findings show that films grow by forming islands which for prolonged deposition time grow into thin films showing nodules, aggregates of nodules and microspheres. They also show chemical structure similar to films deposited from hydrocarbons with other conventional plasma techniques. The plasma polymerized deposits were used on substrates to modify their surface properties. Results show the surface of wood veneer and wood flour can be finely tuned from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. It was achieved by altering the topography of the surfaces along with their chemical composition. The wettability of wood veneer was investigated with contact angle measurements on capacitive drops and the capillary effect was utilized to assess surface properties of wood flour exposed to the discharges.

  19. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  20. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  1. Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casel Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.

  2. Real-time weak signal detecting using FPGA-based Duffing oscillator with auto-damping and high speed ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongtao; Feng, Changqing

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a hardware real-time weak signal detection method using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Duffing Oscillator (DUOS) and high speed Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. In the design, the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA is chosen as the controller and the DUOS weak signal detecting algorithm is implemented in it with single floating precision. The ADS5409, a dual-channel, 12-bit, 900 MSPS ADC of TI, is used for data acquisition. Besides, to guarantee the same detection Signal-Noise Ratio (SNR) for signals of different amplitudes, a signal auto-damping strategy is adopted in the FPGA, which can adjust the amplitudes of the input signals automatically. The method introduced in this paper achieves not only the ability of efficient weak signal detection in noisy environment but also the advantages of hardware processing such as real-time, low power and so on.

  3. Crossover from Weakly to Strongly Correlated Regions in the Two-dimensional Hubbard Model — Off-diagonal Wave Function Monte Carlo Studies of Hubbard Model II —

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. The effect of pH on the uptake and toxicity of the bivalent weak base chloroquine tested on Salix viminalis and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    , and therefore a higher toxicity can be expected. The current study examines the pHdependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of the bivalent weak base chloroquine (pKa: 10.47 and 6.33, log KOW 4.67) tested on Salix viminalis (basket willow) and Daphnia magna (water flea). The transpiration rates of hydroponically...

  5. Weak hyperon-nucleon interaction in a quark model and application to the pn {yields} {lambda}p scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Kenji; Oka, Makoto [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takeuchi, Sachiko [Japan College of Social Work, Kiyose, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The weak {lambda}N {r_reversible} NN (and {sigma}N {r_reversible} NN) transition is studied, in which the quark substructure of the baryons are taken into account. The short-range part of the transition potential is induced by the direct quark (DQ) mechanism, while the long-range part is described by the meson ({pi} and K) exchanges. The transition potential is calculated and is applied to the decay of hypernuclei and the weak {lambda} production in the proton-neutron scattering. We show that the short-range DQ transition plays a significant role in these processes. (author)

  6. Adsorption mechanism of acids and bases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography in weak buffered mobile phases designed for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2009-03-06

    The overloaded band profiles of five acido-basic compounds were measured, using weakly buffered mobile phases. Low buffer concentrations were selected to provide a better understanding of the band profiles recorded in LC/MS analyses, which are often carried out at low buffer concentrations. In this work, 10 microL samples of a 50 mM probe solution were injected into C(18)-bonded columns using a series of five buffered mobile phases at (SW)pH between 2 and 12. The retention times and the shapes of the bands were analyzed based on thermodynamic arguments. A new adsorption model that takes into account the simultaneous adsorption of the acidic and the basic species onto the endcapped adsorbent, predicts accurately the complex experimental profiles recorded. The adsorption mechanism of acido-basic compounds onto RPLC phases seems to be consistent with the following microscopic model. No matter whether the acid or the base is the neutral or the basic species, the neutral species adsorbs onto a large number of weak adsorption sites (their saturation capacity is several tens g/L and their equilibrium constant of the order of 0.1 L/g). In contrast, the ionic species adsorbs strongly onto fewer active sites (their saturation capacity is about 1g/L and their equilibrium constant of the order of a few L/g). From a microscopic point of view and in agreement with the adsorption isotherm of the compound measured by frontal analysis (FA) and with the results of Monte-Carlo calculations performed by Schure et al., the first type of adsorption sites are most likely located in between C(18)-bonded chains and the second type of adsorption sites are located deeper in contact with the silica surface. The injected concentration (50 mM) was too low to probe the weakest adsorption sites (saturation capacity of a few hundreds g/L with an equilibrium constant of one hundredth of L/g) that are located at the very interface between the C(18)-bonded layer and the bulk phase.

  7. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  8. Observed and modeled effects of pH on bioconcentration of diphenhydramine, a weakly basic pharmaceutical, by fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the influence of pH on uptake and accumulation of ionizable pharmaceuticals by fish was recently identified as a major research need. In the present study, fathead minnows were exposed to diphenhydramine (DPH), a weakly basic pharmaceutical (pKa = 9.1). Fish were ...

  9. Observed and modeled effects of pH on bioconcentration of diphenhydramine, a weakly basic pharmaceutical, by fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the influence of pH on uptake and accumulation of ionizable pharmaceuticals by fish was recently identified as a major research need. In the present study, fathead minnows were exposed to diphenhydramine (DPH), a weakly basic pharmaceutical (pKa = 9.1). Fish were ...

  10. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  11. Exercise-based rehabilitation after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness with intensive care unit–acquired weakness: A pilot feasibility trial ☆ ☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Bronwen; Thompson, April; Douiri, Abdel; Moxham, John; Hart, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate feasibility of exercise-based rehabilitation delivered after hospital discharge in patients with intensive care unit–acquired weakness (ICU-AW). Materials and methods Twenty adult patients, mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours, with ICU-AW diagnosis at ICU discharge were included in a pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial receiving a 16-session exercise-based rehabilitation program. Twenty-one patients without ICU-AW participa...

  12. Exercise-based rehabilitation after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness with intensive care unit–acquired weakness: A pilot feasibility trial ☆ ☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Bronwen; Thompson, April; Douiri, Abdel; Moxham, John; Hart, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate feasibility of exercise-based rehabilitation delivered after hospital discharge in patients with intensive care unit–acquired weakness (ICU-AW). Materials and methods Twenty adult patients, mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours, with ICU-AW diagnosis at ICU discharge were included in a pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial receiving a 16-session exercise-based rehabilitation program. Twenty-one patients without ICU-AW participa...

  13. 基于联合子空间的宽带弱信号测向算法%Wideband DOA Estimation of Weak Signals Based on Joint Subspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏成晓; 罗景青; 樊甫华

    2013-01-01

    In order to correctly estimate weak signals' directions with strong jamming for wideband beam forming system,a super-resolution direction finding algorithm for weak signals based on jamming-noise joint subspace was proposed.Eigenvectors that represent strong jamming were combined with noise subspace to construct jamming-noise joint subspace,which was used to estimate weak signals' directions of arrival (DOA) instead of noise subspace.Jamming suppression and weak signals' DOA estimation were done simultaneously.Analysis and computer simulations showed that the proposed algorithm could suppress strong jamming effectively and got the correct DOA estimation of nearby weak signals,and the resolution probability of weak signals was improved.%为了解决强干扰环境下宽带多波束系统中弱信号的测向问题,提出了一种基于干扰-噪声联合子空间的弱信号超分辨测向算法.该算法将强干扰对应特征向量并入噪声子空间,构造干扰-噪声联合子空间代替噪声子空间进行估计,干扰抑制与弱信号测向同步进行.分析和仿真实验表明:算法能够抑制强干扰的影响,实现邻近弱信号的正确测向,提高了弱信号的分辨概率.

  14. Gossip Consensus Algorithm Based on Time-Varying Influence Factors and Weakly Connected Graph for Opinion Evolution in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new gossip algorithm to investigate the problem of opinion consensus with the time-varying influence factors and weakly connected graph among multiple agents. What is more, we discuss not only the effect of the time-varying factors and the randomized topological structure but also the spread of misinformation and communication constrains described by probabilistic quantized communication in the social network. Under the underlying weakly connected graph, we first denote that all opinion states converge to a stochastic consensus almost surely; that is, our algorithm indeed achieves the consensus with probability one. Furthermore, our results show that the mean of all the opinion states converges to the average of the initial states when time-varying influence factors satisfy some conditions. Finally, we give a result about the square mean error between the dynamic opinion states and the benchmark without quantized communication.

  15. Possible Effects of a Composite Iso-Scalar Weak Boson in a Left-Right Symmetric Preon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, S.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1991-08-01

    We assume that a fundamental gauge symmetry is never broken, and any short range interactions should be secondary, appearing as residual effects of some fundamental gauge interactions. On this assumption the weak interaction is considered to be a secondary effective one among composite quarks, leptons and weak bosons with respective appropriate preon and/or anti-preon configurations bounded by a new fundamental gauge interaction. In this work, applying a fermion-boson type preon scheme and supposing confinement and a preon line rule (like the OZI-rule) for the confining force, we concentrate to investigate lower mass limit of the additional iso-scalar particle, whose existence is naturally expected in our scheme, permitted by a low energy experiment.

  16. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  17. Evaluating the Strengths and Weaknesses of Mining Audit Data for Automated Models for Intrusion Detection in Tcpdump and Basic Security Module Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Intrusion Detection System (IDS have become an important component of infrastructure protection mechanism to secure the current and emerging networks, its services and applications by detecting, alerting and taking necessary actions against the malicious activities. The network size, technology diversities and security policies make networks more challenging and hence there is a requirement for IDS which should be very accurate, adaptive, extensible and more reliable. Although there exists the novel framework for this requirement namely Mining Audit Data for Automated Models for Intrusion Detection (MADAM ID, it is having some performance shortfalls in processing the audit data. Approach: Few experiments were conducted on tcpdump data of DARPA and BCM audit files by applying the algorithms and tools of MADAM ID in the processing of audit data, mine patterns, construct features and build RIPPER classifiers. By putting it all together, four main categories of attacks namely DOS, R2L, U2R and PROBING attacks were simulated. Results: This study outlines the experimentation results of MADAM ID in testing the DARPA and BSM data on a simulated network environment. Conclusion: The strengths and weakness of MADAM ID has been identified thru the experiments conducted on tcpdump data and also on Pascal based audit files of Basic Security Module (BSM. This study also gives some additional directions about the future applications of MADAM ID.

