WorldWideScience

Sample records for model translation methodology

  1. mRNA translation and protein synthesis: an analysis of different modelling methodologies and a new PBN based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Bo; Krishnan, J

    2014-02-27

    mRNA translation involves simultaneous movement of multiple ribosomes on the mRNA and is also subject to regulatory mechanisms at different stages. Translation can be described by various codon-based models, including ODE, TASEP, and Petri net models. Although such models have been extensively used, the overlap and differences between these models and the implications of the assumptions of each model has not been systematically elucidated. The selection of the most appropriate modelling framework, and the most appropriate way to develop coarse-grained/fine-grained models in different contexts is not clear. We systematically analyze and compare how different modelling methodologies can be used to describe translation. We define various statistically equivalent codon-based simulation algorithms and analyze the importance of the update rule in determining the steady state, an aspect often neglected. Then a novel probabilistic Boolean network (PBN) model is proposed for modelling translation, which enjoys an exact numerical solution. This solution matches those of numerical simulation from other methods and acts as a complementary tool to analytical approximations and simulations. The advantages and limitations of various codon-based models are compared, and illustrated by examples with real biological complexities such as slow codons, premature termination and feedback regulation. Our studies reveal that while different models gives broadly similiar trends in many cases, important differences also arise and can be clearly seen, in the dependence of the translation rate on different parameters. Furthermore, the update rule affects the steady state solution. The codon-based models are based on different levels of abstraction. Our analysis suggests that a multiple model approach to understanding translation allows one to ascertain which aspects of the conclusions are robust with respect to the choice of modelling methodology, and when (and why) important differences may

  2. Research methodology workshops evaluation using the Kirkpatrick's model: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Khamis, Nehal; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed Abdulrahman; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Isnani, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of academic programs can enhance the development, effectiveness, and dissemination of comparative quality reports as well as quality improvement efforts. To evaluate the five research methodology workshops through assessing participants' satisfaction, knowledge and skills gain and impact on practices by the Kirkpatrick's evaluation model. The four level Kirkpatrick's model was applied for the evaluation. Training feedback questionnaires, pre and post tests, learner development plan reports and behavioral surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the workshop programs. Of the 116 participants, 28 (24.1%) liked with appreciation, 62 (53.4%) liked with suggestions and 26 (22.4%) disliked the programs. Pre and post MCQs tests mean scores showed significant improvement of relevant basic knowledge and cognitive skills by 17.67% (p ≤ 0.005). Pre-and-post tests scores on workshops sub-topics also significantly improved for the manuscripts (p ≤ 0.031) and proposal writing (p ≤ 0.834). As for the impact, 56.9% of participants started research, and 6.9% published their studies. The results from participants' performance revealed an overall positive feedback and 79% of participant reported transfer of training skills at their workplace. The course outcomes achievement and suggestions given for improvements offer insight into the program which were encouraging and very useful. Encouraging "research culture" and work-based learning are probably the most powerful determinants for research promotion. These findings therefore encourage faculty development unit to continue its training and development in the research methodology aspects.

  3. Learning by Translating: A Contrastive Methodology for ESP Learning and Translation

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    Sara Laviosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years applied linguists have explored the possibility of integrating the insights of second language acquisition theories, contrastive analysis, foreign language teaching methodologies, and translation studies with a view to enhancing current communicative models and techniques for L2 teaching and translator training (see for example Sewell and Higgins 1996; Laviosa-Braithwaite 1997; Campbell 1998; Malmkjær 1998; Laviosa 2000; Colina 2002. We intend to make a contribution to this interdisciplinary orientation by putting forward a translation-based methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and grammar through real life mediating communicative activities. With particular reference to the translation task itself, we endeavour to provide teachers of English for special purposes and translator trainers with a methodology for guiding their students in producing, to the best of their abilities, a target text which meets the quality criteria of terminological accuracy and stylistic fluency, and is also effective in terms of the communicative situation it is intended for. After outlining the rationale and main theoretical approaches underpinning our work, we will illustrate our methodology for learning ESP vocabulary and translation skills from a contrastive perspective, as in our book Learning by Translating (Laviosa and Cleverton 2003.

  4. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Squires

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout.

  5. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

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    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  6. Archetype modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2018-03-01

    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bringing translation out of the shadows: translation as an issue of methodological significance in cross-cultural qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.

  8. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R

    2017-04-04

    Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER

  9. Livestock models in translational medicine.

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    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  10. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  11. Lost in Translation: Methodological Considerations in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2007-01-01

    In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…

  12. Translating Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Measures: Are There Alternative Methodologies?

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    Brondani, Mario; He, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Translating existing sociodental indicators to another language involves a rigorous methodology, which can be costly. Free-of-charge online translator tools are available, but have not been evaluated in the context of research involving quality of life measures. To explore the value of using online translator tools to develop oral health-related…

  13. Studies into abnormal aggression in humans and rodents: Methodological and translational aspects.

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    Haller, Jozsef

    2017-05-01

    Here we review the principles based on which aggression is rendered abnormal in humans and laboratory rodents, and comparatively overview the main methodological approaches based on which this behavior is studied in the two categories of subjects. It appears that the discriminating property of abnormal aggression is rule breaking, which renders aggression dysfunctional from the point of view of the perpetrator. We show that rodent models of abnormal aggression were created by the translation of human conditions into rodent equivalents, and discuss how findings obtained with such models may be "translated back" to human conditions when the mechanisms underlying aggression and its possibilities of treatment are investigated. We suggest that the complementary nature of human and rodent research approaches invite a more intense cross-talk between the two sides of aggression research than the one presently observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodological standards for in vitro models of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. A TASK1-WG4 report of the AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raimondo, J. V.; Heinemann, U.; de Curtis, M.; Goodkin, H. P.; Dulla, Ch. G.; Janigro, D.; Ikeda, A.; Lin, Ch.-Ch. K.; Jiruška, Přemysl; Galanopoulou, A. S.; Bernard, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl.4 (2017), s. 40-52 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-33115A; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02634S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08565S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brain slice preparation * electrophysiological recording methods * recording solution composition * in vitro models of seizures * animal selection and killing Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 5.295, year: 2016

  15. The Integration of Project-Based Methodology into Teaching in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance. Data was collected from the graduate students in the College of Languages and Translation, at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi…

  16. Key Methodological Aspects of Translators' Training in Ukraine and in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators' training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society.…

  17. Latent domain models for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoàng, C.

    2017-01-01

    A data-driven approach to model translation suffers from the data mismatch problem and demands domain adaptation techniques. Given parallel training data originating from a specific domain, training an MT system on the data would result in a rather suboptimal translation for other domains. But does

  18. Methodological considerations when translating “burnout”☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Finlayson, Catherine; Gerchow, Lauren; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Matthews, Anne; Schwendimann, Rene; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Heinen, Maude; Brzostek, Tomasz; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Aiken, Linda H.; Sermeus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout. PMID:25343131

  19. Methodological aspects in quantitative translational neuroimaging in central nervous system diseases with Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müllauer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from central nervous system (CNS) diseases crucially depend on a sufficient supply with CNS active drugs that help them to control and endure their illness. As the site of action of CNS drugs is in the brain, these substances need to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physiological barrier seperating the blood circulation and the brain. However, CNS drug treatment is often accompanied by pharmacoresistance (drug resistance). Multidrug transporters, such as permeable glycoprotein (Pgp) are responsible for a gradient dependent transport of substances over the BBB. Drug resistance is hypothesised as a result of overactivity of multidrug transporters at the BBB, with the result of insufficient and poor CNS drug levels in the brain. In the case of epilepsy in up to 20 - 40% of patients drug resistance is observed. The influence of Ppg overexpression on drug resistance in epilepsy was studied using positron emission tomography (PET), a novel non-invasive nuclear imaging method, together with radioligands that interact with Pgp. Radiolabeled Pgp-substrates ((R)-[11C]verapamil), and inhibitors ([11C]elacridar and [11C]tariquidar) were developed and used to study the influence of Pgp and other transporters at the BBB in a translational research approach; in animal models of epilepsy and in humans. The aim in translational PET research is a direct comparision of gathered animal and human data. Consequently diverse methodological challenges arise, that need to be addressed and observed in order to enable a translation between species. To achieve full quantification of the function and density of drug transporters at the BBB in both, humans and rodents, kinetic modeling (compartmental modeling) was applied to the PET pharmacokinetic data. Estimated modeling parameters were in succession used to estimate biological and physiological processes of Pgp at the BBB. Subsequently, nonlinear mixed effects modeling was deployed to increase the mechanistic

  20. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MODEL OF TEACHING PROFESSION SPECIFIC BILATERAL TRANSLATION

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    Yana Fabrychna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.

  2. Taking the MINI to Mustang, Nepal: methodological and epistemological translations of an illness narrative interview tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Sienna R; Chase, Liana; Lama, Tshewang Norbu

    2010-04-01

    Illness narratives and explanatory models have been a research focus for the discipline of medical anthropology for decades. In recent years, standardized qualitative research tools have been developed to elicit illness narratives as a means of conducting socio-cultural analysis and as a springboard for health-related interventions - particularly with reference to communities experiencing rapid socioeconomic transition or those in which trauma has been experienced. Nevertheless, gaps persist in terms of the latent methodological and epistemological challenges of translating and transplanting such research tools to new contexts. This paper chronicles the adaptation of the McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI) for use in the culturally Tibetan region of Mustang, Nepal. This analysis is based on 44 in-depth interviews using an adapted version of the MINI to elicit narratives about experiences of illness. The MINI proved to be a compelling research tool, particularly in terms of engaging research assistants in the field. Yet its deployment in a context where distinctions between individual and social suffering can be blurred, where the dichotomization of 'religion' and 'medicine' makes little sense, and where understandings of causality are rooted in the concept of karma, revealed the extent to which the MINI - and, by extension other such qualitative research tools - emerges from particular models of narrative construction and assumptions about the relationships between self and other, cause and effect. Concluding recommendations are made regarding the adaptation of this tool to other settings.

  3. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

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    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  4. Mapping new theoretical and methodological terrain for knowledge translation: contributions from critical realism and the arts

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    Kontos, Pia C; Poland, Blake D

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines have been a popular tool for the improvement of health care through the implementation of evidence from systematic research. Yet, it is increasingly clear that knowledge alone is insufficient to change practice. The social, cultural, and material contexts within which practice occurs may invite or reject innovation, complement or inhibit the activities required for success, and sustain or alter adherence to entrenched practices. However, knowledge translation (KT) models are limited in providing insight about how and why contextual contingencies interact, the causal mechanisms linking structural aspects of context and individual agency, and how these mechanisms influence KT. Another limitation of KT models is the neglect of methods to engage potential adopters of the innovation in critical reflection about aspects of context that influence practice, the relevance and meaning of innovation in the context of practice, and the identification of strategies for bringing about meaningful change. Discussion This paper presents a KT model, the Critical Realism and the Arts Research Utilization Model (CRARUM), that combines critical realism and arts-based methodologies. Critical realism facilitates understanding of clinical settings by providing insight into the interrelationship between its structures and potentials, and individual action. The arts nurture empathy, and can foster reflection on the ways in which contextual factors influence and shape clinical practice, and how they may facilitate or impede change. The combination of critical realism and the arts within the CRARUM model promotes the successful embedding of interventions, and greater impact and sustainability. Conclusion CRARUM has the potential to strengthen the science of implementation research by addressing the complexities of practice settings, and engaging potential adopters to critically reflect on existing and proposed practices and strategies for sustaining

  5. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  6. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  7. Translational invariant shell model for Λ hypernuclei

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    Jolos R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend shell model for Λ hypernuclei suggested by Gal and Millener by including 2ћω excitations in the translation invariant version to estimate yields of different hyperfragments from primary p-shell hypernuclei. We are inspired by the first successful experiment done at MAMI which opens way to study baryon decay of hypernuclei. We use quantum numbers of group SU(4, [f], and SU(3, (λμ, to classify basis wave functions and calculate coefficients of fractional parentage.

  8. Animal models of tic disorders: a translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Mosher, Laura J; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Bortolato, Marco

    2014-12-30

    Tics are repetitive, sudden movements and/or vocalizations, typically enacted as maladaptive responses to intrusive premonitory urges. The most severe tic disorder, Tourette syndrome (TS), is a childhood-onset condition featuring multiple motor and at least one phonic tic for a duration longer than 1 year. The pharmacological treatment of TS is mainly based on antipsychotic agents; while these drugs are often effective in reducing tic severity and frequency, their therapeutic compliance is limited by serious motor and cognitive side effects. The identification of novel therapeutic targets and development of better treatments for tic disorders is conditional on the development of animal models with high translational validity. In addition, these experimental tools can prove extremely useful to test hypotheses on the etiology and neurobiological bases of TS and related conditions. In recent years, the translational value of these animal models has been enhanced, thanks to a significant re-organization of our conceptual framework of neuropsychiatric disorders, with a greater focus on endophenotypes and quantitative indices, rather than qualitative descriptors. Given the complex and multifactorial nature of TS and other tic disorders, the selection of animal models that can appropriately capture specific symptomatic aspects of these conditions can pose significant theoretical and methodological challenges. In this article, we will review the state of the art on the available animal models of tic disorders, based on genetic mutations, environmental interventions as well as pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, we will outline emerging lines of translational research showing how some of these experimental preparations have led to significant progress in the identification of novel therapeutic targets for tic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PCI: A PATRAN-NASTRAN model translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    The amount of programming required to develop a PATRAN-NASTRAN translator was surprisingly small. The approach taken produced a highly flexible translator comparable with the PATNAS translator and superior to the PATCOS translator. The coding required varied from around ten lines for a shell element to around thirty for a bar element, and the time required to add a feature to the program is typically less than an hour. The use of a lookup table for element names makes the translator also applicable to other versions of NASTRAN. The saving in time as a result of using PDA's Gateway utilities was considerable. During the writing of the program it became apparent that, with a somewhat more complex structure, it would be possible to extend the element data file to contain all data required to define the translation from PATRAN to NASTRAN by mapping of data between formats. Similar data files on property, material and grid formats would produce a completely universal translator from PATRAN to any FEA program, or indeed any CAE system.

  10. Education in health research methodology: use of a wiki for knowledge translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P Hamm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A research-practice gap exists between what is known about conducting methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs and what is done. Evidence consistently shows that pediatric RCTs are susceptible to high risk of bias; therefore novel methods of influencing the design and conduct of trials are required. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a wiki designed to educate pediatric trialists and trainees in the principles involved in minimizing risk of bias in RCTs. The focus was on preliminary usability testing of the wiki. METHODS: The wiki was developed through adaptation of existing knowledge translation strategies and through tailoring the site to the identified needs of the end-users. The wiki was evaluated for usability and user preferences regarding the content and formatting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trialists and systematic reviewers, representing varying levels of experience with risk of bias or the conduct of trials. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Participants found the wiki to be well organized, easy to use, and straightforward to navigate. Suggestions for improvement tended to focus on clarification of the text or on esthetics, rather than on the content or format. Participants liked the additional features of the site that were supplementary to the text, such as the interactive examples, and the components that focused on practical applications, adding relevance to the theory presented. While the site could be used by both trialists and systematic reviewers, the lack of a clearly defined target audience caused some confusion among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were supportive of using a wiki as a novel educational tool. The results of this pilot test will be used to refine the risk of bias wiki, which holds promise as a knowledge translation intervention for education in medical research methodology.

  11. Towards Translating Graph Transformation Approaches by Model Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, F.; Kastenberg, H.; Modica, T.; Karsai, G.; Taentzer, G.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, many researchers are working on semantics preserving model transformation. In the field of graph transformation one can think of translating graph grammars written in one approach to a behaviourally equivalent graph grammar in another approach. In this paper we translate graph grammars

  12. Bilingual Cluster Based Models for Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sumita, Eiichiro

    We propose a domain specific model for statistical machine translation. It is well-known that domain specific language models perform well in automatic speech recognition. We show that domain specific language and translation models also benefit statistical machine translation. However, there are two problems with using domain specific models. The first is the data sparseness problem. We employ an adaptation technique to overcome this problem. The second issue is domain prediction. In order to perform adaptation, the domain must be provided, however in many cases, the domain is not known or changes dynamically. For these cases, not only the translation target sentence but also the domain must be predicted. This paper focuses on the domain prediction problem for statistical machine translation. In the proposed method, a bilingual training corpus, is automatically clustered into sub-corpora. Each sub-corpus is deemed to be a domain. The domain of a source sentence is predicted by using its similarity to the sub-corpora. The predicted domain (sub-corpus) specific language and translation models are then used for the translation decoding. This approach gave an improvement of 2.7 in BLEU score on the IWSLT05 Japanese to English evaluation corpus (improving the score from 52.4 to 55.1). This is a substantial gain and indicates the validity of the proposed bilingual cluster based models.

  13. Translating key methodological issues into technological advancements when running in-situ experiments in sports: An example from sailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijms, J.P.; Canal Bruland, R.; Kats, S.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in capturing and understanding skilled performance by studying complex perceptual-motor skills. In this context, we identify and discuss key methodological issues that are particularly relevant when aiming to translate sport scientific knowledge

  14. Proposal for a telehealth concept in the translational research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angélica Baptista; Morel, Carlos Médicis; Moraes, Ilara Hämmerli Sozzi de

    2014-04-01

    To review the conceptual relationship between telehealth and translational research. Bibliographical search on telehealth was conducted in the Scopus, Cochrane BVS, LILACS and MEDLINE databases to find experiences of telehealth in conjunction with discussion of translational research in health. The search retrieved eight studies based on analysis of models of the five stages of translational research and the multiple strands of public health policy in the context of telehealth in Brazil. The models were applied to telehealth activities concerning the Network of Human Milk Banks, in the Telemedicine University Network. The translational research cycle of human milk collected, stored and distributed presents several integrated telehealth initiatives, such as video conferencing, and software and portals for synthesizing knowledge, composing elements of an information ecosystem, mediated by information and communication technologies in the health system. Telehealth should be composed of a set of activities in a computer mediated network promoting the translation of knowledge between research and health services.

  15. Methodology for the treatment of model uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droguett, Enrique Lopez

    The development of a conceptual, unified, framework and methodology for treating model and parameter uncertainties is the subject of this work. Firstly, a discussion on the philosophical grounds of notions such as reality, modeling, models, and their relation is presented. On this, a characterization of the modeling process is presented. The concept of uncertainty, addressing controversial topics such as type and sources of uncertainty, are investigated arguing that uncertainty is fundamentally a characterization of lack of knowledge and as such all uncertainty are of the same type. A discussion about the roles of a model structure and model parameters is presented, in which it is argued that a distinction is for convenience and a function of the stage in the modeling process. From the foregoing discussion, a Bayesian framework for an integrated assessment of model and parameter uncertainties is developed. The methodology has as its central point the treatment of model as source of information regarding the unknown of interest. It allows for the assessment of the model characteristics affecting its performance, such as bias and precision. It also permits the assessment of possible dependencies among multiple models. Furthermore, the proposed framework makes possible the use of not only information from models (e.g., point estimates, qualitative assessments), but also evidence about the models themselves (performance data, confidence in the model, applicability of the model). The methodology is then applied in the context of fire risk models where several examples with real data are studied. These examples demonstrate how the framework and specific techniques developed in this study can address cases involving multiple models, use of performance data to update the predictive capabilities of a model, and the case where a model is applied in a context other than one for which it is designed.

  16. Theoretical and Methodological Differences of Sociological and Technical-Scientific Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcsay, Sandor

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the similarities and differences between literary and technical translations. A further distinction is made between technical-scientific and sociological translations. Sociological translators' training must penetrate into the socio-cultural, cultural-anthropological and historical aspects of the given country because analysis of…

  17. Linguistically motivated statistical machine translation models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Deyi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a wide variety of algorithms and models to integrate linguistic knowledge into Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). It helps advance conventional SMT to linguistically motivated SMT by enhancing the following three essential components: translation, reordering and bracketing models. It also serves the purpose of promoting the in-depth study of the impacts of linguistic knowledge on machine translation. Finally it provides a systematic introduction of Bracketing Transduction Grammar (BTG) based SMT, one of the state-of-the-art SMT formalisms, as well as a case study of linguistically motivated SMT on a BTG-based platform.

  18. The Multidisciplinary Translational Team (MTT) Model for Training and Development of Translational Research Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameredes, Bill T; Hellmich, Mark R; Cestone, Christina M; Wooten, Kevin C; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Anderson, Karl E; Brasier, Allan R

    2015-10-01

    Multiinstitutional research collaborations now form the most rapid and productive project execution structures in the health sciences. Effective adoption of a multidisciplinary team research approach is widely accepted as one mechanism enabling rapid translation of new discoveries into interventions in human health. Although the impact of successful team-based approaches facilitating innovation has been well-documented, its utility for training a new generation of scientists has not been thoroughly investigated. We describe the characteristics of how multidisciplinary translational teams (MTTs) promote career development of translational research scholars through competency building, interprofessional integration, and team-based mentoring approaches. Exploratory longitudinal and outcome assessments from our experience show that MTT membership had a positive effect on the development of translational research competencies, as determined by a self-report survey of 32 scholars. We also observed that all trainees produced a large number of collaborative publications that appeared to be associated with their CTSA association and participation with MTTs. We conclude that the MTT model provides a unique training environment for translational and team-based learning activities, for investigators at early stages of career development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sketch of a Noisy Channel Model for the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    default rendering" procedure, later conscious processes are triggered by a monitor who interferes when something goes wrong. An attempt is made to explain monitor activities with relevance theoretic concepts according to which a translator needs to ensure the similarity of explicatures and implicatures......The paper develops a Noisy Channel Model for the translation process that is based on actual user activity data. It builds on the monitor model and makes a distinction between early, automatic and late, conscious translation processes: while early priming processes are at the basis of a "literal...... of the source and the target texts. It is suggested that events and parameters in the model need be measurable and quantifiable in the user activity data so as to trace back monitoring activities in the translation process data. Michael Carl is a Professor with special responsibilities at the Department...

  20. Methodological Issues in Cross-Cultural Counseling Research: Equivalence, Bias, and Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; Gerstein, Lawrence A.; Cinarbas, Deniz Canel

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the cross-cultural validity of constructs are discussed, including equivalence, bias, and translation procedures. Methods to enhance equivalence are described, as are strategies to evaluate and minimize types of bias. Recommendations for translating instruments are also presented. To illustrate some challenges of cross-cultural…

  1. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  2. Bayesian methodology for reliability model acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruoxue; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess the reliability computation model validity using the concept of Bayesian hypothesis testing, by comparing the model prediction and experimental observation, when there is only one computational model available to evaluate system behavior. Time-independent and time-dependent problems are investigated, with consideration of both cases: with and without statistical uncertainty in the model. The case of time-independent failure probability prediction with no statistical uncertainty is a straightforward application of Bayesian hypothesis testing. However, for the life prediction (time-dependent reliability) problem, a new methodology is developed in this paper to make the same Bayesian hypothesis testing concept applicable. With the existence of statistical uncertainty in the model, in addition to the application of a predictor estimator of the Bayes factor, the uncertainty in the Bayes factor is explicitly quantified through treating it as a random variable and calculating the probability that it exceeds a specified value. The developed method provides a rational criterion to decision-makers for the acceptance or rejection of the computational model

  3. CFD methodology of a model quadrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunan, Burak

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the aerodynamics characteristics of a quadrotor for both steady and unsteady flows. For steady flow cases, aerodynamics behaviour can be defined readily for any aerial vehicles in wind tunnels. However, unsteady flow conditions in wind tunnels make experimental aerodynamics characterizations difficult. This article describes determination of lift, drag and thrust forces on a model quadrotor by using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software ANSYS Fluent. A significant issue is to find a new CFD methodology for comparison with the experimental results. After getting sufficiently close agreement with some benchmarking experiments, the CFD methodology can be performed for more complicated geometries. In this paper, propeller performance database experiments from Ref. 1 will be used for validation of the CFD procedure. The results of the study reveals the dynamics characteristics of a quadrotor. This demonstrates feasibility of designing a quadrotor by CFD which saves time and cost compared to experiments.

  4. Hon-yaku: a biology-driven Bayesian methodology for identifying translation initiation sites in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hoon Michiel JL

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational prediction methods are currently used to identify genes in prokaryote genomes. However, identification of the correct translation initiation sites remains a difficult task. Accurate translation initiation sites (TISs are important not only for the annotation of unknown proteins but also for the prediction of operons, promoters, and small non-coding RNA genes, as this typically makes use of the intergenic distance. A further problem is that most existing methods are optimized for Escherichia coli data sets; applying these methods to newly sequenced bacterial genomes may not result in an equivalent level of accuracy. Results Based on a biological representation of the translation process, we applied Bayesian statistics to create a score function for predicting translation initiation sites. In contrast to existing programs, our combination of methods uses supervised learning to optimally use the set of known translation initiation sites. We combined the Ribosome Binding Site (RBS sequence, the distance between the translation initiation site and the RBS sequence, the base composition of the start codon, the nucleotide composition (A-rich sequences following start codons, and the expected distribution of the protein length in a Bayesian scoring function. To further increase the prediction accuracy, we also took into account the operon orientation. The outcome of the procedure achieved a prediction accuracy of 93.2% in 858 E. coli genes from the EcoGene data set and 92.7% accuracy in a data set of 1243 Bacillus subtilis 'non-y' genes. We confirmed the performance in the GC-rich Gamma-Proteobacteria Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243. Conclusion Hon-yaku, being based on a careful choice of elements important in translation, improved the prediction accuracy in B. subtilis data sets and other bacteria except for E. coli. We believe that most remaining

  5. Theoretical and Methodological Principles of Developing Translational Capabilities of Controlling in Ensuring Sustainable Development of the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasova Tetiana O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the role of controlling in modern system of social, ecological, economic relations and assess its capabilities in ensuring sustainable development of a business unit. Under these conditions the concept of controlling should focus on the development of translational capabilities, which provides for the extension of accounting and analytical support functions forming the information environment of the data bank and the knowledge base of management of future events. Taking into account the new management philosophy, it is appropriate to consider controlling as a socio-economic cross-functional management technology, which forms the information space supporting operational, tactical and strategic management by using the mechanism of internal management actions of the reflex nature aimed at sustainable development of the enterprise. There proposed a new direction of the controlling concept based on the philosophy of sustainable development of the enterprise and includes the following translational components: basic and auxiliary business processes; centers of responsibility in the system of business architecture, planning and budgeting systems, motivational tools. In view of the basic management functions the following destination controlling elements are identified: the modeling of the organizational structure of the enterprise as a system of hierarchically dependent business units; formation of a system of operational and strategic planning; development of a tool support system (control values, which allows creating a multilevel system to control achievement of strategic goals and detection of deviations. There proposed a mechanism of forming the information environment of controlling, which includes six interrelated informative components – planning, organizing, monitoring, analysis, regulation consulting, which allows to bridge gaps in information communications in the control system in a single contour of

  6. Multi-functional scaling methodology for translational pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications using integrated microphysiological systems (MPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Christian; Stokes, Cynthia L; Griffith, Linda G; Cirit, Murat

    2017-04-18

    Microphysiological systems (MPS) provide relevant physiological environments in vitro for studies of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and biological mechanisms for translational research. Designing multi-MPS platforms is essential to study multi-organ systems. Typical design approaches, including direct and allometric scaling, scale each MPS individually and are based on relative sizes not function. This study's aim was to develop a new multi-functional scaling approach for integrated multi-MPS platform design for specific applications. We developed an optimization approach using mechanistic modeling and specification of an objective that considered multiple MPS functions, e.g., drug absorption and metabolism, simultaneously to identify system design parameters. This approach informed the design of two hypothetical multi-MPS platforms consisting of gut and liver (multi-MPS platform I) and gut, liver and kidney (multi-MPS platform II) to recapitulate in vivo drug exposures in vitro. This allows establishment of clinically relevant drug exposure-response relationships, a prerequisite for efficacy and toxicology assessment. Design parameters resulting from multi-functional scaling were compared to designs based on direct and allometric scaling. Human plasma time-concentration profiles of eight drugs were used to inform the designs, and profiles of an additional five drugs were calculated to test the designed platforms on an independent set. Multi-functional scaling yielded exposure times in good agreement with in vivo data, while direct and allometric scaling approaches resulted in short exposure durations. Multi-functional scaling allows appropriate scaling from in vivo to in vitro of multi-MPS platforms, and in the cases studied provides designs that better mimic in vivo exposures than standard MPS scaling methods.

  7. Modeling scientific: some theoretical and methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamayo-Roca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At present widespread use of models as an auxiliary system to penetrate the essence of phenomena related to all areas of cognitive and transforming activity of man, covering as diverse as human sciences fields. In the field of education use it is becoming more common as essential to transform school practice and enrich their theoretical instrument bitter day. The paper deals with the development of theoretical modeling as a scientific method to advance the process to be transformed and characterized by establishing relationships and links between the structural components that comprise it. In this regard it is proposed as an objective socialize some theoretical and methodological considerations that favor the use of modeling method in the scientific research activity of teachers.

  8. A methodology for PSA model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    This document reports Phase 2 of work undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in support of the Atomic Energy Control Board's Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) review. A methodology is presented for the systematic review and evaluation of a PSA model. These methods are intended to support consideration of the following question: To within the scope and depth of modeling resolution of a PSA study, is the resultant model a complete and accurate representation of the subject plant? This question was identified as a key PSA validation issue in SAIC's Phase 1 project. The validation methods are based on a model transformation process devised to enhance the transparency of the modeling assumptions. Through conversion to a 'success-oriented' framework, a closer correspondence to plant design and operational specifications is achieved. This can both enhance the scrutability of the model by plant personnel, and provide an alternative perspective on the model that may assist in the identification of deficiencies. The model transformation process is defined and applied to fault trees documented in the Darlington Probabilistic Safety Evaluation. A tentative real-time process is outlined for implementation and documentation of a PSA review based on the proposed methods. (author). 11 refs., 9 tabs., 30 refs

  9. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  10. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Clayton, Mark J.; Haberl, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process. PMID:25309954

  11. Translating building information modeling to building energy modeling using model view definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, WoonSeong; Kim, Jong Bum; Clayton, Mark J; Haberl, Jeff S; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  12. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM and Building Energy Modeling (BEM that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1 the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2 BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1 enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2 enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3 facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  13. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  14. A Minimal Cognitive Model for Translating and Post-editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of reading (input) and writing (output) activities in from-scratch translation and post-editing. We segment logged eye movements and keylogging data into minimal units of reading and writing activity and model the process of post-editing and from-scratch...

  15. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model developm......We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  16. A methodology for modeling regional terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, terrorism risk has become a prominent consideration in protecting the well-being of individuals and organizations. More recently, there has been interest in not only quantifying terrorism risk, but also placing it in the context of an all-hazards environment in which consideration is given to accidents and natural hazards, as well as intentional acts. This article discusses the development of a regional terrorism risk assessment model designed for this purpose. The approach taken is to model terrorism risk as a dependent variable, expressed in expected annual monetary terms, as a function of attributes of population concentration and critical infrastructure. This allows for an assessment of regional terrorism risk in and of itself, as well as in relation to man-made accident and natural hazard risks, so that mitigation resources can be allocated in an effective manner. The adopted methodology incorporates elements of two terrorism risk modeling approaches (event-based models and risk indicators), producing results that can be utilized at various jurisdictional levels. The validity, strengths, and limitations of the model are discussed in the context of a case study application within the United States. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Model of cap-dependent translation initiation in sea urchin: a step towards the eukaryotic translation regulation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellé, Robert; Prigent, Sylvain; Siegel, Anne; Cormier, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    The large and rapid increase in the rate of protein synthesis following fertilization of the sea urchin egg has long been a paradigm of translational control, an important component of the regulation of gene expression in cells. This translational up-regulation is linked to physiological changes that occur upon fertilization and is necessary for entry into first cell division cycle. Accumulated knowledge on cap-dependent initiation of translation makes it suited and timely to start integrating the data into a system view of biological functions. Using a programming environment for system biology coupled with model validation (named Biocham), we have built an integrative model for cap-dependent initiation of translation. The model is described by abstract rules. It contains 51 reactions involved in 74 molecular complexes. The model proved to be coherent with existing knowledge by using queries based on computational tree logic (CTL) as well as Boolean simulations. The model could simulate the change in translation occurring at fertilization in the sea urchin model. It could also be coupled with an existing model designed for cell-cycle control. Therefore, the cap-dependent translation initiation model can be considered a first step towards the eukaryotic translation regulation network.

  18. Methodology, models and algorithms in thermographic diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Živčák, Jozef; Madarász, Ladislav; Rudas, Imre J

    2013-01-01

    This book presents  the methodology and techniques of  thermographic applications with focus primarily on medical thermography implemented for parametrizing the diagnostics of the human body. The first part of the book describes the basics of infrared thermography, the possibilities of thermographic diagnostics and the physical nature of thermography. The second half includes tools of intelligent engineering applied for the solving of selected applications and projects. Thermographic diagnostics was applied to problematics of paraplegia and tetraplegia and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The results of the research activities were created with the cooperation of the four projects within the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic entitled Digital control of complex systems with two degrees of freedom, Progressive methods of education in the area of control and modeling of complex object oriented systems on aircraft turbocompressor engines, Center for research of control of te...

  19. Threat model framework and methodology for personal networks (PNs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    To be able to build a secure network, it is essential to model the threats to the network. A methodology for building a threat model has been proposed in the paper. Several existing threat models and methodologies will be compared to the proposed methodology. The aim of the proposed methodology i...... been used. Also risk assessment methods will be discussed. Threat profiles and vulnerability profiles have been presented....

  20. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  1. A methodology for spectral wave model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, S. A.; Edwards, K. L.; Rogers, W. E.

    2017-12-01

    climate, omitting the energy in the frequency band between the two lower limits tested can lead to an incomplete characterization of model performance. This methodology was developed to aid in selecting a comparison frequency range that does not needlessly increase computational expense and does not exclude energy to the detriment of model performance analysis.

  2. A conceptual model for translating omic data into clinical action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Herr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic, proteomic, epigenomic, and other "omic" data have the potential to enable precision medicine, also commonly referred to as personalized medicine. The volume and complexity of omic data are rapidly overwhelming human cognitive capacity, requiring innovative approaches to translate such data into patient care. Here, we outline a conceptual model for the application of omic data in the clinical context, called "the omic funnel." This model parallels the classic "Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom pyramid" and adds context for how to move between each successive layer. Its goal is to allow informaticians, researchers, and clinicians to approach the problem of translating omic data from bench to bedside, by using discrete steps with clearly defined needs. Such an approach can facilitate the development of modular and interoperable software that can bring precision medicine into widespread practice.

  3. Translation and development of the BNWL-geosphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.

    1977-02-01

    The report deals with the rate of radioactivity discharge from a repository for radioactive waste in a geologic formation to the biosphere. A BASIC language computer program called GETOUT has been developed in USA. It was obtained by the Swedish project Nuclear Fuel Safety and has thereafter been translated into FORTRAN. The main extension of the code, that was made during the translation, is a model for averaging the hydrodynamic and geochemical parameters for the case of non-uniform packing of the column (e.g. considering a repository in cracked rock with crack width, crack spacing etc. in different zones). The program has been outtested on an IBM model 360/75 computer. The migration is governed by three parameters i.e. the ground water velocity, the dispersion coefficient and the nuclide retentivities. (L.B.)

  4. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.

  5. Models of kulture in Nabokov's memoirs and translation memoirs in Serbian and Croatian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razdobudko-Čović Larisa I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of two Serbian translations of V. Nabokov's memoirs, that is the translation of the novel 'Drugie berega' ('The Other Shores' published in Russian as an authorized translation from the original English version 'Conclusive Evidence', and the translation of Nabokov's authorized translation from Russian to English entitled 'Speak, Memory'. Creolization of three models of culture in translation from the two originals - Russian and English - Is presented. Specific features of the two Serbian translations are analyzed, and a survey of characteristic mistakes caused by some specific characteristics of the source language is given. Also, Nabokov's very original approach to translation which is quite interpretative is highlighted.

  6. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into h...

  7. Modeling and prediction of human word search behavior in interactive machine translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Duo; Yu, Bai; Ma, Bin; Ye, Na

    2017-12-01

    As a kind of computer aided translation method, Interactive Machine Translation technology reduced manual translation repetitive and mechanical operation through a variety of methods, so as to get the translation efficiency, and played an important role in the practical application of the translation work. In this paper, we regarded the behavior of users' frequently searching for words in the translation process as the research object, and transformed the behavior to the translation selection problem under the current translation. The paper presented a prediction model, which is a comprehensive utilization of alignment model, translation model and language model of the searching words behavior. It achieved a highly accurate prediction of searching words behavior, and reduced the switching of mouse and keyboard operations in the users' translation process.

  8. Animal Models for Tuberculosis in Translational and Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zhan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a health threat to the global population. Anti-TB drugs and vaccines are key approaches for TB prevention and control. TB animal models are basic tools for developing biomarkers of diagnosis, drugs for therapy, vaccines for prevention and researching pathogenic mechanisms for identification of targets; thus, they serve as the cornerstone of comparative medicine, translational medicine, and precision medicine. In this review, we discuss the current use of TB animal models and their problems, as well as offering perspectives on the future of these models.

  9. Animal Models for Tuberculosis in Translational and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingjun; Tang, Jun; Sun, Mengmeng; Qin, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a health threat to the global population. Anti-TB drugs and vaccines are key approaches for TB prevention and control. TB animal models are basic tools for developing biomarkers of diagnosis, drugs for therapy, vaccines for prevention and researching pathogenic mechanisms for identification of targets; thus, they serve as the cornerstone of comparative medicine, translational medicine, and precision medicine. In this review, we discuss the current use of TB animal models and their problems, as well as offering perspectives on the future of these models.

  10. Designing and Implementing INTREPID, an Intensive Program in Translational Research Methodologies for New Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Shao, Yongzhao; Micoli, Keith J.; Fang, Yixin; Goldberg, Judith D.; Galeano, Claudia R.; Stangel, Jessica H.; Chavis‐Keeling, Deborah; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Senior housestaff and junior faculty are often expected to perform clinical research, yet may not always have the requisite knowledge and skills to do so successfully. Formal degree programs provide such knowledge, but require a significant commitment of time and money. Short‐term training programs (days to weeks) provide alternative ways to accrue essential information and acquire fundamental methodological skills. Unfortunately, published information about short‐term programs is sparse. To encourage discussion and exchange of ideas regarding such programs, we here share our experience developing and implementing INtensive Training in Research Statistics, Ethics, and Protocol Informatics and Design (INTREPID), a 24‐day immersion training program in clinical research methodologies. Designing, planning, and offering INTREPID was feasible, and required significant faculty commitment, support personnel and infrastructure, as well as committed trainees. PMID:25066862

  11. Translational Models of Gambling-Related Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Clark, Luke

    Gambling is a harmless, recreational pastime that is ubiquitous across cultures. However, for some, gambling becomes a maladaptive and compulsive, and this syndrome is conceptualized as a behavioural addiction. Laboratory models that capture the key cognitive processes involved in gambling behaviour, and that can be translated across species, have the potential to make an important contribution to both decision neuroscience and the study of addictive disorders. The Iowa gambling task has been widely used to assess human decision-making under uncertainty, and this paradigm can be successfully modelled in rodents. Similar neurobiological processes underpin choice behaviour in humans and rats, and thus, a preference for the disadvantageous "high-risk, high-reward" options may reflect meaningful vulnerability for mental health problems. However, the choice behaviour operationalized by these tasks does not necessarily approximate the vulnerability to gambling disorder (GD) per se. We consider a number of psychological challenges that apply to modelling gambling in a translational way, and evaluate the success of the existing models. Heterogeneity in the structure of gambling games, as well as in the motivations of individuals with GD, is highlighted. The potential issues with extrapolating too directly from established animal models of drug dependency are discussed, as are the inherent difficulties in validating animal models of GD in the absence of any approved treatments for GD. Further advances in modelling the cognitive biases endemic in human decision-making, which appear to be exacerbated in GD, may be a promising line of research.

  12. Efficacy of female rat models in translational cardiovascular aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, K M; Fannin, J C; Gillette, C; Blough, E R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  13. Modeling, methodologies and tools for molecular and nano-scale communications modeling, methodologies and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Tadashi; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (Preliminary) The book presents the state of art in the emerging field of molecular and nanoscale communication. It gives special attention to fundamental models, and advanced methodologies and tools used in the field. It covers a wide range of applications, e.g. nanomedicine, nanorobot communication, bioremediation and environmental managements. It addresses advanced graduate students, academics and professionals working at the forefront in their fields and at the interfaces between different areas of research, such as engineering, computer science, biology and nanotechnology.

  14. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  15. Methodology for Modeling and Analysis of Business Processes (MMABP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Repa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the methodology for modeling business processes. Creation of the methodology is described in terms of the Design Science Method. Firstly, the gap in contemporary Business Process Modeling approaches is identified and general modeling principles which can fill the gap are discussed. The way which these principles have been implemented in the main features of created methodology is described. Most critical identified points of the business process modeling are process states, process hierarchy and the granularity of process description. The methodology has been evaluated by use in the real project. Using the examples from this project the main methodology features are explained together with the significant problems which have been met during the project. Concluding from these problems together with the results of the methodology evaluation the needed future development of the methodology is outlined.

  16. Generalized eigenstate typicality in translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Jonathon; Müller, Markus P.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a generalized notion of eigenstate thermalization for translation-invariant quasifree fermionic models: the vast majority of eigenstates satisfying a finite number of suitable constraints (e.g., fixed energy and particle number) have the property that their reduced density matrix on small subsystems approximates the corresponding generalized Gibbs ensemble. To this end, we generalize analytic results by H. Lai and K. Yang [Phys. Rev. B 91, 081110(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.081110] and illustrate the claim numerically by example of the Jordan-Wigner transform of the XX spin chain.

  17. Thermal ecological risk assessment - methodology for modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandeya, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    Discharge of hot effluents into natural water bodies is a potential risk to the aquatic life. The stipulations imposed by the MoEF, Government of India for protecting the environment are in place. However, due to lack of quality scientific information, these stipulations are generally conservative in nature and hence questionable. A Coordinated Research Project on Thermal Ecological Studies, successfully completed recently came out with a suggestion of implementing multi-factorially estimated mixing zone concept. In the present paper, risk based assessment methodology is proposed as an alternate approach. The methodology is presented only conceptually and briefly over which further refining may be necessary. The methodology would enable to account for variations in the plant operational conditions, climatic conditions and the geographical and hydraulic characteristic conditions of the water body in a suitable manner. (author)

  18. Common Marmosets: A Potential Translational Animal Model of Juvenile Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Leite Galvão-Coelho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a psychiatric disorder with high prevalence in the general population, with increasing expression in adolescence, about 14% in young people. Frequently, it presents as a chronic condition, showing no remission even after several pharmacological treatments and persisting in adult life. Therefore, distinct protocols and animal models have been developed to increase the understanding of this disease or search for new therapies. To this end, this study investigated the effects of chronic social isolation and the potential antidepressant action of nortriptyline in juvenile Callithrix jacchus males and females by monitoring fecal cortisol, body weight, and behavioral parameters and searching for biomarkers and a protocol for inducing depression. The purpose was to validate this species and protocol as a translational model of juvenile depression, addressing all domain criteria of validation: etiologic, face, functional, predictive, inter-relational, evolutionary, and population. In both sexes and both protocols (IDS and DPT, we observed a significant reduction in cortisol levels in the last phase of social isolation, concomitant with increases in autogrooming, stereotyped and anxiety behaviors, and the presence of anhedonia. The alterations induced by chronic social isolation are characteristic of the depressive state in non-human primates and/or in humans, and were reversed in large part by treatment with an antidepressant drug (nortriptyline. Therefore, these results indicate C. jacchus as a potential translational model of juvenile depression by addressing all criteria of validation.

  19. Translational Assays for Assessment of Cognition in Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A; Tyebji, S; Hannan, A J; Burrows, E L

    2016-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction appears as a core feature of dementia, which includes its most prevalent form, Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and other brain disorders. AD alone affects more than 45 million people worldwide, with growing prevalence in aging populations. There is no cure, and therapeutic options remain limited. Gene-edited and transgenic animal models, expressing disease-specific gene mutations, illuminate pathogenic mechanisms leading to cognitive decline in AD and other forms of dementia. To date, cognitive tests in AD mouse models have not been directly relevant to the clinical presentation of AD, providing challenges for translation of findings to the clinic. Touchscreen testing in mice has enabled the assessment of specific cognitive domains in mice that are directly relevant to impairments described in human AD patients. In this review, we provide context for how cognitive decline is measured in the clinic, describe traditional methods for assessing cognition in mice, and outline novel approaches, including the use of the touchscreen platform for cognitive testing. We highlight the limitations of traditional memory-testing paradigms in mice, particularly their capacity for direct translation into cognitive testing of patients. While it is not possible to expect direct translation in testing methodologies, we can aim to develop tests that engage similar neural substrates in both humans and mice. Ultimately, that would enable us to better predict efficacy across species and therefore improve the chances that a treatment that works in mice will also work in the clinic.

  20. Zebrafish models for translational neuroscience research: from tank to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Braubach, Oliver; Spitsbergen, Jan; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V

    2014-05-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a new important species for studying mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction. Focusing on selected central nervous system (CNS) disorders (brain cancer, epilepsy, and anxiety) and using them as examples, we discuss the value of zebrafish models in translational neuroscience. We further evaluate the contribution of zebrafish to neuroimaging, circuit level, and drug discovery research. Outlining the role of zebrafish in modeling a wide range of human brain disorders, we also summarize recent applications and existing challenges in this field. Finally, we emphasize the potential of zebrafish models in behavioral phenomics and high-throughput genetic/small molecule screening, which is critical for CNS drug discovery and identifying novel candidate genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism. PMID:27305922

  2. Methodology to translate policy assessment problems into scenarios: the example of the SEAMLESS integrated framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Therond, O.; Belhouchette, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Ewert, F.; Bergez, J.E.; Wery, J.; Heckelei, T.; Olsson, J.A.; Leenhardt, D.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scenario-based approaches in environmental and policy assessment studies are increasingly applied within integrated assessment and modelling frameworks. The SEAMLESS project develops such an integrated framework (SEAMLESS-IF) aiming to assess, ex-ante, impacts of alternative agro-environmental

  3. Slow dynamics in translation-invariant quantum lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Alexios A.; Žnidarič, Marko; Medvedyeva, Mariya; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Prosen, Tomaž; Papić, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Many-body quantum systems typically display fast dynamics and ballistic spreading of information. Here we address the open problem of how slow the dynamics can be after a generic breaking of integrability by local interactions. We develop a method based on degenerate perturbation theory that reveals slow dynamical regimes and delocalization processes in general translation invariant models, along with accurate estimates of their delocalization time scales. Our results shed light on the fundamental questions of the robustness of quantum integrable systems and the possibility of many-body localization without disorder. As an example, we construct a large class of one-dimensional lattice models where, despite the absence of asymptotic localization, the transient dynamics is exceptionally slow, i.e., the dynamics is indistinguishable from that of many-body localized systems for the system sizes and time scales accessible in experiments and numerical simulations.

  4. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Emerging Translational Model of Human Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Chi, Thomas; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kim, Man Su; Hirata, Taku; Romero, Michael F.; Dow, Julian A.T.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The limitations imposed by human clinical studies and mammalian models of nephrolithiasis have hampered the development of effective medical treatments and preventative measures for decades. The simple but elegant Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful translational model of human disease, including nephrolithiasis and may provide important information essential to our understanding of stone formation. We present the current state of research using D. melanogaster as a model of human nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the English language literature was performed using PUBMED. When necessary, authoritative texts on relevant subtopics were consulted. Results The genetic composition, anatomic structure and physiologic function of Drosophila Malpighian tubules are remarkably similar to those of the human nephron. The direct effects of dietary manipulation, environmental alteration, and genetic variation on stone formation can be observed and quantified in a matter of days. Several Drosophila models of human nephrolithiasis, including genetically linked and environmentally induced stones, have been developed. A model of calcium oxalate stone formation is among the most recent fly models of human nephrolithiasis. Conclusions The ability to readily manipulate and quantify stone formation in D. melanogaster models of human nephrolithiasis presents the urologic community with a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:23500641

  5. Verification of Fault Tree Models with RBDGG Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Currently, fault tree analysis is widely used in the field of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). To guarantee the correctness of fault tree models, which are usually manually constructed by analysts, a review by other analysts is widely used for verifying constructed fault tree models. Recently, an extension of the reliability block diagram was developed, which is named as RBDGG (reliability block diagram with general gates). The advantage of the RBDGG methodology is that the structure of a RBDGG model is very similar to the actual structure of the analyzed system and, therefore, the modeling of a system for a system reliability and unavailability analysis becomes very intuitive and easy. The main idea of the development of the RBDGG methodology is similar to that of the development of the RGGG (Reliability Graph with General Gates) methodology. The difference between the RBDGG methodology and RGGG methodology is that the RBDGG methodology focuses on the block failures while the RGGG methodology focuses on the connection line failures. But, it is also known that an RGGG model can be converted to an RBDGG model and vice versa. In this paper, a new method for the verification of the constructed fault tree models using the RBDGG methodology is proposed and demonstrated

  6. Information Model Translation to Support a Wider Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Ritschel, Bernd; Hardman, Sean; Joyner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's long-term archive for solar system exploration data, has just released PDS4, a modernization of the PDS architecture, data standards, and technical infrastructure. This next generation system positions the PDS to meet the demands of the coming decade, including big data, international cooperation, distributed nodes, and multiple ways of analysing and interpreting data. It also addresses three fundamental project goals: providing more efficient data delivery by data providers to the PDS, enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive, and enabling services for the data consumer to find, access, and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. The PDS4 information architecture is used to describe all PDS data using a common model. Captured in an ontology modeling tool it supports a hierarchy of data dictionaries built to the ISO/IEC 11179 standard and is designed to increase flexibility, enable complex searches at the product level, and to promote interoperability that facilitates data sharing both nationally and internationally. A PDS4 information architecture design requirement stipulates that the content of the information model must be translatable to external data definition languages such as XML Schema, XMI/XML, and RDF/XML. To support the semantic Web standards we are now in the process of mapping the contents into RDF/XML to support SPARQL capable databases. We are also building a terminological ontology to support virtually unified data retrieval and access. This paper will provide an overview of the PDS4 information architecture focusing on its domain information model and how the translation and mapping are being accomplished.

  7. A methodology for ecosystem-scale modeling of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S; Luoma, Samuel N

    2010-10-01

    The main route of exposure for selenium (Se) is dietary, yet regulations lack biologically based protocols for evaluations of risk. We propose here an ecosystem-scale model that conceptualizes and quantifies the variables that determine how Se is processed from water through diet to predators. This approach uses biogeochemical and physiological factors from laboratory and field studies and considers loading, speciation, transformation to particulate material, bioavailability, bioaccumulation in invertebrates, and trophic transfer to predators. Validation of the model is through data sets from 29 historic and recent field case studies of Se-exposed sites. The model links Se concentrations across media (water, particulate, tissue of different food web species). It can be used to forecast toxicity under different management or regulatory proposals or as a methodology for translating a fish-tissue (or other predator tissue) Se concentration guideline to a dissolved Se concentration. The model illustrates some critical aspects of implementing a tissue criterion: 1) the choice of fish species determines the food web through which Se should be modeled, 2) the choice of food web is critical because the particulate material to prey kinetics of bioaccumulation differs widely among invertebrates, 3) the characterization of the type and phase of particulate material is important to quantifying Se exposure to prey through the base of the food web, and 4) the metric describing partitioning between particulate material and dissolved Se concentrations allows determination of a site-specific dissolved Se concentration that would be responsible for that fish body burden in the specific environment. The linked approach illustrates that environmentally safe dissolved Se concentrations will differ among ecosystems depending on the ecological pathways and biogeochemical conditions in that system. Uncertainties and model sensitivities can be directly illustrated by varying exposure

  8. A methodology for ecosystem-scale modeling of selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, T.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The main route of exposure for selenium (Se) is dietary, yet regulations lack biologically based protocols for evaluations of risk. We propose here an ecosystem-scale model that conceptualizes and quantifies the variables that determinehow Se is processed from water through diet to predators. This approach uses biogeochemical and physiological factors from laboratory and field studies and considers loading, speciation, transformation to particulate material, bioavailability, bioaccumulation in invertebrates, and trophic transfer to predators. Validation of the model is through data sets from 29 historic and recent field case studies of Se-exposed sites. The model links Se concentrations across media (water, particulate, tissue of different food web species). It can be used to forecast toxicity under different management or regulatory proposals or as a methodology for translating a fish-tissue (or other predator tissue) Se concentration guideline to a dissolved Se concentration. The model illustrates some critical aspects of implementing a tissue criterion: 1) the choice of fish species determines the food web through which Se should be modeled, 2) the choice of food web is critical because the particulate material to prey kinetics of bioaccumulation differs widely among invertebrates, 3) the characterization of the type and phase of particulate material is important to quantifying Se exposure to prey through the base of the food web, and 4) the metric describing partitioning between particulate material and dissolved Se concentrations allows determination of a site-specific dissolved Se concentration that would be responsible for that fish body burden in the specific environment. The linked approach illustrates that environmentally safe dissolved Se concentrations will differ among ecosystems depending on the ecological pathways and biogeochemical conditions in that system. Uncertainties and model sensitivities can be directly illustrated by varying exposure

  9. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Picard, Willy

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  10. Lessons learned in applying the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology to translating Canadian Emergency Department Information System Presenting Complaints List into German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammen, Dominik; Greiner, Felix; Dormann, Harald; Mach, Carsten; Wrede, Christian; Ballaschk, Anne; Stewart, Declan; Walker, Steven; Oesterling, Christine; Kulla, Martin

    2017-03-02

    The patient's presenting complaint guides diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department, but there is no classification system available in German. The Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) Presenting Complaint List (PCL) is available only in English and French. As translation risks the altering of meaning, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) has set guidelines to ensure translational accuracy. The aim of this paper is to describe our experiences of using the ISPOR guidelines to translate the CEDIS PCL into German. The CEDIS PCL (version 3.0) was forward-translated and back-translated in accordance with the ISPOR guidelines using bilingual clinicians/translators and an occupationally mixed evaluation group that completed a self-developed questionnaire. The CEDIS PCL was forward-translated (four emergency physicians) and back-translated (three mixed translators). Back-translation uncovered eight PCL items requiring amendment. In total, 156 comments were received from 32 evaluators, six of which resulted in amendments. The ISPOR guidelines facilitated adaptation of a PCL into German, but the process required time, language skills and clinical knowledge. The current methodology may be applicable to translating the CEDIS PCL into other languages, with the aim of developing a harmonized, multilingual PCL.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  11. From The Model Reader to the Competent Translator: Theory and Practice of Umberto Eco’s Semiotics in a Literary Translation Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sündüz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Classroom environment can be considered a sufficient place to practice and improve students’ translation skills. They can be possibly brainstormed and can discuss the problematic points with each other while translating. It can be estimated in the same way in a literary translation class. Students who are supposed to become model readers need to use their background knowledge, vocabulary, and encyclopedia to understand the text properly, to infer the unsaid from the said, and to translate them into a target language without disrupting the structure and taste of the source text because, considering Umberto Eco’s view, the structure of literary texts requires the cooperation of the reader and is sophisticated, and most of the words tend to be used with their connotations. Therefore, becoming a competent translator in order to conduct literary translation can be considered a crucial notion. This study aims at determining whether students, as translating candidates, are future’s “competent translators,” i.e., competent enough for literary translation. To achieve this goal, a case study is carried out in a literary translation class. In this process, we examined translations of 10 sophomore students from Trakya University’s Division of Translation and Interpretation. The students were asked to translate the short story titled “Hopeless Romantic” written by Susan Daitch, into Turkish. To analyze the translations obtained from students, the “Reviewing Model of Competent Translator” was devised with the favor from Eco’s thoughts and experiences in Mouse or Rat: Translation as Negotiation. In this study, through Eco’s thoughts and experiences and through the translation reviews, the applicability of the “Reviewing Model of Competent Translator” will be evaluated. This study will not only shed light on the researches in literary translation but also suggest a new model to examine translators.

  12. A Model Program for Translational Medicine in Epilepsy Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lacey A.; Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.; Olson, Heather E.; El Achkar, Christelle M.; Truglio, Gessica; Kelly, McKenna; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Poduri, Annapurna

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in gene sequencing have led to a rapid increase in gene discovery in epilepsy. However, the ability to assess pathogenicity of variants, provide functional analysis, and develop targeted therapies has not kept pace with rapid advances in sequencing technology. Thus, although clinical genetic testing may lead to a specific molecular diagnosis for some patients, test results often lead to more questions than answers. As the field begins to focus on therapeutic applications of genetic diagnoses using precision medicine, developing processes that offer more than equivocal test results is essential. The success of precision medicine in epilepsy relies on establishing a correct genetic diagnosis, analyzing functional consequences of genetic variants, screening potential therapeutics in the preclinical laboratory setting, and initiating targeted therapy trials for patients. We describe the structure of a comprehensive, pediatric Epilepsy Genetics Program that can serve as a model for translational medicine in epilepsy. PMID:28056630

  13. A Model Program for Translational Medicine in Epilepsy Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lacey A; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Olson, Heather E; Achkar, Christelle M El; Truglio, Gessica; Kelly, McKenna; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Poduri, Annapurna

    2017-03-01

    Recent technological advances in gene sequencing have led to a rapid increase in gene discovery in epilepsy. However, the ability to assess pathogenicity of variants, provide functional analysis, and develop targeted therapies has not kept pace with rapid advances in sequencing technology. Thus, although clinical genetic testing may lead to a specific molecular diagnosis for some patients, test results often lead to more questions than answers. As the field begins to focus on therapeutic applications of genetic diagnoses using precision medicine, developing processes that offer more than equivocal test results is essential. The success of precision medicine in epilepsy relies on establishing a correct genetic diagnosis, analyzing functional consequences of genetic variants, screening potential therapeutics in the preclinical laboratory setting, and initiating targeted therapy trials for patients. The authors describe the structure of a comprehensive, pediatric Epilepsy Genetics Program that can serve as a model for translational medicine in epilepsy.

  14. Exploring into the New Model Procedure in Translation: Wafting as a Case in Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the near equivalence for translator is of great concern nowadays. While it seems more commitment has been given to this issue, yet there are still rooms for more attention to innovative methods of Translation Studies in this direction. The idea of wafting procedure in Intermediacy model of translation comes from a book by Alireza Akbari…

  15. Translating patient reported outcome measures: methodological issues explored using cognitive interviewing with three rheumatoid arthritis measures in six European languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewlett, Sarah E.; Nicklin, Joanna; Bode, Christina; Carmona, Loretto; Dures, Emma; Engelbrecht, Matthias; Hagel, Sofia; Kirwan, John R.; Molto, Anna; Redondo, Marta; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Cross-cultural translation of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is a lengthy process, often performed professionally. Cognitive interviewing assesses patient comprehension of PROMs. The objective was to evaluate the usefulness of cognitive interviewing to assess translations and

  16. Threat model framework and methodology for personal networks (PNs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    is to give a structured, convenient approach for building threat models. A framework for the threat model is presented with a list of requirements for methodology. The methodology will be applied to build a threat model for Personal Networks. Practical tools like UML sequence diagrams and attack trees have...... been used. Also risk assessment methods will be discussed. Threat profiles and vulnerability profiles have been presented....

  17. A Novel Translational Model of Spinal Cord Injury in Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Marine; Noristani, Harun N; Mestre-Frances, Nadine; Saint-Martin, Guillaume P; Coillot, Christophe; Goze-Bac, Christophe; Lonjon, Nicolas; Perrin, Florence E

    2017-11-27

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) lead to major disabilities affecting > 2.5 million people worldwide. Major shortcomings in clinical translation result from multiple factors, including species differences, development of moderately predictive animal models, and differences in methodologies between preclinical and clinical studies. To overcome these obstacles, we first conducted a comparative neuroanatomical analysis of the spinal cord between mice, Microcebus murinus (a nonhuman primate), and humans. Next, we developed and characterized a new model of lateral spinal cord hemisection in M. murinus. Over a 3-month period after SCI, we carried out a detailed, longitudinal, behavioral follow-up associated with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging ( 1 H-MRI) monitoring. Then, we compared lesion extension and tissue alteration using 3 methods: in vivo 1 H-MRI, ex vivo 1 H-MRI, and classical histology. The general organization and glial cell distribution/morphology in the spinal cord of M. murinus closely resembles that of humans. Animals assessed at different stages following lateral hemisection of the spinal cord presented specific motor deficits and spinal cord tissue alterations. We also found a close correlation between 1 H-MRI signal and microglia reactivity and/or associated post-trauma phenomena. Spinal cord hemisection in M. murinus provides a reliable new nonhuman primate model that can be used to promote translational research on SCI and represents a novel and more affordable alternative to larger primates.

  18. Actinic keratosis modelling in mice: A translational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Pillon

    Full Text Available Actinic keratoses (AK are pre-malignant cutaneous lesions caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As AKs lesions are generally accepted to be the initial lesions in a disease continuum that progresses to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, AK lesions have to be treated. They are also the second most common reason for visits to the dermatologist. Several treatments are available but their efficacy still needs to be improved. The UV-B-induced KA lesion mouse model is used in preclinical studies to assess the efficacy of novel molecules, even though it is often more representative of advanced AK or SCC.Here we report on a translational study, comparing the various stages of AK development in humans and in the UV-B irradiated mouse model, as well as the optimization of photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin.Human and mouse skin lesions were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Mouse lesions were also assessed using a digital dermatoscope.An histological and phenotypic analysis, including p53, Ki67 and CD3 expression detection, performed on human and mouse AK lesions, shows that overall AK modelling in mice is relevant in the clinical situation. Some differences are observed, such as disorganization of keratinocytes of the basal layer and a number of atypical nuclei which are more numerous in human AK, whereas much more pronounced acanthosis is observed in skin lesion in mice. Thanks to this translational study, we are able to select appropriate experimental conditions for establishing either early or advanced stage AK or an SCC model. Furthermore, we optimized photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin by using a digital dermatoscope which is also used in clinics and allows reproducible photograph acquisition for further reliable assessment of mouse lesions. Use of this camera is illustrated through a pharmacological study assessing the activity of CARAC®.These data demonstrate that this mouse model of UV

  19. Actinic keratosis modelling in mice: A translational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Isabelle; Cartron, Valérie; Cèbe, Patrick; Blanchet, Jean-Christophe; Sibaud, Vincent; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Audoly, Laurent; Lamant, Laurence; Kruczynski, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background Actinic keratoses (AK) are pre-malignant cutaneous lesions caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As AKs lesions are generally accepted to be the initial lesions in a disease continuum that progresses to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), AK lesions have to be treated. They are also the second most common reason for visits to the dermatologist. Several treatments are available but their efficacy still needs to be improved. The UV-B-induced KA lesion mouse model is used in preclinical studies to assess the efficacy of novel molecules, even though it is often more representative of advanced AK or SCC. Objectives Here we report on a translational study, comparing the various stages of AK development in humans and in the UV-B irradiated mouse model, as well as the optimization of photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin. Methods Human and mouse skin lesions were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Mouse lesions were also assessed using a digital dermatoscope. Results An histological and phenotypic analysis, including p53, Ki67 and CD3 expression detection, performed on human and mouse AK lesions, shows that overall AK modelling in mice is relevant in the clinical situation. Some differences are observed, such as disorganization of keratinocytes of the basal layer and a number of atypical nuclei which are more numerous in human AK, whereas much more pronounced acanthosis is observed in skin lesion in mice. Thanks to this translational study, we are able to select appropriate experimental conditions for establishing either early or advanced stage AK or an SCC model. Furthermore, we optimized photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin by using a digital dermatoscope which is also used in clinics and allows reproducible photograph acquisition for further reliable assessment of mouse lesions. Use of this camera is illustrated through a pharmacological study assessing the activity of CARAC®. Conclusion These data

  20. Methodology for characterizing modeling and discretization uncertainties in computational simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; OBERKAMPF,WILLIAM L.; RUTHERFORD,BRIAN M.; DIEGERT,KATHLEEN V.

    2000-03-01

    This research effort focuses on methodology for quantifying the effects of model uncertainty and discretization error on computational modeling and simulation. The work is directed towards developing methodologies which treat model form assumptions within an overall framework for uncertainty quantification, for the purpose of developing estimates of total prediction uncertainty. The present effort consists of work in three areas: framework development for sources of uncertainty and error in the modeling and simulation process which impact model structure; model uncertainty assessment and propagation through Bayesian inference methods; and discretization error estimation within the context of non-deterministic analysis.

  1. Modeling Methodologies for Representing Urban Cultural Geographies in Stability Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferris, Todd P

    2008-01-01

    ... 2.0.0, in an effort to provide modeling methodologies for a single simulation tool capable of exploring the complex world of urban cultural geographies undergoing Stability Operations in an irregular warfare (IW) environment...

  2. Parameterizing Phrase Based Statistical Machine Translation Models: An Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to determine the best way to train a statistical machine translation system. I first develop a state-of-the-art machine translation system called Phrasal and then use it to examine a wide variety of potential learning algorithms and optimization criteria and arrive at two very surprising results. First, despite the…

  3. Mapping research questions about translation to methods, measures, and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berninger, V.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Fayol, M.L.; Fayol, M.; Alamargot, D.; Berninger, V.W.

    2012-01-01

    About the book: Translation of cognitive representations into written language is one of the most important processes in writing. This volume provides a long-awaited updated overview of the field. The contributors discuss each of the commonly used research methods for studying translation; theorize

  4. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  5. On Interactive Teaching Model of Translation Course Based on Wechat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Constructivism is a theory related to knowledge and learning, focusing on learners' subjective initiative, based on which the interactive approach has been proved to play a crucial role in language learning. Accordingly, the interactive approach can also be applied to translation teaching since translation itself is a bilingual transformational…

  6. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF......). This paper presents an application of the Udwadia-Kalaba Equation for modelling the Reconfigurable Underwater Robots. The constraints developed to enforce the rigid connection between robots in the system is derived through restrictions on relative distances and orientations. To avoid singularities...... in the orientation and, thereby, allow the robots to undertake any relative configuration the attitude is represented in Euler parameters....

  7. Model-driven software migration a methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Today, reliable software systems are the basis of any business or company. The continuous further development of those systems is the central component in software evolution. It requires a huge amount of time- man power- as well as financial resources. The challenges are size, seniority and heterogeneity of those software systems. Christian Wagner addresses software evolution: the inherent problems and uncertainties in the process. He presents a model-driven method which leads to a synchronization between source code and design. As a result the model layer will be the central part in further e

  8. A cognitive-pragmatic model for translation-shift analysis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper proposes a taxonomy of shifts based on cognitive-pragmatic models of the translation process. The model for the analysis of shifts proposed here is designed to improve the quality of descriptive case studies in translation research. This model responds to the tendency of descriptive studies to analyse all ...

  9. Understanding the limits of animal models as predictors of human biology: lessons learned from the sbv IMPROVER Species Translation Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Bilal, Erhan; Norel, Raquel; Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Dulize, Rémi H J; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Alexopoulos, Leonidas; Rice, J Jeremy; Peitsch, Manuel C; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-02-15

    Inferring how humans respond to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses or hormones is an essential question in biomedicine. Very often, however, this question cannot be addressed because it is not possible to perform experiments in humans. A reasonable alternative consists of generating responses in animal models and 'translating' those results to humans. The limitations of such translation, however, are far from clear, and systematic assessments of its actual potential are urgently needed. sbv IMPROVER (systems biology verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) was designed as a series of challenges to address translatability between humans and rodents. This collaborative crowd-sourcing initiative invited scientists from around the world to apply their own computational methodologies on a multilayer systems biology dataset composed of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human and rat bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to 52 different stimuli under identical conditions. Our aim was to understand the limits of species-to-species translatability at different levels of biological organization: signaling, transcriptional and release of secreted factors (such as cytokines). Participating teams submitted 49 different solutions across the sub-challenges, two-thirds of which were statistically significantly better than random. Additionally, similar computational methods were found to range widely in their performance within the same challenge, and no single method emerged as a clear winner across all sub-challenges. Finally, computational methods were able to effectively translate some specific stimuli and biological processes in the lung epithelial system, such as DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, translation, immune/inflammation and growth factor/proliferation pathways, better than the expected response similarity between species. pmeyerr@us.ibm.com or Julia

  10. Latino Community-Based Participatory Research Studies: A Model for Conducting Bilingual Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Escamilla, Julia; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Vega, Susan; Bolaños, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Many behavioral health materials have not been translated into Spanish. Of those that are available in Spanish, some of them have not been translated correctly, many are only appropriate for a subgroup of Latinos, and/or multiple versions of the same materials exist. This article describes an innovative model of conducting bilingual English–Spanish translations as part of community-based participatory research studies and provides recommendations based on this model. In this article, the traditional process of conducting bilingual translations is reviewed, and an innovative model for conducting translations in collaboration with community partners is described. Finally, recommendations for conducting future health research studies with community partners are provided. Researchers, health care providers, educators, and community partners will benefit from learning about this innovative model that helps produce materials that are more culturally appropriate than those that are produced with the most commonly used method of conducting translations. PMID:25741929

  11. Chapter three: methodology of exposure modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moschandreas, DJ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available not be the most important pathway of exposure for all pollutants, it is considered the one of major concern for exposure to PM. Related concepts, such as dose, will not be addressed in this chapter. The National Academy of Sciences suggests the fol- lowing model... over time. Other exposure expressions are used to estimate exposures to pollutants in the in- gestion and dermal absorption pathways. Major variables of concern in the estimation of ex- posure, Eq. (2), are the concentration of PM and its constituents...

  12. A Methodology for Phased Array Radar Threshold Modeling Using the Advanced Propagation Model (APM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3079 October 2017 A Methodology for Phased Array Radar Threshold Modeling Using the Advanced Propagation Model (APM...Head 55190 Networks Division iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report summarizes the methodology developed to improve the radar threshold modeling...PHASED ARRAY RADAR CONFIGURATION ..................................................................... 1 3. METHODOLOGY

  13. Class-Based Language Modeling for Translating into Morphologically Rich Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisazza, A.; Monz, C.

    2014-01-01

    Class-based language modeling (LM) is a long-studied and effective approach to overcome data sparsity in the context of n-gram model training. In statistical machine translation (SMT), differ- ent forms of class-based LMs have been shown to improve baseline translation quality when used in

  14. Suitability of Modern Software Development Methodologies for Model Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Picek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to today’s growing challenges in software industry, wide spectrum of new approaches of software development has occurred. One prominent direction is currently most promising software development paradigm called Model Driven Development (MDD. Despite a lot of skepticism and problems, MDD paradigm is being used and improved to accomplish many inherent potential benefits. In the methodological approach of software development it is necessary to use some kind of development process. Modern methodologies can be classified into two main categories: formal or heavyweight and agile or lightweight. But when it is a question about MDD and development process for MDD, currently known methodologies are very poor or better said they don't have any explanation of MDD process. As the result of research, in this paper, author examines the possibilities of using existing modern software methodologies in context of MDD paradigm.

  15. Translating the foundational model of anatomy into french using knowledge-based and lexical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merabti Tayeb

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA is the reference ontology regarding human anatomy. FMA vocabulary was integrated into the Health Multi Terminological Portal (HMTP developed by CISMeF based on the CISMeF Information System which also includes 26 other terminologies and controlled vocabularies, mainly in French. However, FMA is primarily in English. In this context, the translation of FMA English terms into French could also be useful for searching and indexing French anatomy resources. Various studies have investigated automatic methods to assist the translation of medical terminologies or create multilingual medical vocabularies. The goal of this study was to facilitate the translation of FMA vocabulary into French. Methods We compare two types of approaches to translate the FMA terms into French. The first one is UMLS-based on the conceptual information of the UMLS metathesaurus. The second method is lexically-based on several Natural Language Processing (NLP tools. Results The UMLS-based approach produced a translation of 3,661 FMA terms into French whereas the lexical approach produced a translation of 3,129 FMA terms into French. A qualitative evaluation was made on 100 FMA terms translated by each method. For the UMLS-based approach, among the 100 translations, 52% were manually rated as "very good" and only 7% translations as "bad". For the lexical approach, among the 100 translations, 47% were rated as "very good" and 20% translations as "bad". Conclusions Overall, a low rate of translations were demonstrated by the two methods. The two approaches permitted us to semi-automatically translate 3,776 FMA terms from English into French, this was to added to the existing 10,844 French FMA terms in the HMTP (4,436 FMA French terms and 6,408 FMA terms manually translated.

  16. Modeling workflow to design machine translation applications for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Brownstein, Megumu K; Cole, Kate; Karasz, Hilary; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Provide a detailed understanding of the information workflow processes related to translating health promotion materials for limited English proficiency individuals in order to inform the design of context-driven machine translation (MT) tools for public health (PH). We applied a cognitive work analysis framework to investigate the translation information workflow processes of two large health departments in Washington State. Researchers conducted interviews, performed a task analysis, and validated results with PH professionals to model translation workflow and identify functional requirements for a translation system for PH. The study resulted in a detailed description of work related to translation of PH materials, an information workflow diagram, and a description of attitudes towards MT technology. We identified a number of themes that hold design implications for incorporating MT in PH translation practice. A PH translation tool prototype was designed based on these findings. This study underscores the importance of understanding the work context and information workflow for which systems will be designed. Based on themes and translation information workflow processes, we identified key design guidelines for incorporating MT into PH translation work. Primary amongst these is that MT should be followed by human review for translations to be of high quality and for the technology to be adopted into practice. The time and costs of creating multilingual health promotion materials are barriers to translation. PH personnel were interested in MT's potential to improve access to low-cost translated PH materials, but expressed concerns about ensuring quality. We outline design considerations and a potential machine translation tool to best fit MT systems into PH practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  18. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ). In this paper we propose two simple procedures to assist modelers with integrating these assumptions into their models, thereby allowing for a more complete translation into DLs....

  19. From theoretical model to practical use: an example of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Carsten Munch; Brynildsen, Grethe; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard; Larsen, Karin; Reierson, Inger Åse; Sommer, Irene; Stenholt, Britta

    2013-10-01

    To present a case of knowledge translation in nursing education and practice and discusses mechanisms relevant to bringing knowledge into action. The process of knowledge translation aspires to close the gap between theory and practice. Knowledge translation is a cyclic process involving both the creation and application of knowledge in several phases. The case presented in this paper is the translation of the Model of Practical Skill Performance into education and practice. Advantages and problems with the use of this model and its adaptation and tailoring to local contexts illustrate the cyclic and iterative process of knowledge translation. The cultivation of a three-sided relationship between researchers, educators, and clinical nurses was a major asset in driving the process of knowledge translation. The knowledge translation process gained momentum by replacing passive diffusion strategies with interaction and teamwork between stakeholders. The use of knowledge creates feedback that might have consequences for the refinement and tailoring of that same knowledge itself. With end-users in mind, several heuristics were used by the research group to increase clarity of the model and to tailor the implementation of knowledge to the users. This article illustrates the need for enduring collaboration between stakeholders to promote the process of knowledge translation. Translation of research knowledge into practice is a time-consuming process that is enhanced when appropriate support is given by leaders in the involved facilities. Knowledge translation is a time-consuming and collaborative endeavour. On the basis of our experience we advocate the implementation and use of a conceptual framework for the entire process of knowledge translation. More descriptions of knowledge translation in the nursing discipline are needed to inspire and advise in this process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  1. A Translational Model of Research-Practice Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Wolfe, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research–practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research–practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research–practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PMID:22642522

  2. Validating agent oriented methodology (AOM) for netlogo modelling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaiShiang, Cheah; Nissom, Shane; YeeWai, Sim; Sharbini, Hamizan

    2017-10-01

    AOM (Agent Oriented Modeling) is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent oriented software development. AOM methodology was proposed to aid developers with the introduction of technique, terminology, notation and guideline during agent systems development. Although AOM methodology is claimed to be capable of developing a complex real world system, its potential is yet to be realized and recognized by the mainstream software community and the adoption of AOM is still at its infancy. Among the reason is that there are not much case studies or success story of AOM. This paper presents two case studies on the adoption of AOM for individual based modelling and simulation. It demonstrate how the AOM is useful for epidemiology study and ecological study. Hence, it further validate the AOM in a qualitative manner.

  3. Comparison of Methods for Modeling a Hydraulic Loader Crane With Flexible Translational Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben O.; Nielsen, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    not hold for translational links. Hence, special care has to be taken when including flexible translational links. In the current paper, different methods for modeling a hydraulic loader crane with a telescopic arm are investigated and compared using both the finite segment (FS) and AMs method...

  4. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  5. Efficient accurate syntactic direct translation models: one tree at a time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, H.; Sima'an, K.; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    A challenging aspect of Statistical Machine Translation from Arabic to English lies in bringing the Arabic source morpho-syntax to bear on the lexical as well as word-order choices of the English target string. In this article, we extend the feature-rich discriminative Direct Translation Model 2

  6. Methodology of modeling fiber reinforcement in concrete elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper’s focus is on the modeling methodology of (steel) fiber reinforcement in concrete. The orthogonal values of fiber efficiency are presented. Bulk as well as boundary situations are covered. Fiber structure is assumed due to external compaction by vibration to display a partially linear

  7. Methodology of modeling and measuring computer architectures for plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. P. T.

    1977-01-01

    A brief introduction to plasma simulation using computers and the difficulties on currently available computers is given. Through the use of an analyzing and measuring methodology - SARA, the control flow and data flow of a particle simulation model REM2-1/2D are exemplified. After recursive refinements the total execution time may be greatly shortened and a fully parallel data flow can be obtained. From this data flow, a matched computer architecture or organization could be configured to achieve the computation bound of an application problem. A sequential type simulation model, an array/pipeline type simulation model, and a fully parallel simulation model of a code REM2-1/2D are proposed and analyzed. This methodology can be applied to other application problems which have implicitly parallel nature.

  8. Quality Assessment of Persian Translation of English Pharmaceutical Leaflets Based on House’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Zekri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to evaluate the quality of Persian translation of drug leaflets. The researchers randomly selected a set of 30 pharmaceutical leaflets collected between March-August, 2015. The leaflets were analyzed based on House’s functional-pragmatic model of translation quality assessment. At first, the profiles of both source texts and target texts were collected. Then, their overtly and covertly erroneous errors and the kinds of strategies used by the translators in translating the pharmaceutical leaflets into Persian were identified. The results indicate that out of 90 selected sentences of English leaflets, 47 were overtly erroneous and 43 were error-free. These overtly erroneous translations had 27 instances of “mistranslation”, 15 instances of “grammatical mistakes”, six instances of “addition”, six instances of “omission” and four instances of “substitution”. The only covert error was “tenor mismatch” in all sample sentences. The study findings can help teachers in translation studies to improve the quality of students’ translation. Moreover, awareness of the errors in the current leaflet translations can assist students in performing their future jobs as translators. The findings may directly and indirectly affect the health of patients in an efficient and effective way.

  9. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  10. Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfring, Jos; Appeldoorn, Rein; van den Dries, Sjoerd; Kwakkernaat, Maurice

    2016-10-11

    The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle's surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.

  11. Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Elfring

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle’s surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.

  12. Machine Translation as a Model for Overcoming Some Common Errors in English-into-Arabic Translation among EFL University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Adel I.; Naeem, Marwa A.