  18. A population genetic model for the initial spread of partially resistant malaria parasites under anti-malarial combination therapy and weak intrahost competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuseob Kim

    Full Text Available To develop public-health policies that extend the lifespan of affordable anti-malarial drugs as effective treatment options, it is necessary to understand the evolutionary processes leading to the origin and spread of mutations conferring drug resistance in malarial parasites. We built a population-genetic model for the emergence of resistance under combination drug therapy. Reproductive cycles of parasites are specified by their absolute fitness determined by clinical parameters, thus coupling the evolutionary-genetic with population-dynamic processes. Initial mutations confer only partial drug-resistance. Therefore, mutant parasites rarely survive combination therapy and within-host competition is very weak among parasites. The model focuses on the early phase of such unsuccessful recurrent mutations. This ends in the rare event of mutants enriching in an infected individual from which the successful spread of resistance over the entire population is initiated. By computer simulations, the waiting time until the establishment of resistant parasites is analysed. Resistance spreads quickly following the first appearance of a host infected predominantly by mutant parasites. This occurs either through a rare transmission of a resistant parasite to an uninfected host or through a rare failure of drugs in removing "transient" mutant alleles. The emergence of resistance is delayed with lower mutation rate, earlier treatment, higher metabolic cost of resistance, longer duration of high drug dose, and higher drug efficacy causing a stronger reduction in the sensitive and resistant parasites' fitnesses. Overall, contrary to other studies' proposition, the current model based on absolute fitness suggests that aggressive drug treatment delays the emergence of drug resistance.

  19. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  20. Analytical Calculation of Mutual Information between Weakly Coupled Poisson-Spiking Neurons in Models of Dynamically Gated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Mutual information is a commonly used measure of communication between neurons, but little theory exists describing the relationship between mutual information and the parameters of the underlying neuronal interaction. Such a theory could help us understand how specific physiological changes affect the capacity of neurons to synaptically communicate, and, in particular, they could help us characterize the mechanisms by which neuronal dynamics gate the flow of information in the brain. Here we study a pair of linear-nonlinear-Poisson neurons coupled by a weak synapse. We derive an analytical expression describing the mutual information between their spike trains in terms of synapse strength, neuronal activation function, the time course of postsynaptic currents, and the time course of the background input received by the two neurons. This expression allows mutual information calculations that would otherwise be computationally intractable. We use this expression to analytically explore the interaction of excitation, information transmission, and the convexity of the activation function. Then, using this expression to quantify mutual information in simulations, we illustrate the information-gating effects of neural oscillations and oscillatory coherence, which may either increase or decrease the mutual information across the synapse depending on parameters. Finally, we show analytically that our results can quantitatively describe the selection of one information pathway over another when multiple sending neurons project weakly to a single receiving neuron.

  1. A WEAK ALKALI BOND IN (N, K–A–S–H GELS: EVIDENCE FROM LEACHING AND MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANTIŠEK ŠKVÁRA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The alkali bond in (N, K–A–S–H gels presents an up-to-date insufficiently resolved issue with significant consequences for efflorescence in alkali-activated materials. A series of experiments shows nearly all alkalis are leachable from alkaliactivated fly-ash and metakaolin in excessive amounts of deionized water. A diffusion-based model describes well the alkali leaching process. Negligible changes of the (N, K–A–S–H gel nanostructure indicate that Na,K do not form the gel backbone and H3O+ is probably the easiest substitution for the leached alkalies. Small changes in the long-term compressive strength of leached specimens support this hypothesis.

  2. Diffusion Monte Carlo applied to weak interactions - hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking in (bio-)molecular model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M.; Ireta, J.; Scheffler, M.; Filippi, C.

    2006-03-01

    Dispersion (Van der Waals) forces are important in many molecular phenomena such as self-assembly of molecular crystals or peptide folding. Calculating this nonlocal correlation effect requires accurate electronic structure methods. Usual density-functional theory with generalized gradient functionals (GGA-DFT) fails unless empirical corrections are added that still need extensive validation. Quantum chemical methods like MP2 and coupled cluster are more accurate, yet limited to rather small systems by their unfavorable computational scaling. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) can provide accurate molecular total energies and remains feasible also for larger systems. Here we apply the fixed-node DMC method to (bio-)molecular model systems where dispersion forces are significant: (dimethyl-) formamide and benzene dimers, and adenine-thymine DNA base pairs. Our DMC binding energies agree well with data from coupled cluster (CCSD(T)), in particular for stacked geometries where GGA-DFT fails qualitatively and MP2 predicts too strong binding.

  3. Minimal Standard Model self-energies at finite temperature in the presence of weak magnetic fields: towards a full symmetry restoration study

    CERN Document Server

    Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria E; Sanchez, Angel; Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The study of the universe's primordial plasma at high temperature plays an important role when tackling different questions in cosmology, such as the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) neither the amount of CP violation nor the strength of the phase transition are enough to produce and preserve baryon number during the Electroweak Phase Transition (EWPT), which are two of the three ingredients needed to develop baryon asymmetry. In this talk we present the first part of the analysis done within a scenario where it is viable to have improvements to the aforementioned situation: we work with the degrees of freedom in the broken symmetry phase of the MSM and analyze the development of the EWPT in the presence of a weak magnetic field. More specifically, we calculate the particle self-energies that include the effects of the weak magnetic field, needed for the MSM effective potential up to ring diagrams.

  4. Effects of Weak Ties on Epidemic Predictability in Community Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Panpan; Gong, Kai; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Weak ties play a significant role in the structures and the dynamics of community networks. Based on the susceptible-infected model in contact process, we study numerically how weak ties influence the predictability of epidemic dynamics. We first investigate the effects of different kinds of weak ties on the variabilities of both the arrival time and the prevalence of disease, and find that the bridgeness with small degree can enhance the predictability of epidemic spreading. Once weak ties are settled, compared with the variability of arrival time, the variability of prevalence displays a diametrically opposed changing trend with both the distance of the initial seed to the bridgeness and the degree of the initial seed. More specifically, the further distance and the larger degree of the initial seed can induce the better predictability of arrival time and the worse predictability of prevalence. Moreover, we discuss the effects of weak tie number on the epidemic variability. As community strength becomes ver...

  5. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  6. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  7. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  8. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  9. Dynamical analysis of a weakly coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon model as a new type of Josephson Junction

    CERN Document Server

    Ekşioğlu, Yasa; Güven, Kaan

    2011-01-01

    We propose that a weakly-coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon system can be formulated as a new type of Josephson junction. Such a system can be realized along a metal - dielectric interface where the dielectric medium hosts a nonlinear waveguide (e.g. fiber) for soliton propagation. We demonstrate that the system is in close analogy to the bosonic Josephson-Junction (BJJ) of atomic condensates at very low temperatures, yet exhibits different dynamical features. In particular, the inherently dynamic coupling parameter between soliton and surface-plasmon generates self-trapped oscillatory states at nonzero fractional populations with zero and $\\pi$ time averaged phase difference. The salient features of the dynamics are presented in the phase space.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Combined Strong and Weak Lensing Analysis of the CLASH Sample: Mass and Magnification Models and Systematic Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Maturi, Matteo; Bartelmann, Matthias; Postman, Marc; Umetsu, Keiichi; Seidel, Gregor; Sendra, Irene; Broadhurst, Tom; Balestra, Italo; Biviano, Andrea; Grillo, Claudio; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Rosati, Piero; Bradley, Larry; Carrasco, Mauricio; Donahue, Megan; Ford, Holland; Frye, Brenda L; Moustakas, John

    2014-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] We present results from an HST lensing analysis of the complete Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) cluster sample. We identify various new multiple-images previously undiscovered, allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. The analysis is performed in two different common parameterizations (one adopts light-traces-mass for both galaxies and dark matter while the other adopts an analytical, elliptical NFW form for the dark matter), to provide a better assessment of the underlying systematics - which is most important for deep lensing surveys such as CLASH and the Hubble Frontier Fields, especially when studying high-redshift magnified objects. We find that the typical (median), relative systematic differences throughout the central FOV are $\\sim40\\%$ in the (dimensionless) mass density,...

  11. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases th...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  12. Biomimetic Sensors: Active Electrolocation of Weakly Electric Fish as a Model for Active Sensing in Technical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerhard von der Emde

    2007-01-01

    Instead of vision, many nocturnal animals use alternative senses for navigation and object detection in their dark environment. For this purpose, weakly electric mormyrid fish employ active electrolocation, during which they discharge a specialized electric organ in their tail which discharges electrical pulses. Each discharge builds up an electrical field around the fish, which is sensed by cutaneous electroreceptor organs that are distributed over most of the body surface of the fish. Nearby objects distort this electrical field and cause a local alteration in current flow in those electroreceptors that are closest to the object. By constantly monitoring responses of its electroreceptor organs, a fish can detect, localize, and identify environmental objects.Inspired by the remarkable capabilities of weakly electric fish in detecting and recognizing objects, we designed technical sensor systems that can solve similar problems of remote object sensing. We applied the principles of active electrolocation to technical systems by building devices that produce electrical current pulses in a conducting medium (water or ionized gases) and simultaneously sense local current density. Depending on the specific task a sensor was designed for devices could (i) detect an object, (ii) localize it in space, (iii) determine its distance, and (iv) measure properties such as material properties, thickness, or material faults. Our systems proved to be relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances such as heat, pressure, or turbidity. They have a wide range of applications including material identification, quality control, non-contact distance measurements, medical applications and many more. Despite their astonishing capacities, our sensors still lag far behind what electric fish are able to achieve during active electrolocation. The understanding of the neural principles governing electric fish sensory physiology and the corresponding optimization of our sensors to solve

  13. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  14. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  15. Method for gesture based modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A computer program based method is described for creating models using gestures. On an input device, such as an electronic whiteboard, a user draws a gesture which is recognized by a computer program and interpreted relative to a predetermined meta-model. Based on the interpretation, an algorithm...... is assigned to the gesture drawn by the user. The executed algorithm may, for example, consist in creating a new model element, modifying an existing model element, or deleting an existing model element....

  16. Improvement of Weak Sinusoidal Signal Detecting Based on Duffing Oscillator%基于Duffing振子的弱正弦信号检测的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志玲; 刘银报; 史旭鹏

    2011-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for weak sinusoidal signal detecting based on Duffing chaotic oscillator. In order to detect frequency of weaker sinusoidal signal, we adjust the parameters of Duffing system to make the threshold of Duffing system and the amplitude of weak sinusoidal signal at the same level. Furthermore, we make the threshold of Duffing system small by changing relative parameters of Duffing system, reduce the oscillator frequency ratio among oscillators, and increase the number of oscillators to get higher accuracy. Numerical simulation shows it can detect as low as 0. 002V weak amplitude sinusoidal signal.%提出了一种基于Duffing混沌振子弱正弦信号的检测方法;为了能够检测更加微弱正弦信号的频率,对Duffing系统相关参数加以调整,使系统阈值与微弱正弦信号幅值大致相当;采用Duffing振子阵列法检测微弱正弦信号频率,在检测精度较高的前提下,缩小振子间频率比,增加振子数量;实验仿真表明可以检测幅值最低为0.002V的弱正弦信号.

  17. On the comparability of strong and weak versions of task-based approaches to improving Iranian elementary-level EFL learners’ reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Hejrati Seyedeh Nastaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching (TBLT is an instructional approach that aims to develop learners’ communicative competence and focuses on the use of tasks as the main unit of instruction. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of strong and weak versions of TBLT approach over more traditional approaches in improving reading comprehension of Iranian elementary-level EFL learners. Moreover, the distinction between the strong and weak versions of this approach is taken into account in order to investigate which version is more beneficial over the other version. To achieve the objective, 90 male learners in the 15-17 age range who were studying in an institute in Rasht were selected. The findings showed that utilizing both versions of TBLT approach can provide tremendous opportunities for learners to enhance their reading comprehension compared to traditional language teaching methods. More specifically, the results of this study revealed that the use of the weak version of TBLT approach leads the learners to more proficiency in reading comprehension. It is worth pointing out that this study was conducted with Iranian male elementary-level EFL learners in the 15-17 age range studying in Soroush English Institute in Rasht, Iran. It indicates that a small size of population, a specific age range, and male gender were considered. Thus, for other researchers, more participants at different proficiency levels, with other ranges of age, and both genders may be considered in order to make broader generalization about the results.

  18. Model Construct Based Enterprise Model Architecture and Its Modeling Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to support enterprise integration, a kind of model construct based enterprise model architecture and its modeling approach are studied in this paper. First, the structural makeup and internal relationships of enterprise model architecture are discussed. Then, the concept of reusable model construct (MC) which belongs to the control view and can help to derive other views is proposed. The modeling approach based on model construct consists of three steps, reference model architecture synthesis, enterprise model customization, system design and implementation. According to MC based modeling approach a case study with the background of one-kind-product machinery manufacturing enterprises is illustrated. It is shown that proposal model construct based enterprise model architecture and modeling approach are practical and efficient.

  19. Nanosheet-based hierarchical Ni(2)(CO(3))(OH)(2) microspheres with weak crystallinity for high-performance supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoxing; Xi, Chunyan; Shen, Mengqi; Bao, Chunlin; Zhu, Jun

    2014-10-08

    Three-dimensionally hierarchical oxide/hydroxide materials have recently attracted increasing interest by virtue of their exciting potential in electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Herein, hierarchical Ni2(CO3)(OH)2 microspheres assembled from ultrathin nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a one-pot/one-step hydrothermal route. In this method, common nickel salts and urea were selected as raw materials. The influence of urea concentration on the final product was studied. The hierarchical Ni2(CO3)(OH)2 microspheres show weak crystallinity and contain crystalline water. It was found that they exhibit excellent rate capacity when used as supercapacitor electrode. Under current density of 0.5 and 10 A/g, the optimized Ni2(CO3)(OH)2 electrode with loading density of 5.3 mg/cm(2) exhibited specific capacitances of 1178 and 613 F/g with excellent cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical property is possibly attributed to the intrinsic nature of Ni2(CO3)(OH)2, the ultrathin thickness of nanosheet units, and the sufficient space available to interact with the electrolyte. This facile synthesis strategy and the good electrochemical properties indicate that hydroxycarbonates are promising materials for supercapacitor application. This study suggests a large library of materials for potential application in energy storage systems.

  20. Weak Signal Detection by Duffing Oscillator Based on Hamiltonian%基于哈密顿量的Duffing振子微弱信号检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏恒东; 甘露; 李立萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the weak signal detection by using Duffing oscillator. It is not only of the theoretical value but also of the engineering value to decide the existence of the weak signal in strong noise environment quickly and exactly. Considering that most of the existing weak signal detection methods based on Duffing oscillator are qualitative analysis, this paper uses Hamiltonian to construct statistic for quantitative decision. Hamiltonian can depict the dynamics in real time, and it can be used to do decision in short time situation. This paper utilizes mean pseudo Hamiltonian to depict the changing of the states of Duffing systems in real time. Our scheme can detect weak signal in lower signal-noise-ratio quickly. Simulation verifies the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.%针对目前基于Duffing振子微弱信号检测方法大多停留在对相图的定性分析上,提出了利用哈密顿量构造统计量的微弱信号检测的定量判别方法.哈密顿量能够实时地表征系统的动力学行为,有利于在短时间内进行判决.利用平均伪哈密顿量实时地刻画Duffing系统状态的变化情况,能够在低信噪比下实现微弱信号的快速检测.仿真实验验证了该方法的有效性.

  1. Appoach to realizing weak hydroacoustic beaconing signal based on DSP%一种基于DSP的声信标弱信号提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑媛; 程晶; 那健

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种基于DSP处理模块实现声信标弱信号提取的方法。针对声信标的性能参数及其具体应用环境,采用一种在加性白噪声环境下能够使信号的输出信噪比达到最大的匹配滤波方法,并将其在DSP处理模块上实现,最终将检测结果以音频和视频的形式输出。经过实际应用测试,该方法易于实现,实时性好,在复杂的海洋背景噪声下可以较好提高声信标的作用距离。%This paper introduces a method to realize weak hydroacoustic beaconing signal detecting base on DSP. According to the capability parameters of the hydroacoustic beaconing that the subject have adopted and the application of the hydroacoustic beaconing to the specific environment, also because the matching filter is the best filter means in the condition of additive white noise, it can make the SNR of the output signal to maximize, so this paper adopted the matching filter method, and at last the subject realized weak hydroacoustic beaconing signal detecting on DSP module. After real testing, the system which is good for weak hydroacoustic beaconing signal detecting can run real-time and realize easily. After sea trials, the system using the method can quickly find the target when hydroacoustic beaconing in a long distance. The sea trials shows the method can improve detection distance and easy to use in the areas of the weak hydroacoustic beaconing signal detecting.

  2. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  3. Describing galaxy weak lensing measurements from tenths to tens of Mpc and up to z~0.6 with a single model

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The clustering of galaxies and the matter distribution around them can be described using the halo model complemented with a realistic description of the way galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This has been used successfully to describe statistical properties of samples of galaxies at z<0.2. Without adjusting any model parameters, we compare the predicted weak lensing signal induced by Luminous Red Galaxies to measurements from SDSS DR7 on much larger scales (up to ~90 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc) and at higher redshift (z~0.4). We find excellent agreement, suggesting that the model captures the main properties of the galaxy-dark matter connection. To extend the comparison to lenses at even higher redshifts we complement the SDSS data with shape measurements from the deeper RCS2, resulting in precise lensing measurements for lenses up to z~0.6. These measurements are also well described using the same model. Considering solely these weak lensing measurements, we robustly assess that, up to z~0.6, the number of cent...

  4. HMM-based Trust Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElSalamouny, Ehab; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2010-01-01

    with their dynamic behaviour. Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for both modelling and approximating the behaviours of principals, we introduce the HMM-based trust model as a new approach to evaluating trust in systems exhibiting dynamic behaviour. This model avoids the fixed behaviour assumption which is considered...... the major limitation of existing Beta trust model. We show the consistency of the HMM-based trust model and contrast it against the well known Beta trust model with the decay principle in terms of the estimation precision....

  5. Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  6. Image Segmentation Using Weak Shape Priors

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Robert Sheng; Salama, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    The problem of image segmentation is known to become particularly challenging in the case of partial occlusion of the object(s) of interest, background clutter, and the presence of strong noise. To overcome this problem, the present paper introduces a novel approach segmentation through the use of "weak" shape priors. Specifically, in the proposed method, an segmenting active contour is constrained to converge to a configuration at which its geometric parameters attain their empirical probability densities closely matching the corresponding model densities that are learned based on training samples. It is shown through numerical experiments that the proposed shape modeling can be regarded as "weak" in the sense that it minimally influences the segmentation, which is allowed to be dominated by data-related forces. On the other hand, the priors provide sufficient constraints to regularize the convergence of segmentation, while requiring substantially smaller training sets to yield less biased results as compare...

  7. Intelligent Cost Modeling Based on Soft Computing for Avionics Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-li; LI Zhuang-sheng; XU Zong-ze

    2006-01-01

    In parametric cost estimating, objections to using statistical Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) and parametric models include problems of low statistical significance due to limited data points, biases in the underlying data, and lack of robustness. Soft Computing (SC) technologies are used for building intelligent cost models. The SC models are systemically evaluated based on their training and prediction of the historical cost data of airborne avionics systems. Results indicating the strengths and weakness of each model are presented. In general, the intelligent cost models have higher prediction precision, better data adaptability, and stronger self-learning capability than the regression CERs.

  8. Model-based Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The vision of model-based software engineering is to make models the main focus of software development and to automatically generate software from these models. Part of that idea works already today. But, there are still difficulties when it comes to behaviour. Actually, there is no lack in models...

  9. Model-based Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The vision of model-based software engineering is to make models the main focus of software development and to automatically generate software from these models. Part of that idea works already today. But, there are still difficulties when it comes to behaviour. Actually, there is no lack in models...