    2016-01-01

    This research work aimed at making use of Machine Translation to help students avoid some syntactic, semantic and pragmatic common errors in translation from English into Arabic. Participants were a hundred and five freshmen who studied the "Translation Common Errors Remedial Program" prepared by the researchers. A testing kit that…

  13. Organizational information assets classification model and security architecture methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Tamtaji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today's, Organizations are exposed with huge and diversity of information and information assets that are produced in different systems shuch as KMS, financial and accounting systems, official and industrial automation sysytems and so on and protection of these information is necessary. Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released.several benefits of this model cuses that organization has a great trend to implementing Cloud computing. Maintaining and management of information security is the main challenges in developing and accepting of this model. In this paper, at first, according to "design science research methodology" and compatible with "design process at information systems research", a complete categorization of organizational assets, including 355 different types of information assets in 7 groups and 3 level, is presented to managers be able to plan corresponding security controls according to importance of each groups. Then, for directing of organization to architect it’s information security in cloud computing environment, appropriate methodology is presented. Presented cloud computing security architecture , resulted proposed methodology, and presented classification model according to Delphi method and expers comments discussed and verified.

  14. A generic method for automatic translation between input models for different versions of simulation codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    A computer code was developed for the semi-automatic translation of input models for the VSOP-A diffusion neutronics simulation code to the format of the newer VSOP 99/05 code. In this paper, this algorithm is presented as a generic method for producing codes for the automatic translation of input models from the format of one code version to another, or even to that of a completely different code. Normally, such translations are done manually. However, input model files, such as for the VSOP codes, often are very large and may consist of many thousands of numeric entries that make no particular sense to the human eye. Therefore the task, of for instance nuclear regulators, to verify the accuracy of such translated files can be very difficult and cumbersome. This may cause translation errors not to be picked up, which may have disastrous consequences later on when a reactor with such a faulty design is built. Therefore a generic algorithm for producing such automatic translation codes may ease the translation and verification process to a great extent. It will also remove human error from the process, which may significantly enhance the accuracy and reliability of the process. The developed algorithm also automatically creates a verification log file which permanently record the names and values of each variable used, as well as the list of meanings of all the possible values. This should greatly facilitate reactor licensing applications

  15. Object-oriented regression for building predictive models with high dimensional omics data from translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Bolouri, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Maturing omics technologies enable researchers to generate high dimension omics data (HDOD) routinely in translational clinical studies. In the field of oncology, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provided funding support to researchers to generate different types of omics data on a common set of biospecimens with accompanying clinical data and has made the data available for the research community to mine. One important application, and the focus of this manuscript, is to build predictive models for prognostic outcomes based on HDOD. To complement prevailing regression-based approaches, we propose to use an object-oriented regression (OOR) methodology to identify exemplars specified by HDOD patterns and to assess their associations with prognostic outcome. Through computing patient's similarities to these exemplars, the OOR-based predictive model produces a risk estimate using a patient's HDOD. The primary advantages of OOR are twofold: reducing the penalty of high dimensionality and retaining the interpretability to clinical practitioners. To illustrate its utility, we apply OOR to gene expression data from non-small cell lung cancer patients in TCGA and build a predictive model for prognostic survivorship among stage I patients, i.e., we stratify these patients by their prognostic survival risks beyond histological classifications. Identification of these high-risk patients helps oncologists to develop effective treatment protocols and post-treatment disease management plans. Using the TCGA data, the total sample is divided into training and validation data sets. After building up a predictive model in the training set, we compute risk scores from the predictive model, and validate associations of risk scores with prognostic outcome in the validation data (P-value=0.015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    objective is to attack the boost phase of ballistic missiles using the Airborne Weapons Layer concept (AWL) (Corbett, 2013) and ( Rood , Chilton, Campbell...and analysis techniques used in this research. Chapter 4 provides analysis of the simulation model to illustrate the methodology in Chapter 3 and to... techniques , and procedures. The purpose of our research is to study the use of a new missile system within an air combat environment. Therefore, the

  17. Teaching methodology for modeling reference evapotranspiration with artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Pau; Pulido Calvo, Inmaculada; Gutiérrez Estrada, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Artificial neural networks are a robust alternative to conventional models for estimating different targets in irrigation engineering, among others, reference evapotranspiration, a key variable for estimating crop water requirements. This paper presents a didactic methodology for introducing students in the application of artificial neural networks for reference evapotranspiration estimation using MatLab c . Apart from learning a specific application of this software wi...

  18. Mixed-mode modelling mixing methodologies for organisational intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Steve; Lehaney, Brian

    2001-01-01

    The 1980s and 1990s have seen a growing interest in research and practice in the use of methodologies within problem contexts characterised by a primary focus on technology, human issues, or power. During the last five to ten years, this has given rise to challenges regarding the ability of a single methodology to address all such contexts, and the consequent development of approaches which aim to mix methodologies within a single problem situation. This has been particularly so where the situation has called for a mix of technological (the so-called 'hard') and human­ centred (so-called 'soft') methods. The approach developed has been termed mixed-mode modelling. The area of mixed-mode modelling is relatively new, with the phrase being coined approximately four years ago by Brian Lehaney in a keynote paper published at the 1996 Annual Conference of the UK Operational Research Society. Mixed-mode modelling, as suggested above, is a new way of considering problem situations faced by organisations. Traditional...

  19. Efficient Embedded Decoding of Neural Network Language Models in a Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Castro-Bleda, Maria Jose

    2018-02-22

    Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) are a successful approach to Natural Language Processing tasks, such as Machine Translation. We introduce in this work a Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) system which fully integrates NNLMs in the decoding stage, breaking the traditional approach based on [Formula: see text]-best list rescoring. The neural net models (both language models (LMs) and translation models) are fully coupled in the decoding stage, allowing to more strongly influence the translation quality. Computational issues were solved by using a novel idea based on memorization and smoothing of the softmax constants to avoid their computation, which introduces a trade-off between LM quality and computational cost. These ideas were studied in a machine translation task with different combinations of neural networks used both as translation models and as target LMs, comparing phrase-based and [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems, showing that the integrated approach seems more promising for [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems, even with nonfull-quality NNLMs.

  20. A generalized methodology to characterize composite materials for pyrolysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark B.

    The predictive capabilities of computational fire models have improved in recent years such that models have become an integral part of many research efforts. Models improve the understanding of the fire risk of materials and may decrease the number of expensive experiments required to assess the fire hazard of a specific material or designed space. A critical component of a predictive fire model is the pyrolysis sub-model that provides a mathematical representation of the rate of gaseous fuel production from condensed phase fuels given a heat flux incident to the material surface. The modern, comprehensive pyrolysis sub-models that are common today require the definition of many model parameters to accurately represent the physical description of materials that are ubiquitous in the built environment. Coupled with the increase in the number of parameters required to accurately represent the pyrolysis of materials is the increasing prevalence in the built environment of engineered composite materials that have never been measured or modeled. The motivation behind this project is to develop a systematic, generalized methodology to determine the requisite parameters to generate pyrolysis models with predictive capabilities for layered composite materials that are common in industrial and commercial applications. This methodology has been applied to four common composites in this work that exhibit a range of material structures and component materials. The methodology utilizes a multi-scale experimental approach in which each test is designed to isolate and determine a specific subset of the parameters required to define a material in the model. Data collected in simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry experiments were analyzed to determine the reaction kinetics, thermodynamic properties, and energetics of decomposition for each component of the composite. Data collected in microscale combustion calorimetry experiments were analyzed to

  1. Generalized equilibrium modeling: the methodology of the SRI-Gulf energy model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazalet, E.G.

    1977-05-01

    The report provides documentation of the generalized equilibrium modeling methodology underlying the SRI-Gulf Energy Model and focuses entirely on the philosophical, mathematical, and computational aspects of the methodology. The model is a highly detailed regional and dynamic model of the supply and demand for energy in the US. The introduction emphasized the need to focus modeling efforts on decisions and the coordinated decomposition of complex decision problems using iterative methods. The conceptual framework is followed by a description of the structure of the current SRI-Gulf model and a detailed development of the process relations that comprise the model. The network iteration algorithm used to compute a solution to the model is described and the overall methodology is compared with other modeling methodologies. 26 references.

  2. Methodology and Results of Mathematical Modelling of Complex Technological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.

    2018-03-01

    The methodology of system analysis allows us to draw a mathematical model of the complex technological process. The mathematical description of the plasma-chemical process was proposed. The importance the quenching rate and initial temperature decrease time was confirmed for producing the maximum amount of the target product. The results of numerical integration of the system of differential equations can be used to describe reagent concentrations, plasma jet rate and temperature in order to achieve optimal mode of hardening. Such models are applicable both for solving control problems and predicting future states of sophisticated technological systems.

  3. Genome-Scale Analysis of Translation Elongation with a Ribosome Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilijson, Isaac; Kupiec, Martin; Ruppin, Eytan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first large scale analysis of gene translation that is based on a model that takes into account the physical and dynamical nature of this process. The Ribosomal Flow Model (RFM) predicts fundamental features of the translation process, including translation rates, protein abundance levels, ribosomal densities and the relation between all these variables, better than alternative (‘non-physical’) approaches. In addition, we show that the RFM can be used for accurate inference of various other quantities including genes' initiation rates and translation costs. These quantities could not be inferred by previous predictors. We find that increasing the number of available ribosomes (or equivalently the initiation rate) increases the genomic translation rate and the mean ribosome density only up to a certain point, beyond which both saturate. Strikingly, assuming that the translation system is tuned to work at the pre-saturation point maximizes the predictive power of the model with respect to experimental data. This result suggests that in all organisms that were analyzed (from bacteria to Human), the global initiation rate is optimized to attain the pre-saturation point. The fact that similar results were not observed for heterologous genes indicates that this feature is under selection. Remarkably, the gap between the performance of the RFM and alternative predictors is strikingly large in the case of heterologous genes, testifying to the model's promising biotechnological value in predicting the abundance of heterologous proteins before expressing them in the desired host. PMID:21909250

  4. A methodology for overall consequence modeling in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment in chemical process industry is a very important issue for safeguarding human and the ecosystem from damages caused to them. Consequence assessment is an integral part of risk assessment. However, the commonly used consequence estimation methods involve time-consuming complex mathematical models and simple assimilation of losses without considering all the consequence factors. This lead to the deterioration of quality of estimated risk value. So, the consequence modeling has to be performed in detail considering all major losses with optimal time to improve the decisive value of risk. The losses can be broadly categorized into production loss, assets loss, human health and safety loss, and environment loss. In this paper, a conceptual framework is developed to assess the overall consequence considering all the important components of major losses. Secondly, a methodology is developed for the calculation of all the major losses, which are normalized to yield the overall consequence. Finally, as an illustration, the proposed methodology is applied to a case study plant involving benzene extraction. The case study result using the proposed consequence assessment scheme is compared with that from the existing methodologies.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  6. 3D Modeling of Mechanical Transmissions for Base Translation of an Industrial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin-Octavian Miclosină

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 2 chained mechanical transmissions used to obtainthe base translation of an industrial robot: worm - worm gear transmission and motion screw - nut transmission. The kinematicalscheme, the 3D models of the main parts of the mechanicaltransmissions and the 3D assembly model are shown. For modeling,CATIA V5 software was used.

  7. Predictive biophysical modeling and understanding of the dynamics of mRNA translation and its evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Hadas; Tuller, Tamir

    2016-01-01

    mRNA translation is the fundamental process of decoding the information encoded in mRNA molecules by the ribosome for the synthesis of proteins. The centrality of this process in various biomedical disciplines such as cell biology, evolution and biotechnology, encouraged the development of dozens of mathematical and computational models of translation in recent years. These models aimed at capturing various biophysical aspects of the process. The objective of this review is to survey these models, focusing on those based and/or validated on real large-scale genomic data. We consider aspects such as the complexity of the models, the biophysical aspects they regard and the predictions they may provide. Furthermore, we survey the central systems biology discoveries reported on their basis. This review demonstrates the fundamental advantages of employing computational biophysical translation models in general, and discusses the relative advantages of the different approaches and the challenges in the field. PMID:27591251

  8. Broken Time Translation Symmetry as a Model for Quantum State Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper van Wezel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The symmetries that govern the laws of nature can be spontaneously broken, enabling the occurrence of ordered states. Crystals arise from the breaking of translation symmetry, magnets from broken spin rotation symmetry and massive particles break a phase rotation symmetry. Time translation symmetry can be spontaneously broken in exactly the same way. The order associated with this form of spontaneous symmetry breaking is characterised by the emergence of quantum state reduction: systems which spontaneously break time translation symmetry act as ideal measurement machines. In this review the breaking of time translation symmetry is first compared to that of other symmetries such as spatial translations and rotations. It is then discussed how broken time translation symmetry gives rise to the process of quantum state reduction and how it generates a pointer basis, Born’s rule, etc. After a comparison between this model and alternative approaches to the problem of quantum state reduction, the experimental implications and possible tests of broken time translation symmetry in realistic experimental settings are discussed.

  9. Modern methodology and applications in spatial-temporal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a modern introductory tutorial on specialized methodological and applied aspects of spatial and temporal modeling. The areas covered involve a range of topics which reflect the diversity of this domain of research across a number of quantitative disciplines. For instance, the first chapter deals with non-parametric Bayesian inference via a recently developed framework known as kernel mean embedding which has had a significant influence in machine learning disciplines. The second chapter takes up non-parametric statistical methods for spatial field reconstruction and exceedance probability estimation based on Gaussian process-based models in the context of wireless sensor network data. The third chapter presents signal-processing methods applied to acoustic mood analysis based on music signal analysis. The fourth chapter covers models that are applicable to time series modeling in the domain of speech and language processing. This includes aspects of factor analysis, independent component an...

  10. Logic flowgraph methodology - A tool for modeling embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, C. T.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The logic flowgraph methodology (LFM), a method for modeling hardware in terms of its process parameters, has been extended to form an analytical tool for the analysis of integrated (hardware/software) embedded systems. In the software part of a given embedded system model, timing and the control flow among different software components are modeled by augmenting LFM with modified Petrinet structures. The objective of the use of such an augmented LFM model is to uncover possible errors and the potential for unanticipated software/hardware interactions. This is done by backtracking through the augmented LFM mode according to established procedures which allow the semiautomated construction of fault trees for any chosen state of the embedded system (top event). These fault trees, in turn, produce the possible combinations of lower-level states (events) that may lead to the top event.

  11. Methodology and preliminary models for analyzing nuclear-safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, B.R.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-11-01

    This report describes a general analytical tool designed with Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in making nuclear safeguards decisions. The approach is based on decision analysis - a quantitative procedure for making decisions under uncertain conditions. The report: describes illustrative models that quantify the probability and consequences of diverted special nuclear material and the costs of safeguarding the material; demonstrates a methodology for using this information to set safeguards regulations (safeguards criteria); and summarizes insights gained in a very preliminary assessment of a hypothetical reprocessing plant

  12. Methodology and preliminary models for analyzing nuclear safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This report describes a general analytical tool designed to assist the NRC in making nuclear safeguards decisions. The approach is based on decision analysis--a quantitative procedure for making decisions under uncertain conditions. The report: describes illustrative models that quantify the probability and consequences of diverted special nuclear material and the costs of safeguarding the material, demonstrates a methodology for using this information to set safeguards regulations (safeguards criteria), and summarizes insights gained in a very preliminary assessment of a hypothetical reprocessing plant

  13. Methodology and basic algorithms of the Livermore Economic Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.B.

    1981-03-17

    The methodology and the basic pricing algorithms used in the Livermore Economic Modeling System (EMS) are described. The report explains the derivations of the EMS equations in detail; however, it could also serve as a general introduction to the modeling system. A brief but comprehensive explanation of what EMS is and does, and how it does it is presented. The second part examines the basic pricing algorithms currently implemented in EMS. Each algorithm's function is analyzed and a detailed derivation of the actual mathematical expressions used to implement the algorithm is presented. EMS is an evolving modeling system; improvements in existing algorithms are constantly under development and new submodels are being introduced. A snapshot of the standard version of EMS is provided and areas currently under study and development are considered briefly.

  14. Lexical ambiguity resolution for Turkish in direct transfer machine translation models

    OpenAIRE

    Tantuğ, A. Cüneyd; Tantug, A. Cuneyd; Oflazer, Kemal; Adalı, Eşref; Adali, Esref

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical lexical ambiguity resolution method in direct transfer machine translation models in which the target language is Turkish. Since direct transfer MT models do not have full syntactic information, most of the lexical ambiguity resolution methods are not very helpful. Our disambiguation model is based on statistical language models. We have investigated the performances of some statistical language model types and parameters in lexical ambiguity resolution for o...

  15. A validated, transitional and translational porcine model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Schwind, Regina M.; Darfour-Oduro, Kwame A.; De, Arun K.; Rund, Lauretta A.; Singh, Kuldeep; Principe, Daniel R.; Guzman, Grace; Ray, Charles E.; Ozer, Howard; Gaba, Ron C.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2017-01-01

    Difficult questions are confronting clinicians attempting to improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes. A large animal model with genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans is required to transition from mouse models to human clinical trials to address unmet clinical

  16. The Navigation Guide systematic review methodology: a rigorous and transparent method for translating environmental health science into better health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J; Sutton, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    Synthesizing what is known about the environmental drivers of health is instrumental to taking prevention-oriented action. Methods of research synthesis commonly used in environmental health lag behind systematic review methods developed in the clinical sciences over the past 20 years. We sought to develop a proof of concept of the "Navigation Guide," a systematic and transparent method of research synthesis in environmental health. The Navigation Guide methodology builds on best practices in research synthesis in evidence-based medicine and environmental health. Key points of departure from current methods of expert-based narrative review prevalent in environmental health include a prespecified protocol, standardized and transparent documentation including expert judgment, a comprehensive search strategy, assessment of "risk of bias," and separation of the science from values and preferences. Key points of departure from evidence-based medicine include assigning a "moderate" quality rating to human observational studies and combining diverse evidence streams. The Navigation Guide methodology is a systematic and rigorous approach to research synthesis that has been developed to reduce bias and maximize transparency in the evaluation of environmental health information. Although novel aspects of the method will require further development and validation, our findings demonstrated that improved methods of research synthesis under development at the National Toxicology Program and under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are fully achievable. The institutionalization of robust methods of systematic and transparent review would provide a concrete mechanism for linking science to timely action to prevent harm.

  17. Modeling collective animal behavior with a cognitive perspective: a methodological framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weitz

    Full Text Available The last decades have seen an increasing interest in modeling collective animal behavior. Some studies try to reproduce as accurately as possible the collective dynamics and patterns observed in several animal groups with biologically plausible, individual behavioral rules. The objective is then essentially to demonstrate that the observed collective features may be the result of self-organizing processes involving quite simple individual behaviors. Other studies concentrate on the objective of establishing or enriching links between collective behavior researches and cognitive or physiological ones, which then requires that each individual rule be carefully validated. Here we discuss the methodological consequences of this additional requirement. Using the example of corpse clustering in ants, we first illustrate that it may be impossible to discriminate among alternative individual rules by considering only observational data collected at the group level. Six individual behavioral models are described: They are clearly distinct in terms of individual behaviors, they all reproduce satisfactorily the collective dynamics and distribution patterns observed in experiments, and we show theoretically that it is strictly impossible to discriminate two of these models even in the limit of an infinite amount of data whatever the accuracy level. A set of methodological steps are then listed and discussed as practical ways to partially overcome this problem. They involve complementary experimental protocols specifically designed to address the behavioral rules successively, conserving group-level data for the overall model validation. In this context, we highlight the importance of maintaining a sharp distinction between model enunciation, with explicit references to validated biological concepts, and formal translation of these concepts in terms of quantitative state variables and fittable functional dependences. Illustrative examples are provided of the

  18. Methodology Using MELCOR Code to Model Proposed Hazard Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin Hawkley

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrates a methodology for using the MELCOR code to model a proposed hazard scenario within a building containing radioactive powder, and the subsequent evaluation of a leak path factor (LPF) (or the amount of respirable material which that escapes a facility into the outside environment), implicit in the scenario. This LPF evaluation will analyzes the basis and applicability of an assumed standard multiplication of 0.5 × 0.5 (in which 0.5 represents the amount of material assumed to leave one area and enter another), for calculating an LPF value. The outside release is dependsent upon the ventilation/filtration system, both filtered and un-filtered, and from other pathways from the building, such as doorways (, both open and closed). This study is presents ed to show how the multiple leak path factorsLPFs from the interior building can be evaluated in a combinatory process in which a total leak path factorLPF is calculated, thus addressing the assumed multiplication, and allowing for the designation and assessment of a respirable source term (ST) for later consequence analysis, in which: the propagation of material released into the environmental atmosphere can be modeled and the dose received by a receptor placed downwind can be estimated and the distance adjusted to maintains such exposures as low as reasonably achievableALARA.. Also, this study will briefly addresses particle characteristics thatwhich affect atmospheric particle dispersion, and compares this dispersion with leak path factorLPF methodology.

  19. Testing the validity of a translated pharmaceutical therapy-related quality of life instrument, using qualitative 'think aloud' methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, T; Kettis Lindblad, A; Tully, M P

    2008-06-01

    In pharmacy practice, there is a need for valid and reliable instruments to study patient-reported outcomes. One potential candidate is a pharmaceutical therapy-related quality of life (PTRQoL) instrument. This study explored the face and content validity, including cognitive aspects of question answering of a PTRQoL instrument, translated from English to Swedish. A sample of 16 customers at Swedish community pharmacies, was asked to fill in the PTRQoL instrument while constantly reporting how they reasoned. The resulting interviews and concurrent probing, were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using constant comparison method. The relation between the measurement and its theoretical underpinning was challenged. Respondents neglected to read the instructions, used response options in an unpredictable way, and varied in their interpretations of the items. The combination of 'think-aloud', retrospective probing and qualitative analysis informed on the validity of the PTRQoL instrument and was valuable in questionnaire development. The study also identified specific problems that could be relevant for other instruments probing patients' medicines-related attitudes and behaviour.

  20. Translating the MAM model of psychosis to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Allen, Paul; Grace, Anthony A; McGuire, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Elevated dopamine function and alterations in medial temporal lobe (MTL) structure and function are two of the most robust findings in schizophrenia, but how interactions between these abnormalities underlie the onset of psychosis is unclear. The methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model proposes that psychosis develops as a result of a perturbation of MTL function, leading to elevated striatal dopamine dysfunction. Here, we review several recent neuroimaging studies that examine components of the putative model in humans with an ultra high risk (UHR) of the psychosis. While data from these studies are broadly consistent with the MAM model, caution is required when comparing data across animal and human studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MoPCoM Methodology: Focus on Models of Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudri, Ali; Champeau, Joël; Le Lann, Jean-Christophe; Leilde, Vincent

    Today, developments of Real Time Embedded Systems have to face new challenges. On the one hand, Time-To-Market constraints require a reliable development process allowing quick design space exploration. On the other hand, rapidly developing technology, as stated by Moore's law, requires techniques to handle the resulting productivity gap. In a previous paper, we have presented our Model Based Engineering methodology addressing those issues. In this paper, we make a focus on Models of Computation design and analysis. We illustrate our approach on a Cognitive Radio System development implemented on an FPGA. This work is part of the MoPCoM research project gathering academic and industrial organizations (http://www.mopcom.fr).

  2. A methodology for modeling barrier island storm-impact scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Rangley C.; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Dalyander, P. Soupy

    2017-02-16

    A methodology for developing a representative set of storm scenarios based on historical wave buoy and tide gauge data for a region at the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The total water level was calculated for a 10-year period and analyzed against existing topographic data to identify when storm-induced wave action would affect island morphology. These events were categorized on the basis of the threshold of total water level and duration to create a set of storm scenarios that were simulated, using a high-fidelity, process-based, morphologic evolution model, on an idealized digital elevation model of the Chandeleur Islands. The simulated morphological changes resulting from these scenarios provide a range of impacts that can help coastal managers determine resiliency of proposed or existing coastal structures and identify vulnerable areas within those structures.

  3. A ROADMAP FOR GENERATING SEMANTICALLY ENRICHED BUILDING MODELS ACCORDING TO CITYGML MODEL VIA TWO DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Floros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies of 3D modeling techniques have increasingly increased due to the rapid advances of new technologies. Nowadays, the focus of 3D modeling software is focused, not only to the finest visualization of the models, but also in their semantic features during the modeling procedure. As a result, the models thus generated are both realistic and semantically enriched. Additionally, various extensions of modeling software allow for the immediate conversion of the model’s format, via semi-automatic procedures with respect to the user’s scope. The aim of this paper is to investigate the generation of a semantically enriched Citygml building model via two different methodologies. The first methodology includes the modeling in Trimble SketchUp and the transformation in FME Desktop Manager, while the second methodology includes the model’s generation in CityEngine and its transformation in the CityGML format via the 3DCitiesProject extension for ArcGIS. Finally, the two aforesaid methodologies are being compared and specific characteristics are evaluated, in order to infer the methodology that is best applied depending on the different projects’ purposes.

  4. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  5. Current Translational Research and Murine Models For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Merryl; Echigoya, Yusuke; Fukada, So-ichiro; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration. Mutations in the DMD gene result in the absence of dystrophin, a protein required for muscle strength and stability. Currently, there is no cure for DMD. Since murine models are relatively easy to genetically manipulate, cost effective, and easily reproducible due to their short generation time, they have helped to elucidate the pathobiology of dystrophin deficiency and to assess therapies for treating DMD. Recently, several murine models have been developed by our group and others to be more representative of the human DMD mutation types and phenotypes. For instance, mdx mice on a DBA/2 genetic background, developed by Fukada et al., have lower regenerative capacity and exhibit very severe phenotype. Cmah-deficient mdx mice display an accelerated disease onset and severe cardiac phenotype due to differences in glycosylation between humans and mice. Other novel murine models include mdx52, which harbors a deletion mutation in exon 52, a hot spot region in humans, and dystrophin/utrophin double-deficient (dko), which displays a severe dystrophic phenotype due the absence of utrophin, a dystrophin homolog. This paper reviews the pathological manifestations and recent therapeutic developments in murine models of DMD such as standard mdx (C57BL/10), mdx on C57BL/6 background (C57BL/6-mdx), mdx52, dystrophin/utrophin double-deficient (dko), mdxβgeo, Dmd-null, humanized DMD (hDMD), mdx on DBA/2 background (DBA/2-mdx), Cmah-mdx, and mdx/mTRKO murine models. PMID:27854202

  6. Translational Perspectives for Computational Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas E; Iglesias, Sandra; Heinzle, Jakob; Diaconescu, Andreea O

    2015-08-19

    Functional neuroimaging has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of brain function. It remains challenging, however, to translate these advances into diagnostic tools for psychiatry. Promising new avenues for translation are provided by computational modeling of neuroimaging data. This article reviews contemporary frameworks for computational neuroimaging, with a focus on forward models linking unobservable brain states to measurements. These approaches-biophysical network models, generative models, and model-based fMRI analyses of neuromodulation-strive to move beyond statistical characterizations and toward mechanistic explanations of neuroimaging data. Focusing on schizophrenia as a paradigmatic spectrum disease, we review applications of these models to psychiatric questions, identify methodological challenges, and highlight trends of convergence among computational neuroimaging approaches. We conclude by outlining a translational neuromodeling strategy, highlighting the importance of openly available datasets from prospective patient studies for evaluating the clinical utility of computational models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the Quality of Persian Translation of Kite Runner based on House’s (2014 Functional Pragmatic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Kargarzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation quality assessment is at the heart of any theory of translation. It is used in the academic or teaching contexts to judge translations, to discuss their merits and demerits and to suggest solutions. However, literary translations needs more consideration in terms of quality and clarity as it is widely read form of translation. In this respect, Persian literary translation of Kite Runner was taken for investigation based on House’s (2014 functional pragmatic model of translation quality assessment. To this end, around 100 pages from the beginning of both English and Persian versions of the novel were selected and compared. Using House’s model, the profile of the source text register was created and the genre was recognized. The source text profile was compared to the translation text profile. The results were minute mismatches in field, tenor, and mode which accounted for as overt erroneous expressions and leading matches which were accounted for as covert translation. The mismatches were some mistranslations of tenses and selection of inappropriate meanings for the lexicon. Since the informal and culture specific terms were transferred thoroughly, the culture filter was not applied. Besides, as the translation was a covert one. The findings of the study have implications for translators, researchers and translator trainers.

  8. Spatial Development Modeling Methodology Application Possibilities in Vilnius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Panavaitė

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the continued development of high-rise buildings and their irreversible visual impact on the overall silhouette of the city, the great cities of the world introduced new methodological principles to city’s spatial development models. These methodologies and spatial planning guidelines are focused not only on the controlled development of high-rise buildings, but on the spatial modelling of the whole city by defining main development criteria and estimating possible consequences. Vilnius city is no exception, however the re-establishment of independence of Lithuania caused uncontrolled urbanization process, so most of the city development regulations emerged as a consequence of unmanaged processes of investors’ expectations legalization. The importance of consistent urban fabric as well as conservation and representation of city’s most important objects gained attention only when an actual threat of overshadowing them with new architecture along with unmanaged urbanization in the city center or urban sprawl at suburbia, caused by land-use projects, had emerged. Current Vilnius’ spatial planning documents clearly define urban structure and key development principles, however the definitions are relatively abstract, causing uniform building coverage requirements for territories with distinct qualities and simplifying planar designs which do not meet quality standards. The overall quality of urban architecture is not regulated. The article deals with current spatial modeling methods, their individual parts, principles, the criteria for quality assessment and their applicability in Vilnius. The text contains an outline of possible building coverage regulations and impact assessment criteria for new development. The article contains a compendium of requirements for high-quality spatial planning and building design.

  9. Barley: a translational model for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Powell, Wayne; Steffenson, Brian; Thomas, William T B; Waugh, Robbie

    2015-05-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) is an excellent model for understanding agricultural responses to climate change. Its initial domestication over 10 millennia ago and subsequent wide migration provide striking evidence of adaptation to different environments, agro-ecologies and uses. A bottleneck in the selection of modern varieties has resulted in a reduction in total genetic diversity and a loss of specific alleles relevant to climate-smart agriculture. However, extensive and well-curated collections of landraces, wild barley accessions (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and other Hordeum species exist and are important new allele sources. A wide range of genomic and analytical tools have entered the public domain for exploring and capturing this variation, and specialized populations, mutant stocks and transgenics facilitate the connection between genetic diversity and heritable phenotypes. These lay the biological, technological and informational foundations for developing climate-resilient crops tailored to specific environments that are supported by extensive environmental and geographical databases, new methods for climate modelling and trait/environment association analyses, and decentralized participatory improvement methods. Case studies of important climate-related traits and their constituent genes - including examples that are indicative of the complexities involved in designing appropriate responses - are presented, and key developments for the future highlighted. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Fractional Order Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence - A More Accurate Modeling Methodology for Aero Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.

  11. Translational model to predict pulmonary pharmacokinetics and efficacy in man for inhaled bronchodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Ramon; Lamm Bergström, Eva; Janzén, David L I; Fridén, Markus; Eriksson, Ulf; Grime, Ken; Ferguson, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Translational pharmacokinetic (PK) models are needed to describe and predict drug concentration-time profiles in lung tissue at the site of action to enable animal-to-man translation and prediction of efficacy in humans for inhaled medicines. Current pulmonary PK models are generally descriptive rather than predictive, drug/compound specific, and fail to show successful cross-species translation. The objective of this work was to develop a robust compartmental modeling approach that captures key features of lung and systemic PK after pulmonary administration of a set of 12 soluble drugs containing single basic, dibasic, or cationic functional groups. The model is shown to allow translation between animal species and predicts drug concentrations in human lungs that correlate with the forced expiratory volume for different classes of bronchodilators. Thus, the pulmonary modeling approach has potential to be a key component in the prediction of human PK, efficacy, and safety for future inhaled medicines. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  12. Patient-derived Xenograft (PDX) Models In Basic and Translational Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Airhart, Susie D.; Alferez, Denis G.; Aparicio, Samuel; Behbod, Fariba; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Brisken, Cathrin; Bult, Carol J.; Cai, Shirong; Clarke, Robert B.; Dowst, Heidi; Ellis, Matthew J.; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Iggo, Richard D.; Kabos, Peter; Li, Shunqiang; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Marangoni, Elisabetta; McCoy, Aaron; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Poupon, Marie-France; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Sartorius, Carol A.; Scabia, Valentina; Sflomos, George; Tu, Yizheng; Vaillant, François; Visvader, Jane E.; Welm, Alana; Wicha, Max S.

    2017-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of a growing spectrum of cancers are rapidly supplanting long-established traditional cell lines as preferred models for conducting basic and translational pre-clinical research. In breast cancer, to complement the now curated collection of approximately 45 long-established human breast cancer cell lines, a newly formed consortium of academic laboratories, currently from Europe, Australia, and North America, herein summarizes data on over 500 stably transplantable PDX models representing all three clinical subtypes of breast cancer (ER+, HER2+, and “Triple-negative” (TNBC)). Many of these models are well-characterized with respect to genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic features, metastatic behavior, and treatment response to a variety of standard-of-care and experimental therapeutics. These stably transplantable PDX lines are generally available for dissemination to laboratories conducting translational research, and contact information for each collection is provided. This review summarizes current experiences related to PDX generation across participating groups, efforts to develop data standards for annotation and dissemination of patient clinical information that does not compromise patient privacy, efforts to develop complementary data standards for annotation of PDX characteristics and biology, and progress toward “credentialing” of PDX models as surrogates to represent individual patients for use in pre-clinical and co-clinical translational research. In addition, this review highlights important unresolved questions, as well as current limitations, that have hampered more efficient generation of PDX lines and more rapid adoption of PDX use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:28025748

  13. Translating and transforming (a) CALL for leadership for learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Elvi; Bjerg, Helle

    2015-01-01

    "The paper pursues the argument that the process of translation is not solely a linguistic exercise. It also implies methodological and conceptual questions related to the translation and as such transformation of general and theoretical research based models of leadership for learning into recog...... into recognizable features of specific leadership practices in shifting contexts..." (Udfordringer ved oversættelse af koncepter fra en kultur til en anden)......"The paper pursues the argument that the process of translation is not solely a linguistic exercise. It also implies methodological and conceptual questions related to the translation and as such transformation of general and theoretical research based models of leadership for learning...

  14. Developing the Business Model – a Methodology for Virtual Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a methodology to develop Virtual Enterprises (VEs). This Virtual Enterprise Methodology (VEM) outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises. As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for, and setting...

  15. OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sladek, Ruth M

    2013-07-02

    PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed's unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms ('textwords'), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed's unique heart failure literature. We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter's MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as 'textwords'). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this 'lost set'. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed's unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter's performance in this database. The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed

  16. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2014-09-01

    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  17. What Does It Mean to Be Pragmatic? Pragmatic Methods, Measures, and Models to Facilitate Research Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the reasons for the slow and uncertain translation of research into practice is likely due to the emphasis in science on explanatory models and efficacy designs rather than more pragmatic approaches. Methods: Following a brief definition of what constitutes a pragmatic approach, I provide examples of pragmatic methods, measures,…

  18. Improvement of preclinical animal models for autoimmune-mediated disorders via reverse translation of failed therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.; Jagessar, S. Anwar; Kap, Yolanda S.; Haanstra, Krista G.; Philippens, Ingrid H. C. H. M.; Serguera, Che; Langermans, Jan; Vierboom, Michel

    The poor translational validity of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease (AIMID) models in inbred and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents underlies the high attrition of new treatments for the corresponding human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used

  19. Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

  20. Masked translation priming asymmetry in Chinese-English bilinguals: making sense of the Sense Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Violet; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Masked translation priming asymmetry is the robust finding that priming from a bilingual's first language (L1) to their second language (L2) is stronger than priming from L2 to L1. This asymmetry has been claimed to be task dependent. The Sense Model proposed by Finkbeiner, Forster, Nicol, and Nakamura (2004) claims that the asymmetry is reduced in semantic categorization relative to lexical decision due to a category filtering mechanism that limits the features considered in categorization decisions to dominant, category-relevant features. This paper reports two pairs of semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks designed to test the Sense Model's predictions. The experiments replicated the finding of Finkbeiner et al. that L2-L1 priming is somewhat stronger in semantic categorization than lexical decision, selectively for exemplars of the category. However, the direct comparison of L2-L1 and L1-L2 translation priming across tasks failed to confirm the Sense Model's central prediction that translation priming asymmetry is significantly reduced in semantic categorization. The data therefore fail to support the category filtering account of translation priming asymmetry. Rather, they suggest that pre-activation of conceptual features of the target category provides feedback to lexical forms that compensates for the weak connections between the lexical and conceptual representations of L2 words.

  1. Spectral and scattering theory for translation invariant models in quantum field theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    This thesis is concerned with a large class of massive translation invariant models in quantum field theory, including the Nelson model and the Fröhlich polaron. The models in the class describe a matter particle, e.g. a nucleon or an electron, linearly coupled to a second quantised massive scalar...... field e.g. describing mesons or phonons. The models are given by three inputs: - the dispersion relation for the matter particle, - the dispersion relation for the field particle, and - the (UV cut-off) coupling function. The assumptions imposed on , and are rather weak and are satisfied...... by the physically relevant choices. The translation invariance implies that the Hamiltonian may be decomposed into a direct integral over the space of total momentum where the fixed momentum fiber Hamiltonians are given by , where denotes total momentum and is the Segal field operator. The fiber Hamiltonians...

  2. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  3. A Monte Carlo methodology for modelling ashfall hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Tony; Smith, Warwick

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a methodology for quantifying the probability of particular thicknesses of tephra at any given site, using Monte Carlo methods. This is a part of the development of a probabilistic volcanic hazard model (PVHM) for New Zealand, for hazards planning and insurance purposes. We use an established program (ASHFALL) to model individual eruptions, where the likely thickness of ash deposited at selected sites depends on the location of the volcano, eruptive volume, column height and ash size, and the wind conditions. A Monte Carlo procedure allows us to simulate the variations in eruptive volume and in wind conditions by analysing repeat eruptions, each time allowing the parameters to vary randomly according to known or assumed distributions. Actual wind velocity profiles are used, with randomness included by selection of a starting date. This method can handle the effects of multiple volcanic sources, each source with its own characteristics. We accumulate the tephra thicknesses from all sources to estimate the combined ashfall hazard, expressed as the frequency with which any given depth of tephra is likely to be deposited at selected sites. These numbers are expressed as annual probabilities or as mean return periods. We can also use this method for obtaining an estimate of how often and how large the eruptions from a particular volcano have been. Results from sediment cores in Auckland give useful bounds for the likely total volumes erupted from Egmont Volcano (Mt. Taranaki), 280 km away, during the last 130,000 years.

  4. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  5. Development of a General Modelling Methodology for Vacuum Residue Hydroconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Oliveira L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the development of a methodology for kinetic modelling of refining processes, and more specifically for vacuum residue conversion. The proposed approach allows to overcome the lack of molecular detail of the petroleum fractions and to simulate the transformation of the feedstock molecules into effluent molecules by means of a two-step procedure. In the first step, a synthetic mixture of molecules representing the feedstock for the process is generated via a molecular reconstruction method, termed SR-REM molecular reconstruction. In the second step, a kinetic Monte-Carlo method (kMC is used to simulate the conversion reactions on this mixture of molecules. The molecular reconstruction was applied to several petroleum residues and is illustrated for an Athabasca (Canada vacuum residue. The kinetic Monte-Carlo method is then described in detail. In order to validate this stochastic approach, a lumped deterministic model for vacuum residue conversion was simulated using Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm. Despite the fact that both approaches are based on very different hypotheses, the stochastic simulation algorithm simulates the conversion reactions with the same accuracy as the deterministic approach. The full-scale stochastic simulation approach using molecular-level reaction pathways provides high amounts of detail on the effluent composition and is briefly illustrated for Athabasca VR hydrocracking.

  6. Development and translational imaging of a TP53 porcine tumorigenesis model

    OpenAIRE

    Sieren, Jessica C.; Meyerholz, David K.; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Davis, Bryan T.; Newell, John D.; Hammond, Emily; Rohret, Judy A.; Rohret, Frank A.; Struzynski, Jason T.; Goeken, J. Adam; Naumann, Paul W.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Taghiyev, Agshin; Van Rheeden, Richard; Hagen, Jussara

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second deadliest disease in the United States, necessitating improvements in tumor diagnosis and treatment. Current model systems of cancer are informative, but translating promising imaging approaches and therapies to clinical practice has been challenging. In particular, the lack of a large-animal model that accurately mimics human cancer has been a major barrier to the development of effective diagnostic tools along with surgical and therapeutic interventions. Here, we develo...