  10. Principles of models based engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  11. Element-Based Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Mueller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A variation on the data-flow model is proposed to use for developing parallel architectures. While the model is a data driven model it has significant differences to the data-flow model. The proposed model has an evaluation cycleof processing elements (encapsulated data that is similar to the instruction cycle of the von Neumann model. The elements contain the information required to process them. The model is inherently parallel. An emulation of the model has been implemented. The objective of this paper is to motivate support for taking the research further. Using matrix multiplication as a case study, the element/data-flow based model is compared with the instruction-based model. This is done using complexity analysis followed by empirical testing to verify this analysis. The positive results are given as motivation for the research to be taken to the next stage - that is, implementing the model using FPGAs.

  12. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...

  13. A new symmetrical quasi-classical model for electronically non-adiabatic processes: Application to the case of weak non-adiabatic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Stephen J.; Miller, William H.

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown how a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing procedure can be used to quantize the initial and final electronic degrees of freedom in the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic (i.e, nuclear + electronic) Hamiltonian, and that the approach provides a very good description of electronically non-adiabatic processes within a standard classical molecular dynamics framework for a number of benchmark problems. This paper explores application of the SQC/MM approach to the case of very weak non-adiabatic coupling between the electronic states, showing (as anticipated) how the standard SQC/MM approach used to date fails in this limit, and then devises a new SQC windowing scheme to deal with it. Application of this new SQC model to a variety of realistic benchmark systems shows that the new model not only treats the weak coupling case extremely well, but it is also seen to describe the "normal" regime (of electronic transition probabilities ≳ 0.1) even more accurately than the previous "standard" model.

  14. Identification of weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochetes by biochemical reactions, PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Tatsuo; Araki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2008-08-01

    We examined the usefulness of PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and species-specific PCR combined with a newly devised rapid biochemical test using microplates for identifying weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes (WBHIS) isolated from pigs. WBHIS strains showing atypical biochemical characteristics were decisively identified at the species level by PCR-RFLP and species-specific PCR. Identification of WBHIS at the species level in routine diagnostic work will certainly contribute to clarifying the pathogenicity of WBHIS.

  15. Gamow-Teller strength distributions and stellar weak-interaction rates for ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra

    2016-07-01

    We calculate Gamow-Teller strength distributions for β β-decay nuclei ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model. We use a deformed Nilsson basis and consider pairing correlations within the deformed BCS theory. Ground state correlations and two-particle and two-hole mixing states were included in our pn-QRPA model. Our calculated strength distributions were compared with experimental data and previous calculation. The total Gamow-Teller strength and centroid placement calculated in our model compares well with the measured value. We calculate β-decay and positron capture rates on ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se in supernovae environments and compare them to those obtained from experimental data and previous calculation. Our study shows that positron capture rates command the total weak rates at high stellar temperatures. We also calculate energy rates of β-delayed neutrons and their emission probabilities.

  16. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Hamish R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

  17. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  18. On the Existence of a Weak Solution of a Half-Cell Model for PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Jye Chern

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear boundary value problem (BVP from the modelling of the transport phenomena in the cathode catalyst layer of a one-dimensional half-cell single-phase model for proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells, derived from the 3D model of Zhou and Liu (2000, 2001, is studied. It is a BVP for a system of three coupled ordinary differential equations of second order. Schauder's fixed point theorem is applied to show the existence of a solution in the Sobolev space 1.

  19. [Model-based biofuels system analysis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhang, Xiliang; Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin

    2011-03-01

    Model-based system analysis is an important tool for evaluating the potential and impacts of biofuels, and for drafting biofuels technology roadmaps and targets. The broad reach of the biofuels supply chain requires that biofuels system analyses span a range of disciplines, including agriculture/forestry, energy, economics, and the environment. Here we reviewed various models developed for or applied to modeling biofuels, and presented a critical analysis of Agriculture/Forestry System Models, Energy System Models, Integrated Assessment Models, Micro-level Cost, Energy and Emission Calculation Models, and Specific Macro-level Biofuel Models. We focused on the models' strengths, weaknesses, and applicability, facilitating the selection of a suitable type of model for specific issues. Such an analysis was a prerequisite for future biofuels system modeling, and represented a valuable resource for researchers and policy makers.

  20. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce “rational consensus”, that is, “mathematical aggregation”, by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  1. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boumans

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce "rational consensus", that is, "mathematical aggregation", by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  2. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...... infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...

  3. A block zero-padding method based on DCFT for L1 parameter estimations in weak signal and high dynamic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao WU; Lu-ping XU; Hua ZHANG; Wen-bo ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    Weak L1 signal acquisition in a high dynamic environment primarily faces a challenge:the integration peak is neg-atively influenced by the possible bit sign reversal every 20 ms and the frequency error. The block accumulating semi-coherent integration of correlations (BASIC) is a state-of-the-art method, but calculating the inter-block conjugate products restricts BASIC in a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) acquisition. We propose a block zero-padding method based on a discrete chirp-Fourier transform (DCFT) for parameter estimations in weak signal and high dynamic environments. Compared with the conventional receiver architecture that uses closed-loop acquisition and tracking, it is more suitable for open-loop acquisition. The proposed method combines DCFT and block zero-padding. In this way, the post-correlation signal is coherently post-integrated with the bit sequence stripped off, and the high dynamic parameters are precisely estimated using the threshold set based on a false alarm probability. In addition, the detection performance of the proposed method is analyzed. Simulation results show that compared with the BASIC method, the proposed method can precisely detect the high dynamic parameters in lower SNR when the length of the received signal is fixed.

  4. Effects of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, polyamines, amino acids, and weak bases (amines and ammonia) on development and ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Koichiro; Aso, Mai; Kondo, Takeshi; Takai, Jun-Ichi; Yoshida, Junki; Mishina, Takamichi; Fuchimukai, Kota; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kariya, Taro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2010-02-01

    We have been studying control mechanisms of gene expression in early embryogenesis in a South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, especially during the period of midblastula transition (MBT), or the transition from the phase of active cell division (cleavage stage) to the phase of extensive morphogenesis (post-blastular stages). We first found that ribosomal RNA synthesis is initiated shortly after MBT in Xenopus embryos and those weak bases, such as amines and ammonium ion, selectively inhibit the initiation and subsequent activation of rRNA synthesis. We then found that rapidly labeled heterogeneous mRNA-like RNA is synthesized in embryos at pre-MBT stage. We then performed cloning and expression studies of several genes, such as those for activin receptors, follistatin and aldolases, and then reached the studies of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism. Here, we cloned a Xenopus SAMDC cDNA and performed experiments to overexpress the in vitro-synthesized SAMDC mRNA in Xenopus early embryos, and found that the maternally preset program of apoptosis occurs in cleavage stage embryos, which is executed when embryos reach the stage of MBT. In the present article, we first summarize results on SAMDC and the maternal program of apoptosis, and then describe our studies on small-molecular-weight substances like polyamines, amino acids, and amines in Xenopus embryos. Finally, we summarize our studies on weak bases, especially on ammonium ion, as the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryonic cells.

  5. Efficient Model-Based Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Schmidhuber, J.

    1998-01-01

    Model-Based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL) can greatly profit from using world models for estimating the consequences of selecting particular actions: an animat can construct such a model from its experiences and use it for computing rewarding behavior. We study the problem of collecting useful exper

  6. Estimation of Logistic Regression Models in Small Samples. A Simulation Study Using a Weakly Informative Default Prior Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordovil-Merino, Amalia; Guardia-Olmos, Joan; Pero-Cebollero, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we used simulations to compare the performance of classical and Bayesian estimations in logistic regression models using small samples. In the performed simulations, conditions were varied, including the type of relationship between independent and dependent variable values (i.e., unrelated and related values), the type of variable…

  7. Developing novel C-4 analogues of pyrrole-based antitubulin agents: weak but critical hydrogen bonding in the colchicine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Chenxiao; Telang, Nakul; Hall, Kayleigh; Kluball, Emily; Barelli, Peter; Finzel, Kara; Jia, Xin; Gupton, John T; Mooberry, Susan L; Kellogg, Glen E

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of a series of pyrrole compounds related to 3,5-dibromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid that evaluates and optimizes C-4 substituents are reported. The key factor for microtubule depolymerization activity appears to be the presence of an appropriately positioned acceptor for Cys241β in the otherwise hydrophobic subpocket A.

  8. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  9. Application of steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete to a deep tunnel in weak rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏伟; 彭瑞东; 李振东; 董正亮; 陈文伟; 王健

    2002-01-01

    Based on an engineering background of a deep tunneling in weak rocks, the numerical modeling is used to compare different support schemes of tunnel at great depth in this paper. Focused on the general behaviors of weak rocks at great depth, a tunneling scheme with rock bolting and steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete is proposed. This scheme is practiced successfully at a deep tunnel in weak rocks in Coal Mine No.10 of Hebi Coal Mining Administration.

  10. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  11. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karta Kooner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  12. Modeling of drag reduction in turbulent channel flow with hydrophobic walls by FVM method and weakly-compressible flow equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Ming-Shun Yuan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the effects of hydrophobic wall on skin-friction drag in the channel flow are investigated through large eddy simulation on the basis of weaklycompressible flow equations with the MacCormack's scheme on collocated mesh in the FVM framework. The slip length model is adopted to describe the behavior of the slip velocities in the streamwise and spanwise directions at the interface between the hydrophobic wall and turbulent channel flow. Simulation results are presented by analyzing flow behaviors over hydrophobic wall with the Smagorinky subgrid-scale model and a dynamic model on computational meshes of different resolutions. Comparison and analysis are made on the distributions of timeaveraged velocity, velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress as well as the skin-friction drag. Excellent agreement between the present study and previous results demonstrates the accuracy of the simple classical second-order scheme in representing turbulent vertox near hydrophobic wall. In addition, the relation of drag reduction efficiency versus time-averaged slip velocity is established. It is also found that the decrease of velocity gradient in the close wall region is responsible for the drag reduction. Considering its advantages of high calculation precision and efficiency, the present method has good prospect in its application to practical projects.

  13. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event......-based modeling approaches are analyzed and the results are used to formulate a general event concept that can be used for unifying the seemingly unrelated event concepts. Events are characterized as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms...... of information structures. The general event concept can be used to guide systems analysis and design and to improve modeling approaches....

  14. Detection of multi-frequency weak signal based on bi-stable stochastic resonance%基于双稳随机共振的多频弱信号检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦尚彬; 何童

    2014-01-01

    针对利用非线性双稳系统随机共振逐一检测多个频率弱信号存在效率低、无法满足信号实时处理要求的问题,研究了基于随机共振的多频弱信号同时检测方法。首先建立了同时检测多频弱信号的仿真模型,通过调节双稳态随机共振系统参数、噪声强度,将在单个低频弱信号上产生的随机共振效应扩展到多个低频弱信号上,实现了多个低频弱信号的同时检测,分析了检测结果所呈现出的特点、原因。进一步研究了多频弱信号同时检测时不同频率信号之间的最小频带间隔问题。采用参数补偿的方法将其扩展应用到高频弱信号的检测中,实现了多个高频弱信号的检测。仿真结果表明该方法是可行的,能有效提高信号检测的速度及效率。%Aiming at the question that low efficiency and unable to meet the requirements of real-time signal processing, which uses stochastic resonance of non-liner bistable system one by one to detect multi-frequency weak signals, the multi-frequency weak signals detection at the same time is studied. The multi-frequency weak signals detection simulation model based on stochastic resonance principle is built, and the stochastic resonance effect of single-frequency weak signal is expanded to multi-frequency weak signal detection by adjusting the parameters of the system and noise intensity, the multi-frequency weak signals detection is realized simultaneously, and the characteristics and the causes of the test results are analyzed. The minimum frequency band interval between different frequency signals is researched. The system is applied to higher frequency weak signal detection by the parameter compensation method, and realizes multiple higher frequency weak signals detection. The simulation results show that this method is feasible, which can effectively improve the detec-tion speed and efficiency.

  15. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  16. Natural beauty of the standard model -A derivation of electro-weak unified and quantum-gravity theory without assuming a Higgs particle-

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a singular potential that arises under several frequently occurring analytic behaviors of the eigenfunctions without introducing cut-offs. Instead, in our analyses we focus on power behaviors of eigenfunctions. Then, we discuss the self-consistency condition for the spherical symmetric Klein-Gordon equation, and discuss a natural possibility that gravity and weak coupling constants $g_G$ and $g_W$ may be defined after $g_{EM}$. In this point of view, gravity and the weak force are subsidiary derived from electricity. Particularly, $SU(2)_L\\times U(1)$ unification is derived without assuming a phase transition. A possible origin of the Higgs mechanism is proposed. Each particle pair of the standard model is associated with the corresponding asymptotic expansion of an eigenfunction. Next we consider the meaning of internal and external degreesof freedom for a two body problem, and find two degrees of freedom which can not reduce to the local motion of one frame. These two deg...

  17. Weak-coupling approach to the semi-infinite Hubbard model: Non-locality of the self-energy

    OpenAIRE

    Potthoff, M.; Nolting, W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hubbard model on a semi-infinite three-dimensional lattice is considered to investigate electron-correlation effects at single-crystal surfaces. The standard second-order perturbation theory in the interaction U is used to calculate the electronic self-energy and the quasi-particle density of states (QDOS) in the bulk as well as in the vicinity of the surface. Within a real-space representation we fully account for the non-locality of the self-energy and examine the quality of the local a...

  18. Anderson localization in the multi-particle tight-binding model at low energies or with weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ekanga, Trésor

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multi-particle lattice Anderson model with an i.i.d. random external potential and a short-range interaction. Using the multi-particle multiscale analysis (MPMSA) developed by Chulaevsky and Suhov (2009), we prove spectral localization for such Hamiltonians at low energies under the assumption of log-H\\"{o}lder continuity of the marginal probability distribution of the random potential. Under a stronger assumption of H\\"older continuity, Anderson localization for such systems at low energies was established earlier by Aizenman and Warzel (2009) with the help of the multi-particle Fractional-Moment Method.

  19. 基于duffing方程组的微弱正弦信号参数检测%Parameter Detection of Weak Sine Signal Based on the Duffing Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear chaotic oscillator is used to detect weak sine signals from background noise. Based on the chaotic motion of the Duffing oscillator, the frequency difference condition of the intermittent chaos happening and the effect of phase difference on system performance are deduced. The chaotic oscillator array is applied to detect weak signal in noise background; and improved methods to detect frequency, phase and amplitude are discussed.%本文将非线性混沌振子用于微弱正弦信号检测,将深陷在噪声背景下的微弱正弦信号检测出来。基于During振子的混沌运动,利用系统发生间歇混沌现象的频差条件和相位差对于系统特性的影响,采用混沌振子阵列实现对噪声背景下微弱信号的检测,提出了改进的频率、相位、幅值检测方法。

  20. Novel Weak Magnetic Field Sensor Based on GMI Effect in Amorphous Ribbon%基于非晶带GMI效应新型弱磁场传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋峰

    2012-01-01

    A weak magnetic field sensor based on GMI effect was developed by using Co66.3Fe3.7Si12B18 amorphous ribbon annealed by pulsed current. The operation principle of the sensor was analyzed. The signal processing circuit was designed and the measurement range and linearity of the sensor were performed. The sensor can be used in the weak magnetic measurement field including earth magnetic field and environmental magnetic field.%利用退火处理后的Co66.3 Fe3.7 Si12 B18非晶带作为敏感元件,研制出一种基于非晶带GMI效应的弱磁场传感器.分析了传感器的工作原理,设计了该传感器的信号处理电路,并对传感器的测量范围、线性度等性能进行了标定.传感器可应用于地球磁场、环境磁场等微弱磁场检测领域.

  1. Empirically Based, Agent-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Ostrom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing drive to combine agent-based models with empirical methods. An overview is provided of the various empirical methods that are used for different kinds of questions. Four categories of empirical approaches are identified in which agent-based models have been empirically tested: case studies, stylized facts, role-playing games, and laboratory experiments. We discuss how these different types of empirical studies can be combined. The various ways empirical techniques are used illustrate the main challenges of contemporary social sciences: (1 how to develop models that are generalizable and still applicable in specific cases, and (2 how to scale up the processes of interactions of a few agents to interactions among many agents.

  2. Synthesis of Diphenyl Pyridazinone-based flexible system for conformational studies through weak noncovalent interactions: Application in DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjeet Kumar; Praveen Singh; Archana Gaurav; Pratima Yadav; Ranjana S Khanna; Ashish Kumar Tewari

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports conformational studies of pyridazinone-based flexible dimer connected through diethylamine linker. The conformational studies have been done by X-ray crystal structure and DFT calculation. Further, after crystallization, the compound has shown two types of crystals, one is hydrated and another one is non-hydrated. The hydrated and non-hydrated crystals showed difference in their conformation due to the presence of water in crystal lattice of hydrated crystal. The difference in their conformation has been proved by crystallographic studies, DSC curves and detailed analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitating a comparison of intermolecular interactions. Along with conformational studies, this compound also showed DNA binding, as revealed in docking simulation studies.

  3. Repositioning the substrate activity screening (SAS) approach as a fragment-based method for identification of weak binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Cleenewerck, Matthias; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2014-10-13

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved into an established approach for "hit" identification. Typically, most applications of FBDD depend on specialised cost- and time-intensive biophysical techniques. The substrate activity screening (SAS) approach has been proposed as a relatively cheap and straightforward alternative for identification of fragments for enzyme inhibitors. We have investigated SAS for the discovery of inhibitors of oncology target urokinase (uPA). Although our results support the key hypotheses of SAS, we also encountered a number of unreported limitations. In response, we propose an efficient modified methodology: "MSAS" (modified substrate activity screening). MSAS circumvents the limitations of SAS and broadens its scope by providing additional fragments and more coherent SAR data. As well as presenting and validating MSAS, this study expands existing SAR knowledge for the S1 pocket of uPA and reports new reversible and irreversible uPA inhibitor scaffolds.

  4. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  5. Base Flow Model Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program focuses on turbulence modeling enhancements for predicting high-speed rocket base flows. A key component of the effort is the collection of high-fidelity...

  6. Adsorption of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid/sulfuric acid/sulfurous acid from aqueous solution by iron-impregnated weakly basic resin:Equilibrium and model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhai Li; Dongmei Jia

    2016-01-01

    Commercial grade weakly basic resin D301 was impregnated with iron through a simple method using ferric chloride. Experiments for single, bisolute and trinary competitive adsorption were carried out to investigate the adsorption behavior of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (NSA), sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid from their solution at 298K onto the novel hybrid iron impregnated D301(Fe-D301). Adsorption affinity of NSA on Fe-D301 was found to be much higher than that of sulfuric acid, while adsorption affinity of sulfuric acid was slightly higher than that of sulfurous acid. The data of single-solute adsorption were fitted to the Langmuir model and the Freundlich adsorption model. The non-ideal competitive adsorbed model coupled with the single-solute adsorp-tion models were used to predict the bisolute and trinary-solute competitive adsorption equilibria. The NICM coupled with the Langmuir model yields the favorable representation of the bisolute and trinary-solute compet-itive adsorption behavior.

  7. Topic Level Disambiguation for Weak Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite limited success, today's information retrieval (IR systems are not intelligent or reliable. IR systems return poor search results when users formulate their information needs into incomplete or ambiguous queries (i.e., weak queries. Therefore, one of the main challenges in modern IR research is to provide consistent results across all queries by improving the performance on weak queries. However, existing IR approaches such as query expansion are not overly effective because they make little effort to analyze and exploit the meanings of the queries. Furthermore, word sense disambiguation approaches, which rely on textual context, are ineffective against weak queries that are typically short. Motivated by the demand for a robust IR system that can consistently provide highly accurate results, the proposed study implemented a novel topic detection that leveraged both the language model and structural knowledge of Wikipedia and systematically evaluated the effect of query disambiguation and topic-based retrieval approaches on TREC collections. The results not only confirm the effectiveness of the proposed topic detection and topic-based retrieval approaches but also demonstrate that query disambiguation does not improve IR as expected.