  7. Methodology for assessing electric vehicle charging infrastructure business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madina, Carlos; Zamora, Inmaculada; Zabala, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of economic implications of innovative business models in networked environments, as electro-mobility is, requires a global approach to ensure that all the involved actors obtain a benefit. Although electric vehicles (EVs) provide benefits for the society as a whole, there are a number of hurdles for their widespread adoption, mainly the high investment cost for the EV and for the infrastructure. Therefore, a sound business model must be built up for charging service operators, which allows them to recover their costs while, at the same time, offer EV users a charging price which makes electro-mobility comparable to internal combustion engine vehicles. For that purpose, three scenarios are defined, which present different EV charging alternatives, in terms of charging power and charging station ownership and accessibility. A case study is presented for each scenario and the required charging station usage to have a profitable business model is calculated. We demonstrate that private home charging is likely to be the preferred option for EV users who can charge at home, as it offers a lower total cost of ownership under certain conditions, even today. On the contrary, finding a profitable business case for fast charging requires more intensive infrastructure usage. - Highlights: • Ecosystem is a network of actors who collaborate to create a positive business case. • Electro-mobility (electricity-powered road vehicles and ICT) is a complex ecosystem. • Methodological analysis to ensure that all actors benefit from electro-mobility. • Economic analysis of charging infrastructure deployment linked to its usage. • Comparison of EV ownership cost vs. ICE for vehicle users.

  8. Respiratory nanoparticle-based vaccines and challenges associated with animal models and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2015-12-10

    Vaccine development has had a huge impact on human health. However, there is a significant need to develop efficacious vaccines for several existing as well as emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Several challenges need to be overcome to develop efficacious vaccines with translational potential. This review focuses on two aspects to overcome some barriers - 1) the development of nanoparticle-based vaccines, and 2) the choice of suitable animal models for respiratory infectious diseases that will allow for translation. Nanoparticle-based vaccines, including subunit vaccines involving synthetic and/or natural polymeric adjuvants and carriers, as well as those based on virus-like particles offer several key advantages to help overcome the barriers to effective vaccine development. These include the ability to deliver combinations of antigens, target the vaccine formulation to specific immune cells, enable cross-protection against divergent strains, act as adjuvants or immunomodulators, allow for sustained release of antigen, enable single dose delivery, and potentially obviate the cold chain. While mouse models have provided several important insights into the mechanisms of infectious diseases, they are often a limiting step in translation of new vaccines to the clinic. An overview of different animal models involved in vaccine research for respiratory infections, with advantages and disadvantages of each model, is discussed. Taken together, advances in nanotechnology, combined with the right animal models for evaluating vaccine efficacy, has the potential to revolutionize vaccine development for respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling myocardial infarction in mice: methodology, monitoring, pathomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsepyan, A A; Panchenkov, D N; Prokhortchouk, E B; Telegin, G B; Zhigalova, N A; Golubev, E P; Sviridova, T E; Matskeplishvili, S T; Skryabin, K G; Buziashvili, U I

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is one of the most serious and widespread diseases in the world. In this work, a minimally invasive method for simulating myocardial infarction in mice is described in the Russian Federation for the very first time; the procedure is carried out by ligation of the coronary heart artery or by controlled electrocoagulation. As a part of the methodology, a series of anesthetic, microsurgical and revival protocols are designed, owing to which a decrease in the postoperational mortality from the initial 94.6 to 13.6% is achieved. ECG confirms the development of large-focal or surface myocardial infarction. Postmortal histological examination confirms the presence of necrosis foci in the heart muscles of 87.5% of animals. Altogether, the medical data allow us to conclude that an adequate mouse model for myocardial infarction was generated. A further study is focused on the standardization of the experimental procedure and the use of genetically modified mouse strains, with the purpose of finding the most efficient therapeutic approaches for this disease.

  10. A methodology model for quality management in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Z; Naveh, E

    1997-01-01

    A reappraisal is made of the relevance of industrial modes of quality management to the issues of medical care. Analysis of the nature of medical care, which differentiates it from the supplier-client relationships of industry, presents the main intrinsic characteristics, which create problems in application of the industrial quality management approaches to medical care. Several examples are the complexity of the relationship between the medical action and the result obtained, the client's nonacceptance of economic profitability as a value in his medical care, and customer satisfaction biased by variable standards of knowledge. The real problems unique to hospitals are addressed, and a methodology model for their quality management is offered. Included is a sample of indicator vectors, measurements of quality care, cost of medical care, quality of service, and human resources. These are based on the trilogy of planning quality, quality control, and improving quality. The conclusions confirm the inadequacy of industrial quality management approaches for medical institutions and recommend investment in formulation of appropriate concepts.

  11. Improvement of preclinical animal models for autoimmune-mediated disorders via reverse translation of failed therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart, Bert A; Jagessar, S Anwar; Kap, Yolanda S; Haanstra, Krista G; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Serguera, Che; Langermans, Jan; Vierboom, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The poor translational validity of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease (AIMID) models in inbred and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents underlies the high attrition of new treatments for the corresponding human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used preclinical AIMID model. We discuss here how crucial information needed for the innovation of current preclinical models can be obtained from postclinical analysis of the nonhuman primate EAE model, highlighting the mechanistic reasons why some therapies fail and others succeed. These new insights can also help identify new targets for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Connecting Brain Proteomics with Behavioural Neuroscience in Translational Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyai, Zoltán; Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Modelling psychiatric disorders in animals has been hindered by several challenges related to our poor understanding of the disease causes. This chapter describes recent advances in translational research which may lead to animal models and relevant proteomic biomarkers that can be informative about disease mechanisms and potential new therapeutic targets. The review focuses on the behavioural and molecular correlates in models of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, as guided by recently established Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). This approach is based on providing proteomic data for aetiologically driven, behaviourally well-characterised animal models to link discovered biomarker candidates with the human disease.

  13. a Psycholinguistic Model for Simultaneous Translation, and Proficiency Assessment by Automated Acoustic Analysis of Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Hussein M.

    Two separate but related issues are addressed: how simultaneous translation (ST) works on a cognitive level and how such translation can be objectively assessed. Both of these issues are discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large corpus of recordings of ST and shadowing. The proposed ST model utilises knowledge derived from a discourse analysis of the data, many accepted facts in the psychology tradition, and evidence from controlled experiments that are carried out here. This model has three advantages: (i) it is based on analyses of extended spontaneous speech rather than word-, syllable-, or clause -bound stimuli; (ii) it draws equally on linguistic and psychological knowledge; and (iii) it adopts a non-traditional view of language called 'the linguistic construction of reality'. The discourse-based knowledge is also used to develop three computerised systems for the assessment of simultaneous translation: one is a semi-automated system that treats the content of the translation; and two are fully automated, one of which is based on the time structure of the acoustic signals whilst the other is based on their cross-correlation. For each system, several parameters of performance are identified, and they are correlated with assessments rendered by the traditional, subjective, qualitative method. Using signal processing techniques, the acoustic analysis of discourse leads to the conclusion that quality in simultaneous translation can be assessed quantitatively with varying degrees of automation. It identifies as measures of performance (i) three content-based standards; (ii) four time management parameters that reflect the influence of the source on the target language time structure; and (iii) two types of acoustical signal coherence. Proficiency in ST is shown to be directly related to coherence and speech rate but inversely related to omission and delay. High proficiency is associated with a high degree of simultaneity and

  14. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McNamee

    Full Text Available This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures.

  15. High level models and methodologies for information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Isaias, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces methods and methodologies in Information Systems (IS) by presenting, describing, explaining, and illustrating their uses in various contexts, including website development, usability evaluation, quality evaluation, and success assessment.

  16. Low Resourced Machine Translation via Morpho-syntactic Modeling: The Case of Dialectal Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Alexander; Habash, Nizar; Taji, Dima; Bouamor, Houda

    2017-01-01

    We present the second ever evaluated Arabic dialect-to-dialect machine translation effort, and the first to leverage external resources beyond a small parallel corpus. The subject has not previously received serious attention due to lack of naturally occurring parallel data; yet its importance is evidenced by dialectal Arabic's wide usage and breadth of inter-dialect variation, comparable to that of Romance languages. Our results suggest that modeling morphology and syntax significantly impro...

  17. The marmoset monkey: a multi-purpose preclinical and translational model of human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart, Bert A; Abbott, David H; Nakamura, Katsuki; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2012-11-01

    The development of biologic molecules (monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, soluble receptors) as specific therapeutics for human disease creates a need for animal models in which safety and efficacy can be tested. Models in lower animal species are precluded when the reagents fail to recognize their targets, which is often the case in rats and mice. In this Feature article we will highlight the common marmoset, a small-bodied nonhuman primate (NHP), as a useful model in biomedical and preclinical translational research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on Uncertainty Quantification of Reflood Model using CIRCE Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seongsu; Hong, Soonjoon; Oh, Deogyeon; Bang, Youngseok

    2013-01-01

    The CIRCE method is intended to quantify the uncertainties of the correlations of a code. It may replace the expert judgment generally used. In this study, an uncertainty quantification of reflood model was performed using CIRCE methodology. In this paper, the application process of CIRCE methodology and main results are briefly described. This research is expected to be useful to improve the present audit calculation methodology, KINS-REM. In this study, an uncertainty quantification of reflood model was performed using CIRCE methodology. The application of CIRCE provided the satisfactory results. This research is expected to be useful to improve the present audit calculation methodology, KINS-REM

  19. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa-A Review of Confounders and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B; Seeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Rodents, in particular Mus musculus , have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models.

  20. Translational Rodent Models for Research on Parasitic Protozoa—A Review of Confounders and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Totta; Torelli, Francesca; Klotz, Christian; Pedersen, Amy B.; Seeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments. Frequently, mouse or rat models are chosen for convenience, e.g., availability in the institution rather than on an unbiased evaluation of whether they provide the answer to a given question. Apart from a general discussion on translational success or failure, we provide examples where infections with single-celled parasites in a chosen lab rodent gave contradictory or misleading results, and when possible discuss the reason for this. We present emerging alternatives to traditional rodent models, such as humanized mice and organoid primary cell cultures. So-called recombinant inbred strains such as the Collaborative Cross collection are also a potential solution for certain challenges. In addition, we emphasize the advantages of using wild rodents for certain immunological, ecological, and/or behavioral questions. The experimental challenges (e.g., availability of species-specific reagents) that come with the use of such non-model systems are also discussed. Our intention is to foster critical judgment of both traditional and newly available translational rodent models for research on parasitic protozoa that can complement the existing mouse and rat models. PMID:28638807

  1. Models in Translational Oncology: A Public Resource Database for Preclinical Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuschka, Claudia; Proynova, Rumyana; Roth, Benjamin; Augustin, Hellmut G; Müller-Decker, Karin

    2017-05-15

    The devastating diseases of human cancer are mimicked in basic and translational cancer research by a steadily increasing number of tumor models, a situation requiring a platform with standardized reports to share model data. Models in Translational Oncology (MiTO) database was developed as a unique Web platform aiming for a comprehensive overview of preclinical models covering genetically engineered organisms, models of transplantation, chemical/physical induction, or spontaneous development, reviewed here. MiTO serves data entry for metastasis profiles and interventions. Moreover, cell lines and animal lines including tool strains can be recorded. Hyperlinks for connection with other databases and file uploads as supplementary information are supported. Several communication tools are offered to facilitate exchange of information. Notably, intellectual property can be protected prior to publication by inventor-defined accessibility of any given model. Data recall is via a highly configurable keyword search. Genome editing is expected to result in changes of the spectrum of model organisms, a reason to open MiTO for species-independent data. Registered users may deposit own model fact sheets (FS). MiTO experts check them for plausibility. Independently, manually curated FS are provided to principle investigators for revision and publication. Importantly, noneditable versions of reviewed FS can be cited in peer-reviewed journals. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2557-63. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  3. Dynamical modeling of microRNA action on the protein translation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barillot Emmanuel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein translation is a multistep process which can be represented as a cascade of biochemical reactions (initiation, ribosome assembly, elongation, etc., the rate of which can be regulated by small non-coding microRNAs through multiple mechanisms. It remains unclear what mechanisms of microRNA action are the most dominant: moreover, many experimental reports deliver controversial messages on what is the concrete mechanism actually observed in the experiment. Nissan and Parker have recently demonstrated that it might be impossible to distinguish alternative biological hypotheses using the steady state data on the rate of protein synthesis. For their analysis they used two simple kinetic models of protein translation. Results In contrary to the study by Nissan and Parker, we show that dynamical data allow discriminating some of the mechanisms of microRNA action. We demonstrate this using the same models as developed by Nissan and Parker for the sake of comparison but the methods developed (asymptotology of biochemical networks can be used for other models. We formulate a hypothesis that the effect of microRNA action is measurable and observable only if it affects the dominant system (generalization of the limiting step notion for complex networks of the protein translation machinery. The dominant system can vary in different experimental conditions that can partially explain the existing controversy of some of the experimental data. Conclusions Our analysis of the transient protein translation dynamics shows that it gives enough information to verify or reject a hypothesis about a particular molecular mechanism of microRNA action on protein translation. For multiscale systems only that action of microRNA is distinguishable which affects the parameters of dominant system (critical parameters, or changes the dominant system itself. Dominant systems generalize and further develop the old and very popular idea of limiting step

  4. Reference Management Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Bingham, Ryan; Schmidt, Rick

    2011-01-01

    There have been many challenges associated with modeling some of NASA KSC's largest structures. Given the size of the welded structures here at KSC, it was critically important to properly organize model struc.ture and carefully manage references. Additionally, because of the amount of hardware to be installed on these structures, it was very important to have a means to coordinate between different design teams and organizations, check for interferences, produce consistent drawings, and allow for simple release processes. Facing these challenges, the modeling team developed a unique reference management methodology and model fidelity methodology. This presentation will describe the techniques and methodologies that were developed for these projects. The attendees will learn about KSC's reference management and model fidelity methodologies for large structures. The attendees will understand the goals of these methodologies. The attendees will appreciate the advantages of developing a reference management methodology.

  5. Filtering Reordering Table Using a Novel Recursive Autoencoder Model for Statistical Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In phrase-based machine translation (PBMT systems, the reordering table and phrase table are very large and redundant. Unlike most previous works which aim to filter phrase table, this paper proposes a novel deep neural network model to prune reordering table. We cast the task as a deep learning problem where we jointly train two models: a generative model to implement rule embedding and a discriminative model to classify rules. The main contribution of this paper is that we optimize the reordering model in PBMT by filtering reordering table using a recursive autoencoder model. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, we performed it on public corpus to measure its reordering ability. The experimental results show that our approach obtains high improvement in BLEU score with less scale of reordering table on two language pairs: English-Chinese (+0.28 and Uyghur-Chinese (+0.33 MT.

  6. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS PART II: DETAILED MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    There is significant interest in hydrogen storage systems that employ a media which either adsorbs, absorbs or reacts with hydrogen in a nearly reversible manner. In any media based storage system the rate of hydrogen uptake and the system capacity is governed by a number of complex, coupled physical processes. To design and evaluate such storage systems, a comprehensive methodology was developed, consisting of a hierarchical sequence of models that range from scoping calculations to numerical models that couple reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer for both the hydrogen charging and discharging phases. The scoping models were presented in Part I [1] of this two part series of papers. This paper describes a detailed numerical model that integrates the phenomena occurring when hydrogen is charged and discharged. A specific application of the methodology is made to a system using NaAlH{sub 4} as the storage media.

  8. Preclinical and Translational Studies in Small Ruminants (Sheep and Goat) as Models for Osteoporosis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Isabel R; Camassa, José A; Bordelo, João A; Babo, Pedro S; Viegas, Carlos A; Dourado, Nuno; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes research on the use of sheep and goats as large animal models of human osteoporosis for preclinical and translational studies. The most frequent osteoporotic sheep model used is the ovariectomized sheep with 12 months post-operatively or more and the combined treatment of ovariectomized sheep associated to calcium/vitamin D-deficient diet and glucocorticoid applications for 6 months, but other methods are also described, like pinealectomy or hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection in ovariectomized sheep. The goat model for osteoporosis research has been used in a very limited number of studies in osteoporosis research relative to sheep. These osteoporotic small ruminant models are applied for biomaterial research, bone augmentation, efficacy of implant fixation, fragility fracture-healing process improvement, or bone-defect repair studies in the osteopenic or osteoporotic bone. Sheep are a recognized large animal model for preclinical and translational studies in osteoporosis research and the goat to a lesser extent. Recently, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying induction of osteoporosis in glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomized aged sheep was clarified, being similar to what occurs in postmenopausal women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. It was also concluded that the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand was stimulated in the late progressive phase of the osteoporosis induced by steroids in sheep. The knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels of the induction of osteoporosis in small ruminants, if identical to humans, will allow in the future, the use of these animal models with greater confidence in the preclinical and translational studies for osteoporosis research.

  9. Multi-Group Maximum Entropy Model for Translational Non-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Vegnesh; Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current work is to describe a new model for flows in translational non- equilibrium. Starting from the statistical description of a gas proposed by Boltzmann, the model relies on a domain decomposition technique in velocity space. Using the maximum entropy principle, the logarithm of the distribution function in each velocity sub-domain (group) is expressed with a power series in molecular velocity. New governing equations are obtained using the method of weighted residuals by taking the velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation. The model is applied to a spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook1(BGK) model collision operator and the relaxation of an initial non-equilibrium distribution to a Maxwellian is studied using the model. In addition, numerical results obtained using the model for a 1D shock tube problem are also reported.

  10. OxLM: A Neural Language Modelling Framework for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open source implementation1 of a neural language model for machine translation. Neural language models deal with the problem of data sparsity by learning distributed representations for words in a continuous vector space. The language modelling probabilities are estimated by projecting a word's context in the same space as the word representations and by assigning probabilities proportional to the distance between the words and the context's projection. Neural language models are notoriously slow to train and test. Our framework is designed with scalability in mind and provides two optional techniques for reducing the computational cost: the so-called class decomposition trick and a training algorithm based on noise contrastive estimation. Our models may be extended to incorporate direct n-gram features to learn weights for every n-gram in the training data. Our framework comes with wrappers for the cdec and Moses translation toolkits, allowing our language models to be incorporated as normalized features in their decoders (inside the beam search.

  11. Translation invariance and antisymmetry in the theory of the nucleon optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.

    2017-06-01

    The first step in any formalism that aims to connect a many-nucleon theory of nucleon-nucleus scattering and the concept of an optical model potential in the sense pioneered by Feshbach is to explain what is meant by the optical model wave function. By definition, this is a function of a single space coordinate plus a set of single-nucleon internal variables. This article gives a critique of the definition as it is frequently expressed in second quantization language and suggests a new definition which is more consistent with the requirements of antisymmetry and translational invariance. A modification of the time-dependent Green's function formalism is suggested.

  12. Modeling the Cloud: Methodology for Cloud Computing Strategy and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    roadmap” 4. Leverage an enterprise architecture methodology, such as TOGAF and/or DODAF, to build integrated artifacts 5. Extend the business and...the Patriot Act. - 41 - Transition Planning - 42 - Transition Planning: Leveraging TOGAF Phases E, F, G &H: • Opportunities and Solutions

  13. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  14. Recent Advances in Translational Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Animal Models of Stress and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L. McIntosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a valuable translational tool that can be used to investigate alterations in brain structure and function in both patients and animal models of disease. Regional changes in brain structure, functional connectivity, and metabolite concentrations have been reported in depressed patients, giving insight into the networks and brain regions involved, however preclinical models are less well characterized. The development of more effective treatments depends upon animal models that best translate to the human condition and animal models may be exploited to assess the molecular and cellular alterations that accompany neuroimaging changes. Recent advances in preclinical imaging have facilitated significant developments within the field, particularly relating to high resolution structural imaging and resting-state functional imaging which are emerging techniques in clinical research. This review aims to bring together the current literature on preclinical neuroimaging in animal models of stress and depression, highlighting promising avenues of research toward understanding the pathological basis of this hugely prevalent disorder.

  15. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25414098

  16. Modeling the Encephalopathy of Prematurity in Animals: The Important Role of Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah C. Kinney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research in preterm brain injury depends upon the delineation of the human neuropathology in order that animal models faithfully reiterate it, thereby ensuring direct relevance to the human condition. The major substrate of human preterm brain injury is the encephalopathy of prematurity that is characterized by gray and white matter lesions reflecting combined acquired insults, altered developmental trajectories, and reparative phenomena. Here we highlight the key features of human preterm brain development and the encephalopathy of prematurity that are critical for modeling in animals. The complete mimicry of the complex human neuropathology is difficult in animal models. Many models focus upon mechanisms related to a specific feature, for example, loss of premyelinating oligodendrocytes in the cerebral white matter. Nevertheless, animal models that simultaneously address oligodendrocyte, neuronal, and axonal injury carry the potential to decipher shared mechanisms and synergistic treatments to ameliorate the global consequences of the encephalopathy of prematurity.

  17. Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Neuhauser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.

  18. Turkish translation and adaptation of Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for breast cancer mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Meryem; Sayin, Yazile Yazici

    2014-07-01

    To examine the translation and adaptation process from English to Turkish and the validity and reliability of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening. Its aim (1) is to provide data about and (2) to assess Turkish women's attitudes and behaviours towards mammography. The proportion of women who have mammography is lower in Turkey. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening-Turkish version can be helpful to determine Turkish women's health beliefs, particularly about mammography. Cross-sectional design was used to collect survey data from Turkish women: classical measurement method. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening was translated from English to Turkish. Again, it was back translated into English. Later, the meaning and clarity of the scale items were evaluated by a bilingual group representing the culture of the target population. Finally, the tool was evaluated by two bilingual professional researchers in terms of content validity, translation validity and psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability. The analysis included a total of 209 Turkish women. The validity of the scale was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity testing. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening aligned to four factors that were coherent and relatively independent of each other. There was a statistically significant relationship among all of the subscale items: the positive and high correlation of the total item test score and high Cronbach's α. The scale has a strong stability over time: the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening demonstrated acceptable preliminary values of reliability and validity. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening is both a reliable and valid instrument that can be useful in measuring the health beliefs of Turkish women. It can be used to provide data

  19. From an animal model to human patients: An example of a translational study on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2017-05-01

    The application of similar analyses enables a direct projection from translational research in animals to human studies. Following is an example of how the methodology of a specific animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was applied to study human patients. Specifically, the quinpirole rat model for OCD was based on analyzing the trajectories of travel among different locales, and scoring the set of acts performed at each locale. Applying this analytic approach in human patients unveiled various aspects of OCD, such as the repetition and addition of acts, incompleteness, and the link between behavior and specific locations. It is also illustrated how the same analytical approach could be applicable to studying other mental disorders. Finally, it is suggested that the development of OCD could be explained by the four-phase sequence of Repetition, Addition, Condensation, and Elimination, as outlined in the study of ontogeny and phylogeny and applied to normal development of behavior. In OCD, this sequence is curtailed, resulting in the abundant repetition and addition of acts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk Prediction Models for Incident Heart Failure: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Berhe W; Owen, Alice J; Chin, Ken Lee; Reid, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Numerous models predicting the risk of incident heart failure (HF) have been developed; however, evidence of their methodological rigor and reporting remains unclear. This study critically appraises the methods underpinning incident HF risk prediction models. EMBASE and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1990 and June 2016 that reported at least 1 multivariable model for prediction of HF. Model development information, including study design, variable coding, missing data, and predictor selection, was extracted. Nineteen studies reporting 40 risk prediction models were included. Existing models have acceptable discriminative ability (C-statistics > 0.70), although only 6 models were externally validated. Candidate variable selection was based on statistical significance from a univariate screening in 11 models, whereas it was unclear in 12 models. Continuous predictors were retained in 16 models, whereas it was unclear how continuous variables were handled in 16 models. Missing values were excluded in 19 of 23 models that reported missing data, and the number of events per variable was models. Only 2 models presented recommended regression equations. There was significant heterogeneity in discriminative ability of models with respect to age (P prediction models that had sufficient discriminative ability, although few are externally validated. Methods not recommended for the conduct and reporting of risk prediction modeling were frequently used, and resulting algorithms should be applied with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  2. Patient Derived Xenograft Models: An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinská, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Mælandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histological and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These models have been shown to be predictive of clinical outcomes and are being used for preclinical drug evaluation, biomarker identification, biological studies, and personalized medicine strategies. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in this field including methodological issues, available collections, practical applications, challenges and shortcoming, and future directions, and introduces a European consortium of PDX models. PMID:25185190

  3. Conception d'une methodologie generale d'evaluation de la traduction automatique (Conception of a General Methodology for Evaluating Machine Translation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slype, Georges

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that assessment of human translation versus machine translation programs use methods and criteria that measure efficiency and cost effectiveness and are efficient and cost-effective in themselves. A variety of methods and criteria are evaluated and discussed. (MSE)

  4. Automated Translation and Thermal Zoning of Digital Building Models for Energy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Nathaniel L. [Cornell University; McCrone, Colin J. [Cornell University; Walter, Bruce J. [Cornell University; Pratt, Kevin B. [Cornell University; Greenberg, Donald P. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy simulation is valuable during the early stages of design, when decisions can have the greatest impact on energy performance. However, preparing digital design models for building energy simulation typically requires tedious manual alteration. This paper describes a series of five automated steps to translate geometric data from an unzoned CAD model into a multi-zone building energy model. First, CAD input is interpreted as geometric surfaces with materials. Second, surface pairs defining walls of various thicknesses are identified. Third, normal directions of unpaired surfaces are determined. Fourth, space boundaries are defined. Fifth, optionally, settings from previous simulations are applied, and spaces are aggregated into a smaller number of thermal zones. Building energy models created quickly using this method can offer guidance throughout the design process.

  5. Fear Extinction as a Model for Translational Neuroscience: Ten Years of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by an unusual degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear extinction. This successful research program could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience. Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. PMID:22129456

  6. Probing the closed-loop model of mRNA translation in living cells

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Stuart K; Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Hallwirth, Claus V; Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA closed-loop, formed through interactions between the cap structure, poly(A) tail, eIF4E, eIF4G and PAB, features centrally in models of eukaryotic translation initiation, although direct support for its existence in vivo is not well established. Here, we investigated the closed-loop using a combination of mRNP isolation from rapidly cross-linked cells and high-throughput qPCR. Using the interaction between these factors and the opposing ends of mRNAs as a proxy for the closed-loop, w...

  7. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  8. The Web-Surf Task: A translational model of human decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; Breton, Yannick-André; Schmidt, Brandy; Redish, A David; MacDonald, Angus W

    2016-02-01

    Animal models of decision-making are some of the most highly regarded psychological process models; however, there remains a disconnection between how these models are used for pre-clinical applications and the resulting treatment outcomes. This may be due to untested assumptions that different species recruit the same neural or psychological mechanisms. We propose a novel human foraging paradigm (Web-Surf Task) that we translated from a rat foraging paradigm (Restaurant Row) to evaluate cross-species decision-making similarities. We examined behavioral parallels in human and non-human animals using the respective tasks. We also compared two variants of the human task, one using videos and the other using photos as rewards, by correlating revealed and stated preferences. We demonstrate similarities in choice behaviors and decision reaction times in human and rat subjects. Findings also indicate that videos yielded more reliable and valid results. The joint use of the Web-Surf Task and Restaurant Row is therefore a promising approach for functional translational research, aiming to bridge pre-clinical and clinical lines of research using analogous tasks.

  9. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  10. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  11. A methodology for the parametric modelling of the flow coefficients and flow rate in hydraulic valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdés, José R.; Rodríguez, José M.; Saumell, Javier; Pütz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a methodology for the parametric modelling of flow in hydraulic valves. • We characterize the flow coefficients with a generic function with two parameters. • The parameters are derived from CFD simulations of the generic geometry. • We apply the methodology to two cases from the automotive brake industry. • We validate by comparing with CFD results varying the original dimensions. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to develop a methodology for the parametric modelling of the flow rate in hydraulic valve systems. This methodology is based on the derivation, from CFD simulations, of the flow coefficient of the critical restrictions as a function of the Reynolds number, using a generalized square root function with two parameters. The methodology is then demonstrated by applying it to two completely different hydraulic systems: a brake master cylinder and an ABS valve. This type of parametric valve models facilitates their implementation in dynamic simulation models of complex hydraulic systems

  12. Chronic early life stress induced by limited bedding and nesting (LBN) material in rodents: critical considerations of methodology, outcomes and translational potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Claire-Dominique; Bath, Kevin G; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko; Larauche, Muriel; Lucassen, Paul J; Morris, Margaret J; Raineki, Charlis; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M; Taché, Yvette; Baram, Tallie Z

    2017-09-01

    The immediate and long-term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional, and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans. Here, we describe limited bedding and nesting (LBN) procedures, with models that produce altered maternal behavior ranging from fragmentation of care to maltreatment of infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss important issues related to the implementation of this chronic ELS procedure and to describe some of the most prominent endpoints and consequences, focusing on areas of convergence between laboratories. Effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, gut axis and metabolism are presented in addition to changes in cognitive and emotional functions. Interestingly, recent data have suggested a strong sex difference in some of the reported consequences of the LBN paradigm, with females being more resilient in general than males. As both the chronic and intermittent variants of the LBN procedure have profound consequences on the offspring with minimal external intervention from the investigator, this model is advantageous ecologically and has a large translational potential. In addition to the direct effect of ELS on neurodevelopmental outcomes, exposure to adverse early environments can also have intergenerational impacts on mental health and function in subsequent generation offspring. Thus, advancing our understanding of the effect of ELS on brain and behavioral development is of critical concern for the health and wellbeing of both the current

  13. Validation of multi-body modelling methodology for reconfigurable underwater robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.C.; Eidsvik, O. A.; Blanke, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of employing reconfigurable robots in an underwater setting. The main results presented is the experimental validation of a modelling methodology for a system consisting of N dynamically connected robots with heterogeneous dynamics. Two distinct types...... of experiments are performed, a series of hydrostatic free-decay tests and a series of open-loop trajectory tests. The results are compared to a simulation based on the modelling methodology. The modelling methodology shows promising results for usage with systems composed of reconfigurable underwater modules....... The purpose of the model is to enable design of control strategies for cooperative reconfigurable underwater systems....

  14. A methodology to support multidisciplinary model-based water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Kassahun, A.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Kargas, Th.; Gavardinas, C.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Quality assurance in model based water management is needed because of some frequently perceived shortcomings, e.g. a lack of mutual understanding between modelling team members, malpractice and a tendency of modellers to oversell model capabilities. Initiatives to support quality assurance focus on

  15. Modeling menopause: The utility of rodents in translational behavioral endocrinology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2016-05-01

    The human menopause transition and aging are each associated with an increase in a variety of health risk factors including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, sexual dysfunction, affective disorders, sleep disturbances, and cognitive decline. It is challenging to systematically evaluate the biological underpinnings associated with the menopause transition in the human population. For this reason, rodent models have been invaluable tools for studying the impact of gonadal hormone fluctuations and eventual decline on a variety of body systems. While it is essential to keep in mind that some of the mechanisms associated with aging and the transition into a reproductively senescent state can differ when translating from one species to another, animal models provide researchers with opportunities to gain a fundamental understanding of the key elements underlying reproduction and aging processes, paving the way to explore novel pathways for intervention associated with known health risks. Here, we discuss the utility of several rodent models used in the laboratory for translational menopause research, examining the benefits and drawbacks in helping us to better understand aging and the menopause transition in women. The rodent models discussed are ovary-intact, ovariectomy, and 4-vinylcylohexene diepoxide for the menopause transition. We then describe how these models may be implemented in the laboratory, particularly in the context of cognition. Ultimately, we aim to use these animal models to elucidate novel perspectives and interventions for maintaining a high quality of life in women, and to potentially prevent or postpone the onset of negative health consequences associated with these significant life changes during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling menopause: The utility of rodents in translational behavioral endocrinology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebele, Stephanie V.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    The human menopause transition and aging are each associated with an increase in a variety of health risk factors including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, sexual dysfunction, affective disorders, sleep disturbances, and cognitive decline. It is often challenging to systematically evaluate the biological underpinnings associated with the menopause transition in the human population. For this reason, rodent models have been invaluable tools for studying the impact of gonadal hormone fluctuations and eventual decline on a variety of body systems. While it is essential to keep in mind that some of the mechanisms associated with aging and the transition into a reproductively senescent state can differ when translating from one species to another, animal models provide researchers with opportunities to gain a fundamental understanding of the key elements underlying reproduction and aging processes, paving the way to explore novel pathways for intervention associated with known health risks. Here, we discuss the utility of several rodent models used in the laboratory for translational menopause research, examining the benefits and drawbacks in helping us to better understand aging and the menopause transition in women. The rodent models discussed are ovary-intact, ovariectomy, and 4-vinylcylohexene diepoxide for the menopause transition. We then describe how these models may be implemented in the laboratory, particularly in the context of cognition. Ultimately, we aim to use these animal models to elucidate novel perspectives and interventions for maintaining a high quality of life in women, and to potentially prevent or postpone the onset of negative health consequences associated with these significant life changes during aging. PMID:27013283

  17. BRIDG: a domain information model for translational and clinical protocol-driven research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Hastak, Smita; Ver Hoef, Wendy; Milius, Robert P; Slack, MaryAnn; Wold, Diane; Glickman, Michael L; Brodsky, Boris; Jaffe, Charles; Kush, Rebecca; Helton, Edward

    2017-09-01

    It is critical to integrate and analyze data from biological, translational, and clinical studies with data from health systems; however, electronic artifacts are stored in thousands of disparate systems that are often unable to readily exchange data. To facilitate meaningful data exchange, a model that presents a common understanding of biomedical research concepts and their relationships with health care semantics is required. The Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) domain information model fulfills this need. Software systems created from BRIDG have shared meaning "baked in," enabling interoperability among disparate systems. For nearly 10 years, the Clinical Data Standards Interchange Consortium, the National Cancer Institute, the US Food and Drug Administration, and Health Level 7 International have been key stakeholders in developing BRIDG. BRIDG is an open-source Unified Modeling Language-class model developed through use cases and harmonization with other models. With its 4+ releases, BRIDG includes clinical and now translational research concepts in its Common, Protocol Representation, Study Conduct, Adverse Events, Regulatory, Statistical Analysis, Experiment, Biospecimen, and Molecular Biology subdomains. The model is a Clinical Data Standards Interchange Consortium, Health Level 7 International, and International Standards Organization standard that has been utilized in national and international standards-based software development projects. It will continue to mature and evolve in the areas of clinical imaging, pathology, ontology, and vocabulary support. BRIDG 4.1.1 and prior releases are freely available at https://bridgmodel.nci.nih.gov . © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Translational relevance of rodent models of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and stressors in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M. McCormick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny. This review focuses on benefits and challenges of rats as a model for translational research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA function and stressors in adolescence, highlighting important parallels and contrasts between adolescent rats and humans, and we review the main stress procedures that are used in investigating HPA stress responses and their consequences in adolescence in rats. We conclude that a greater focus on timing of puberty as a factor in research in adolescent rats may increase the translational relevance of the findings.

  19. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  20. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations.

  1. A methodology for constructing the calculation model of scientific spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de M.; Wielemaker, J.; Schreiber, G.; Wielinga, B.; Top, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Spreadsheets models are frequently used by scientists to analyze research data. These models are typically described in a paper or a report, which serves as single source of information on the underlying research project. As the calculation workflow in these models is not made explicit, readers are

  2. Synthesis of semantic modelling and risk analysis methodology applied to animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Edwards, S.A.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Algers, B.

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making on animal welfare issues requires a synthesis of information. For the assessment of farm animal welfare based on scientific information collected in a database, a methodology called `semantic modelling¿ has been developed. To date, however, this methodology has not been generally

  3. An interactive boundary layer modelling methodology for aerodynamic flows

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available -of-boundary layer flow, with the inviscid flow approximation: Continuity 0= ∂ ∂ j j u x ρ (1) Conservation of momentum (Newton’s second law) ( ) ( )             ∂ ∂ − ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ += ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ ij k k i j j i j i i ji j i...-integral boundary layer solutions to a generic inviscid solver in an iterative fashion. Design/methodology/approach –The boundary layer solution is obtained using the two-integral method to solve displacement thickness point by point with a local Newton method...

  4. Epilepsy Therapy Development: Technical and Methodological Issues in Studies with Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Kokaia, Merab; Loeb, Jeffrey A.; Nehlig, Astrid; Pitkänen, Asla; Rogawski, Michael A.; Staley, Kevin J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Dudek, F. Edward

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The search for new treatments for seizures, epilepsies and their comorbidities faces considerable challenges. Partly, this is due to gaps in our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of most forms of epilepsy. An additional challenge is the difficulty to predict the efficacy, tolerability and impact of potential new treatments on epilepsies and comorbidities in humans, using the available resources. Here we provide a summary of the discussions and proposals of the Working Group 2 as presented in the Joint American Epilepsy Society and International League Against Epilepsy Translational Workshop in London (September 2012). We propose methodological and reporting practices that will enhance the uniformity, reliability and reporting of early stage preclinical studies with animal seizure and epilepsy models that aim to develop and evaluate new therapies for seizures or epilepsies, using multi-disciplinary approaches. The topics considered include: (a) implementation of better study design and reporting practices, (b) incorporation in the study design and analysis of covariants that may impact outcomes (including species, age, sex), (c) utilization of approaches to document target relevance, exposure and engagement by the tested treatment, (d) utilization of clinically relevant treatment protocols, (e) optimization of the use of video-EEG recordings to best meet the study goals, and (f) inclusion of outcome measures that address the tolerability of the treatment or study endpoints apart from seizures. We further discuss the different expectations for studies aiming to meet regulatory requirements to obtain approval for clinical testing in humans. Implementation of the rigorous practices discussed in this report will require considerable investment in time, funds and other research resources, which may create challenges for academic researchers seeking to contribute to epilepsy therapy discovery and development. We propose several infrastructure

  5. MODEL AND METHOD FOR SYNTHESIS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY WITH FUZZY INPUT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. KONONENKO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Literature analysis concerning the selection or creation a project management methodology is performed. Creating a "complete" methodology is proposed which can be applied to managing projects with any complexity, various degrees of responsibility for results and different predictability of the requirements. For the formation of a "complete" methodology, it is proposed to take the PMBOK standard as the basis, which would be supplemented by processes of the most demanding plan driven and flexible Agile Methodologies. For each knowledge area of the PMBOK standard, The following groups of processes should be provided: initiation, planning, execution, reporting, and forecasting, controlling, analysis, decision making and closing. The method for generating a methodology for the specific project is presented. The multiple criteria mathematical model and method aredeveloped for the synthesis of methodology when initial data about the project and its environment are fuzzy.

  6. Efficiency of Iranian Translation Syllabus at BA Level; Deficiency: A New Comprehensive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Sarah; Rahimi, Ramin; Arjmandi, Masoume

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the practicality of the current curriculum for translation studies at national level (Iranian curriculum). It is going to have a comprehensive idea of translation students and teachers (university lecturers) over the current translation syllabus at BA level in Iran. A researcher-made CEQ questionnaire (Curriculum…

  7. Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

    2009-08-31

    Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future

  8. Array of translational systems pharmacodynamic models of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Mager, Donald E

    2016-12-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that is characterized by an uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Drug development in oncology is particularly challenging and is associated with one of the highest attrition rates of compounds despite substantial investments in resources. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling seeks to couple experimental data with mathematical models to provide key insights into factors controlling cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutics and cancer progression. PK/PD modeling of anti-cancer compounds is equally challenging, partly based on the complexity of biological and pharmacological systems. However, reliable mechanistic and systems PK/PD models for anti-cancer agents have been developed and successfully applied to: (1) provide insights into fundamental mechanisms implicated in tumor growth, (2) assist in dose selection for first-in-human phase I studies (e.g., effective dose, escalating doses, and maximal tolerated doses), (3) design and optimize combination drug regimens, (4) design clinical trials, and (5) establish links between drug efficacy and safety and the concentrations of measured biomarkers. In this commentary, classes of relevant mechanism-based and systems PK/PD models of anti-cancer agents that have shown promise in translating preclinical data and enhancing stages of the drug development process are reviewed. Specific features of such models are discussed including their strengths and limitations along with a prospectus of using these models alone or in combination for cancer therapy.