  8. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

  9. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  10. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  11. Anisotropy in wavelet-based phase field models

    KAUST Repository

    Korzec, Maciek

    2016-04-01

    When describing the anisotropic evolution of microstructures in solids using phase-field models, the anisotropy of the crystalline phases is usually introduced into the interfacial energy by directional dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients. We consider an alternative approach based on a wavelet analogue of the Laplace operator that is intrinsically anisotropic and linear. The paper focuses on the classical coupled temperature/Ginzburg--Landau type phase-field model for dendritic growth. For the model based on the wavelet analogue, existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data are proved for weak solutions. Numerical studies of the wavelet based phase-field model show dendritic growth similar to the results obtained for classical phase-field models.

  12. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  13. Population-based resequencing analysis of wild and cultivated barley revealed weak domestication signal of selection and bottleneck in the Rrs2 scald resistance gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-02-01

    Many plant disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned, but the potential of utilizing these plant R-gene genomic resources for genetic inferences of plant domestication history remains unexplored. A population-based resequencing analysis of the genomic region near the Rrs2 scald resistance gene was made in 51 accessions of wild and cultivated barley from 41 countries. Fifteen primer pairs were designed to sample the genomic region with a total length of 10 406 bp. More nucleotide diversity was found in wild (π = 0.01846) than cultivated (π = 0.01507) barley samples. Three distinct groups of 29 haplotypes were detected for all 51 samples, and they were well mixed with wild and cultivated barley samples from different countries and regions. The neutrality tests by Tajima's D were not significant, but a significant (P domestication. Together, the domestication signal in the genomic region was weak both in human selection and domestication bottleneck.

  14. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Methods Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Results Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (p<0.05) in mice inoculated with strong biofilm forming S. aureus than the weak biofilm forming strain. Conclusion This finding suggests an important role of TNF-α in mammary gland pathology post-infection with strong biofilm-forming S. aureus in the acute mouse mastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of

  15. Network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal affect intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns, according to a mathematical model of weakly coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruihan; Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) network perturbations on intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Two-dimensional modelling of the ICC pacemaker activity according to a phase model of weakly coupled oscillators showed that network properties (coupling strength between oscillators, frequency gradient and frequency noise) strongly influence pacemaker network activity and subsequent motor patterns. The model explains motor patterns observed in physiological conditions and provides predictions and testable hypotheses for effects of ICC loss and frequency modulation on the motor patterns. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells of gut motility and are associated with motility disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal form a network, but the contributions of its network properties to gut physiology and dysfunction are poorly understood. We modelled an ICC network as a two-dimensional network of weakly coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and showed changes over time in video and graphical formats. Model parameters were obtained from slow-wave-driven contraction patterns in the mouse intestine and pacemaker slow-wave activities from the cat intestine. Marked changes in propagating oscillation patterns (including changes from propagation to non-propagating) were observed by changing network parameters (coupling strength between oscillators, the frequency gradient and frequency noise), which affected synchronization, propagation velocity and occurrence of dislocations (termination of an oscillation). Complete uncoupling of a circumferential ring of oscillators caused the proximal and distal section to desynchronize, but complete synchronization was maintained with only a single oscillator connecting the sections with high enough coupling. The network of oscillators could withstand loss; even with 40% of oscillators lost randomly

  16. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  17. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: II. Molecular Docking, Spectral Data-Activity Relationship, and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Potent and Weak Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Isozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Demchuk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR, and structure-activity relationship (SAR models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2–3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D 13C-NMR and 1D 15N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors

  18. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: II. Molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship, and structure-activity relationship models for potent and weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Yunfeng; McPhail, Brooks; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Fowler, Bruce A; Beger, Richard D; Demchuk, Eugene

    2012-03-15

    Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2-3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D ¹³C-NMR and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak

  19. Modelling Gesture Based Ubiquitous Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharia, Kurien; Varghese, Surekha Mariam

    2011-01-01

    A cost effective, gesture based modelling technique called Virtual Interactive Prototyping (VIP) is described in this paper. Prototyping is implemented by projecting a virtual model of the equipment to be prototyped. Users can interact with the virtual model like the original working equipment. For capturing and tracking the user interactions with the model image and sound processing techniques are used. VIP is a flexible and interactive prototyping method that has much application in ubiquitous computing environments. Different commercial as well as socio-economic applications and extension to interactive advertising of VIP are also discussed.

  20. Exercise-based rehabilitation after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness with intensive care unit-acquired weakness: A pilot feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bronwen; Thompson, April; Douiri, Abdel; Moxham, John; Hart, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate feasibility of exercise-based rehabilitation delivered after hospital discharge in patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). Twenty adult patients, mechanically ventilated for more than 48 hours, with ICU-AW diagnosis at ICU discharge were included in a pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial receiving a 16-session exercise-based rehabilitation program. Twenty-one patients without ICU-AW participated in a nested observational cohort study. Feasibility, clinical, and patient-centered outcomes were measured at hospital discharge and at 3 months. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated by high adherence and patient acceptability, and absence of adverse events, but this must be offset by the low proportion of enrolment for those screened. The study was underpowered to detect effectiveness of the intervention. The use of manual muscle testing for the diagnosis of ICU-AW lacked robustness as an eligibility criterion and lacked discrimination for identifying rehabilitation requirements. Process evaluation of the trial identified methodological factors, categorized by "population," "intervention," "control group," and "outcome." Important data detailing the design, conduct, and implementation of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of exercise-based rehabilitation for survivors of critical illness after hospital discharge have been reported. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT00976807. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of weak points of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based interaction kinetic analysis and genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn Gustafsson, Sofia; Ehrenberg, Angelica; Schmuck, Benjamin; Anwar, Muhammad Ikram; Danielson, U Helena

    2014-03-13

    To aid the design of next generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the kinetics of the interactions between NS3 protease inhibitors and enzyme from genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3a have been characterized. The linear mechanism-based inhibitors VX-950 (telaprevir) and SCH 503034 (boceprevir) benefited from covalent adduct formation. However, the apparent affinities were rather weak (VX-950, K(D)* of 340, 8.5, and 1000 nM for genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a, respectively; SCH 503034, K(D)* of 90 and 3.9 nM for 1b and 3a, respectively). The non-mechanism-based macrocyclic inhibitors BILN-2016 (ciluprevir) and ITMN-191 (danoprevir) had faster association and slower dissociation kinetics, indicating that rigidification is kinetically favorable. ITMN-191 had nanomolar affinities for all genotypes (K(D)* of 0.13, 1.6, and 0.52 nM), suggesting that a broad spectrum drug is conceivable. The data show that macrocyclic scaffolds and mechanism-based inhibition are advantageous but that there is considerable room for improvement of the kinetics of HCV protease targeted drugs.

  2. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  3. Referee comment on Velocity-Based Terrain Coefficients for Time-Based Models of Human Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmela Herzog

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In many archaeological studies assessing the impact of topography on past human movement, only weak arguments without validation for the weights assigned to different terrain features are given. Therefore a study presenting terrain coefficients relying on sound tests is most welcome though the range of applications in archaeological modelling is limited. This article is a referee comment for de Gruchy, M., Caswell, E and Edwards, J. 2017 Velocity-Based Terrain Coefficients for Time-Based Models of Human Movement, Internet Archaeology.

  4. Weak gravity conjecture and effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is a proposed constraint on theories with gauge fields and gravity, requiring the existence of light charged particles and/or imposing an upper bound on the field theory cutoff Λ . If taken as a consistency requirement for effective field theories (EFTs), it rules out possibilities for model building including some models of inflation. I demonstrate simple models which satisfy all forms of the WGC, but which through Higgsing of the original gauge fields produce low-energy EFTs with gauge forces that badly violate the WGC. These models illustrate specific loopholes in arguments that motivate the WGC from a bottom-up perspective; for example the arguments based on magnetic monopoles are evaded when the magnetic confinement that occurs in a Higgs phase is accounted for. This indicates that the WGC should not be taken as a veto on EFTs, even if it turns out to be a robust property of UV quantum gravity theories. However, if the latter is true, then parametric violation of the WGC at low energy comes at the cost of nonminimal field content in the UV. I propose that only a very weak constraint is applicable to EFTs, Λ ≲(log 1/g )-1 /2Mpl , where g is the gauge coupling, motivated by entropy bounds. Remarkably, EFTs produced by Higgsing a theory that satisfies the WGC can saturate but not violate this bound.

  5. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  6. Horizontal mergers and weak and strong competition commissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the horizontal merger of companies in an already concentrated industry. The participants in mergers are obliged to submit notification to the Competition Commission but they also have the option of rejecting the merger. At the time of the notification submission the participants do not know whether the Commission is strong or weak, and they can complain to the Court if the Commission prohibits the merger. We model the strategic interaction between Participants and Commission in a dynamic game of incomplete information and determine weak perfect Bayesian equilibria. The main finding of our paper is that Participants will base their decision to submit notification on their belief in a weak Commission decision and will almost completely ignore the possibility of a strong Commission decision. We also provide a detailed examination of one case from Serbian regulatory practice, which coincides with the results of our game theoretical model.

  7. The Demodulation of weak FSK Signal Based on Duffing Oscillator%基于Duffing振子的微弱FSK信号解调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万云朝; 刘才斌; 朱传明

    2012-01-01

    The method of detecting weak signal based on Duffing oscillator is widely concerned due to its low SNR detection limit.However,it depends on identify the change of phase diagram,and there isn't an efficient method to achieve it.In this paper,a new method is proposed to demodulate FSK signal based on Duffing oscillator.It distinguishes two frequencies through the comparison of variance of Duffing oscillator output series,the experiment proves it could detect FSK signal efficiently and is superior to the traditional methods.%基于Duffing振子的信号检测方法由于对微弱信号的检测效果好而受到广泛关注。现有的方法都依赖于对系统状态的准确判断,但目前并没有一种快速准确的系统状态判断方法。本文将Duffing振子应用于FSK信号的解调,通过比较Duffing振子输出序列的方差值,达到解调FSK信号的目的。实验表明该方法能有效检测FSK信号,并且检测效果优于传统的非相干检测方法。

  8. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  9. Model-Based Security Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Schieferdecker, Ina; Schneider, Martin; 10.4204/EPTCS.80.1

    2012-01-01

    Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security testing (MBST) is a relatively new field and especially dedicated to the systematic and efficient specification and documentation of security test objectives, security test cases and test suites, as well as to their automated or semi-automated generation. In particular, the combination of security modelling and test generation approaches is still a challenge in research and of high interest for industrial applications. MBST includes e.g. security functional testing, model-based fuzzing, risk- and threat-oriented testing,...

  10. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  11. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  12. Microscale anthropogenic pollution modelling in a small tropical island during weak trade winds: Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations using real nested LES meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécé, Raphaël; Bernard, Didier; Brioude, Jérome; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2016-08-01

    Tropical islands are characterized by thermal and orographical forcings which may generate microscale air mass circulations. The Lesser Antilles Arc includes small tropical islands (width lower than 50 km) where a total of one-and-a-half million people live. Air quality over this region is affected by anthropogenic and volcanic emissions, or saharan dust. To reduce risks for the population health, the atmospheric dispersion of emitted pollutants must be predicted. In this study, the dispersion of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) is numerically modelled over the densely populated area of the Guadeloupe archipelago under weak trade winds, during a typical case of severe pollution. The main goal is to analyze how microscale resolutions affect air pollution in a small tropical island. Three resolutions of domain grid are selected: 1 km, 333 m and 111 m. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to produce real nested microscale meteorological fields. Then the weather outputs initialize the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (FLEXPART). The forward simulations of a power plant plume showed good ability to reproduce nocturnal peaks recorded by an urban air quality station. The increase in resolution resulted in an improvement of model sensitivity. The nesting to subkilometer grids helped to reduce an overestimation bias mainly because the LES domains better simulate the turbulent motions governing nocturnal flows. For peaks observed at two air quality stations, the backward sensitivity outputs identified realistic sources of NOx in the area. The increase in resolution produced a sharper inverse plume with a more accurate source area. This study showed the first application of the FLEXPART-WRF model to microscale resolutions. Overall, the coupling model WRF-LES-FLEXPART is useful to simulate the pollutant dispersion during a real case of calm wind regime over a complex terrain area. The forward and backward simulation results showed clearly that the

  13. Altered cell metabolism in tissues of the knee joint in a rabbit model of Botulinum toxin A-induced quadriceps muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leumann, A; Longino, D; Fortuna, R; Leonard, T; Vaz, M A; Hart, D A; Herzog, W

    2012-12-01

    Quadriceps muscle weakness is frequently associated with knee injuries in sports. The influence of quadriceps weakness on knee joint homeostasis remains undefined. We hypothesized that quadriceps weakness will lead to tissue-specific alterations in the cell metabolism of tissues of the knee. Quadriceps weakness was induced with repetitive injections of Botulinum toxin A in six 1-year-old New Zealand White rabbits for 6 months. Five additional animals served as controls with injections of saline/dextrose. Muscle weakness was assessed by muscle wet mass, isometric knee extensor torque, and histological morphology analysis. Cell metabolism was assessed for patellar tendon, medial and lateral collateral ligament, and medial and lateral meniscus by measuring the total RNA levels and specific mRNA levels for collagen I, collagen III, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, TGF-β, biglycan, IL-1, and bFGF by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. While the total RNA levels did not change, tissue-specific mRNA levels were lower for relevant anabolic and catabolic molecules, indicating potential changes in tissue mechanical set points. Quadriceps weakness may lead to adaptations in knee joint tissue cell metabolism by altering a subset of anabolic and catabolic mRNA levels corresponding to a new functional and metabolic set point for the knee that may contribute to the high injury rate of athletes with muscle weakness.

  14. Kernel model-based diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The methods for computing the kemel consistency-based diagnoses and the kernel abductive diagnoses are only suited for the situation where part of the fault behavioral modes of the components are known. The characterization of the kernel model-based diagnosis based on the general causal theory is proposed, which can break through the limitation of the above methods when all behavioral modes of each component are known. Using this method, when observation subsets deduced logically are respectively assigned to the empty or the whole observation set, the kernel consistency-based diagnoses and the kernel abductive diagnoses can deal with all situations. The direct relationship between this diagnostic procedure and the prime implicants/implicates is proved, thus linking theoretical result with implementation.

  15. Object-wave reconstruction by carbon film-based Zernike- and Hilbert-phase plate microscopy: A theoretical study not restricted to weak-phase objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dries, M., E-mail: manuel.dries@kit.edu [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schultheiss, K.; Gamm, B. [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rosenauer, A. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schroeder, R.R. [BioQuant CellNetworks, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gerthsen, D. [Laboratorium fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Transmission electron microscopy phase-contrast images taken by amorphous carbon film-based phase plates are affected by the scattering of electrons within the carbon film causing a modification of the image-wave function. Moreover, image artefacts are produced by non-centrosymmetric phase plate designs such as the Hilbert-phase plate. Various methods are presented to correct phase-contrast images with respect to the scattering of electrons and image artefacts induced by phase plates. The proposed techniques are not restricted to weak-phase objects and linear image formation. Phase-contrast images corrected by the presented methods correspond to those taken by an ideal centrosymmetric, matter-free phase plate and are suitable for object-wave reconstruction. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Object-wave reconstruction by phase plates considering nonlinear image formation. {yields} Requirement of three (five) images in case of Zernike- (Hilbert-) phase plates. {yields} Analytical correction of damping and/or image artefacts induced by phase plates.{yields} Validation by simulation of crystalline silicon.

  16. 一种基于FP GA弱信号混沌测量方法∗%A Weak Signal Chaos Measurement Method Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张律

    2014-01-01

    A FPGA-based on weak signal chaotic measurement methods is presented,the advantages of the use of FPGA online programming simulation of electronic switches and the advantage of fast computing speed for processing the peak point solve the traditional chaotic methods of measurement caused by frequent on-off electronic switch noise and large measurement error.The test results show that compared with traditional methods of measure-ment with a small error and linearity advantages,this method has a good application space and market value.%提出了一种基于FPGA弱信号混沌测量方法,利用FPGA可在线编程的优点仿真出电子开关和运算速度快的优点对峰值点进行处理,解决了传统混沌测量方法因为频繁通断电子开关引起强噪声而测量误差大的问题。测试结果表明和传统的测量方法相比具有误差小和线性度好的优点,具有很好的应用空间和市场价值。

  17. Spot event detection along a large-scale sensor based on ultra-weak fiber Bragg gratings using time-frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Sales, Salvador

    2016-02-10

    A simple scheme for interrogating a 5 m long photonics device and its potential applications to quasi-distributed fiber sensing is proposed. The sensor consists of an array of 500 identical, very weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The gratings are 9 mm long and have been serially written in cascade along a single optical fiber. The measurement system is based on a combination of optical time domain reflectometry and frequency scanning of the interrogating pulse. The time-frequency analysis is performed by launching an optical pulse into the sensor and retrieving and analyzing the back-reflected signal. The measurement of the temperature, length, and position of spot events along the sensors is demonstrated with good accuracy. As both spatial and temperature resolution of the method depend on the input pulse duration, the system performance can be controlled and optimized by properly choosing the temporal duration of the interrogating pulse. A spatial resolution of 9 mm (ultimately dictated by one grating length) has been obtained with an 80 ps optical pulse, while a temperature resolution of less than 0.42 K has been demonstrated using a 500 ps incident pulse. The sensor proposed proves to be simple, robust, and polarization insensitive and alleviates the instrumentation complexity for distributed sensing applications.

  18. Irregular reflection of weak acoustic shock pulses on rigid boundaries : Schlieren experiments and direct numerical simulation based on a Navier-Stokes solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjouy, Cyril; Ollivier, Sébastien; Marsden, Olivier; Karzova, Maria; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The local interactions occurring between incident and reflected shock waves in the vicinity of rigid surfaces are investigated. Both regular and irregular — also called von Neumann — regimes of reflection are studied, via experimental and numerical simulations. Shock waves are produced experimentally with a 20 kV electrical spark source which allows the generation of spherically diverging acoustic shocks. The behaviour of the resulting weak acoustic shocks near rigid boundaries is visualized with a Schlieren optical technique which allows the spatial structure of the shocks to be studied. In particular, the evolution of the Mach stem forming above a flat surface is examined, and its height is observed to be directly linked to the angle of incidence and the pressure amplitude of the incident shock. The propagation of an acoustic shock between two parallel rigid boundaries is also studied. It is shown that the strong interactions between the Mach stems emerging from the two boundaries can lead to a drastic modification of the morphology of the acoustic field in the waveguide. Experimental results are compared to numerical results obtained from high-order finite-difference based simulations of the 2D Navier-Stokes equations. The good agreement between the experimental distribution of the acoustic field and numerical results suggests that numerical simulations are promising as a predictive tool to study nonlinear acoustic propagation of acoustic waves in complex geometrical configurations with rigid boundaries.

  19. Physiological basis for muscle stiffness and weakness in a knock-in M1592V mouse model of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogali, Shiemaa; Lucas, Brooke; Ammar, Tarek; Dejong, Danica; Barbalinardo, Michael; Hayward, Lawrence J; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the onset and progressive worsening of episodic muscle stiffness and weakness in hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) are not fully understood. Using a knock-in HyperKPP mouse model harboring the M1592V NaV1.4 channel mutant, we interrogated changes in physiological defects during the first year, including tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) influx, hindlimb electromyographic (EMG) activity and immobility, muscle weakness induced by elevated [K(+)]e, myofiber-type composition, and myofiber damage. In situ EMG activity was greater in HyperKPP than wild-type gastrocnemius, whereas spontaneous muscle contractions were observed in vitro. We suggest that both the greater EMG activity and spontaneous contractions are related to periods of hyperexcitability during which fibers generate action potentials by themselves in the absence of any stimulation and that these periods are the cause of the muscle stiffness reported by patients. HyperKPP muscles had a greater sensitivity to the K(+)-induced force depression than wild-type muscles. So, an increased interstitial K(+) concentration locally near subsets of myofibers as a result of the hyperexcitability likely produced partial loss of force rather than complete paralysis. NaV1.4 channel protein content reached adult level by 3 weeks postnatal in both wild type and HyperKPP and apparent symptoms did not worsen after the first month of age suggesting (i) that the phenotypic behavior of M1592V HyperKPP muscles results from defective function of mutant NaV1.4 channels rather than other changes in protein expression after the first month and (ii) that the lag in onset during the first decade and the progression of human HyperKPP symptoms during adolescence are a function of NaV1.4 channel content. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...