  9. Bootstrap data methodology for sequential hybrid model building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, Allan J. (Inventor); Brotherton, Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for modeling engine operation comprising the steps of: 1. collecting a first plurality of sensory data, 2. partitioning a flight envelope into a plurality of sub-regions, 3. assigning the first plurality of sensory data into the plurality of sub-regions, 4. generating an empirical model of at least one of the plurality of sub-regions, 5. generating a statistical summary model for at least one of the plurality of sub-regions, 6. collecting an additional plurality of sensory data, 7. partitioning the second plurality of sensory data into the plurality of sub-regions, 8. generating a plurality of pseudo-data using the empirical model, and 9. concatenating the plurality of pseudo-data and the additional plurality of sensory data to generate an updated empirical model and an updated statistical summary model for at least one of the plurality of sub-regions.

  10. Proposal for product development model focused on ce certification methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.

  11. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  12. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, H. P.; Agoram, B.; Davies, M. R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  13. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Terminology and methodology in modelling for water quality management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Vanrolleghem, P.; Rauch, W.

    1997-01-01

    of the most widely used terms for characterising models and within the process of model building. It is essential to the ever growing society of researchers within water quality management, that communication is eased by establishing a common terminology. This should not be done by giving broader definitions......There is a widespread need for a common terminology in modelling for water quality management. This paper points out sources of confusion in the communication between researchers due to misuse of existing terminology or use of unclear terminology. The paper attempts to clarify the context...

  15. Introducing the Interactive Model for the Training of Audiovisual Translators and Analysis of Multimodal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Luigi Iaia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This paper introduces the ‘Interactive Model’ of audiovisual translation developed in the context of my PhD research on the cognitive-semantic, functional and socio-cultural features of the Italian-dubbing translation of a corpus of humorous texts. The Model is based on two interactive macro-phases – ‘Multimodal Critical Analysis of Scripts’ (MuCrAS and ‘Multimodal Re-Textualization of Scripts’ (MuReTS. Its construction and application are justified by a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and translation of audiovisual texts, so as to focus on the linguistic and extralinguistic dimensions affecting both the reception of source texts and the production of target ones (Chaume 2004; Díaz Cintas 2004. By resorting to Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough 1995, 2001, to a process-based approach to translation and to a socio-semiotic analysis of multimodal texts (van Leeuwen 2004; Kress and van Leeuwen 2006, the Model is meant to be applied to the training of audiovisual translators and discourse analysts in order to help them enquire into the levels of pragmalinguistic equivalence between the source and the target versions. Finally, a practical application shall be discussed, detailing the Italian rendering of a comic sketch from the American late-night talk show Conan.Abstract – Questo studio introduce il ‘Modello Interattivo’ di traduzione audiovisiva sviluppato durante il mio dottorato di ricerca incentrato sulle caratteristiche cognitivo-semantiche, funzionali e socio-culturali della traduzione italiana per il doppiaggio di un corpus di testi comici. Il Modello è costituito da due fasi: la prima, di ‘Analisi critica e multimodale degli script’ (MuCrAS e la seconda, di ‘Ritestualizzazione critica e multimodale degli script’ (MuReTS, e la sua costruzione e applicazione sono frutto di un approccio multidisciplinare all’analisi e traduzione dei testi audiovisivi, al fine di esaminare le

  16. Methodologies in the modeling of combined chemo-radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C.; Paganetti, H.

    2016-11-01

    The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling. While treatment optimization and outcome modeling does focus mainly on the effects of radiation, treatment modalities such as chemotherapy are treated independently or are even neglected entirely. This review summarizes the published efforts to model combined modality treatments combining radiation and chemotherapy. These models will play an increasing role in optimizing cancer therapy not only from a radiation and drug dosage standpoint, but also in terms of spatial and temporal optimization of treatment schedules.

  17. Assessment of cardiac safety for PPARγ agonists in rodent models of heart failure: a translational medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinkang

    2012-06-01

    PPARγ-modulators, a class of anti-diabetic drugs as represented by thiazolidinediones (TZD), have been associated with cardiovascular risks in type-2 diabetes in humans but a similar liability has not been demonstrated in preclinical models. This gap between clinical and preclinical observations may reflect the lack of a translational model for cardiac safety assessment because preclinical efficacy for glycemic control for PPARγ-modulators is routinely conducted in animals with diabetic background while drug safety study is performed in young and health animals with little risk of heart failure, in contrast to the complex pathophysiological conditions of patients subjected to the treatment of TZDs. Therefore, some key steps are important to address this translational gap. First, it is essential to use an appropriate translational model that mimics most of human pathophysiology for the assessment of cardiovascular safety for TZDs. Second, it calls for the discovery of a translational biomarker (most likely a collection of biomarkers due to multiple risk factors contributed to the complex disease) to be able to sensitively detect the disease progression and in response to therapy. Specific examples are provided in this review for the use of a rodent model of myocardial infarction-induced heart failure to address the cardiac safety concern in response to chronic treatment of rosiglitazone. Multiple biomarkers, including physiological, biochemical, pharmacogenomic and imaging biomarkers, were applied to assess the cardiovascular risk in this heart failure model. The data and strategic approach are discussed from translational medicine perspectives.

  18. Methodology for assessing electric vehicle charging infrastructure business models

    OpenAIRE

    Madina, Carlos; Zamora, Inmaculada; Zabala, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of economic implications of innovative business models in networked environments, as electro-mobility is, requires a global approach to ensure that all the involved actors obtain a benefit. Although electric vehicles (EVs) provide benefits for the society as a whole, there are a number of hurdles for their widespread adoption, mainly the high investment cost for the EV and for the infrastructure. Therefore, a sound business model must be built up for charging service operators, w...

  19. Box & Jenkins Model Identification:A Comparison of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a presentation of a comparison of a neuro-fuzzy back propagation network and Forecast automatic model Identification to identify automatically Box & Jenkins non seasonal models.Recently some combinations of neural networks and fuzzy logic technologies have being used to deal with uncertain and subjective problems. It is concluded on the basis of the obtained results that this type of approach is very powerful to be used.

  20. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  1. A Comparative Study of Three Methodologies for Modeling Dynamic Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, L.; Rhee, M.; Tung, C.; ZibiBailly, J.; LeBalleur, J. C.; Blaise, D.; Rouzaud, O.

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been an increased reliance on the use of computational fluid dynamics methods for modeling rotors in high speed forward flight. Computational methods are being developed for modeling the shock induced loads on the advancing side, first-principles based modeling of the trailing wake evolution, and for retreating blade stall. The retreating blade dynamic stall problem has received particular attention, because the large variations in lift and pitching moments encountered in dynamic stall can lead to blade vibrations and pitch link fatigue. Restricting to aerodynamics, the numerical prediction of dynamic stall is still a complex and challenging CFD problem, that, even in two dimensions at low speed, gathers the major difficulties of aerodynamics, such as the grid resolution requirements for the viscous phenomena at leading-edge bubbles or in mixing-layers, the bias of the numerical viscosity, and the major difficulties of the physical modeling, such as the turbulence models, the transition models, whose both determinant influences, already present in static maximal-lift or stall computations, are emphasized by the dynamic aspect of the phenomena.

  2. Methodologic model to scheduling on service systems: a software engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduyn Ramiro Lopez-Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach of software engineering to a research proposal to make an Expert System to scheduling on service systems using methodologies and processes of software development. We use the adaptive software development as methodology for the software architecture based on the description as a software metaprocess that characterizes the research process. We make UML’s diagrams (Unified Modeling Language to provide a visual modeling that describes the research methodology in order to identify the actors, elements and interactions in the research process.

  3. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 2: model verification and data base updates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments

  4. Development and translational imaging of a TP53 porcine tumorigenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieren, Jessica C; Meyerholz, David K; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Davis, Bryan T; Newell, John D; Hammond, Emily; Rohret, Judy A; Rohret, Frank A; Struzynski, Jason T; Goeken, J Adam; Naumann, Paul W; Leidinger, Mariah R; Taghiyev, Agshin; Van Rheeden, Richard; Hagen, Jussara; Darbro, Benjamin W; Quelle, Dawn E; Rogers, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is the second deadliest disease in the United States, necessitating improvements in tumor diagnosis and treatment. Current model systems of cancer are informative, but translating promising imaging approaches and therapies to clinical practice has been challenging. In particular, the lack of a large-animal model that accurately mimics human cancer has been a major barrier to the development of effective diagnostic tools along with surgical and therapeutic interventions. Here, we developed a genetically modified porcine model of cancer in which animals express a mutation in TP53 (which encodes p53) that is orthologous to one commonly found in humans (R175H in people, R167H in pigs). TP53(R167H/R167H) mutant pigs primarily developed lymphomas and osteogenic tumors, recapitulating the tumor types observed in mice and humans expressing orthologous TP53 mutant alleles. CT and MRI imaging data effectively detected developing tumors, which were validated by histopathological evaluation after necropsy. Molecular genetic analyses confirmed that these animals expressed the R167H mutant p53, and evaluation of tumors revealed characteristic chromosomal instability. Together, these results demonstrated that TP53(R167H/R167H) pigs represent a large-animal tumor model that replicates the human condition. Our data further suggest that this model will be uniquely suited for developing clinically relevant, noninvasive imaging approaches to facilitate earlier detection, diagnosis, and treatment of human cancers.

  5. Development and translational imaging of a TP53 porcine tumorigenesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieren, Jessica C.; Meyerholz, David K.; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Davis, Bryan T.; Newell, John D.; Hammond, Emily; Rohret, Judy A.; Rohret, Frank A.; Struzynski, Jason T.; Goeken, J. Adam; Naumann, Paul W.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Taghiyev, Agshin; Van Rheeden, Richard; Hagen, Jussara; Darbro, Benjamin W.; Quelle, Dawn E.; Rogers, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second deadliest disease in the United States, necessitating improvements in tumor diagnosis and treatment. Current model systems of cancer are informative, but translating promising imaging approaches and therapies to clinical practice has been challenging. In particular, the lack of a large-animal model that accurately mimics human cancer has been a major barrier to the development of effective diagnostic tools along with surgical and therapeutic interventions. Here, we developed a genetically modified porcine model of cancer in which animals express a mutation in TP53 (which encodes p53) that is orthologous to one commonly found in humans (R175H in people, R167H in pigs). TP53R167H/R167H mutant pigs primarily developed lymphomas and osteogenic tumors, recapitulating the tumor types observed in mice and humans expressing orthologous TP53 mutant alleles. CT and MRI imaging data effectively detected developing tumors, which were validated by histopathological evaluation after necropsy. Molecular genetic analyses confirmed that these animals expressed the R167H mutant p53, and evaluation of tumors revealed characteristic chromosomal instability. Together, these results demonstrated that TP53R167H/R167H pigs represent a large-animal tumor model that replicates the human condition. Our data further suggest that this model will be uniquely suited for developing clinically relevant, noninvasive imaging approaches to facilitate earlier detection, diagnosis, and treatment of human cancers. PMID:25105366

  6. A Roadmap for Generating Semantically Enriched Building Models According to CityGML Model via Two Different Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, G.; Solou, D.; Pispidikis, I.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2016-10-01

    The methodologies of 3D modeling techniques have increasingly increased due to the rapid advances of new technologies. Nowadays, the focus of 3D modeling software is focused, not only to the finest visualization of the models, but also in their semantic features during the modeling procedure. As a result, the models thus generated are both realistic and semantically enriched. Additionally, various extensions of modeling software allow for the immediate conversion of the model's format, via semi-automatic procedures with respect to the user's scope. The aim of this paper is to investigate the generation of a semantically enriched Citygml building model via two different methodologies. The first methodology includes the modeling in Trimble SketchUp and the transformation in FME Desktop Manager, while the second methodology includes the model's generation in CityEngine and its transformation in the CityGML format via the 3DCitiesProject extension for ArcGIS. Finally, the two aforesaid methodologies are being compared and specific characteristics are evaluated, in order to infer the methodology that is best applied depending on the different projects' purposes.

  7. Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Koehn, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Draft of textbook chapter on neural machine translation. a comprehensive treatment of the topic, ranging from introduction to neural networks, computation graphs, description of the currently dominant attentional sequence-to-sequence model, recent refinements, alternative architectures and challenges. Written as chapter for the textbook Statistical Machine Translation. Used in the JHU Fall 2017 class on machine translation.

  8. An improved methodology for dynamic modelling and simulation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This presents a real struggle to the engineers who want to design and implement such systems with high performance, efficiency and reliability. For this purpose, engineers need a tool capable of modelling and/or simulating components of diverse nature within the ECDS. However, a majority of the available tools are limited ...

  9. A branch-and-bound methodology within algebraic modelling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, J.J.; Heerink, J.B.J.; Kloosterman, G.

    1998-01-01

    Through the use of application-specific branch-and-bound directives it is possible to find solutions to combinatorial models that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to find by just using generic branch-and-bound techniques within the framework of mathematical programming. {\\sc Minto} is an

  10. Variational Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Biao; Xiong, Deyi; Su, Jinsong; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Models of neural machine translation are often from a discriminative family of encoderdecoders that learn a conditional distribution of a target sentence given a source sentence. In this paper, we propose a variational model to learn this conditional distribution for neural machine translation: a variational encoderdecoder model that can be trained end-to-end. Different from the vanilla encoder-decoder model that generates target translations from hidden representations of source sentences al...

  11. Linking Murine and Human Plasmodium falciparum Challenge Models in a Translational Path for Antimalarial Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James S.; Marquart, Louise; Sekuloski, Silvana; Trenholme, Katharine; Elliott, Suzanne; Griffin, Paul; Rockett, Rebecca; O'Rourke, Peter; Sloots, Theo; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer, Santiago; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Martínez, María-Santos; Duparc, Stephan; Leroy, Didier; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Baker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Effective progression of candidate antimalarials is dependent on optimal dosing in clinical studies, which is determined by a sound understanding of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). Recently, two important translational models for antimalarials have been developed: the NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ−/− (NSG) model, whereby mice are engrafted with noninfected and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes, and the induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model in human volunteers. The antimalarial mefloquine was used to directly measure the PK/PD in both models, which were compared to previously published trial data for malaria patients. The clinical part was a single-center, controlled study using a blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum challenge inoculum in volunteers to characterize the effectiveness of mefloquine against early malaria. The study was conducted in three cohorts (n = 8 each) using different doses of mefloquine. The characteristic delay in onset of action of about 24 h was seen in both NSG and IBSM systems. In vivo 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were estimated at 2.0 μg/ml and 1.8 μg/ml in the NSG and IBSM models, respectively, aligning with 1.8 μg/ml reported previously for patients. In the IBSM model, the parasite reduction ratios were 157 and 195 for the 10- and 15-mg/kg doses, within the range of previously reported clinical data for patients but significantly lower than observed in the mouse model. Linking mouse and human challenge models to clinical trial data can accelerate the accrual of critical data on antimalarial drug activity. Such data can guide large clinical trials required for development of urgently needed novel antimalarial combinations. (This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry [http://anzctr.org.au] under registration number ACTRN12612000323820.) PMID:27044554

  12. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system to study post-translational modifications of human transthyretin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Andrea; Homann, Thomas; Rohn, Isabelle; Aschner, Michael; Link, Christopher D.; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schweigert, Florian J.; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Bornhorst, Julia

    2016-11-01

    The visceral protein transthyretin (TTR) is frequently affected by oxidative post-translational protein modifications (PTPMs) in various diseases. Thus, better insight into structure-function relationships due to oxidative PTPMs of TTR should contribute to the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms. While the in vivo analysis of TTR in mammalian models is complex, time- and resource-consuming, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing hTTR provide an optimal model for the in vivo identification and characterization of drug-mediated oxidative PTPMs of hTTR by means of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Herein, we demonstrated that hTTR is expressed in all developmental stages of Caenorhabditis elegans, enabling the analysis of hTTR metabolism during the whole life-cycle. The suitability of the applied model was verified by exposing worms to D-penicillamine and menadione. Both drugs induced substantial changes in the oxidative PTPM pattern of hTTR. Additionally, for the first time a covalent binding of both drugs with hTTR was identified and verified by molecular modelling.

  14. Extensive and systematic rewiring of histone post-translational modifications in cancer model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noberini, Roberta; Osti, Daniela; Miccolo, Claudia; Richichi, Cristina; Lupia, Michela; Corleone, Giacomo; Hong, Sung-Pil; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Pollo, Bianca; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Magnani, Luca; Cavallaro, Ugo; Chiocca, Susanna; Minucci, Saverio; Pelicci, Giuliana; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2018-03-29

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) generate a complex combinatorial code that regulates gene expression and nuclear functions, and whose deregulation has been documented in different types of cancers. Therefore, the availability of relevant culture models that can be manipulated and that retain the epigenetic features of the tissue of origin is absolutely crucial for studying the epigenetic mechanisms underlying cancer and testing epigenetic drugs. In this study, we took advantage of quantitative mass spectrometry to comprehensively profile histone PTMs in patient tumor tissues, primary cultures and cell lines from three representative tumor models, breast cancer, glioblastoma and ovarian cancer, revealing an extensive and systematic rewiring of histone marks in cell culture conditions, which includes a decrease of H3K27me2/me3, H3K79me1/me2 and H3K9ac/K14ac, and an increase of H3K36me1/me2. While some changes occur in short-term primary cultures, most of them are instead time-dependent and appear only in long-term cultures. Remarkably, such changes mostly revert in cell line- and primary cell-derived in vivo xenograft models. Taken together, these results support the use of xenografts as the most representative models of in vivo epigenetic processes, suggesting caution when using cultured cells, in particular cell lines and long-term primary cultures, for epigenetic investigations.

  15. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling:Part II: Methodology for inducing blast injury to in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen B. Effgen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530  17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581  10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.

  16. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    2003) propose is the more widely accepted method for clustering unsupervised images or text documents. In our work, we focus on the method of...Numbers Interacting with Forms Modeling &Testing with Images Evaluating with KL Distances Fitting K-Means and KSMERT Pareto Charting Retrieving Top...Cambridge, MA, 2008; 121–128. Blei, D.M., Ng, A.Y., Jordan, M.I.. Latent Dirichlet allocation. The Journal of Machine Learning Research 2003; 3:993

  17. New Methodologies for the Thermal Modelling of CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Philip

    2012-01-01

    One of the main threats for the success of a CubeSat mission is the unbalanced distribution of thermal loads caused by internal and external heat sources. In order to design an appropriate thermal subsystem that can cope with these loads a detailed analysis is required. However, currently available thermal software is considered as being less convenient for the application with CubeSats, mainly due to the complexity of the modelling process. This paper examines thermal engineering issues for ...

  18. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  19. Exploring the possibility of modeling a genetic counseling guideline using agile methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae

    2013-01-01

    Increased demand of genetic counseling services heightened the necessity of a computerized genetic counseling decision support system. In order to develop an effective and efficient computerized system, modeling of genetic counseling guideline is an essential step. Throughout this pilot study, Agile methodology with United Modeling Language (UML) was utilized to model a guideline. 13 tasks and 14 associated elements were extracted. Successfully constructed conceptual class and activity diagrams revealed that Agile methodology with UML was a suitable tool to modeling a genetic counseling guideline.

  20. Methodologies for Wind Turbine and STATCOM Integration in Wind Power Plant Models for Harmonic Resonances Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches modelling methodologies for integration of wind turbines and STATCOM in harmonic resonance studies. Firstly, an admittance equivalent model representing the harmonic signature of grid connected voltage source converters is provided. A simplified type IV wind turbine modelling......-domain. As an alternative, a power based averaged modelling is also proposed. Type IV wind turbine harmonic signature and STATCOM active harmonic mitigation are considered for the simulation case studies. Simulation results provide a good insight of the features and limitations of the proposed methodologies....

  1. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  2. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  3. Disparity of outcomes: the limits of modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in murine models and translating results clinically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Zwiegers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastatingly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with multiple underlying etiological factors contributing to disease pathogenesis. Despite intensive research efforts and therapeutic development, disease presentation in ALS remains largely intractable to intervention. To date, the most common rodent model used in pre-clinical drug development accounts for a small proportion of the affected patient population and is predicated upon the significant overexpression of a mutant form of the human antioxidant protein, superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1. After more than 50 clinical trials, there is an alarming paucity of positive outcomes at the clinical level of ALS therapeutics with strong supporting pre-clinical data in mSOD1 models. Potential reasons for the negative clinical results are multifactorial in nature and include an overly reductionist model system that is heavily influenced by individual transgene level variation, as well as attempting to widely apply findings derived from a model of specific genetic causality to a patient population where the majority of cases are of unknown etiology. With such a tremendous disease burden and a lack of therapeutic options, it is critical that the research community re-evaluate the dependence on mSOD1 pre-clinical models as the gold standard prior to translating findings at the clinical level. Here we briefly review both the clinical and pre-clinical findings of select therapeutics, discuss the limitations of pre-clinical mSOD1 models, and suggest future stratagems that could aid in the clinical translation of efficacious therapeutic agents. Supplementary files: The supplementary files of this article are found under 'Article Tools' at the right  side bar.

  4. Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haeng Joe

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.

  5. New temperature model of the Netherlands from new data and novel modelling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; Struijk, Maartje; Békési, Eszter; Cloetingh, Sierd; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2017-04-01

    Deep geothermal energy has grown in interest in Western Europe in the last decades, for direct use but also, as the knowledge of the subsurface improves, for electricity generation. In the Netherlands, where the sector took off with the first system in 2005, geothermal energy is seen has a key player for a sustainable future. The knowledge of the temperature subsurface, together with the available flow from the reservoir, is an important factor that can determine the success of a geothermal energy project. To support the development of deep geothermal energy system in the Netherlands, we have made a first assessment of the subsurface temperature based on thermal data but also on geological elements (Bonté et al, 2012). An outcome of this work was ThermoGIS that uses the temperature model. This work is a revision of the model that is used in ThermoGIS. The improvement from the first model are multiple, we have been improving not only the dataset used for the calibration and structural model, but also the methodology trough an improved software (called b3t). The temperature dataset has been updated by integrating temperature on the newly accessible wells. The sedimentary description in the basin has been improved by using an updated and refined structural model and an improved lithological definition. A major improvement in from the methodology used to perform the modelling, with b3t the calibration is made not only using the lithospheric parameters but also using the thermal conductivity of the sediments. The result is a much more accurate definition of the parameters for the model and a perfected handling of the calibration process. The result obtain is a precise and improved temperature model of the Netherlands. The thermal conductivity variation in the sediments associated with geometry of the layers is an important factor of temperature variations and the influence of the Zechtein salt in the north of the country is important. In addition, the radiogenic heat

  6. Future Directions in Medical Physics: Models, Technology, and Translation to Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    The application of physics in medicine has been integral to major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Two primary areas represent the mainstay of medical physics research in the last century: in radiation therapy, physicists have propelled advances in conformal radiation treatment and high-precision image guidance; and in diagnostic imaging, physicists have advanced an arsenal of multi-modality imaging that includes CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET as indispensible tools for noninvasive screening, diagnosis, and assessment of treatment response. In addition to their role in building such technologically rich fields of medicine, physicists have also become integral to daily clinical practice in these areas. The future suggests new opportunities for multi-disciplinary research bridging physics, biology, engineering, and computer science, and collaboration in medical physics carries a strong capacity for identification of significant clinical needs, access to clinical data, and translation of technologies to clinical studies. In radiation therapy, for example, the extraction of knowledge from large datasets on treatment delivery, image-based phenotypes, genomic profile, and treatment outcome will require innovation in computational modeling and connection with medical physics for the curation of large datasets. Similarly in imaging physics, the demand for new imaging technology capable of measuring physical and biological processes over orders of magnitude in scale (from molecules to whole organ systems) and exploiting new contrast mechanisms for greater sensitivity to molecular agents and subtle functional / morphological change will benefit from multi-disciplinary collaboration in physics, biology, and engineering. Also in surgery and interventional radiology, where needs for increased precision and patient safety meet constraints in cost and workflow, development of new technologies for imaging, image registration, and robotic assistance can leverage

  7. The bovine brain: an in vitro translational model in developmental neuroscience and neurodegenerative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella ePeruffo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal models provide convenient and clinically relevant tools in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. Studies on developmental disorders extensively rely on the use of laboratory rodents. The present mini-review proposes an alternative translational model, based on the use of fetal bovine brain tissue. The bovine (Bos taurus possesses a large and highly gyrencephalic brain and the long gestation period (41 weeks is comparable to the human pregnancy (38-40 weeks. Primary cultures obtained from fetal bovine brain constitute a validated in vitro model that allows examinations of neurons and/or glial cells under controlled and reproducible conditions. Physiological processes can be also studied on cultured bovine neural cells incubated with specific substrates or by electrically coupled electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor capacitors that permit direct recording from neuronal cells. Bovine neural cells and specific in vitro cell culture could be an alternative in comparative neuroscience and in neurodegenerative research, useful for studying development of normal and altered circuitry in a long gestation mammalian species. Use of bovine tissues would promote a substantial reduction in the use of laboratory animals.

  8. Reliability modelling of repairable systems using Petri nets and fuzzy Lambda-Tau methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, J.; Odoom, E.R

    2001-07-01

    A methodology is developed which uses Petri nets instead of the fault tree methodology and solves for reliability indices utilising fuzzy Lambda-Tau method. Fuzzy set theory is used for representing the failure rate and repair time instead of the classical (crisp) set theory because fuzzy numbers allow expert opinions, linguistic variables, operating conditions, uncertainty and imprecision in reliability information to be incorporated into the system model. Petri nets are used because unlike the fault tree methodology, the use of Petri nets allows efficient simultaneous generation of minimal cut and path sets.

  9. Geographic modelling of jaw fracture rates in Australia: a methodological model for healthcare planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa J A; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-06-01

    While Australians are one of the healthiest populations in the world, inequalities in access to health care and health outcomes exist for Indigenous Australians and Australians living in rural or urban areas of the country. Hence, the purpose of this study was to develop an innovative methodological approach for predicting the incidence rates of jaw fractures and estimating the demand for oral health services within Australia. Population data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and was divided across Australia by statistical local area and related to a validated remoteness index. Every episode of discharge from all hospitals in Western Australia for the financial years 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 indicating a jaw fracture as the principle oral condition, as classified by the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10AM), was the inclusion criterion for the study. Hospitalization data were obtained from the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data System. The model estimated almost 10 times higher jaw fracture rates for Indigenous populations than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Moreover, incidence of jaw fractures was higher among Indigenous people living in rural and remote areas compared with their urban and semi-urban counterparts. In contrast, in the non-Indigenous population, higher rates of jaw fractures were estimated for urban and semi-urban inhabitants compared with their rural and remote counterparts. This geographic modelling technique could be improved by methodological refinements and further research. It will be useful in developing strategies for health management and reducing the burden of jaw fractures and the cost of treatment within Australia. This model will also have direct implications for strategic planning for prevention and management policies in Australia aimed at reducing the inequalities gap both in terms of geography as well as Aboriginality.

  10. Models of expected returns on the brazilian market: Empirical tests using predictive methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mussa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictive methodologies for test of the expected returns models are largely diffused on the international academic environment. However, these methods have not been used in Brazil in a systematic way. Generally, empirical studies proceeded with Brazilian stock market data are concentrated only in the first step of these methodologies. The purpose of this article was test and compare the models CAPM, 3-factors and 4-factors using a predictive methodology, considering two steps – temporal and cross-section regressions – with standard errors obtained by the techniques of Fama and Macbeth (1973. The results indicated the superiority of the 4-fators model as compared to the 3-fators model, and the superiority of the 3- factors model as compared to the CAPM, but no one of the tested models were enough on the explanation of the Brazilian stock returns. Contrary to some empirical evidences, that do not use predictive methodology, the size and momentum effect seem do not exist on the Brazilian capital markets, but there are evidences of the value effect and the relevance of the market for explanation of expected returns. These finds rise some questions, mainly caused by the originality of the methodology on the local market and by the fact that this subject is still incipient and polemic on the Brazilian academic environment.

  11. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  12. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  13. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  14. Developing translational medicine professionals : The Marie Skłodowska-Curie action model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Prakken, Berent J.; Rosenblum, Norman D.

    2016-01-01

    End goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines and expertise to eventually promote improvement of the global healthcare system by delivering effective therapies to individuals and society. Well-trained experts of the translational medicine process endowed with profound knowledge of

  15. A mediation model for the translation of radio news texts in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broadcast journalists in South Africa are media workers, editors and translators simultaneously producing news for bilingual or multilingual audiences. News texts are translated from English into one or more of the other official languages, depending on the target audience of the broadcaster. This article aims to indicate how ...

  16. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny B. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic.

  17. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  18. Benefits and limitations of animal models in partial bladder outlet obstruction for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Higuchi, Madoka; Ouchi, Mifuka; Togo, Mio; Moriya, Kimihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    The functions of the lower urinary tract have been investigated for more than a century. Lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incomplete bladder emptying, weak urine stream, daytime urinary frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia after partial bladder outlet obstruction, is a frequent cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The use of animal models is absolutely imperative for understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in bladder dysfunction. Surgical induction has been used to study lower urinary tract functions of numerous animal species, such as pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse, of both sexes. Several morphological and functional modifications under partial bladder outlet obstruction have not only been observed in the bladder, but also in the central nervous system. Understanding the changes of the lower urinary tract functions induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction would also contribute to appropriate drug development for treating these pathophysiological conditions. In the present review, we discuss techniques for creating partial bladder outlet obstruction, the characteristics of several species, as well as issues of each model, and their translational value. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Animal models to guide clinical drug development in ADHD: lost in translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Jeffery R; Hyland, Brian I; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    We review strategies for developing animal models for examining and selecting compounds with potential therapeutic benefit in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology and pathophysiology. Current understanding suggests that genetic factors play an important role in the aetiology of ADHD. The involvement of dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of ADHD is probable. We review the clinical features of ADHD including inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity and how these are operationalized for laboratory study. Measures of temporal discounting (but not premature responding) appear to predict known drug effects well (treatment validity). Open-field measures of overactivity commonly used do not have treatment validity in human populations. A number of animal models have been proposed that simulate the symptoms of ADHD. The most commonly used are the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) animals. To date, however, the SHR lacks treatment validity, and the effects of drugs on symptoms of impulsivity and inattention have not been studied extensively in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. At the present stage of development, there are no in vivo models of proven effectiveness for examining and selecting compounds with potential therapeutic benefit in ADHD. However, temporal discounting is an emerging theme in theories of ADHD, and there is good evidence of increased value of delayed reward following treatment with stimulant drugs. Therefore, operant behaviour paradigms that measure the effects of drugs in situations of delayed reinforcement, whether in normal rats or selected models, show promise for the future. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21480864

  20. A novel porcine model of early left ventricular dysfunction for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nadim Malik, Kelly A Farrell, Sarah B Withers, Elizabeth J Wright, Cathy M HoltInstitute for Cardiovascular Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United KingdomBackground: The early stages of left ventricular (LV dysfunction account for a much larger proportion of the population with heart disease than that with clinical heart failure. However, LV dysfunction is more difficult to diagnose than established heart failure, and because of this it is not usually treated. Research on LV dysfunction is commonly conducted in small animal models in which the cardiac pathophysiology is dissimilar to that in humans, thereby restricting translation. This study aimed to use a novel pig model of mild to moderate early ischemic LV dysfunction to assess the effects of such dysfunction in the myocardium.Methods: Multiple areas of controlled microinfarcts were created via microembolization using embolization beads, with invasive hemodynamic and transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of LV function. Four weeks after intervention, the hearts were explanted for determination of the infarcted surface area and analysis of calcium regulatory proteins.Results: In vivo hemodynamic measurements confirmed a >25% decrease in LV dP/dt (maximum and minimum with creation of microinfarcts compared with baseline, whilst echocardiography showed mild to moderate LV dysfunction. Perioperative mortality was 10%–15%. In surviving pigs, morphometry at 4 weeks confirmed that up to 20% of the total LV surface area contained microinfarcts. Western blot analysis showed alterations in levels of the calcium regulatory proteins, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase and sodium-calcium exchange, in infarcted areas, compared with normal LV tissue from the same animals.Conclusion: These results demonstrate the usefulness of this model for investigation of the precise molecular and cellular changes associated with early mild to moderate LV dysfunction from ischemic injury, and its

  1. So, You Think You Have an Idea: A Practical Risk Reduction-Conceptual Model for Academic Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, John; Macomber, Christopher

    2017-04-04

    -driven translational program (1) problem identification and validation; (2) defining the conceptual model of disease; and (3) risk evaluation and mitigation strategies.

  2. Towards A Model-Based Prognostics Methodology For Electrolytic Capacitors: A Case Study Based On Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a model-driven methodology for predict- ing the remaining useful life of electrolytic capacitors. This methodology adopts a Kalman filter...

  3. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  4. Modeling of prolactin response following dopamine Dreceptor antagonists in rats : can it be translated to clinical dosing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taneja, Amit; Vermeulen, An; Huntjens, Dymphy R.H.; Danhof, Meindert; De Lange, Elizabeth C.M.; Proost, Johannes H.

    2017-01-01

    Prolactin release is a side effect of antipsychotic therapy with dopamine antagonists, observed in rats as well as humans. We examined whether two semimechanistic models could describe prolactin response in rats and subsequently be translated to predict pituitary dopamine D2receptor occupancy and

  5. Translating Evidence-Based Practice into a Comprehensive Educational Model within an Autism-Specific Special School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Lee, Katy A.; Jones, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Julie; Hastings, Richard P.; Douglas-Cobane, Emma; Thomas J., Esther; Hughes, Carl; Griffith, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Research evaluations of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-based interventions for children with autism demonstrate positive outcomes. However, little research has focused on the translation of these evidence-based interventions into service delivery models within existing education systems. In the present article, we provide a description of the…

  6. Key-Aspects of Scientific Modeling Exemplified by School Science Models: Some Units for Teaching Contextualized Scientific Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Models and modeling are core elements of scientific methods and consequently also are of key importance for the conception and teaching of scientific methodology. The epistemology of models and its transfer and adaption to nature of science education are not, however, simple themes. We present some conceptual units in which school science models…

  7. Integration of process design and controller design for chemical processes using model-based methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel systematic model-based methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for chemical processes is presented. The methodology uses a decomposition method to solve the IPDC typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization with ...... that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights to the solution of IPDC problems in chemical engineering practice.......In this paper, a novel systematic model-based methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for chemical processes is presented. The methodology uses a decomposition method to solve the IPDC typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization...... with constraints) problem. Accordingly the optimization problem is decomposed into four sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification, which are relatively easier to solve. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process...

  8. Novel Methodology for Functional Modeling and Simulation of Wireless Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa Morales Emma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel methodology is presented for the modeling and the simulation of wireless embedded systems. Tight interaction between the analog and the digital functionality makes the design and verification of such systems a real challenge. The applied methodology brings together the functional models of the baseband algorithms written in C language with the circuit descriptions at behavioral level in Verilog or Verilog-AMS for the system simulations in a single kernel environment. The physical layer of an ultrawideband system has been successfully modeled and simulated. The results confirm that this methodology provides a standardized framework in order to efficiently and accurately simulate complex mixed signal applications for embedded systems.

  9. Behavioral profiling as a translational approach in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, Ziv; Albrecht, Anne; Richter-Levin, Alon; Saha, Rinki; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in humans is based on comparing individuals to the normal population. However, many animal models analyze averaged group effects, thus compromising their translational power. This discrepancy is particularly relevant in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where only a minority develop the disorder following a traumatic experience. In our PTSD rat model, we utilize a novel behavioral profiling approach that allows the classification of affected and unaffected individuals in a trauma-exposed population. Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) and four weeks later their individual performances in the open field and elevated plus maze were compared to those of the control group, allowing the identification of affected and resilient UWT-exposed rats. Behavioral profiling revealed that only a subset of the UWT-exposed rats developed long-lasting behavioral symptoms. The proportion of affected rats was further enhanced by pre-exposure to juvenile stress, a well-described risk factor of PTSD. For a biochemical proof of concept we analyzed the expression levels of the GABAA receptor subunits α1 and α2 in the ventral, dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Increased expression, mainly of α1, was observed in ventral but not dorsal hippocampus of exposed animals, which would traditionally be interpreted as being associated with the exposure-resultant psychopathology. However, behavioral profiling revealed that this increased expression was confined to exposed-unaffected individuals, suggesting a resilience-associated expression regulation. The results provide evidence for the importance of employing behavioral profiling in animal models of PTSD, in order to better understand the neural basis of stress vulnerability and resilience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing a Collection of Composable Data Translation Software Units to Improve Efficiency and Reproducibility in Ecohydrologic Modeling Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olschanowsky, C.; Flores, A. N.; FitzGerald, K.; Masarik, M. T.; Rudisill, W. J.; Aguayo, M.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic models of the spatiotemporal evolution of water, energy, and nutrient cycling are important tools to assess impacts of climate and other environmental changes on ecohydrologic systems. These models require spatiotemporally varying environmental forcings like precipitation, temperature, humidity, windspeed, and solar radiation. These input data originate from a variety of sources, including global and regional weather and climate models, global and regional reanalysis products, and geostatistically interpolated surface observations. Data translation measures, often subsetting in space and/or time and transforming and converting variable units, represent a seemingly mundane, but critical step in the application workflows. Translation steps can introduce errors, misrepresentations of data, slow execution time, and interrupt data provenance. We leverage a workflow that subsets a large regional dataset derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and prepares inputs to the Parflow integrated hydrologic model to demonstrate the impact translation tool software quality on scientific workflow results and performance. We propose that such workflows will benefit from a community approved collection of data transformation components. The components should be self-contained composable units of code. This design pattern enables automated parallelization and software verification, improving performance and reliability. Ensuring that individual translation components are self-contained and target minute tasks increases reliability. The small code size of each component enables effective unit and regression testing. The components can be automatically composed for efficient execution. An efficient data translation framework should be written to minimize data movement. Composing components within a single streaming process reduces data movement. Each component will typically have a low arithmetic intensity, meaning that it requires about the same number of

  11. Probing the closed-loop model of mRNA translation in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Stuart K; Shirokikh, Nikolay E; Hallwirth, Claus V; Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA closed-loop, formed through interactions between the cap structure, poly(A) tail, eIF4E, eIF4G and PAB, features centrally in models of eukaryotic translation initiation, although direct support for its existence in vivo is not well established. Here, we investigated the closed-loop using a combination of mRNP isolation from rapidly cross-linked cells and high-throughput qPCR. Using the interaction between these factors and the opposing ends of mRNAs as a proxy for the closed-loop, we provide evidence that it is prevalent for eIF4E/4G-bound but unexpectedly sparse for PAB1-bound mRNAs, suggesting it primarily occurs during a distinct phase of polysome assembly. We observed mRNA-specific variation in the extent of closed-loop formation, consistent with a role for polysome topology in the control of gene expression. PMID:25826658

  12. Translating statistical species-habitat models to interactive decision support tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndsie S Wszola

    Full Text Available Understanding species-habitat relationships is vital to successful conservation, but the tools used to communicate species-habitat relationships are often poorly suited to the information needs of conservation practitioners. Here we present a novel method for translating a statistical species-habitat model, a regression analysis relating ring-necked pheasant abundance to landcover, into an interactive online tool. The Pheasant Habitat Simulator combines the analytical power of the R programming environment with the user-friendly Shiny web interface to create an online platform in which wildlife professionals can explore the effects of variation in local landcover on relative pheasant habitat suitability within spatial scales relevant to individual wildlife managers. Our tool allows users to virtually manipulate the landcover composition of a simulated space to explore how changes in landcover may affect pheasant relative habitat suitability, and guides users through the economic tradeoffs of landscape changes. We offer suggestions for development of similar interactive applications and demonstrate their potential as innovative science delivery tools for diverse professional and public audiences.

  13. Abnormal Motor Activity and Thermoregulation in a Schizophrenia Rat Model for Translational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Gyongyi; Kekesi, Gabriella; Petrovszki, Zita; Benedek, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is accompanied by altered motor activity and abnormal thermoregulation; therefore, the presence of these symptoms can enhance the face validity of a schizophrenia animal model. The goal was to characterize these parameters in freely moving condition of a new substrain of rats showing several schizophrenia-related alterations. Male Wistar rats were used: the new substrain housed individually (for four weeks) and treated subchronically with ketamine, and naive animals without any manipulations. Adult animals were implanted with E-Mitter transponders intraabdominally to record body temperature and locomotor activity continuously. The circadian rhythm of these parameters and the acute effects of changes in light conditions were analyzed under undisturbed circumstances, and the effects of different interventions (handling, bed changing or intraperitoneal vehicle injection) were also determined. Decreased motor activity with fragmented pattern was observed in the new substrain. However, these animals had higher body temperature during the active phase, and they showed wider range of its alterations, too. The changes in light conditions and different interventions produced blunted hyperactivity and altered body temperature responses in the new substrain. Poincaré plot analysis of body temperature revealed enhanced short- and long-term variabilities during the active phase compared to the inactive phase in both groups. Furthermore, the new substrain showed increased short- and long-term variabilities with lower degree of asymmetry suggesting autonomic dysregulation. In summary, the new substrain with schizophrenia-related phenomena showed disturbed motor activity and thermoregulation suggesting that these objectively determined parameters can be biomarkers in translational research.

  14. Multi-model approach to petroleum resource appraisal using analytic methodologies for probabilistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic appraisal model that is selected for a petroleum resource assessment depends upon purpose of the assessment, basic geologic assumptions of the area, type of available data, time available before deadlines, available human and financial resources, available computer facilities, and, most importantly, the available quantitative methodology with corresponding computer software and any new quantitative methodology that would have to be developed. Therefore, different resource assessment projects usually require different geologic models. Also, more than one geologic model might be needed in a single project for assessing different regions of the study or for cross-checking resource estimates of the area. Some geologic analyses used in the past for petroleum resource appraisal involved play analysis. The corresponding quantitative methodologies of these analyses usually consisted of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. A probabilistic system of petroleum resource appraisal for play analysis has been designed to meet the following requirements: (1) includes a variety of geologic models, (2) uses an analytic methodology instead of Monte Carlo simulation, (3) possesses the capacity to aggregate estimates from many areas that have been assessed by different geologic models, and (4) runs quickly on a microcomputer. Geologic models consist of four basic types: reservoir engineering, volumetric yield, field size, and direct assessment. Several case histories and present studies by the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented......A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...

  16. A Formal Model of Ambiguity and its Applications in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    subsampling method proposed by Kishore Papineni (personal communication ), which reduced the amount of training data that the system must process without...to prune each edge is only 171 0 3 4 2 5 7 to tonb nb nband tonba ton band ba nd and tonband nba Figure 4.7: A full segmentation lattice (WFST) as of...will also benefit from the propagation of ambiguity. That is, the translation interface should communicate ambigu- ity about the translations to the

  17. Developing translational medicine professionals: the Marie Skłodowska-Curie action model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Prakken, Berent J; Rosenblum, Norman D

    2016-11-29

    End goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines and expertise to eventually promote improvement of the global healthcare system by delivering effective therapies to individuals and society. Well-trained experts of the translational medicine process endowed with profound knowledge of biomedical technology, ethical and clinical issues, as well as leadership and teamwork abilities are essential for the effective development of tangible therapeutic products for patients. In this article we focus on education and, in particular, we discuss how programs providing training on the broad spectrum of the translational medicine continuum have still a limited degree of diffusion and do not provide professional support and mentorship in the long-term, resulting in the lack of well established professionals of translational medicine (TMPs) in the scientific community. Here, we describe the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions program ITN-EUtrain (EUropean Translational tRaining for Autoimmunity & Immune manipulation Network) where training on the Translational Medicine machinery was integrated with education on professional and personal skills, mentoring, and a long-lasting network of TMPs.

  18. Summary of the Supplemental Model Reports Supporting the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has committed to a series of model reports documenting the methodology to be utilized in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report (YMP 2000). These model reports detail and provide validation of the methodology to be utilized for criticality analyses related to: (1) Waste form/waste package degradation; (2) Waste package isotopic inventory; (3) Criticality potential of degraded waste form/waste package configurations (effective neutron multiplication factor); (4) Probability of criticality (for each potential critical configuration as well as total event); and (5) Criticality consequences. This purpose of this summary report is to provide a status of the model reports and a schedule for their completion. This report also provides information relative to the model report content and validation. The model reports and their revisions are being generated as a result of: (1) Commitments made in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report (YMP 2000); (2) Open Items from the Safety Evaluation Report (Reamer 2000); (3) Key Technical Issue agreements made during DOE/U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Technical Exchange Meeting (Reamer and Williams 2000); and (4) NRC requests for additional information (Schlueter 2002)

  19. A robust methodology for kinetic model parameter estimation for biocatalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed; Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson

    2012-01-01

    Effective estimation of parameters in biocatalytic reaction kinetic expressions are very important when building process models to enable evaluation of process technology options and alternative biocatalysts. The kinetic models used to describe enzyme-catalyzed reactions generally include several...... parameters, which are strongly correlated with each other. State-of-the-art methodologies such as nonlinear regression (using progress curves) or graphical analysis (using initial rate data, for example, the Lineweaver-Burke plot, Hanes plot or Dixon plot) often incorporate errors in the estimates and rarely...... lead to globally optimized parameter values. In this article, a robust methodology to estimate parameters for biocatalytic reaction kinetic expressions is proposed. The methodology determines the parameters in a systematic manner by exploiting the best features of several of the current approaches...

  20. The Development of Marine Accidents Human Reliability Assessment Approach: HEART Methodology and MOP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are one of the important factors in the assessment of accidents, particularly marine accidents. Hence, studies are conducted to assess the contribution of human factors in accidents. There are two generations of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA that have been developed. Those methodologies are classified by the differences of viewpoints of problem-solving, as the first generation and second generation. The accident analysis can be determined using three techniques of analysis; sequential techniques, epidemiological techniques and systemic techniques, where the marine accidents are included in the epidemiological technique. This study compares the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART methodology and the 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP model, which are applied to assess marine accidents. Furthermore, the MOP model can effectively describe the relationships of other factors which affect the accidents; whereas, the HEART methodology is only focused on human factors.

  1. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackheim Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area.

  2. Developing a methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban areas using generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J M; Teodoro, F; Cerdeira, R; Coelho, L M R; Kumar, Prashant; Carvalho, M G

    2016-09-01

    A methodology to predict PM10 concentrations in urban outdoor environments is developed based on the generalized linear models (GLMs). The methodology is based on the relationship developed between atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants (i.e. CO, NO2, NOx, VOCs, SO2) and meteorological variables (i.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speed) for a city (Barreiro) of Portugal. The model uses air pollution and meteorological data from the Portuguese monitoring air quality station networks. The developed GLM considers PM10 concentrations as a dependent variable, and both the gaseous pollutants and meteorological variables as explanatory independent variables. A logarithmic link function was considered with a Poisson probability distribution. Particular attention was given to cases with air temperatures both below and above 25°C. The best performance for modelled results against the measured data was achieved for the model with values of air temperature above 25°C compared with the model considering all ranges of air temperatures and with the model considering only temperature below 25°C. The model was also tested with similar data from another Portuguese city, Oporto, and results found to behave similarly. It is concluded that this model and the methodology could be adopted for other cities to predict PM10 concentrations when these data are not available by measurements from air quality monitoring stations or other acquisition means.

  3. From LCAs to simplified models: a generic methodology applied to wind power electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padey, Pierryves; Girard, Robin; le Boulch, Denis; Blanc, Isabelle

    2013-02-05

    This study presents a generic methodology to produce simplified models able to provide a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment of energy pathways. The methodology relies on the application of global sensitivity analysis to identify key parameters explaining the impact variability of systems over their life cycle. Simplified models are built upon the identification of such key parameters. The methodology is applied to one energy pathway: onshore wind turbines of medium size considering a large sample of possible configurations representative of European conditions. Among several technological, geographical, and methodological parameters, we identified the turbine load factor and the wind turbine lifetime as the most influent parameters. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) performances have been plotted as a function of these key parameters identified. Using these curves, GHG performances of a specific wind turbine can be estimated, thus avoiding the undertaking of an extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This methodology should be useful for decisions makers, providing them a robust but simple support tool for assessing the environmental performance of energy systems.

  4. L-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2015-03-15

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. A Methodological Review of Structural Equation Modelling in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Teegan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increases in the number of articles published in higher education journals using structural equation modelling (SEM), research addressing their statistical sufficiency, methodological appropriateness and quantitative rigour is sparse. In response, this article provides a census of all covariance-based SEM articles published up until 2013…

  6. Methodology and Applications in Non-linear Model-based Geostatistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    that are approximately Gaussian. Parameter estimation and prediction for the transformed Gaussian model is studied. In some cases a transformation cannot possibly render the data Gaussian. A methodology for analysing such data was introduced by Diggle, Tawn and Moyeed (1998): The generalised linear spatial model....... Conditioned by an underlying and unobserved Gaussian process the observations at the measured locations follow a generalised linear model. Concerning inference Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used. The study of these models is the main topic of the thesis. Construction of priors, and the use of flat...... contains functions for inference in generalised linear spatial models.    ...

  7. TRANSLATING FEMINISM

    OpenAIRE

    Gajewska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Translating feminism Pointing to manifold and long-lasting connections between feminism and translation, the article first presents a selection of multilingual writers (Narcyza Żmichowska and Deborah Vogel), translators (Zofia Żeleńska and Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna) and translation commentators (Joanna Lisek and Karolina Szymaniak) to ponder why the work of early Polish feminists is neglected. It seems that one of the reasons might be the current colonization of Polish femini...

  8. Translation of Methdology used in Human Myocardial Imaging to a Sheep Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Bailey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-clinical investigation of stem cells for repairing damaged myocardium predominantly used rodents, however large animals have cardiac circulation closely resembling the human heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SPECT/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI could be used for assessing sheep myocardium following an acute myocardial infarction (MI and response to intervention. Method: 18 sheep enrolled in a pilot study to evaluate [99mTc]-sestamibi MPI at baseline, post-MI and after therapy. Modifications to the standard MPI protocols were developed. All data was reconstructed with OSEM using CT-derived attenuation and scatter correction. Standard analyses were performed and inter-observer agreement were measured using Kappa (. Power determined the sample sizes needed to show statistically significant changes due to intervention. Results: Ten sheep completed the full protocol. Data processed were performed using pre-existing hardware and software used in human MPI scanning. No improvement in perfusion was seen in the control group, however improvements of 15% - 35% were seen after intra-myocardial stem cell administration. Inter-observer agreement was excellent (К=0.89. Using a target power of 0.9, 28 sheep were required to detect a 10-12% change in perfusion. Conclusions: Study demonstrates the suitability of large animal models for imaging with standard MPI protocols and it’s feasibility with a manageable number of animals. These protocols could be translated into humans to study the efficacy of stem cell therapy in heart regeneration and repair.

  9. Translation of the rat thoracic contusion model; part 2 - forward versus backward locomotion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, S; Leerink, M; Nguyen, S; Platoshyn, O; Marsala, M; Joosten, E A

    2014-07-01

    Experimental animal study. Locomotion analyses in rat spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) models are widely used for the evaluation of recovery of supraspinal locomotor control. However, many commonly used locomotion tests are inadequate to test for spinal cord integrity as they assess motor function that can be highly mediated through below-level propriospinal pattern-generating circuitry, independently of below-level perception. Here we report a behavioral motor test that is more sensitive for spinal cord integrity, even 6 weeks after injury: the backward locomotion rotating rod. University of California - San Diego. A modified rotating rod test was run in reverse. The rod diameter was increased and thin rubber lining was added. As a reference, we included commonly used motor tests: BBB score, catwalk gait analysis, motor-evoked potentials, single frame analyses, a forward rotating rod test and the 55° inclined ladder test. Unlike commonly used motor tests, the backward locomotion rotating rod test significantly discriminates between both sham-operated (falling latency: 20.4 s s.d.±4.5) vs mild SCI animals, and mild vs moderate SCI animals (differences between each group at acute, subacute and chronic phases: ⩾6 s, P⩽0.01). Moderate SCI animals were practically unable to make even slight backward hindpaw movements. The backward locomotion ability in the chronic phase correlates best with BBB locomotor scores from the acute phase. Our data show that backward locomotion is a highly sensitive and quick test to discriminate between sham, mild and moderate SCI, even after 6 weeks. Backward locomotion testing may improve the translational value of experimental results for the clinic.

  10. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess...... this hypothesis, we operationalize translation literality as 1. the word-order similarity of the source and the target text and 2. the number of possible different translation renderings. We develop a literality metric and apply it on a set of manually word and sentence aligned alternative translations. Drawing...... on the monitor hypothesis (Tirkkonen-Condit 2005) and a model of shared syntax (Hartsuiker et al. 2004) we develop a model of translation effort based on priming strength: shared combinatorial nodes and meaning representations are activated through automatized bilingual priming processes where more strongly...

  11. Exploring the Integration of COSYSMO with a Model-Based Systems Engineering Methodology in Early Trade Space Analytics and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    methodology , analysis, and recommendations that appear in Chapters 3-5. 2.1 Major Defense Acquisition Programs: The Big Ticket Items Major defense...Chapter Summary: Methodology This chapter identifies and discusses the specific SysML models, data requirements, and model entities that relate to the...The background, methodology , and results presented in this thesis highlighted themes of compliance, use of system models, data utility, and an

  12. A Methodological Note for the Development of Integrated Aquaculture Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tsani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production can yield significant economic, social, and environmental effects. These exceed the financial costs and benefits aquaculture producers are faced with. We propose a methodology for the development of integrated production models that allow for the inclusion of the socio-economic and environmental effects of aquaculture into the production management. The methodology develops on a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis context and it includes three parts: (i environmental, that captures the interactions of aquaculture with the environment, (ii economic, that makes provision for the incorporation of economic determinants in the production models and (iii social, that introduces the social preferences to the production and management process. Alternatives to address data availability issues are also discussed. The methodology extends the assessment of the costs and benefits of aquaculture beyond pure financial metrics and beyond the quantification of private costs and benefits. It can also support the development of integrated models of aquaculture production that take into consideration both the private and the social costs and benefits associated with externalities and effects not appropriately captured by market mechanisms. The methodology can support aquaculture management and policies targeting sustainable and efficient aquaculture production and financing from an economic, financial, social, and environmental point of view.

  13. Simplified life cycle assessment models: methodological framework and applications to energy pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padey, Pierryves

    2013-01-01

    The energy transition debate is a key issue for today and the coming years. One of the challenges is to limit the environmental impacts of electricity production. Decision support tools, sufficiently accurate, simple to use, accounting for environmental aspects and favoring future energetic choices, must be implemented. However, the environmental assessment of the energy pathways is complex, and it means considering a two levels characterization. The 'energy pathway' is the first level and corresponds to its environmental distribution, to compare overall pathways. The 'system pathway' is the 2. level and compares environmental impacts of systems within each pathway. We have devised a generic methodology covering both necessary characterization levels by estimating the energy pathways environmental profiles while allowing a simple comparison of its systems environmental impacts. This methodology is based on the definition of a parameterized Life Cycle Assessment model and considers, through a Global Sensitivity Analysis, the environmental impacts of a large sample of systems representative of an energy pathway. As a second step, this methodology defines simplified models based on few key parameters identified as inducing the largest variability in the energy pathway environmental impacts. These models assess in a simple way the systems environmental impacts, avoiding any complex LCAs. This reduction methodology has been applied to the onshore wind power energy pathway in Europe and the photovoltaic energy pathway in France. (author)

  14. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization: A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experiences (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64831. Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate. Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  15. Methodology Development for SiC Sensor Signal Modelling in the Nuclear Reactor Radiation Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetnar, J.; Krolikowski, I.P.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with SiC detector simulation methodology for signal formation by neutrons and induced secondary radiation as well as its inverse interpretation. The primary goal is to achieve the SiC capability of simultaneous spectroscopic measurements of neutrons and gamma-rays for which an appropriate methodology of the detector signal modelling and its interpretation must be adopted. The process of detector simulation is divided into two basically separate but actually interconnected sections. The first one is the forward simulation of detector signal formation in the field of the primary neutron and secondary radiations, whereas the second one is the inverse problem of finding a representation of the primary radiation, based on the measured detector signals. The applied methodology under development is based on the Monte Carlo description of radiation transport and analysis of the reactor physics. The methodology of SiC detector signal interpretation will be based on the existing experience in neutron metrology developed in the past for various neutron and gamma-ray detection systems. Since the novel sensors based on SiC are characterised by a new structure, yet to be finally designed, the methodology for particle spectroscopic fluence measurement must be developed while giving a productive feed back to the designing process of SiC sensor, in order to arrive at the best possible design. (authors)

  16. Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin

    1999-11-01

    The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and

  17. A coupled groundwater-flow-modelling and vulnerability-mapping methodology for karstic terrain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouri, Konstantina P.; Karatzas, George P.; Plagnes, Valérie

    2017-08-01

    A coupled groundwater-flow-modelling and vulnerability-mapping methodology for the management of karst aquifers with spatial variability is developed. The methodology takes into consideration the duality of flow and recharge in karst and introduces a simple method to integrate the effect of temporal storage in the unsaturated zone. In order to investigate the applicability of the developed methodology, simulation results are validated against available field measurement data. The criteria maps from the PaPRIKa vulnerability-mapping method are used to document the groundwater flow model. The FEFLOW model is employed for the simulation of the saturated zone of Palaikastro-Chochlakies karst aquifer, in the island of Crete, Greece, for the hydrological years 2010-2012. The simulated water table reproduces typical karst characteristics, such as steep slopes and preferred drain axes, and is in good agreement with field observations. Selected calculated error indicators—Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and model efficiency (E')—are within acceptable value ranges. Results indicate that different storage processes take place in different parts of the aquifer. The north-central part seems to be more sensitive to diffuse recharge, while the southern part is affected primarily by precipitation events. Sensitivity analysis is performed on the parameters of hydraulic conductivity and specific yield. The methodology is used to estimate the feasibility of artificial aquifer recharge (AAR) at the study area. Based on the developed methodology, guidelines were provided for the selection of the appropriate AAR scenario that has positive impact on the water table.

  18. Mathematical models of tumor growth: translating absorbed dose to tumor control probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouros, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The dose-rate in internal emitter therapy is low and time-dependent as compared to external beam radiotherapy. Once the total absorbed dose delivered to a target tissue is calculated, however, most dosimetric analyses of radiopharmaceuticals are considered complete. To translate absorbed dose estimates obtained for internal emitter therapy to biologic effect, the growth characteristics, repair capacity, and radiosensitivity of the tumor must be considered. Tumor growth may be represented by the Gompertz equation in which tumor cells increase at an exponential growth rate that is itself decreasing at an exponential rate; as the tumor increases in size, the growth rate diminishes. The empirical Gompertz expression for tumor growth may be derived from a mechanistic model in which growth is represented by a balance between tumor-cell birth and loss. The birth rate is assumed to be fixed, while the cell loss rate is time-dependent and increases with tumor size. The birth rate of the tumors may be related to their potential doubling time. Multiple biopsies of individual tumors have demonstrated a heterogeneity in the potential doubling time of tumors. By extending the mechanistic model described above to allow for sub-populations of tumor cells with different birth rates, the effect of kinetic heterogeneity within a tumor may be examined. Model simulations demonstrate that the cell kinetic parameters of a tumor are predicted to change over time and measurements obtained using a biopsy are unlikely to reflect the kinetics of the tumor throughout its growth history. A decrease in overall tumor mass, in which each sub-population is reduced in proportion to its cell number, i.e., the log-kill assumption, leads to re-growth of a tumor that has a greater proliferation rate. Therapy that is linked to the potential doubling time or to the effective proliferation rate of the tumor may lead to re-growth of a tumor that is kinetically unchanged. The simplest model of

  19. Modeling and design methodology for metal-insulator-metal plasmonic Bragg reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Amir; Nejati, Hamid; Massoud, Yehia

    2008-02-04

    In this paper, we present a modeling and design methodology based on characteristic impedance for plasmonic waveguides with Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) configuration. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations indicate that the impedance matching results in negligible reflection at discontinuities in MIM heterostructures. Leveraging the MIM impedance model, we present a general Transfer Matrix Method model for MIM Bragg reflectors and validate our model against FDTD simulations. We show that both periodically stacked dielectric layers of different thickness or different material can achieve the same performance in terms of propagation loss and minimum transmission at the central bandgap frequency in the case of a finite number of periods.

  20. A parameter estimation and identifiability analysis methodology applied to a street canyon air pollution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, T. B.; Ketzel, Matthias; Skov, H.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models are increasingly used in environmental science thus increasing the importance of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. In the present study, an iterative parameter estimation and identifiability analysis methodology is applied to an atmospheric model – the Operational Street...... of the identifiability analysis, showed that some model parameters were significantly more sensitive than others. The application of the determined optimal parameter values was shown to successfully equilibrate the model biases among the individual streets and species. It was as well shown that the frequentist approach...

  1. Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: the influence of likelihood measure formulation in the GLUE methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gapare

    2009-12-15

    In the last years, the attention on integrated analysis of sewer networks, wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters has been growing. However, the common lack of data in the urban water-quality field and the incomplete knowledge regarding the interpretation of the main phenomena taking part in integrated urban water systems draw attention to the necessity of evaluating the reliability of model results. Uncertainty analysis can provide useful hints and information regarding the best model approach to be used by assessing its degrees of significance and reliability. Few studies deal with uncertainty assessment in the integrated urban-drainage field. In order to fill this gap, there has been a general trend towards transferring the knowledge and the methodologies from other fields. In this respect, the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Evaluation (GLUE) methodology, which is widely applied in the field of hydrology, can be a possible candidate for providing a solution to the above problem. However, the methodology relies on several user-defined hypotheses in the selection of a specific formulation of the likelihood measure. This paper presents a survey aimed at evaluating the influence of the likelihood measure formulation in the assessment of uncertainty in integrated urban-drainage modelling. To accomplish this objective, a home-made integrated urban-drainage model was applied to the Savena case study (Bologna, IT). In particular, the integrated urban-drainage model uncertainty was evaluated employing different likelihood measures. The results demonstrate that the subjective selection of the likelihood measure greatly affects the GLUE uncertainty analysis.

  2. Towards business improvement districts in Denmark: Translating a neoliberal urban intervention model into the Nordic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richner, Martin; Olesen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates how business improvement districts (BIDs) are translated into a Danish context. Drawing on a theoretical framework, combining the concepts of travelling ideas, mobile urbanism and neoliberalisation, this paper explores how an actor-network is being constructed to mobilise...

  3. A methodology for least-squares local quasi-geoid modelling using a noisy satellite-only gravity field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, R.; Slobbe, D. C.; Farahani, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    The paper is about a methodology to combine a noisy satellite-only global gravity field model (GGM) with other noisy datasets to estimate a local quasi-geoid model using weighted least-squares techniques. In this way, we attempt to improve the quality of the estimated quasi-geoid model and to complement it with a full noise covariance matrix for quality control and further data processing. The methodology goes beyond the classical remove-compute-restore approach, which does not account for the noise in the satellite-only GGM. We suggest and analyse three different approaches of data combination. Two of them are based on a local single-scale spherical radial basis function (SRBF) model of the disturbing potential, and one is based on a two-scale SRBF model. Using numerical experiments, we show that a single-scale SRBF model does not fully exploit the information in the satellite-only GGM. We explain this by a lack of flexibility of a single-scale SRBF model to deal with datasets of significantly different bandwidths. The two-scale SRBF model performs well in this respect, provided that the model coefficients representing the two scales are estimated separately. The corresponding methodology is developed in this paper. Using the statistics of the least-squares residuals and the statistics of the errors in the estimated two-scale quasi-geoid model, we demonstrate that the developed methodology provides a two-scale quasi-geoid model, which exploits the information in all datasets.

  4. Methodology of a diabetes prevention translational research project utilizing a community-academic partnership for implementation in an underserved Latino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yunsheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2–3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians. Methods and design The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a ≥ 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to either a usual care or a lifestyle intervention condition, and followed for one year. Like the efficacious Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, the LLDPP intervention targeted weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity. However, unlike the DPP, the LLDPP intervention was less intensive, tailored to literacy needs and cultural preferences, and delivered in Spanish. The group format of the intervention (13 group sessions over 1 year was complemented by 3 individual home visits and was implemented by individuals from the community with training and supervision by a clinical research nutritionist and a behavioral psychologist. Study measures included demographics, Stern predictive equation components (age, gender, ethnicity, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and family history of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, dietary intake, physical activity, depressive symptoms, social support, quality of life, and medication use. Body weight was measured at baseline, 6-months, and one-year; all other measures were assessed at baseline and one-year. All surveys were orally administered in Spanish. Results A community-academic partnership enabled the successful recruitment, intervention, and assessment of Latinos at

  5. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Gestal, Marcos; Munteanu, Cristian R; Dorado, Julian; Pazos, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  6. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernandez-Lozano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  7. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  8. Parametrization of translational surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Diaz, Sonia; Shen, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic translational surface is a typical modeling surface in computer aided design and architecture industry. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for that algebraic surface having a standard parametric representation and our proof is constructive. If the given algebraic surface is translational, then we can compute a standard parametric representation for the surface.

  9. CALS and the Product State Model - Methodology and Supporting Schools and Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    This paper address the preliminary considerations in a research project, initiated February 1997, regarding Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) which is a part of the activities in CALS Center Denmark. The CALS concept is presented focusing on the Product State Model (PSM). The PSM...... incorporates relevant information about each stage of the production process.The paper will describe the research object, the model object and discuss a part of the methodology in developing a Product State Model. The project is primarily technological, however, organisational and human aspects...

  10. Reference Controls Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the methodology behind Model Class Definition--the use of separate model assemblies of the same product, at different fidelities, driven by the same skeleton files. These fidelities can be used to convey only the detail that the end user needs, by allowing the end user to pick and choose between model classes for assembly creation. The usefulness of MPA for the Windchill Release Process will be demonstrated, along with its usefulness in minimizing CPU resources during design. The presentation will include an overview the ML product, how to structure complex products in a flexible modular architecture, and how to maximize system resources.

  11. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  12. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  13. 5th International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Ören, Tuncer; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 5th International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2015), held in Colmar, France, from 21 to 23 July 2015. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in methodologies and applications of modeling and simulation. New and innovative solutions are reported in this book. SIMULTECH 2015 received 102 submissions, from 36 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 19% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience interest, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of SIMULTECH 2015. Commitment to high quality standards is a major concern of SIMULTECH t...

  14. 2014 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ören, Tuncer; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Filipe, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 4th International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2014), held in Vienna, Austria, from 28 to 30 August 2014. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in methodologies and applications of modeling and simulation. New and innovative solutions are reported in this book. SIMULTECH 2014 received 167 submissions, from 45 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 23% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience interest, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of SIMULTECH 2014. Commitment to high quality standards is a major concern of SIMULTEC...

  15. Eigenvectors determination of the ribosome dynamics model during mRNA translation using the Kleene Star algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati; Carnia, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Eigenvalues and eigenvectors in max-plus algebra have the same important role as eigenvalues and eigenvectors in conventional algebra. In max-plus algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are useful for knowing dynamics of the system such as in train system scheduling, scheduling production systems and scheduling learning activities in moving classes. In the translation of proteins in which the ribosome move uni-directionally along the mRNA strand to recruit the amino acids that make up the protein, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used to calculate protein production rates and density of ribosomes on the mRNA. Based on this, it is important to examine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the process of protein translation. In this paper an eigenvector formula is given for a ribosome dynamics during mRNA translation by using the Kleene star algorithm in which the resulting eigenvector formula is simpler and easier to apply to the system than that introduced elsewhere. This paper also discusses the properties of the matrix {B}λ \\otimes n of model. Among the important properties, it always has the same elements in the first column for n = 1, 2,… if the eigenvalue is the time of initiation, λ = τin , and the column is the eigenvector of the model corresponding to λ.

  16. The Wyss institute: A new model for medical technology innovation and translation across the academic-industrial interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolikas, Mary; Antoniou, Ayis; Ingber, Donald E

    2017-09-01

    The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University was formed based on the recognition that breakthrough discoveries cannot change the world if they never leave the laboratory. The Institute's mission is to discover the biological principles that Nature uses to build living things, and to harness these insights to create biologically inspired engineering innovations to advance human health and create a more sustainable world. Since its launch in 2009, the Institute has developed a new model for innovation, collaboration, and technology translation within academia, breaking "silos" to enable collaborations that cross institutional and disciplinary barriers. Institute faculty and staff engage in high-risk research that leads to transformative breakthroughs. The biological principles uncovered are harnessed to develop new engineering solutions for medicine and healthcare, as well as nonmedical areas, such as energy, architecture, robotics, and manufacturing. These technologies are translated into commercial products and therapies through collaborations with clinical investigators, corporate alliances, and the formation of new start-ups that are driven by a unique internal business development team including entrepreneurs-in-residence with domain-specific expertise. Here, we describe this novel organizational model that the Institute has developed to change the paradigm of how fundamental discovery, medical technology innovation, and commercial translation are carried out at the academic-industrial interface.

  17. The dynamic transcriptional and translational landscape of the model antibiotic producer Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yujin; Kim, Ji-Nu; Kim, Min Woo; Bucca, Giselda; Cho, Suhyung; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Kim, Byung-Gee; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Sun Chang; Smith, Colin P; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2016-06-02

    Individual Streptomyces species have the genetic potential to produce a diverse array of natural products of commercial, medical and veterinary interest. However, these products are often not detectable under laboratory culture conditions. To harness their full biosynthetic potential, it is important to develop a detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that orchestrate their metabolism. Here we integrate nucleotide resolution genome-scale measurements of the transcriptome and translatome of Streptomyces coelicolor, the model antibiotic-producing actinomycete. Our systematic study determines 3,570 transcription start sites and identifies 230 small RNAs and a considerable proportion (∼21%) of leaderless mRNAs; this enables deduction of genome-wide promoter architecture. Ribosome profiling reveals that the translation efficiency of secondary metabolic genes is negatively correlated with transcription and that several key antibiotic regulatory genes are translationally induced at transition growth phase. These findings might facilitate the design of new approaches to antibiotic discovery and development.

  18. Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Dubljević, Veljko; Jox, Ralf J; Baertschi, Bernard; Christensen, Julia F; Farisco, Michele; Jotterand, Fabrice; Kahane, Guy; Müller, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an 'ethics of neuroscience' and a 'neuroscience of ethics'. However, questions surface as to whether a 'neuroscience of ethics' is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  20. Methodologies, models and parameters for environmental, impact assessment of hazardous and radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguero, A.; Cancio, D.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Romero, L.; Pinedo, P.; Robles, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Simon, I.; Suanez, A.

    2003-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology to assess the impact arising from contaminants present in hazardous and radioactive wastes has been developed. Taking into account of the background information on legislation, waste categories and contaminants inventory, and disposal, recycling and waste treatment options, an Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology (MEIA) is proposed. This is applicable to (i) several types of solid wastes (hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes; (ii) several management options (recycling and temporal and final storage (in shallow and deep disposal)), (iii) several levels of data availability. Conceptual and mathematical models and software tools needed for the application of the MEIA have been developed. Bearing in mind that this is a complex process, both the models and tools have to be developed following an iterative approaches, involving refinement of the models and go as to better correspond the described system. The selection of suitable parameters for the models is based on information derived from field and laboratory measurements and experiments, nd then applying a data elicitation protocol.. It is shown an application performed for a hypothetical shallow radioactive waste disposal facility (test case), with all the steps of the MEIA applied sequentially. In addition, the methodology is applied to an actual cases of waste management for hazardous wastes from the coal fuel cycle, demonstrating several possibilities for application of the MEIA from a practical perspective. The experience obtained in the development of the work shows that the use of the MEIA for the assessment of management options for hazardous and radioactive wastes gives important advantages, simplifying the execution of the assessment, its tracability and the dissemination of methodology assessment results to to other interested parties. (Author)

  1. A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    capability to estimate the historic impact of changes in economic conditions on the flows of labor into, between, and out of the Air Force active...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components...or considered about the effect that those policies might have on personnel flows into and out of other components. The degree to which this is

  2. A network model of genomic hormone interactions underlying dementia and its translational validation through serendipitous off-target effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background While the majority of studies have focused on the association between sex hormones and dementia, emerging evidence supports the role of other hormone signals in increasing dementia risk. However, due to the lack of an integrated view on mechanistic interactions of hormone signaling pathways associated with dementia, molecular mechanisms through which hormones contribute to the increased risk of dementia has remained unclear and capacity of translating hormone signals to potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications in relation to dementia has been undervalued. Methods Using an integrative knowledge- and data-driven approach, a global hormone interaction network in the context of dementia was constructed, which was further filtered down to a model of convergent hormone signaling pathways. This model was evaluated for its biological and clinical relevance through pathway recovery test, evidence-based analysis, and biomarker-guided analysis. Translational validation of the model was performed using the proposed novel mechanism discovery approach based on ‘serendipitous off-target effects’. Results Our results reveal the existence of a well-connected hormone interaction network underlying dementia. Seven hormone signaling pathways converge at the core of the hormone interaction network, which are shown to be mechanistically linked to the risk of dementia. Amongst these pathways, estrogen signaling pathway takes the major part in the model and insulin signaling pathway is analyzed for its association to learning and memory functions. Validation of the model through serendipitous off-target effects suggests that hormone signaling pathways substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia. Conclusions The integrated network model of hormone interactions underlying dementia may serve as an initial translational platform for identifying potential therapeutic targets and candidate biomarkers for dementia-spectrum disorders such as Alzheimer

  3. Model methodology for estimating pesticide concentration extremes based on sparse monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2018-03-22

    This report describes a new methodology for using sparse (weekly or less frequent observations) and potentially highly censored pesticide monitoring data to simulate daily pesticide concentrations and associated quantities used for acute and chronic exposure assessments, such as the annual maximum daily concentration. The new methodology is based on a statistical model that expresses log-transformed daily pesticide concentration in terms of a seasonal wave, flow-related variability, long-term trend, and serially correlated errors. Methods are described for estimating the model parameters, generating conditional simulations of daily pesticide concentration given sparse (weekly or less frequent) and potentially highly censored observations, and estimating concentration extremes based on the conditional simulations. The model can be applied to datasets with as few as 3 years of record, as few as 30 total observations, and as few as 10 uncensored observations. The model was applied to atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and fipronil data for U.S. Geological Survey pesticide sampling sites with sufficient data for applying the model. A total of 112 sites were analyzed for atrazine, 38 for carbaryl, 34 for chlorpyrifos, and 33 for fipronil. The results are summarized in this report; and, R functions, described in this report and provided in an accompanying model archive, can be used to fit the model parameters and generate conditional simulations of daily concentrations for use in investigations involving pesticide exposure risk and uncertainty.

  4. Decision modelling of non-pharmacological interventions for individuals with dementia: a systematic review of methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopina, Liza; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The main objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to identify and discuss methodological issues surrounding decision modelling for economic evaluation of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) in dementia. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for publ......Abstract Objectives: The main objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to identify and discuss methodological issues surrounding decision modelling for economic evaluation of non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) in dementia. Methods: A systematic search was conducted...... of challenging methodological issues were identified, including the use of MMSE-score as the main outcome measure, limited number of strategies compared, restricted time horizons, and limited or dated data on dementia onset, progression and mortality. Only one of the three tertiary prevention studies explicitly...... impact of NPIs for dementia in future decision models. It is also important to account for the effects of pharmacological therapies alongside the NPIs in economic evaluations. Access to more localised and up-to-date data on dementia onset, progression and mortality is a priority for accurate prediction....

  5. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Shen, Hongxia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McDevitt, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-07

    Policies aimed at energy conservation and efficiency have broad environmental and economic impacts. Even if these impacts are relatively small, they may be significant compared to the cost of implementing the policy. Methodologies that quantify the marginal impacts of reduced demand for energy have an important role to play in developing accurate measures of both the benefits and costs of a given policy choice. This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of reduced demand for electricity on the electric power sector as a whole. The approach uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a mid-range energy forecast model developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA)(DOE EIA 2013). The report is organized as follows: In the rest of this section the traditional NEMS-BT approach is reviewed and an outline of the new reduced form NEMS methodology is presented. Section 2 provides an overview of how the NEMS model works, and describes the set of NEMS-BT runs that are used as input to the reduced form approach. Section 3 presents our NEMS-BT simulation results and post-processing methods. In Section 4 we show how the NEMS-BT output can be generalized to apply to a broader set of end-uses. In Section 5 we disuss the application of this approach to policy analysis, and summarize some of the issues that will be further investigated in Part 2 of this study.

  6. Energy Demand Modeling Methodology of Key State Transitions of Turning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand modeling of machining processes is the foundation of energy optimization. Energy demand of machining state transition is integral to the energy requirements of the machining process. However, research focus on energy modeling of state transition is scarce. To fill this gap, an energy demand modeling methodology of key state transitions of the turning process is proposed. The establishment of an energy demand model of state transition could improve the accuracy of the energy model of the machining process, which also provides an accurate model and reliable data for energy optimization of the machining process. Finally, case studies were conducted on a CK6153i CNC lathe, the results demonstrating that predictive accuracy with the proposed method is generally above 90% for the state transition cases.