  1. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these 'free' tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  2. Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Zhiwu

    2016-04-08

    A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these ‘free’ tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.

  3. Model-based tomographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David H; Lehman, Sean K; Goodman, Dennis M

    2012-06-26

    A model-based approach to estimating wall positions for a building is developed and tested using simulated data. It borrows two techniques from geophysical inversion problems, layer stripping and stacking, and combines them with a model-based estimation algorithm that minimizes the mean-square error between the predicted signal and the data. The technique is designed to process multiple looks from an ultra wideband radar array. The processed signal is time-gated and each section processed to detect the presence of a wall and estimate its position, thickness, and material parameters. The floor plan of a building is determined by moving the array around the outside of the building. In this paper we describe how the stacking and layer stripping algorithms are combined and show the results from a simple numerical example of three parallel walls.

  4. Mammary Gland Pathology Subsequent to Acute Infection with Strong versus Weak Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus aureus Bovine Mastitis Isolates: A Pilot Study Using Non-Invasive Mouse Mastitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi-Tiwari, Jully; Williams, Vincent; Waryah, Charlene Babra; Costantino, Paul; Al-Salami, Hani; Mathavan, Sangeetha; Wells, Kelsi; Tiwari, Harish Kumar; Hegde, Nagendra; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Al-Sallami, Hesham; Mukkur, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus is an important virulence attribute because of its potential to induce persistent antibiotic resistance, retard phagocytosis and either attenuate or promote inflammation, depending upon the disease syndrome, in vivo. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential significance of strength of biofilm formation by clinical bovine mastitis-associated S. aureus in mammary tissue damage by using a mouse mastitis model. Two S. aureus strains of the same capsular phenotype with different biofilm forming strengths were used to non-invasively infect mammary glands of lactating mice. Biofilm forming potential of these strains were determined by tissue culture plate method, ica typing and virulence gene profile per detection by PCR. Delivery of the infectious dose of S. aureus was directly through the teat lactiferous duct without invasive scraping of the teat surface. Both bacteriological and histological methods were used for analysis of mammary gland pathology of mice post-infection. Histopathological analysis of the infected mammary glands revealed that mice inoculated with the strong biofilm forming S. aureus strain produced marked acute mastitic lesions, showing profuse infiltration predominantly with neutrophils, with evidence of necrosis in the affected mammary glands. In contrast, the damage was significantly less severe in mammary glands of mice infected with the weak biofilm-forming S. aureus strain. Although both IL-1β and TNF-α inflammatory biomarkers were produced in infected mice, level of TNF-α produced was significantly higher (pmastitis model, and offers an opportunity for the development of novel strategies for reduction of mammary tissue damage, with or without use of antimicrobials and/or anti-inflammatory compounds for the treatment of bovine mastitis.

  5. The Weak Scale from BBN

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; Ruderman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, $v$, and the first generation masses, $m_{u,d,e}$, are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of $(m_u,m_d,m_e,v)$, catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of $(1.4,1.3,2.5,\\sim5)$, respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as $v$ is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of $m_{u,d,e}$ that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability. For very large values of $v$ a new regime is entered where weak in...

  6. Model-Based Security Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schieferdecker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security testing (MBST is a relatively new field and especially dedicated to the systematic and efficient specification and documentation of security test objectives, security test cases and test suites, as well as to their automated or semi-automated generation. In particular, the combination of security modelling and test generation approaches is still a challenge in research and of high interest for industrial applications. MBST includes e.g. security functional testing, model-based fuzzing, risk- and threat-oriented testing, and the usage of security test patterns. This paper provides a survey on MBST techniques and the related models as well as samples of new methods and tools that are under development in the European ITEA2-project DIAMONDS.

  7. Weakly circadian cells improve resynchrony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis B Webb

    Full Text Available The mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN contain thousands of neurons capable of generating near 24-h rhythms. When isolated from their network, SCN neurons exhibit a range of oscillatory phenotypes: sustained or damping oscillations, or arrhythmic patterns. The implications of this variability are unknown. Experimentally, we found that cells within SCN explants recover from pharmacologically-induced desynchrony by re-establishing rhythmicity and synchrony in waves, independent of their intrinsic circadian period We therefore hypothesized that a cell's location within the network may also critically determine its resynchronization. To test this, we employed a deterministic, mechanistic model of circadian oscillators where we could independently control cell-intrinsic and network-connectivity parameters. We found that small changes in key parameters produced the full range of oscillatory phenotypes seen in biological cells, including similar distributions of period, amplitude and ability to cycle. The model also predicted that weaker oscillators could adjust their phase more readily than stronger oscillators. Using these model cells we explored potential biological consequences of their number and placement within the network. We found that the population synchronized to a higher degree when weak oscillators were at highly connected nodes within the network. A mathematically independent phase-amplitude model reproduced these findings. Thus, small differences in cell-intrinsic parameters contribute to large changes in the oscillatory ability of a cell, but the location of weak oscillators within the network also critically shapes the degree of synchronization for the population.

  8. Weak Kaon Production off the Nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are fpi, the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.

  9. Baryons, Neutrinos, Feedback and Weak Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OWL hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for $z<1.5$, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than $2\\%$ for scales $k<10 h\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$ and better than ...

  10. Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the perceptive of consumers doing online shopping and impulse purchasing. This study examined the behavior of thirty consumers who were asked to fill the questionnaire based on some close ended questions. The focus of this investigation was to discuss the strengths and Weaknesses of online shopping and impulse purchasing in developing country like Pakistan. Today consumers choose and buy things while sitting at home through internet and buy things impulsively. Do consumer in Pakistan are using Internet for shopping online? Do they make more impulse purchase on the Internet? Does online shopping save time? Do online shopping is more attractive or consumer feels lack of trust? Impacts of advertising are also discussed. We covered the virtual shopping weakness and strengths in our VSIPSWP (Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan Models.

  11. Identification and classification of weak layers in the snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Klimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the role of vertical snowpack structure for snow avalanche formation and describes the idea of «structural instability». It aims at enhancing the knowledge about transition mechanisms between stable and unstable states of snowpack and snow avalanches release. Structural instability implies the presence of weak layer or interface in vertical snowpack profile. Type of snow failure and avalanche characteristics are completely defined by snowpack state and properties. Thus wide variety of genetic types of snow avalanches indicates the existence of structural instability of different types. The detailed analysis of scientific publications and field observations led to the creation of a new classification of weak layers. The layers are classified basing on their cohesiveness, the causes of initial disturbance and internal and external processes which form a weak layer. The classification is a necessary part of global method which allows assessing snowpack stability using modern physical models of snow cover evolution.

  12. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  13. Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.

  14. Is Model Fitting Necessary for Model-Based fMRI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Model-based analysis of fMRI data is an important tool for investigating the computational role of different brain regions. With this method, theoretical models of behavior can be leveraged to find the brain structures underlying variables from specific algorithms, such as prediction errors in reinforcement learning. One potential weakness with this approach is that models often have free parameters and thus the results of the analysis may depend on how these free parameters are set. In this work we asked whether this hypothetical weakness is a problem in practice. We first developed general closed-form expressions for the relationship between results of fMRI analyses using different regressors, e.g., one corresponding to the true process underlying the measured data and one a model-derived approximation of the true generative regressor. Then, as a specific test case, we examined the sensitivity of model-based fMRI to the learning rate parameter in reinforcement learning, both in theory and in two previously-published datasets. We found that even gross errors in the learning rate lead to only minute changes in the neural results. Our findings thus suggest that precise model fitting is not always necessary for model-based fMRI. They also highlight the difficulty in using fMRI data for arbitrating between different models or model parameters. While these specific results pertain only to the effect of learning rate in simple reinforcement learning models, we provide a template for testing for effects of different parameters in other models.

  15. Is Model Fitting Necessary for Model-Based fMRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert C; Niv, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Model-based analysis of fMRI data is an important tool for investigating the computational role of different brain regions. With this method, theoretical models of behavior can be leveraged to find the brain structures underlying variables from specific algorithms, such as prediction errors in reinforcement learning. One potential weakness with this approach is that models often have free parameters and thus the results of the analysis may depend on how these free parameters are set. In this work we asked whether this hypothetical weakness is a problem in practice. We first developed general closed-form expressions for the relationship between results of fMRI analyses using different regressors, e.g., one corresponding to the true process underlying the measured data and one a model-derived approximation of the true generative regressor. Then, as a specific test case, we examined the sensitivity of model-based fMRI to the learning rate parameter in reinforcement learning, both in theory and in two previously-published datasets. We found that even gross errors in the learning rate lead to only minute changes in the neural results. Our findings thus suggest that precise model fitting is not always necessary for model-based fMRI. They also highlight the difficulty in using fMRI data for arbitrating between different models or model parameters. While these specific results pertain only to the effect of learning rate in simple reinforcement learning models, we provide a template for testing for effects of different parameters in other models.

  16. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  17. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  18. Numerical Tests of Fast Reconnection in Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kowal, G; Vishniac, E T; Otmianowska-Mazur, K

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using 3D numerical simulations. This is the first attempt to test a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999). This model predicts that weak turbulence, generically present in most of astrophysical systems, enhances the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection events and by allowing many independent flux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. As a result the reconnection speed becomes independent of Ohmic resistivity and is determined by the magnetic field wandering induced by turbulence. To quantify the reconnection speed we use both an intuitive definition, i.e. the speed of the reconnected flux inflow, as well as a more sophisticated definition based on a formally derived analytical expression. Our results confirm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we find that Vrec Pinj^(1/2), as predicted by the model. The...

  19. Spatial noise in coupling strength and natural frequency within a pacemaker network; consequences for development of intestinal motor patterns according to a weakly coupled phase oscillator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Parsons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e. spatial noise with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at points of low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  20. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P.; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency. PMID:26869875