  7. Graduate Education for the Future: New Models and Methods for the Clinical and Translational Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L. Michelle; Cicutto, Lisa; Gadlin, Howard; Moss, Marc; Tentler, John; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper is the third in a five‐part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline, and it focuses on strategies for enhancing graduate research education to improve skills for interdisciplinary team science. Although some of the most cutting edge science takes place at the borders between disciplines, it is widely perceived that advancements in clinical and translational science are hindered by the “siloed” efforts of researchers who are comfortable working in their separate domains, and reluctant to stray from their own discipline when conducting research. Without appropriate preparation for career success as members and leaders of interdisciplinary teams, talented scientists may choose to remain siloed or to leave careers in clinical and translational science all together, weakening the pipeline and depleting the future biomedical research workforce. To address this threat, it is critical to begin at what is perhaps the most formative moment for academics: graduate training. This paper focuses on designs for graduate education, and contrasts the methods and outcomes from traditional educational approaches with those skills perceived as essential for the workforce of the future, including the capacity for research collaboration that crosses disciplinary boundaries. PMID:26643714

  8. Systematic iteration between model and methodology: A proposed approach to evaluating unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Jonathan A

    2017-09-18

    This article argues that evaluators could better deal with unintended consequences if they improved their methods of systematically and methodically combining empirical data collection and model building over the life cycle of an evaluation. This process would be helpful because it can increase the timespan from when the need for a change in methodology is first suspected to the time when the new element of the methodology is operational. The article begins with an explanation of why logic models are so important in evaluation, and why the utility of models is limited if they are not continually revised based on empirical evaluation data. It sets the argument within the larger context of the value and limitations of models in the scientific enterprise. Following will be a discussion of various issues that are relevant to model development and revision. What is the relevance of complex system behavior for understanding predictable and unpredictable unintended consequences, and the methods needed to deal with them? How might understanding of unintended consequences be improved with an appreciation of generic patterns of change that are independent of any particular program or change effort? What are the social and organizational dynamics that make it rational and adaptive to design programs around single-outcome solutions to multi-dimensional problems? How does cognitive bias affect our ability to identify likely program outcomes? Why is it hard to discern change as a result of programs being embedded in multi-component, continually fluctuating, settings? The last part of the paper outlines a process for actualizing systematic iteration between model and methodology, and concludes with a set of research questions that speak to how the model/data process can be made efficient and effective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and complex terms. These works will encourage the

  10. Exploring theoretical functions of corpus data in teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Poirier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36nesp1p177 As language referential data banks, corpora are instrumental in the exploration of translation solutions in bilingual parallel texts or conventional usages of source or target language in monolingual general or specialized texts. These roles are firmly rooted in translation processes, from analysis and interpretation of source text to searching for an acceptable equivalent and integrating it into the production of the target text. Provided the creative and not the conservative way be taken, validation or adaptation of target text in accordance with conventional usages in the target language also benefits from corpora. Translation teaching is not exploiting this way of translating that is common practice in the professional translation markets around the world. Instead of showing what corpus tools can do to translation teaching, we start our analysis with a common issue within translation teaching and show how corpus data can help to resolve it in learning activities in translation courses. We suggest a corpus-driven model for the interpretation of ‘business’ as a term and as an item in complex terms based on source text pattern analysis. This methodology will make it possible for teachers to explain and justify interpretation rules that have been defined theoretically from corpus data. It will also help teachers to conceive and non-subjectively assess practical activities designed for learners of translation. Corpus data selected for the examples of rule-based interpretations provided in this paper have been compiled in a corpus-driven study (Poirier, 2015 on the translation of the noun ‘business’ in the field of specialized translation in business, economics, and finance from English to French. The corpus methodology and rule-based interpretation of senses can be generalized and applied in the definition of interpretation rules for other language pairs and other specialized simple and

  11. What is translational research? Concepts and applications in nutrition and dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Van Horn, Linda; Gleason, Philip M; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-07-01

    This monograph is tenth in a series of articles focused on research design and analysis, and provides an overview of translational research concepts. Specifically, this article presents models and processes describing translational research, defines key terms, discusses methodological considerations for speeding the translation of nutrition research into practice, illustrates application of translational research concepts for nutrition practitioners and researchers, and provides examples of translational research resources and training opportunities. To promote the efficiency and translation of evidence-based nutrition guidelines into routine clinical-, community-, and policy-based practice, the dissemination and implementation phases of translational research are highlighted and illustrated in this monograph. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A translational cellular model to study the impact of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on human epithelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowes, Anja; de Jongh, Beatriz E; Cox, Timothy; Zhu, Yan; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been proposed as gentle ventilation strategy to prevent lung injury in the preterm infant. High-frequency jet ventilation leads to dimensional and mechanical airway deformation in animal airway models, which is consistent with translational studies demonstrating the impact of oxygen and biophysical stresses on normal airway cellular function. There is an overall paucity of clinical and cellular data on the impact of HFOV on the conducting airway. We developed an innovative method to test the impact of the clinical HFO Ventilator (SensorMedics 3100A) on human epithelial cell function. In this translational model, we were able to study the differential effects of biophysical stress due to HFOV independently and in combination with hyperoxia on a direct cellular level of the conducting airway system. Additionally, we could demonstrate that hyperoxia and pressure by HFOV independently resulted in significant cell dysfunction and inflammation, while the combination of HFOV and hyperoxia had a synergistic effect, resulting in greater cell death. Traditionally, large-animal models are used to analyze the impact of clinical ventilators on lung cellular function. In our dual-chamber model, we interface high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) directly with airway cells to study the effects of HFOV independently and combined with hyperoxia. Therefore, it is possible to study the preclinical impact of interventional factors without the high cost of animal models, thus reducing staff, time, as well as animal sparing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Methodology for transition probabilities determination in a Markov decision processes model for quality-accuracy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovska-Trendova Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the presented research is to define a methodology for determination of the transition probabilities in a Markov Decision Process on the example of optimization of the quality accuracy through optimization of its main measure (percent of scrap in a Performance Measurement System. This research had two main driving forces. First, today's urge for introduction of more robust, mathematically founded methods/tools in different enterprise areas, including PMSs. Second, since Markov Decision Processes are chosen as such tool, certain shortcomings of this approach had to be handled. Exactly the calculation of the transition probabilities is one of the weak points of the Markov Decision Processes. The proposed methodology for calculation of the transition probabilities is based on utilization of recorded historical data and they are calculated for each possible transition from a state after one run to a state after the following run of the influential factor (e.g. machine. The methodology encompasses several steps that include: collecting different data connected to the percent of scrap and their processing according to the needs of the methodology, determination of the limits of the states for every influential factor, classification of the data from real batches according to the determined states and calculation of the transition probabilities from one state to another state for every action. However, the implementation of the Markov Decision Process model with the proposed methodology for calculation of the transition probabilities resulted in optimal policy that showed significant differences in the percent of scrap, compared to the real situation when the optimization of the percent of scrap was done heuristically (5.2107% versus 13.5928%.

  14. Concepts and methodologies for modeling and simulation a tribute to Tuncer Oren

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Levent

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive text/reference presents cutting-edge advances in the theory and methodology of modeling and simulation (M&S), and reveals how this work has been influenced by the fundamental contributions of Professor Tuncer Ören to this field. Exploring the synergies among the domains of M&S and systems engineering (SE), the book describes how M&S and SE can help to address the complex problems identified as "Grand Challenges" more effectively under a model-driven and simulation-directed systems engineering framework. Topics and features: examines frameworks for the development of advan

  15. Methodologies for Verification and Validation of Space Launch System (SLS) Structural Dynamic Models: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Robert N.

    2018-01-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) is a highly challenging undertaking for SLS structural dynamics models due to the magnitude and complexity of SLS subassemblies and subassemblies. Responses to challenges associated with V&V of Space Launch System (SLS) structural dynamics models are presented in Volume I of this paper. Four methodologies addressing specific requirements for V&V are discussed. (1) Residual Mode Augmentation (RMA). (2) Modified Guyan Reduction (MGR) and Harmonic Reduction (HR, introduced in 1976). (3) Mode Consolidation (MC). Finally, (4) Experimental Mode Verification (EMV). This document contains the appendices to Volume I.

  16. A “Model to Model” Collaborative Perception Methodology for Distributed Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of collaborative engineering changes of models distributed in heterogeneous design platforms, a “model to model” perception methodology is proposed in this paper. A self-management collaborative architecture is presented by peer to peer architecture and multiagent system. The network addresses correlation between heterogeneous platforms is built up by the perception router ontology. In the same way, the correlation between design models is described by the feature relation ontology. The design changes are encapsulated by the model modification ontology. Along with the ontology above, the design change search method is devised to catch the geometric changes; the influence search method is proposed to discover the influenced design feature and the design change adapting method is used to preserve the correlation coherence after perception. Through the work, the conventional design perception mode among designers has transformed into direct perception among models instead.

  17. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  18. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome: translational relevance and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise M.; Sigalet, David L.; Vegge, Andreas; Burrin, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus, and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, and nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Animal studies are needed to carefully evaluate the cellular mechanisms, safety, and translational relevance of new procedures. Distal intestinal resection, without a functioning colon, results in the most severe complications and adaptation may depend on the age at resection (preterm, term, young, adult). Clinically relevant therapies have recently been suggested from studies in preterm and term PN-dependent SBS piglets, with or without a functional colon. Studies in rats and mice have specifically addressed the fundamental physiological processes underlying adaptation at the cellular level, such as regulation of mucosal proliferation, apoptosis, transport, and digestive enzyme expression, and easily allow exogenous or genetic manipulation of growth factors and their receptors (e.g., glucagon-like peptide 2, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g., PN, milk diets, long-/short-chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely, newborn pigs (preterm or term) and weanling rats provide better insights into the developmental aspects of treatment for SBS in infants owing to their immature intestines. The review shows that a balance among practical, economical, experimental, and ethical constraints will determine the

  19. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... to the national context. In the ESF, grassroots deliberators work using a novel practice of translation that has the potential to include marginalized groups. It is, however, a distinct kind of translation that activists use. Translation, compared to EU-official practices of multilingualism, affects a change...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  20. SHARING ON WEB 3D MODELS OF ANCIENT THEATRES. A METHODOLOGICAL WORKFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the need to share on the Web the knowledge of Cultural Heritage (CH through navigable 3D models has increased. This need requires the availability of Web-based virtual reality systems and 3D WEBGIS. In order to make the information available to all stakeholders, these instruments should be powerful and at the same time very user-friendly. However, research and experiments carried out so far show that a standardized methodology doesn’t exist. All this is due both to complexity and dimensions of geometric models to be published, on the one hand, and to excessive costs of hardware and software tools, on the other. In light of this background, the paper describes a methodological approach for creating 3D models of CH, freely exportable on the Web, based on HTML5 and free and open source software. HTML5, supporting the WebGL standard, allows the exploration of 3D spatial models using most used Web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer. The methodological workflow here described has been tested for the construction of a multimedia geo-spatial platform developed for three-dimensional exploration and documentation of the ancient theatres of Segesta and of Carthage, and the surrounding landscapes. The experimental application has allowed us to explore the potential and limitations of sharing on the Web of 3D CH models based on WebGL standard. Sharing capabilities could be extended defining suitable geospatial Web-services based on capabilities of HTML5 and WebGL technology.

  1. Modeling of Throughput in Production Lines Using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Nuñez-Piña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of assigning buffers in a production line to obtain an optimum production rate is a combinatorial problem of type NP-Hard and it is known as Buffer Allocation Problem. It is of great importance for designers of production systems due to the costs involved in terms of space requirements. In this work, the relationship among the number of buffer slots, the number of work stations, and the production rate is studied. Response surface methodology and artificial neural network were used to develop predictive models to find optimal throughput values. 360 production rate values for different number of buffer slots and workstations were used to obtain a fourth-order mathematical model and four hidden layers’ artificial neural network. Both models have a good performance in predicting the throughput, although the artificial neural network model shows a better fit (R=1.0000 against the response surface methodology (R=0.9996. Moreover, the artificial neural network produces better predictions for data not utilized in the models construction. Finally, this study can be used as a guide to forecast the maximum or near maximum throughput of production lines taking into account the buffer size and the number of machines in the line.

  2. A modelling methodology for assessing the impact of climate variability and climatic change on hydroelectric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, J.R.; Sailor, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new methodology relating basic climatic variables to hydroelectric generation was developed. The methodology can be implemented in large or small basins with any number of hydro plants. The method was applied to the Sacramento, Eel and Russian river basins in northern California where more than 100 hydroelectric plants are located. The final model predicts the availability of hydroelectric generation for the entire basin provided present and near past climate conditions, with about 90% accuracy. The results can be used for water management purposes or for analyzing the effect of climate variability on hydrogeneration availability in the basin. A wide range of results can be obtained depending on the climate change scenario used. (Author)

  3. Mathematical Methodology for New Modeling of Water Hammer in Emergency Core Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungchan; Yoon, Dukjoo; Ha, Sangjun

    2013-01-01

    In engineering insight, the water hammer study has carried out through the experimental work and the fluid mechanics. In this study, a new access methodology is introduced by Newton mechanics and a mathematical method. Also, NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the effect of water-hammer for the protection of pipes of the Emergency Core Cooling System, which is related to the Residual Heat Removal System and the Containment Spray System. This paper includes modeling, the processes of derivation of the mathematical equations and the comparison with other experimental work. To analyze the effect of water-hammer, this mathematical methodology is carried out. This study is in good agreement with other experiment results as above. This method is very efficient to explain the water-hammer phenomena

  4. [Methodological novelties applied to the anthropology of food: agent-based models and social networks analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Córdova, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce two methodological strategies that have not often been utilized in the anthropology of food: agent-based models and social networks analysis. In order to illustrate these methods in action, two cases based in materials typical of the anthropology of food are presented. For the first strategy, fieldwork carried out in Quebrada de Humahuaca (province of Jujuy, Argentina) regarding meal recall was used, and for the second, elements of the concept of "domestic consumption strategies" applied by Aguirre were employed. The underlying idea is that, given that eating is recognized as a "total social fact" and, therefore, as a complex phenomenon, the methodological approach must also be characterized by complexity. The greater the number of methods utilized (with the appropriate rigor), the better able we will be to understand the dynamics of feeding in the social environment.

  5. Avoiding and identifying errors in health technology assessment models: qualitative study and methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, J; Tappenden, P; Rawdin, A; Johnson, M; Kaltenthaler, E; Paisley, S; Papaioannou, D; Shippam, A

    2010-05-01

    Health policy decisions must be relevant, evidence-based and transparent. Decision-analytic modelling supports this process but its role is reliant on its credibility. Errors in mathematical decision models or simulation exercises are unavoidable but little attention has been paid to processes in model development. Numerous error avoidance/identification strategies could be adopted but it is difficult to evaluate the merits of strategies for improving the credibility of models without first developing an understanding of error types and causes. The study aims to describe the current comprehension of errors in the HTA modelling community and generate a taxonomy of model errors. Four primary objectives are to: (1) describe the current understanding of errors in HTA modelling; (2) understand current processes applied by the technology assessment community for avoiding errors in development, debugging and critically appraising models for errors; (3) use HTA modellers' perceptions of model errors with the wider non-HTA literature to develop a taxonomy of model errors; and (4) explore potential methods and procedures to reduce the occurrence of errors in models. It also describes the model development process as perceived by practitioners working within the HTA community. A methodological review was undertaken using an iterative search methodology. Exploratory searches informed the scope of interviews; later searches focused on issues arising from the interviews. Searches were undertaken in February 2008 and January 2009. In-depth qualitative interviews were performed with 12 HTA modellers from academic and commercial modelling sectors. All qualitative data were analysed using the Framework approach. Descriptive and explanatory accounts were used to interrogate the data within and across themes and subthemes: organisation, roles and communication; the model development process; definition of error; types of model error; strategies for avoiding errors; strategies for

  6. Design of an Emulsion-based Personal Detergent through a Model-based Chemical Product Design Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Hill, Michael; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    An extended systematic methodology for the design of emulsion-based Chemical products is presented. The methodology consists of a model-based framework involving seven sequential hierarchical steps: starting with the identification of the needs to be satisfied by the product and then adding one-b...... to obtain one or more candidate formulations. A conceptual casestudy representing a personal detergent is presented to highlight the methodology....

  7. Model checking methodology for large systems, faults and asynchronous behaviour. SARANA 2011 work report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.; Launiainen, T.; Heljanko, K.; Ropponen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are challenging to verify. They enable complicated control functions, and the state spaces of the models easily become too large for comprehensive verification through traditional methods. Model checking is a formal method that can be used for system verification. A number of efficient model checking systems are available that provide analysis tools to determine automatically whether a given state machine model satisfies the desired safety properties. This report reviews the work performed in the Safety Evaluation and Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Automation (SARANA) project in 2011 regarding model checking. We have developed new, more exact modelling methods that are able to capture the behaviour of a system more realistically. In particular, we have developed more detailed fault models depicting the hardware configuration of a system, and methodology to model function-block-based systems asynchronously. In order to improve the usability of our model checking methods, we have developed an algorithm for model checking large modular systems. The algorithm can be used to verify properties of a model that could otherwise not be verified in a straightforward manner. (orig.)

  8. Model checking methodology for large systems, faults and asynchronous behaviour. SARANA 2011 work report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Launiainen, T.; Heljanko, K.; Ropponen, J. [Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Information and Computer Science

    2012-07-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are challenging to verify. They enable complicated control functions, and the state spaces of the models easily become too large for comprehensive verification through traditional methods. Model checking is a formal method that can be used for system verification. A number of efficient model checking systems are available that provide analysis tools to determine automatically whether a given state machine model satisfies the desired safety properties. This report reviews the work performed in the Safety Evaluation and Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Automation (SARANA) project in 2011 regarding model checking. We have developed new, more exact modelling methods that are able to capture the behaviour of a system more realistically. In particular, we have developed more detailed fault models depicting the hardware configuration of a system, and methodology to model function-block-based systems asynchronously. In order to improve the usability of our model checking methods, we have developed an algorithm for model checking large modular systems. The algorithm can be used to verify properties of a model that could otherwise not be verified in a straightforward manner. (orig.)

  9. 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koziel, Slawomir; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Leifsson, Leifur; Ören, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2013) which was co-organized by the Reykjavik University (RU) and sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC). SIMULTECH 2013 was held in cooperation with the ACM SIGSIM - Special Interest Group (SIG) on SImulation and Modeling (SIM), Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS) and AIS Special Interest Group on Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), Liophant Simulation, Simulation Team and International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP). This proceedings brings together researchers, engineers, applied mathematicians and practitioners working in the advances and applications in the field of system simulation.

  10. Power Prediction Model for Turning EN-31 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hameedullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption in turning EN-31 steel (a material that is most extensively used in automotive industry with tungstencarbide tool under different cutting conditions was experimentally investigated. The experimental runs were planned accordingto 24+8 added centre point factorial design of experiments, replicated thrice. The data collected was statisticallyanalyzed using Analysis of Variance technique and first order and second order power consumption prediction models weredeveloped by using response surface methodology (RSM. It is concluded that second-order model is more accurate than thefirst-order model and fit well with the experimental data. The model can be used in the automotive industries for decidingthe cutting parameters for minimum power consumption and hence maximum productivity

  11. Topobathymetric elevation model development using a new methodology: Coastal National Elevation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Tyler, Dean; Gesch, Dean B.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John

    2016-01-01

    During the coming decades, coastlines will respond to widely predicted sea-level rise, storm surge, and coastalinundation flooding from disastrous events. Because physical processes in coastal environments are controlled by the geomorphology of over-the-land topography and underwater bathymetry, many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require detailed knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. In this paper, an updated methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) Applications Project is presented for developing coastal topobathymetric elevation models (TBDEMs) from multiple topographic data sources with adjacent intertidal topobathymetric and offshore bathymetric sources to generate seamlessly integrated TBDEMs. This repeatable, updatable, and logically consistent methodology assimilates topographic data (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) into a seamless coastal elevation model. Within the overarching framework, vertical datum transformations are standardized in a workflow that interweaves spatially consistent interpolation (gridding) techniques with a land/water boundary mask delineation approach. Output gridded raster TBDEMs are stacked into a file storage system of mosaic datasets within an Esri ArcGIS geodatabase for efficient updating while maintaining current and updated spatially referenced metadata. Topobathymetric data provide a required seamless elevation product for several science application studies, such as shoreline delineation, coastal inundation mapping, sediment-transport, sea-level rise, storm surge models, and tsunami impact assessment. These detailed coastal elevation data are critical to depict regions prone to climate change impacts and are essential to planners and managers responsible for mitigating the associated risks and costs to both human communities and ecosystems. The CoNED methodology approach has been used to construct integrated TBDEM models

  12. Phoenix – A model-based Human Reliability Analysis methodology: Qualitative Analysis Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekanem, Nsimah J.; Mosleh, Ali; Shen, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix method is an attempt to address various issues in the field of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). Built on a cognitive human response model, Phoenix incorporates strong elements of current HRA good practices, leverages lessons learned from empirical studies, and takes advantage of the best features of existing and emerging HRA methods. Its original framework was introduced in previous publications. This paper reports on the completed methodology, summarizing the steps and techniques of its qualitative analysis phase. The methodology introduces the “Crew Response Tree” which provides a structure for capturing the context associated with Human Failure Events (HFEs), including errors of omission and commission. It also uses a team-centered version of the Information, Decision and Action cognitive model and “macro-cognitive” abstractions of crew behavior, as well as relevant findings from cognitive psychology literature and operating experience, to identify potential causes of failures and influencing factors during procedure-driven and knowledge-supported crew-plant interactions. The result is the set of identified HFEs and likely scenarios leading to each. The methodology itself is generic in the sense that it is compatible with various quantification methods, and can be adapted for use across different environments including nuclear, oil and gas, aerospace, aviation, and healthcare. - Highlights: • Produces a detailed, consistent, traceable, reproducible and properly documented HRA. • Uses “Crew Response Tree” to capture context associated with Human Failure Events. • Models dependencies between Human Failure Events and influencing factors. • Provides a human performance model for relating context to performance. • Provides a framework for relating Crew Failure Modes to its influencing factors.

  13. A road map to Translational Medicine in Qatar and a model for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational Medicine (TM in Qatar is part of a concerted effort of the Qatari medical and scientific leadership supported by a strong political will by Qatari authorities to deliver world-class health care to Qatari residents while participating in the worldwide quest to bridge the gap between bench-to-bedside-to-community. TM programs should embrace the Qatar National vision for research to become an international hub of excellence in research and development, based on intellectual merit, contributing to global knowledge and adhering to international standards, to innovate by translating new and original ideas into useful applications, to be inclusive at the national and international level, to build and maintain a competitive and diversified economy and ultimately improve the health and well-being of the Qatar’s population. Although this writing focuses on Qatar, we hope that the thoughts expressed here may be of broader use for the development of any TM program particularly in regions where an established academic community surrounded by a rich research infrastructure and/or a vibrant biotechnology enterprise is not already present.

  14. DATA MINING METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MODEL OF COST PREDICTION IN SHIP INTERIM PRODUCT ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kolich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict costs of the thousands of interim products that are assembled in shipyards, it is necessary to use skilled engineers to develop detailed Gantt charts for each interim product separately which takes many hours. It is helpful to develop a prediction tool to estimate the cost of interim products accurately and quickly without the need for skilled engineers. This will drive down shipyard costs and improve competitiveness. Data mining is used extensively for developing prediction models in other industries. Since ships consist of thousands of interim products, it is logical to develop a data mining methodology for a shipyard or any other manufacturing industry where interim products are produced. The methodology involves analysis of existing interim products and data collection. Pre-processing and principal component analysis is done to make the data “user-friendly” for later prediction processing and the development of both accurate and robust models. The support vector machine is demonstrated as the better model when there are a lower number of tuples. However as the number of tuples is increased to over 10000, then the artificial neural network model is recommended.

  15. Methodology of synchronization among strategy and operation. A standards-based modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR EDWIN COLLAZOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Architecture (EA has gained importance in recent years, mainly for its concept of “alignment” between the strategic and operational levels of organizations. Such alignment occurs when Information Technology (IT is applied correctly and timely, working in synergy and harmony with strategy and the operation to achieve mutually their own goals and satisfy the organizational needs.Both the strategic and operational levels have standards that help model elements necessary to obtain desired results. In this sense, BMM and BPMN were selected because both have the support of OMG and they are fairly well known for modelling the strategic level and operational level, respectively. In addition, i* modeling goal can be used for reducing the gap between these two standards. This proposal may help both the high-level design of the information system and to the appropriate identification of the business processes that will support it.This paper presents a methodology for aligning strategy and the operation based on standards and heuristics. We have made a classification for elements of the models and, for some specific cases, an extension of the heuristics associated between them. This allows us to propose methodology, which uses above-mentioned standards and combines mappings, transformations and actions to be considered in the alignment process.

  16. Capturing complexity in work disability research: application of system dynamics modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Hettinger, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamics modeling (SDM) methodology applies a sociotechnical systems thinking lens to view WD systems as comprising a range of influential factors linked by feedback relationships. SDM can potentially overcome limitations in contemporary WD models by uncovering causal feedback relationships, and conceptualizing dynamic system behaviors. It employs a collaborative and stakeholder-based model building methodology to create a visual depiction of the system as a whole. SDM can also enable researchers to run dynamic simulations to provide evidence of anticipated or unanticipated outcomes that could result from policy and programmatic intervention. SDM may advance rehabilitation research by providing greater insights into the structure and dynamics of WD systems while helping to understand inherent complexity. Challenges related to data availability, determining validity, and the extensive time and technical skill requirements for model building may limit SDM's use in the field and should be considered. Contemporary work disability (WD) models provide limited insight into complexity associated with WD processes. System dynamics modeling (SDM) has the potential to capture complexity through a stakeholder-based approach that generates a simulation model consisting of multiple feedback loops. SDM may enable WD researchers and practitioners to understand the structure and behavior of the WD system as a whole, and inform development of improved strategies to manage straightforward and complex WD cases.

  17. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems using two dynamic methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldemir, T., E-mail: aldemir.1@osu.ed [Ohio State University, Nuclear Engineering Program, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Guarro, S. [ASCA, Inc., 1720 S. Catalina Avenue, Suite 220, Redondo Beach, CA 90277-5501 (United States); Mandelli, D. [Ohio State University, Nuclear Engineering Program, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kirschenbaum, J. [Ohio State University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mangan, L.A. [Ohio State University, Nuclear Engineering Program, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bucci, P. [Ohio State University, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yau, M. [ASCA, Inc., 1720 S. Catalina Avenue, Suite 220, Redondo Beach, CA 90277-5501 (United States); Ekici, E. [Ohio State University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Miller, D.W.; Sun, X. [Ohio State University, Nuclear Engineering Program, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Arndt, S.A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The Markov/cell-to-cell mapping technique (CCMT) and the dynamic flowgraph methodology (DFM) are two system logic modeling methodologies that have been proposed to address the dynamic characteristics of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and provide risk-analytical capabilities that supplement those provided by traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques for nuclear power plants. Both methodologies utilize a discrete state, multi-valued logic representation of the digital I and C system. For probabilistic quantification purposes, both techniques require the estimation of the probabilities of basic system failure modes, including digital I and C software failure modes, that appear in the prime implicants identified as contributors to a given system event of interest. As in any other system modeling process, the accuracy and predictive value of the models produced by the two techniques, depend not only on the intrinsic features of the modeling paradigm, but also and to a considerable extent on information and knowledge available to the analyst, concerning the system behavior and operation rules under normal and off-nominal conditions, and the associated controlled/monitored process dynamics. The application of the two methodologies is illustrated using a digital feedwater control system (DFWCS) similar to that of an operating pressurized water reactor. This application was carried out to demonstrate how the use of either technique, or both, can facilitate the updating of an existing nuclear power plant PRA model following an upgrade of the instrumentation and control system from analog to digital. Because of scope limitations, the focus of the demonstration of the methodologies was intentionally limited to aspects of digital I and C system behavior for which probabilistic data was on hand or could be generated within the existing project bounds of time and resources. The data used in the probabilistic quantification portion of the

  19. Methodologies for evaluating performance and assessing uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph C.

    This thesis describes methodologies to evaluate the performance and to assess the uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion models, tools that predict the fate of gases and aerosols upon their release into the atmosphere. Because of the large economic and public-health impacts often associated with the use of the dispersion model results, these models should be properly evaluated, and their uncertainty should be properly accounted for and understood. The CALPUFF, HPAC, and VLSTRACK dispersion modeling systems were applied to the Dipole Pride (DP26) field data (˜20 km in scale), in order to demonstrate the evaluation and uncertainty assessment methodologies. Dispersion model performance was found to be strongly dependent on the wind models used to generate gridded wind fields from observed station data. This is because, despite the fact that the test site was a flat area, the observed surface wind fields still showed considerable spatial variability, partly because of the surrounding mountains. It was found that the two components were comparable for the DP26 field data, with variability more important than uncertainty closer to the source, and less important farther away from the source. Therefore, reducing data errors for input meteorology may not necessarily increase model accuracy due to random turbulence. DP26 was a research-grade field experiment, where the source, meteorological, and concentration data were all well-measured. Another typical application of dispersion modeling is a forensic study where the data are usually quite scarce. An example would be the modeling of the alleged releases of chemical warfare agents during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, where the source data had to rely on intelligence reports, and where Iraq had stopped reporting weather data to the World Meteorological Organization since the 1981 Iran-Iraq-war. Therefore the meteorological fields inside Iraq must be estimated by models such as prognostic mesoscale meteorological models, based on

  20. New methodologies for calculation of flight parameters on reduced scale wings models in wind tunnel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mosbah, Abdallah

    In order to improve the qualities of wind tunnel tests, and the tools used to perform aerodynamic tests on aircraft wings in the wind tunnel, new methodologies were developed and tested on rigid and flexible wings models. A flexible wing concept is consists in replacing a portion (lower and/or upper) of the skin with another flexible portion whose shape can be changed using an actuation system installed inside of the wing. The main purpose of this concept is to improve the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft, and especially to reduce the fuel consumption of the airplane. Numerical and experimental analyses were conducted to develop and test the methodologies proposed in this thesis. To control the flow inside the test sections of the Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel of LARCASE, numerical and experimental analyses were performed. Computational fluid dynamics calculations have been made in order to obtain a database used to develop a new hybrid methodology for wind tunnel calibration. This approach allows controlling the flow in the test section of the Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel. For the fast determination of aerodynamic parameters, new hybrid methodologies were proposed. These methodologies were used to control flight parameters by the calculation of the drag, lift and pitching moment coefficients and by the calculation of the pressure distribution around an airfoil. These aerodynamic coefficients were calculated from the known airflow conditions such as angles of attack, the mach and the Reynolds numbers. In order to modify the shape of the wing skin, electric actuators were installed inside the wing to get the desired shape. These deformations provide optimal profiles according to different flight conditions in order to reduce the fuel consumption. A controller based on neural networks was implemented to obtain desired displacement actuators. A metaheuristic algorithm was used in hybridization with neural networks, and support vector machine approaches and their

  1. Modelling the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan Storm Surge: Effect of Waves, Offshore Winds, Tide Phase, and Translation Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgera, P. H. T.; Villanoy, C.; Cabrera, O.

    2016-02-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan, with wind speeds exceeding 300 km h-1 (160 knots) generated a storm surge in San Pedro Bay reaching heights of more than 6m in Tacloban City. Delft Dashboard (DDB), an open-source standalone Matlab based graphical user interface linked to the FLOW and WAVE modeling software of Deltares, was used to develop a coupled flow and wave storm surge model to understand the Typhoon Haiyan storm surge development and propagation. Various experiments were designed to determine the effect of waves, the occurrence of offshore winds prior to the surge, tidal phase, and typhoon translation speed on the surge height. Wave coupling decreased the surge height by about 0.5m probably due to energy dissipation from white capping, bottom friction, and depth-induced breaking. Offshore-directed winds before the arrival of the storm eye resulted to receding of the water level in San Pedro and Cancabato Bay, corroborated by eyewitness and tide gauge data. The experiment wherein the offshore winds were removed resulted to no water receding and a surge with a smaller and gentler surge front, pointing to the importance of the initial water level drawdown in contributing to the destructive power of the wave front. With regard to tides, the effect in Tacloban was actually neither linear nor additive to the surge, with higher surge coincident to low tides and lower surge coincident to high tides. Lastly, the model run with typhoon having a slower translation speed than Haiyan was found to generate higher surges.

  2. Animal models in psychiatric research: The RDoC system as a new framework for endophenotype-oriented translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderzhanova, Elmira; Kirmeier, Thomas; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2017-12-01

    The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases. Therefore, as a possible framework for experimental studies it allows one to evade a major challenge of translational studies of strict disease-to-model correspondence. The system conforms with the concept of a normality and pathology continuum, therefore, supports basic studies. The units of analysis of the RDoC system appear as a novel matrix for model validation. The general regulation and arousal, positive valence, negative valence, and social interactions behavioural domains of the RDoC system show basic construct, network, and phenomenological homologies between human and experimental animals. The nature and complexity of the cognitive behavioural domain of the RDoC system deserve further clarification. These homologies in the 4 domains justifies the validity, reliably and translatability of animal models appearing as endophenotypes of the negative and positive affect, social interaction and general regulation and arousal systems' dysfunction.

  3. Frescoed Vaults: Accuracy Controlled Simplified Methodology for Planar Development of Three-Dimensional Textured Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.

  4. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  5. Boolean modeling in systems biology: an overview of methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Albert, Réka; Saadatpour, Assieh

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biological processes provides deep insights into complex cellular systems. While quantitative and continuous models such as differential equations have been widely used, their use is obstructed in systems wherein the knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is scarce. On the other hand, a wealth of molecular level qualitative data on individual components and interactions can be obtained from the experimental literature and high-throughput technologies, making qualitative approaches such as Boolean network modeling extremely useful. In this paper, we build on our research to provide a methodology overview of Boolean modeling in systems biology, including Boolean dynamic modeling of cellular networks, attractor analysis of Boolean dynamic models, as well as inferring biological regulatory mechanisms from high-throughput data using Boolean models. We finally demonstrate how Boolean models can be applied to perform the structural analysis of cellular networks. This overview aims to acquaint life science researchers with the basic steps of Boolean modeling and its applications in several areas of systems biology. (paper)

  6. Modeling companion diagnostics in economic evaluations of targeted oncology therapies: systematic review and methodological checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Tan, Marcus; Harris, Anthony; Lorgelly, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The successful use of a targeted therapy is intrinsically linked to the ability of a companion diagnostic to correctly identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of companion diagnostics that are of importance for inclusion in an economic evaluation. Approaches for including these characteristics in model-based economic evaluations are compared with the intent to describe best practice methods. Five databases and government agency websites were searched to identify model-based economic evaluations comparing a companion diagnostic and subsequent treatment strategy to another alternative treatment strategy with model parameters for the sensitivity and specificity of the companion diagnostic (primary synthesis). Economic evaluations that limited model parameters for the companion diagnostic to only its cost were also identified (secondary synthesis). Quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. 30 studies were included in the review (primary synthesis n = 12; secondary synthesis n = 18). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios may be lower when the only parameter for the companion diagnostic included in a model is the cost of testing. Incorporating the test's accuracy in addition to its cost may be a more appropriate methodological approach. Altering the prevalence of the genetic biomarker, specific population tested, type of test, test accuracy and timing/sequence of multiple tests can all impact overall model results. The impact of altering a test's threshold for positivity is unknown as it was not addressed in any of the included studies. Additional quality criteria as outlined in our methodological checklist should be considered due to the shortcomings of standard quality assessment tools in differentiating studies that incorporate important test-related characteristics and those that do not. There is a need to refine methods for incorporating the characteristics

  7. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  8. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the

  9. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  10. A rigorous methodology for development and uncertainty analysis of group contribution based property models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    ) assessment of property model prediction errors, (iii) effect of outliers and data pre-treatment, (iv) formulation of parameter estimation problem (e.g. weighted least squares, ordinary least squares, robust regression, etc.) In this study a comprehensive methodology is developed to perform a rigorous......) weighted-least-square regression. 3) Initialization of estimation by use of linear algebra providing a first guess. 4) Sequential parameter and simultaneous GC parameter by using of 4 different minimization algorithms. 5) Thorough uncertainty analysis: a) based on asymptotic approximation of parameter...

  11. Optimization of the propulsion cycles for advanced shuttles. I - Propulsion mass model methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

    1989-01-01

    During the past year NASA and DLR computer codes were combined in order to analyze and optimize advanced rocket launcher systems. Previous optimization results led to relatively low chamber pressures and nozzle area ratios for the different cycles. Additional effort has been made to improve the verification of propulsive parameters such as chamber pressure, nozzle extension, kind of cycle, tripropellant systems, variable mixture ratio rocket motors, new technology effects, etc. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the methodology of the improved propulsion mass model.

  12. A Consistent Methodology Based Parameter Estimation for a Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spann, Robert; Roca, Christophe; Kold, David

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are used in many industrial applications, e.g. as starter cultures in the dairy industry or as probiotics, and research on their cell production is highly required. A first principles kinetic model was developed to describe and understand the biological, physical, and chemical...... mechanisms in a lactic acid bacteria fermentation. We present here a consistent approach for a methodology based parameter estimation for a lactic acid fermentation. In the beginning, just an initial knowledge based guess of parameters was available and an initial parameter estimation of the complete set...

  13. Do Methodological Choices in Environmental Modeling Bias Rebound Effects? A Case Study on Electric Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Tukker, Arnold; Kemp, René

    2016-10-18

    Improvements in resource efficiency often underperform because of rebound effects. Calculations of the size of rebound effects are subject to various types of bias, among which methodological choices have received particular attention. Modellers have primarily focused on choices related to changes in demand, however, choices related to modeling the environmental burdens from such changes have received less attention. In this study, we analyze choices in the environmental assessment methods (life cycle assessment (LCA) and hybrid LCA) and environmental input-output databases (E3IOT, Exiobase and WIOD) used as a source of bias. The analysis is done for a case study on battery electric and hydrogen cars in Europe. The results describe moderate rebound effects for both technologies in the short term. Additionally, long-run scenarios are calculated by simulating the total cost of ownership, which describe notable rebound effect sizes-from 26 to 59% and from 18 to 28%, respectively, depending on the methodological choices-with favorable economic conditions. Relevant sources of bias are found to be related to incomplete background systems, technology assumptions and sectorial aggregation. These findings highlight the importance of the method setup and of sensitivity analyses of choices related to environmental modeling in rebound effect assessments.

  14. A new methodology to determine kinetic parameters for one- and two-step chemical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, T.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Bowman, C. T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a new methodology to determine kinetic parameters for simple chemical models and simple transport properties classically used in DNS of premixed combustion is presented. First, a one-dimensional code is utilized to performed steady unstrained laminar methane-air flame in order to verify intrinsic features of laminar flames such as burning velocity and temperature and concentration profiles. Second, the flame response to steady and unsteady strain in the opposed jet configuration is numerically investigated. It appears that for a well determined set of parameters, one- and two-step mechanisms reproduce the extinction limit of a laminar flame submitted to a steady strain. Computations with the GRI-mech mechanism (177 reactions, 39 species) and multicomponent transport properties are used to validate these simplified models. A sensitivity analysis of the preferential diffusion of heat and reactants when the Lewis number is close to unity indicates that the response of the flame to an oscillating strain is very sensitive to this number. As an application of this methodology, the interaction between a two-dimensional vortex pair and a premixed laminar flame is performed by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) using the one- and two-step mechanisms. Comparison with the experimental results of Samaniego et al. (1994) shows a significant improvement in the description of the interaction when the two-step model is used.

  15. Methodological aspects of modeling household solid waste generation in Japan: Evidence from Okayama and Otsu cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Jia, Renfu; Duan, Ruiyang; Gu, Aijun

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a quantitative methodology and two empirical case studies in Japan on modeling household solid waste (HSW) generation based on individual consumption expenditure (ICE) and local waste policy effects by using the coupled estimation model systems. Results indicate that ICE on food, miscellaneous commodities and services, as well as education, cultural, and recreation services are mainly associated with the changes of HSW generation and its components in Okayama and Otsu from 1980 to 2014. The effects of waste policy measures were also identified. HSW generation in Okayama will increase from 11.60 million tons (mt) in 1980 to 25.02 mt in 2025, and the corresponding figures are 6.82 mt (in 1980) and 14.00 mt (in 2025) in Otsu. To better manage local HSW, several possible and appropriate implications such as promoting a green lifestyle, extending producer responsibility, intensifying recycling and source separation, generalizing composting, and establishing flexible measures and sustainable policies should be adopted. Results of this study would facilitate consumer management of low waste generation and support an effective HSW policy design in the two case cities. Success could lead to emulation by other Japanese cities seeking to build and maintain a sustainable, eco-friendly society. Moreover, the methodologies of establishing coupled estimation model systems could be extended to China and other global cities.

  16. An efficient hysteresis modeling methodology and its implementation in field computation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adly, A.A., E-mail: adlyamr@gmail.com [Electrical Power and Machines Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Abd-El-Hafiz, S.K. [Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • An approach to simulate hysteresis while taking shape anisotropy into consideration. • Utilizing the ensemble of triangular sub-regions hysteresis models in field computation. • A novel tool capable of carrying out field computation while keeping track of hysteresis losses. • The approach may be extended for 3D tetra-hedra sub-volumes. - Abstract: Field computation in media exhibiting hysteresis is crucial to a variety of applications such as magnetic recording processes and accurate determination of core losses in power devices. Recently, Hopfield neural networks (HNN) have been successfully configured to construct scalar and vector hysteresis models. This paper presents an efficient hysteresis modeling methodology and its implementation in field computation applications. The methodology is based on the application of the integral equation approach on discretized triangular magnetic sub-regions. Within every triangular sub-region, hysteresis properties are realized using a 3-node HNN. Details of the approach and sample computation results are given in the paper.

  17. METHODOLOGY FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS, OF THE MODIFIED BOUC-WEN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz HANISZEWSKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bouc-Wen model is theoretical formulation that allows to reflect real hysteresis loop of modeled object. Such object is for example a wire rope, which is present on equipment of crane lifting mechanism. Where adopted modified version of the model has nine parameters. Determination of such a number of parameters is complex and problematic issue. In this article are shown the methodology to identify and sample results of numerical simulations. The results were compared with data obtained on the basis of laboratory tests of ropes [3] and on their basis it was found that there is compliance between results and there is possibility to apply in dynamic systems containing in their structures wire ropes [4].

  18. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  19. Effectively translating diabetes prevention: a successful model in a historically underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Carol R; Eckhardt, Sarah; Talavera, Sandra; Goytia, Crispin; Lorig, Kate

    2011-09-01

    Lifestyle interventions can prevent diabetes through weight loss, but they are rarely translated for use in underserved communities. The aim of this study was to describe how a community-academic partnership formed and developed a program to address local health disparities by developing a low-cost, culturally and economically appropriate, peer-led community-based diabetes prevention program. Using a participatory approach, the partnership chose to focus on diabetes prevention, and co-developed all intervention, recruitment, research, and evaluation strategies. The partnership's philosophy to maintain high clinical and scientific standards paired with their ability to represent and engage the community facilitated the development of a randomized controlled trial that achieved statistically significant and sustained weight loss, and the recruitment of a largely Spanish-speaking, low income, uninsured population. The success of this intervention lies in the partnership's commitment to the community, co-ownership of research, and a careful balance between academic rigor and community engagement and relevance.

  20. The epistemology of mathematical and statistical modeling: a quiet methodological revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2010-01-01

    A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the modeling revolution obviated the NHST argument. I begin with a history of NHST and modeling and their relation to one another. Next, I define and illustrate principles involved in developing and evaluating mathematical models. Following, I discuss the difference between using statistical procedures within a rule-based framework and building mathematical models from a scientific epistemology. Only the former is treated carefully in most psychology graduate training. The pedagogical implications of this imbalance and the revised pedagogy required to account for the modeling revolution are described. To conclude, I discuss how attention to modeling implies shifting statistical practice in certain progressive ways. The epistemological basis of statistics has moved away from being a set of procedures, applied mechanistically, and moved toward building and evaluating statistical and scientific models. Copyrigiht 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Methodology for Training Small Domain-specific Language Models and Its Application in Service Robot Speech Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONDAS Stanislav

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper introduces the novel methodology for training small domain-specific language models only from domain vocabulary. Proposed methodology is intended for situations, when no training data are available and preparing of appropriate deterministic grammar is not trivial task. Methodology consists of two phases. In the first phase the “random” deterministic grammar, which enables to generate all possible combination of unigrams and bigrams is constructed from vocabulary. Then, prepared random grammar serves for generating the training corpus. The “random” n-gram model is trained from generated corpus, which can be adapted in second phase. Evaluation of proposed approach has shown usability of the methodology for small domains. Results of methodology assessment favor designed method instead of constructing the appropriate deterministic grammar.

  2. Prototype methodology for obtaining cloud seeding guidance from HRRR model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, N.; Blestrud, D.; Kunkel, M. L.; Waller, B.; Ceratto, J.

    2017-12-01

    Weather model data, along with real time observations, are critical to determine whether atmospheric conditions are prime for super-cooled liquid water during cloud seeding operations. Cloud seeding groups can either use operational forecast models, or run their own model on a computer cluster. A custom weather model provides the most flexibility, but is also expensive. For programs with smaller budgets, openly-available operational forecasting models are the de facto method for obtaining forecast data. The new High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model (3 x 3 km grid size), developed by the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), provides hourly model runs with 18 forecast hours per run. While the model cannot be fine-tuned for a specific area or edited to provide cloud-seeding-specific output, model output is openly available on a near-real-time basis. This presentation focuses on a prototype methodology for using HRRR model data to create maps which aid in near-real-time cloud seeding decision making. The R programming language is utilized to run a script on a Windows® desktop/laptop computer either on a schedule (such as every half hour) or manually. The latest HRRR model run is downloaded from NOAA's Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). A GRIB-filter service, provided by NOMADS, is used to obtain surface and mandatory pressure level data for a subset domain which greatly cuts down on the amount of data transfer. Then, a set of criteria, identified by the Idaho Power Atmospheric Science Group, is used to create guidance maps. These criteria include atmospheric stability (lapse rates), dew point depression, air temperature, and wet bulb temperature. The maps highlight potential areas where super-cooled liquid water may exist, reasons as to why cloud seeding should not be attempted, and wind speed at flight level.

  3. A new methodology for dynamic modelling of health risks arising from wastewater influenced urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Mark, Ole; Djordjevic, Slobodan; Hammond, Michael; Khan, David M.; Erichsen, Anders; Dorrit Enevoldsen, Ann; Heinicke, Gerald; Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-04-01

    Indroduction Urban flooding due to rainfall exceeding the design capacity of drainage systems is a global problem and it has significant economic and social consequences. While the cost of the direct flood damages of urban flooding is well understood, the indirect damages, like the water borne diseases is in general still poorly understood. Climate changes are expected to increase the frequency of urban flooding in many countries which is likely to increase water borne diseases. Diarrheal diseases are most prevalent in developing countries, where poor sanitation, poor drinking water and poor surface water quality causes a high disease burden and mortality, especially during floods. The level of water borne diarrhea in countries with well-developed water and waste water infrastructure has been reduced to an acceptable level, and the population in general do not consider waste water as being a health risk. Hence, exposure to wastewater influenced urban flood water still has the potential to cause transmission of diarrheal diseases. When managing urban flooding and planning urban climate change adaptations, health risks are rarely taken into consideration. This paper outlines a novel methodology for linking dynamic urban flood modelling with Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). This provides a unique possibility for understanding the interaction between urban flooding and the health risks caused by direct human contact with flood water and provides an option for reducing the burden of disease in the population through the use of intelligent urban flood risk management. Methodology We have linked hydrodynamic urban flood modelling with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to determine the risk of infection caused by exposure to wastewater influenced urban flood water. The deterministic model MIKE Flood, which integrates the sewer network model in MIKE Urban and the 2D surface model MIKE21, was used to calculate the concentration of pathogens in the

  4. A system-of-systems modeling methodology for strategic general aviation design decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Henry Thome

    General aviation has long been studied as a means of providing an on-demand "personal air vehicle" that bypasses the traffic at major commercial hubs. This thesis continues this research through development of a system of systems modeling methodology applicable to the selection of synergistic product concepts, market segments, and business models. From the perspective of the conceptual design engineer, the design and selection of future general aviation aircraft is complicated by the definition of constraints and requirements, and the tradeoffs among performance and cost aspects. Qualitative problem definition methods have been utilized, although their accuracy in determining specific requirement and metric values is uncertain. In industry, customers are surveyed, and business plans are created through a lengthy, iterative process. In recent years, techniques have developed for predicting the characteristics of US travel demand based on travel mode attributes, such as door-to-door time and ticket price. As of yet, these models treat the contributing systems---aircraft manufacturers and service providers---as independently variable assumptions. In this research, a methodology is developed which seeks to build a strategic design decision making environment through the construction of a system of systems model. The demonstrated implementation brings together models of the aircraft and manufacturer, the service provider, and most importantly the travel demand. Thus represented is the behavior of the consumers and the reactive behavior of the suppliers---the manufacturers and transportation service providers---in a common modeling framework. The results indicate an ability to guide the design process---specifically the selection of design requirements---through the optimization of "capability" metrics. Additionally, results indicate the ability to find synergetic solutions, that is solutions in which two systems might collaborate to achieve a better result than acting

  5. A MAINTENANCE STRATEGY MODEL FOR STATIC EQUIPMENT USING INSPECTION METHODOLOGIES AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mechanical equipment used on process plants can be categorised into two main types, namely static and rotating equipment. A brief survey at a number of chemical process plants indicated that a number of maintenance strategies exist and are used for rotating equipment. However, some of these strategies are not directly applicable to static equipment, although the risk-based inspection (RBI methodology has been developed for pressure vessels. A generalised risk-based maintenance strategy for all types of static equipment does not currently exist. This paper describes the development of an optimised model of inspection methodologies, maintenance strategies, and risk management principles that are generically applicable for static equipment. It enables maintenance managers and engineers to select an applicable maintenance strategy and inspection methodology, based on the operational and business risks posed by the individual pieces of equipment.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Meganiese toerusting wat op prosesaanlegte gebruik word kan in twee kategorieë verdeel word, naamlik statiese en roterende toerusting. 'n Bondige ondersoek by 'n aantal chemiese prosesaanlegte het aangedui dat 'n aantal strategieë vir instandhouding van roterende toerusting gebruik word, terwyl die risikogebaseerde inspeksiemetodologie wel vir drukvate gebruik word. 'n Algemene risikogebaseerde instandhoudingstrategie vir alle tipes statiese toerusting is egter nie tans beskikbaar nie. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n geoptimeerde model van inspeksiemetodologieë, instandhoudingstrategieë, en risikobestuursbeginsels wat algemeen gebruik kan word vir statiese toerusting. Dit stel die instandhouding-bestuurders en -ingenieurs in staat om 'n instandhoudingstrategie en inspeksie-metodologie te kies, gebaseer op die operasionele en besigheidsrisiko's van die individuele toerusting.

  6. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  7. SOURCE LANGUAGE TEXT, PARALELL TEXT, AND MODEL TRANSLATED TEXT: A PILOT STUDY IN TEACHING TRANSLATION TEXTO LENGUA ORIGEN, TEXTO PARALELO Y TEXTO TRADUCIDO MODELO. ESTUDIO PILOTO EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA TRADUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette's (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper's (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (SLT is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.El desarrollo de las teorías traductológicas orientadas hacia la cultura en ocasiones ha opacado la naturaleza textolingüística de la traducción. Se llevó a cabo un estudio piloto para la enseñanza de la traducción con el fin de recalcar entre los estudiantes el carácter textolingüístico de la labor de traducción y para ayudarles a mejorar sus habilidades de traducción, con especial énfasis en las estrategias de autoconciencia y autocorrección. El marco teórico proviene del Modelo Traductológico Dinámico (2004, 2005, propuesto por el autor, con destacados aportes tomados de los fenómenos de transtextualidad de Genette (1982 (hipertexto, hipotexto, metatexto, paratexto, intertexto y de los marcadores de modalidad pragmática de House y Kasper (1981 (atenuadores, intensificadores. También se aborda el papel conceptual fundamental de la equivalencia como rasgo determinante de la traducci

  8. Modelling and optimization of process variables for the solution polymerization of styrene using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Uthman Owolabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A satisfactory model for predicting monomer conversion in free radical polymerization has been a challenge due to the complexity and rigors associated with classical kinetic models. This renders the usage of such model an exciting endeavour in the academia but not exactly so in industrial practice. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of three processing conditions (reaction temperature, reaction time and initiator concentration on monomer conversion in the solution polymerization of styrene using acetone as solvent was investigated in a batch reactor through the central composite design (CCD model of response surface methodology (RSM for experimental design, modelling and process optimization. The modelled optimization conditions are: reaction time of 30 min, reaction temperature of 120 °C, and initiator concentration of 0.1135 mol/l, with the corresponding monomer conversion of 76.82% as compared to the observed conversion of 70.86%. A robust model for predicting monomer conversion that is very suitable for routine industrial usage is thus obtained.

  9. Methodology for the Incorporation of Passive Component Aging Modeling into the RAVEN/ RELAP-7 Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Alfonsi, Andrea; Askin Guler; Tunc Aldemir

    2014-11-01

    Passive system, structure and components (SSCs) will degrade over their operation life and this degradation may cause to reduction in the safety margins of a nuclear power plant. In traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the event-tree/fault-tree methodology, passive SSC failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data and the true state of a specific plant is not reflected realistically. To address aging effects of passive SSCs in the traditional PRA methodology [1] does consider physics based models that account for the operating conditions in the plant, however, [1] does not include effects of surveillance/inspection. This paper represents an overall methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive components into the RAVEN/RELAP-7 environment which provides a framework for performing dynamic PRA. Dynamic PRA allows consideration of both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties (including those associated with maintenance activities) in a consistent phenomenological and probabilistic framework and is often needed when there is complex process/hardware/software/firmware/ human interaction [2]. Dynamic PRA has gained attention recently due to difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics based models and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems. RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control Environment) [3] is a software package under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as an online control logic driver and post-processing tool. It is coupled to the plant transient code RELAP-7 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) also currently under development at INL [3], as well as RELAP 5 [4]. The overall methodology aims to: • Address multiple aging mechanisms involving large number of components in a computational feasible manner where sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation

  10. Modeling and Analysis of The Pressure Die Casting Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittur, Jayant K.; Herwadkar, T. V.; Parappagoudar, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure die casting is successfully used in the manufacture of Aluminum alloys components for automobile and many other industries. Die casting is a process involving many process parameters having complex relationship with the quality of the cast product. Though various process parameters have influence on the quality of die cast component, major influence is seen by the die casting machine parameters and their proper settings. In the present work, non-linear regression models have been developed for making predictions and analyzing the effect of die casting machine parameters on the performance characteristics of die casting process. Design of Experiments (DOE) with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to analyze the effect of effect of input parameters and their interaction on the response and further used to develop nonlinear input-output relationships. Die casting machine parameters, namely, fast shot velocity, slow shot to fast shot change over point, intensification pressure and holding time have been considered as the input variables. The quality characteristics of the cast product were determined by porosity, hardness and surface rough roughness (output/responses). Design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and analyze the impact of variables on the quality of casting. On the other-hand Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Design) is utilized to develop non-linear input-output relationships (regression models). The developed regression models have been tested for their statistical adequacy through ANOVA test. The practical usefulness of these models has been tested with some test cases. These models can be used to make the predictions about different quality characteristics, for the known set of die casting machine parameters, without conducting the experiments.

  11. Characterization of investigators' approach to translational research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Doris M; Robinson, Georgeanna F W B; Gilliam, Victoria A; Primack, Brian A; Switzer, Galen E; Seltzer, Deborah L; Kapoor, Wishwa N

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about how investigators approach their research programs along the translational research continuum. Many consider the translational continuum to be linear, with research beginning at the bench and concluding with research at the bedside or in the community. We aimed to understand if translational investigators approach and view their research in this fashion. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 16 graduates of the University of Pittsburgh's Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Scholars Program (KL2) in 2012. Our research revealed three characteristic models. The first model we called "linear" and represented the traditional approach. The second we called "holistic"; these investigators began with central research questions and sought to explore them in every direction of translation, not necessarily taking linear steps. The third model we called "technical"; in this model, investigators focused on a unique technology or methodology and applied it across multiple research contexts. This study found that there are multiple ways that translational investigators approach their research program. Better understanding of these models can help educators and mentors guide investigators so that they can be more productive in their clinical or translational research career. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS. PART I: SCOPING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    Detailed models for hydrogen storage systems provide essential design information about flow and temperature distributions, as well as, the utilization of a hydrogen storage media. However, before constructing a detailed model it is necessary to know the geometry and length scales of the system, along with its heat transfer requirements, which depend on the limiting reaction kinetics. More fundamentally, before committing significant time and resources to the development of a detailed model, it is necessary to know whether a conceptual storage system design is viable. For this reason, a hierarchical system of models progressing from scoping models to detailed analyses was developed. This paper, which discusses the scoping models, is the first in a two part series that presents a collection of hierarchical models for the design and evaluation of hydrogen storage systems.

  13. PAGIS summary report of phase 1: a common methodological approach based on European data and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Cottone, G.; Bertozzi, G.; Girardi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1982 a joint study has been launched by the CEC with the participation of national institutions in the E.C., aiming at a Performance Assessment of Geological Isolation Systems (PAGIS) for HLW disposal. This document is a summary of the first phase of the study which was devoted to the collection of data and models and to the choice of an appropriate methodology. To this purpose, real or national sites have been chosen, which are representative of three types of continental geological formations in the E.C.: clay, granite and salt (although the choices imply no committment of any kind about their final use). Moreover, sub-seabed areas have also been identified. The study covers the following items: - basic data on waste characteristics, site data and repository designs; - methodology, which allows sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to be performed, as well as the assessment of radiation doses to individuals and populations; - preliminary modelling of radionuclide release and migration through the geosphere (near- and far-field) and the biosphere following their various pathways to man; - selection of the most relevant radionuclide release scenarios and their probability of occurrence. Reference values have been selected for the basic data as well as variants covering the various options which are under consideration in the different Countries of the E.C.

  14. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT and Web of Things (WoT are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA. This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym.

  15. Model-Driven Methodology for Rapid Deployment of Smart Spaces Based on Resource-Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Iván; Bernardos, Ana M.; Iglesias, Josué; Casar, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in electronics nowadays facilitate the design of smart spaces based on physical mash-ups of sensor and actuator devices. At the same time, software paradigms such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Web of Things (WoT) are motivating the creation of technology to support the development and deployment of web-enabled embedded sensor and actuator devices with two major objectives: (i) to integrate sensing and actuating functionalities into everyday objects, and (ii) to easily allow a diversity of devices to plug into the Internet. Currently, developers who are applying this Internet-oriented approach need to have solid understanding about specific platforms and web technologies. In order to alleviate this development process, this research proposes a Resource-Oriented and Ontology-Driven Development (ROOD) methodology based on the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). This methodology aims at enabling the development of smart spaces through a set of modeling tools and semantic technologies that support the definition of the smart space and the automatic generation of code at hardware level. ROOD feasibility is demonstrated by building an adaptive health monitoring service for a Smart Gym. PMID:23012544

  16. Translational modelling of prolactin response following administration of D2 antagonists in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taneja, Amit; Vermeulen, An; Huntjens, D.; Danhof, Meindert; de Lange, ECM; Proost, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Treatment with D2 antagonists results in prolactin release, and thus prolactin is a biomarker of dopamine antagonism. We compare the model performance of two semi-mechanistic PKPD models, the pool model and the agonist-antagonist interaction model, to describe prolactin release following

  17. Improving Baseline Model Assumptions: Evaluating the Impacts of Typical Methodological Approaches in Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, R. L.; Kalcic, M. M.; Teshager, A. D.; Long, C. M.; Wang, Y. C.; Scavia, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability of open-source software, online tutorials, and advanced software capabilities, watershed modeling has expanded its user-base and applications significantly in the past thirty years. Even complicated models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are being used and documented in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications each year, and likely more applied in practice. These models can help improve our understanding of present, past, and future conditions, or analyze important "what-if" management scenarios. However, baseline data and methods are often adopted and applied without rigorous testing. In multiple collaborative projects, we have evaluated the influence of some of these common approaches on model results. Specifically, we examined impacts of baseline data and assumptions involved in manure application, combined sewer overflows, and climate data incorporation across multiple watersheds in the Western Lake Erie Basin. In these efforts, we seek to understand the impact of using typical modeling data and assumptions, versus using improved data and enhanced assumptions on model outcomes and thus ultimately, study conclusions. We provide guidance for modelers as they adopt and apply data and models for their specific study region. While it is difficult to quantitatively assess the full uncertainty surrounding model input data and assumptions, recognizing the impacts of model input choices is important when considering actions at the both the field and watershed scales.

  18. Methodology for Outdoor Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool for U.S. and Selected States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Green lawns and landscaping are archetypical of the populated American landscape, and typically require irrigation, which corresponds to a significant fraction of residential, commercial, and institutional water use. In North American cities, the estimated portion of residential water used for outdoor purposes ranges from 22-38% in cooler climates up to 59-67% in dry and hot environments, while turfgrass coverage within the United States spans 11.1-20.2 million hectares (Milesi et al. 2009). One national estimate uses satellite and aerial photography data to develop a relationship between impervious surface and lawn surface area, yielding a conservative estimate of 16.4 (± 3.6) million hectares of lawn surface area in the United States—an area three times larger than that devoted to any irrigated crop (Milesi et al. 2005). One approach that holds promise for cutting unnecessary outdoor water use is the increased deployment of “smart” irrigation controllers to increase the water efficiency of irrigation systems. This report describes the methodology and inputs employed in a mathematical model that quantifies the effects of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s WaterSense labeling program for one such type of controller, weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC). This model builds off that described in “Methodology for National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool–Outdoor Water Use” and uses a two-tiered approach to quantify outdoor water savings attributable to the WaterSense program for WBIC, as well as net present value (NPV) of that savings. While the first iteration of the model assessed national impacts using averaged national values, this version begins by evaluating impacts in three key large states that make up a sizable portion of the irrigation market: California, Florida, and Texas. These states are considered to be the principal market of “smart” irrigation controllers that may result in the bulk of national savings. Modeled

  19. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  20. Augmenting Surgery via Multi-scale Modeling and Translational Systems Biology in the Era of Precision Medicine: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; An, Gary; Sander, Edward A; Miga, Michael I; Guccione, Julius M; Ji, Songbai; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2016-09-01

    In this era of tremendous technological capabilities and increased focus on improving clinical outcomes, decreasing costs, and increasing precision, there is a need for a more quantitative approach to the field of surgery. Multiscale computational modeling has the potential to bridge the gap to the emerging paradigms of Precision Medicine and Translational Systems Biology, in which quantitative metrics and data guide patient care through improved stratification, diagnosis, and therapy. Achievements by multiple groups have demonstrated the potential for (1) multiscale computational modeling, at a biological level, of diseases treated with surgery and the surgical procedure process at the level of the individual and the population; along with (2) patient-specific, computationally-enabled surgical planning, delivery, and guidance and robotically-augmented manipulation. In this perspective article, we discuss these concepts, and cite emerging examples from the fields of trauma, wound healing, and cardiac surgery.

  1. State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsen, I.D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists have an unprecedented array of bio-logging technologies available to conduct in situ studies of horizontal and vertical movement patterns of marine animals. These tracking data provide key information about foraging, migratory, and other behaviours that can be linked with bio...... development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity......, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological “road map” for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods...

  2. Introduction of a methodology for visualization and graphical interpretation of Bayesian classification models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfer, Jenny; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-09-22

    Supervised machine learning models are widely used in chemoinformatics, especially for the prediction of new active compounds or targets of known actives. Bayesian classification methods are among the most popular machine learning approaches for the prediction of activity from chemical structure. Much work has focused on predicting structure-activity relationships (SARs) on the basis of experimental training data. By contrast, only a few efforts have thus far been made to rationalize the performance of Bayesian or other supervised machine learning models and better understand why they might succeed or fail. In this study, we introduce an intuitive approach for the visualization and graphical interpretation of naïve Bayesian classification models. Parameters derived during supervised learning are visualized and interactively analyzed to gain insights into model performance and identify features that determine predictions. The methodology is introduced in detail and applied to assess Bayesian modeling efforts and predictions on compound data sets of varying structural complexity. Different classification models and features determining their performance are characterized in detail. A prototypic implementation of the approach is provided.

  3. A generalized methodology for identification of threshold for HRU delineation in SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, J.; Sudheer, K.; Chaubey, I.; Raj, C.

    2016-12-01

    The distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a comprehensive hydrologic model widely used for making various decisions. The simulation accuracy of the distributed hydrological model differs due to the mechanism involved in the subdivision of the watershed. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) considers sub-dividing the watershed and the sub-basins into small computing units known as 'hydrologic response units (HRU). The delineation of HRU is done based on unique combinations of land use, soil types, and slope within the sub-watersheds, which are not spatially defined. The computations in SWAT are done at HRU level and are then aggregated up to the sub-basin outlet, which is routed through the stream system. Generally, the HRUs are delineated by considering a threshold percentage of land use, soil and slope are to be given by the modeler to decrease the computation time of the model. The thresholds constrain the minimum area for constructing an HRU. In the current HRU delineation practice in SWAT, the land use, soil and slope of the watershed within a sub-basin, which is less than the predefined threshold, will be surpassed by the dominating land use, soil and slope, and introduce some level of ambiguity in the process simulations in terms of inappropriate representation of the area. But the loss of information due to variation in the threshold values depends highly on the purpose of the study. Therefore this research studies the effects of threshold values of HRU delineation on the hydrological modeling of SWAT on sediment simulations and suggests guidelines for selecting the appropriate threshold values considering the sediment simulation accuracy. The preliminary study was done on Illinois watershed by assigning different thresholds for land use and soil. A general methodology was proposed for identifying an appropriate threshold for HRU delineation in SWAT model that considered computational time and accuracy of the simulation

  4. Application of fault tree methodology to modeling of the AP1000 plant digital reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teolis, D.S.; Zarewczynski, S.A.; Detar, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor trip system (RTS) and engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS) in nuclear power plants utilizes instrumentation and control (IC) to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper reactor operation during steady-state and transient power operations. During normal operating conditions, various plant parameters are continuously monitored to assure that the plant is operating in a safe state. In response to deviations of these parameters from pre-determined set points, the protection system will initiate actions required to maintain the reactor in a safe state. These actions may include shutting down the reactor by opening the reactor trip breakers and actuation of safety equipment based on the situation. The RTS and ESFAS are represented in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to reflect the impact of their contribution to core damage frequency (CDF). The reactor protection systems (RPS) in existing nuclear power plants are generally analog based and there is general consensus within the PRA community on fault tree modeling of these systems. In new plants, such as AP1000 plant, the RPS is based on digital technology. Digital systems are more complex combinations of hardware components and software. This combination of complex hardware and software can result in the presence of faults and failure modes unique to a digital RPS. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently performing research on the development of probabilistic models for digital systems for inclusion in PRAs; however, no consensus methodology exists at this time. Westinghouse is currently updating the AP1000 plant PRA to support initial operation of plants currently under construction in the United States. The digital RPS is modeled using fault tree methodology similar to that used for analog based systems. This paper presents high level descriptions of a typical analog based RPS and of the AP1000 plant digital RPS. Application of current fault

  5. External validation of multivariable prediction models: a systematic review of methodological conduct and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Before considering whether to use a multivariable (diagnostic or prognostic) prediction model, it is essential that its performance be evaluated in data that were not used to develop the model (referred to as external validation). We critically appraised the methodological conduct and reporting of external validation studies of multivariable prediction models. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles describing some form of external validation of one or more multivariable prediction models indexed in PubMed core clinical journals published in 2010. Study data were extracted in duplicate on design, sample size, handling of missing data, reference to the original study developing the prediction models and predictive performance measures. Results 11,826 articles were identified and 78 were included for full review, which described the evaluation of 120 prediction models. in participant data that were not used to develop the model. Thirty-three articles described both the development of a prediction model and an evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset, and 45 articles described only the evaluation of an existing published prediction model on another dataset. Fifty-seven percent of the prediction models were presented and evaluated as simplified scoring systems. Sixteen percent of articles failed to report the number of outcome events in the validation datasets. Fifty-four percent of studies made no explicit mention of missing data. Sixty-seven percent did not report evaluating model calibration whilst most studies evaluated model discrimination. It was often unclear whether the reported performance measures were for the full regression model or for the simplified models. Conclusions The vast majority of studies describing some form of external validation of a multivariable prediction model were poorly reported with key details frequently not presented. The validation studies were characterised by poor design, inappropriate handling

  6. A translational continuum of model systems for evaluating treatment strategies in Alzheimer’s disease: isradipine as a candidate drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip F. Copenhaver

    2011-09-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the ‘calcium hypothesis’ of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which postulates that a variety of insults might disrupt the homeostatic regulation of neuronal calcium (Ca2+ in the brain, resulting in the progressive symptoms that typify the disease. However, despite ongoing efforts to develop new methods for testing therapeutic compounds that might be beneficial in AD, no single bioassay permits both rapid screening and in vivo validation of candidate drugs that target specific components of the Ca2+ regulatory machinery. To address this issue, we have integrated four distinct model systems that provide complementary information about a trial compound: the human neuroblastoma MC65 line, which provides an in vitro model of amyloid toxicity; a transgenic Drosophila model, which develops age-dependent pathologies associated with AD; the 3×TgAD transgenic mouse, which recapitulates many of the neuropathological features that typify AD; and the embryonic nervous system of Manduca, which provides a novel in vivo assay for the acute effects of amyloid peptides on neuronal motility. To demonstrate the value of this ‘translational suite’ of bioassays, we focused on a set of clinically approved dihydropyridines (DHPs, a class of well-defined inhibitors of L-type calcium channels that have been suggested to be neuroprotective in AD. Among the DHPs tested in this study, we found that isradipine reduced the neurotoxic consequences of β-amyloid accumulation in all four model systems without inducing deleterious side effects. Our results provide new evidence in support of the Ca2+ hypothesis of AD, and indicate that isradipine represents a promising drug for translation into clinical trials. In addition, these studies also demonstrate that this continuum of bioassays (representing different levels of complexity provides an effective means of evaluating other candidate compounds that target specific components of the Ca2+ regulatory machinery

  7. [Molecular mechanisms of protein biosynthesis initiation--biochemical and biomedical implications of a new model of translation enhanced by the RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Adam; Nauman, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation is a key rate-limiting step in cellular protein synthesis. A cap-dependent initiation is the most effective mechanism of the translation. However, some physiological (mitosis) and pathological (oxidative stress) processes may switch the classic mechanism to an alternative one that is regulated by an mRNA element such as IRES, uORF, IRE, CPE, DICE, AURE or CITE. A recently discovered mechanism of RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE)-dependent translation initiation, may change the view of oxygen-regulated translation and give a new insight into unexplained biochemical processes. Hypoxia is one of the better-known factors that may trigger an alternative mechanism of the translation initiation. Temporal events of oxygen deficiency within tissues and organs may activate processes such as angiogenesis, myogenesis, regeneration, wound healing, and may promote an adaptive response in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. On the other hand, growth of solid tumors may be accompanied by cyclic hypoxia, allowing for synthesis of proteins required for further progression of cancer cells. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on translational control in the context of alternative models of translation initiation.

  8. The Vietnamese pig as a translational animal model to evaluate tissue engineered heart valves: promising early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Michele; Poser, Helen; Bottio, Tommaso; Bonetti, Antonella; Franci, Paolo; Naso, Filippo; Buratto, Edward; Zanella, Fabio; Perona, Giovanni; Dal Lin, Carlo; Bianco, Roberto; Spina, Michele; Busetto, Roberto; Marchini, Maurizio; Ortolani, Fulvia; Iop, Laura; Gerosa, Gino

    2017-05-09

    Several animal models are currently used for the surgical implantation of either biologic or biopolymeric scaffolds in order to provide in vivo assessment of tissue-engineered heart valves. The Vietnamese pig (VP) is herein proposed as a suitable recipient to test the function of novel bioengineered valve substitutes, in the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). This review aims to provide a complete and exhaustive panel of physiological parameters and methodological information for preclinical studies of tissue-engineered heart valves in the VP animal model.

  9. Methodological challenges to bridge the gap between regional climate and hydrology models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, Denica; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph; Felder, Guido

    2017-04-01

    The frequency and severity of floods worldwide, together with their impacts, are expected to increase under climate change scenarios. It is therefore very important to gain insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for such events in order to constrain the associated uncertainties. Model simulations of the climate and hydrological processes are important tools that can provide insight in the underlying physical processes and thus enable an accurate assessment of the risks. Coupled together, they can provide a physically consistent picture that allows to assess the phenomenon in a comprehensive way. However, climate and hydrological models work at different temporal and spatial scales, so there are a number of methodological challenges that need to be carefully addressed. An important issue pertains the presence of biases in the simulation of precipitation. Climate models in general, and Regional Climate models (RCMs) in particular, are affected by a number of systematic biases that limit their reliability. In many studies, prominently the assessment of changes due to climate change, such biases are minimised by applying the so-called delta approach, which focuses on changes disregarding absolute values that are more affected by biases. However, this approach is not suitable in this scenario, as the absolute value of precipitation, rather than the change, is fed into the hydrological model. Therefore, bias has to be previously removed, being this a complex matter where various methodologies have been proposed. In this study, we apply and discuss the advantages and caveats of two different methodologies that correct the simulated precipitation to minimise differences with respect an observational dataset: a linear fit (FIT) of the accumulated distributions and Quantile Mapping (QM). The target region is Switzerland, and therefore the observational dataset is provided by MeteoSwiss. The RCM is the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), driven at the

  10. Scientific Message Translation and the Heuristic Systematic Model: Insights for Designing Educational Messages About Progesterone and Breast Cancer Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Rose; Perrault, Evan; Smith, Sandi; Keating, David M; Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami; Russell, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    Results of ongoing scientific research on environmental determinants of breast cancer are not typically presented to the public in ways they can easily understand and use to take preventive actions. In this study, results of scientific studies on progesterone exposure as a risk factor for breast cancer were translated into high and low literacy level messages. Using the heuristic systematic model, this study examined how ability, motivation, and message processing (heuristic and systematic) influenced perceptions of risk beliefs and negative attitudes about progesterone exposure among women who read the translated scientific messages. Among the 1254 participants, those given the higher literacy level message had greater perceptions of risk about progesterone. Heuristic message cues of source credibility and perceived message quality, as well as motivation, also predicted risk beliefs. Finally, risk beliefs were a strong predictor of negative attitudes about exposure to progesterone. The results can help improve health education message design in terms of practitioners having better knowledge of message features that are the most persuasive to the target audiences on this topic.

  11. Ab initio translationally invariant nonlocal one-body densities from no-core shell-model theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M.; Elster, Ch.; Popa, G.; Launey, K. D.; Nogga, A.; Maris, P.

    2018-02-01

    Background: It is well known that effective nuclear interactions are in general nonlocal. Thus if nuclear densities obtained from ab initio no-core shell-model (NCSM) calculations are to be used in reaction calculations, translationally invariant nonlocal densities must be available. Purpose: Though it is standard to extract translationally invariant one-body local densities from NCSM calculations to calculate local nuclear observables like radii and transition amplitudes, the corresponding nonlocal one-body densities have not been considered so far. A major reason for this is that the procedure for removing the center-of-mass component from NCSM wave functions up to now has only been developed for local densities. Results: A formulation for removing center-of-mass contributions from nonlocal one-body densities obtained from NCSM and symmetry-adapted NCSM (SA-NCSM) calculations is derived, and applied to the ground state densities of 4He, 6Li, 12C, and 16O. The nonlocality is studied as a function of angular momentum components in momentum as well as coordinate space. Conclusions: We find that the nonlocality for the ground state densities of the nuclei under consideration increases as a function of the angular momentum. The relative magnitude of those contributions decreases with increasing angular momentum. In general, the nonlocal structure of the one-body density matrices we studied is given by the shell structure of the nucleus, and cannot be described with simple functional forms.

  12. StellaR: A software to translate Stella models into R open-source environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimi, N.; Voinov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Stella is a popular system dynamics modeling tool, which helps to put together conceptual diagrams and converts them into numeric computer models. Although it can be very useful, especially in participatory modeling, it lacks the power and flexibility of a programming language. This paper presents

  13. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  14. Study on dynamic team performance evaluation methodology based on team situation awareness model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk Chul

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a theoretical framework and its evaluation methodology of team dynamic task performance of operating team at nuclear power plant under the dynamic and tactical environment such as radiological accident. This thesis suggested a team dynamic task performance evaluation model so called team crystallization model stemmed from Endsely's situation awareness model being comprised of four elements: state, information, organization, and orientation and its quantification methods using system dynamics approach and a communication process model based on a receding horizon control approach. The team crystallization model is a holistic approach for evaluating the team dynamic task performance in conjunction with team situation awareness considering physical system dynamics and team behavioral dynamics for a tactical and dynamic task at nuclear power plant. This model provides a systematic measure to evaluate time-dependent team effectiveness or performance affected by multi-agents such as plant states, communication quality in terms of transferring situation-specific information and strategies for achieving the team task goal at given time, and organizational factors. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model and its quantification method, the case study was carried out using the data obtained from a full-scope power plant simulator for 1,000MWe pressurized water reactors with four on-the-job operating groups and one expert group who knows accident sequences. Simulated results team dynamic task performance with reference key plant parameters behavior and team-specific organizational center of gravity and cue-and-response matrix illustrated good symmetry with observed value. The team crystallization model will be useful and effective tool for evaluating team effectiveness in terms of recruiting new operating team for new plant as cost-benefit manner. Also, this model can be utilized as a systematic analysis tool for

  15. High-Fidelity Modelling Methodology of Light-Limited Photosynthetic Production in Microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernardi

    Full Text Available Reliable quantitative description of light-limited growth in microalgae is key to improving the design and operation of industrial production systems. This article shows how the capability to predict photosynthetic processes can benefit from a synergy between mathematical modelling and lab-scale experiments using systematic design of experiment techniques. A model of chlorophyll fluorescence developed by the authors [Nikolaou et al., J Biotechnol 194:91-99, 2015] is used as starting point, whereby the representation of non-photochemical-quenching (NPQ process is refined for biological consistency. This model spans multiple time scales ranging from milliseconds to hours, thus calling for a combination of various experimental techniques in order to arrive at a sufficiently rich data set and determine statistically meaningful estimates for the model parameters. The methodology is demonstrated for the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana by combining pulse amplitude modulation (PAM fluorescence, photosynthesis rate and antenna size measurements. The results show that the calibrated model is capable of accurate quantitative predictions under a wide range of transient light conditions. Moreover, this work provides an experimental validation of the link between fluorescence and photosynthesis-irradiance (PI curves which had been theoricized.

  16. A consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks: a reliable numerical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Farås, Sebastian; Nopens, Ingmar; Torfs, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The consistent modelling methodology for secondary settling tanks (SSTs) leads to a partial differential equation (PDE) of nonlinear convection-diffusion type as a one-dimensional model for the solids concentration as a function of depth and time. This PDE includes a flux that depends discontinuously on spatial position modelling hindered settling and bulk flows, a singular source term describing the feed mechanism, a degenerating term accounting for sediment compressibility, and a dispersion term for turbulence. In addition, the solution itself is discontinuous. A consistent, reliable and robust numerical method that properly handles these difficulties is presented. Many constitutive relations for hindered settling, compression and dispersion can be used within the model, allowing the user to switch on and off effects of interest depending on the modelling goal as well as investigate the suitability of certain constitutive expressions. Simulations show the effect of the dispersion term on effluent suspended solids and total sludge mass in the SST. The focus is on correct implementation whereas calibration and validation are not pursued.

  17. Accounting for methodological, structural, and parameter uncertainty in decision-analytic models: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilcke, Joke; Beutels, Philippe; Brisson, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for uncertainty is now a standard part of decision-analytic modeling and is recommended by many health technology agencies and published guidelines. However, the scope of such analyses is often limited, even though techniques have been developed for presenting the effects of methodological, structural, and parameter uncertainty on model results. To help bring these techniques into mainstream use, the authors present a step-by-step guide that offers an integrated approach to account for different kinds of uncertainty in the same model, along with a checklist for assessing the way in which uncertainty has been incorporated. The guide also addresses special situations such as when a source of uncertainty is difficult to parameterize, resources are limited for an ideal exploration of uncertainty, or evidence to inform the model is not available or not reliable. for identifying the sources of uncertainty that influence results most are also described. Besides guiding analysts, the guide and checklist may be useful to decision makers who need to assess how well uncertainty has been accounted for in a decision-analytic model before using the results to make a decision.

  18. An optimisation methodology of artificial neural network models for predicting solar radiation: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezrazi, Ahmed; Hanini, Salah; Laidi, Maamar

    2016-02-01

    The right design and the high efficiency of solar energy systems require accurate information on the availability of solar radiation. Due to the cost of purchase and maintenance of the radiometers, these data are not readily available. Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative ways of generating such data. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are excellent and effective tools for learning, pinpointing or generalising data regularities, as they have the ability to model nonlinear functions; they can also cope with complex `noisy' data. The main objective of this paper is to show how to reach an optimal model of ANNs for applying in prediction of solar radiation. The measured data of the year 2007 in Ghardaïa city (Algeria) are used to demonstrate the optimisation methodology. The performance evaluation and the comparison of results of ANN models with measured data are made on the basis of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). It is found that MAPE in the ANN optimal model reaches 1.17 %. Also, this model yields a root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.06 % and an MBE of 0.12. The accuracy of the outputs exceeded 97 % and reached up 99.29 %. Results obtained indicate that the optimisation strategy satisfies practical requirements. It can successfully be generalised for any location in the world and be used in other fields than solar radiation estimation.

  19. Development of a new damage function model for power plants: Methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.I.; Hammitt, J.K.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Spengler, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent models have estimated the environmental impacts of power plants, but differences in assumptions and analytical methodologies have led to diverging findings. In this paper, the authors present a new damage function model that synthesizes previous efforts and refines components that have been associated with variations in impact estimates. Their model focuses on end-use emissions and quantified the direct human health impacts of criteria air pollutants. To compare their model to previous efforts and to evaluate potential policy applications, the authors assess the impacts of an oil and natural gas-fueled cogeneration power plant in Boston, MA. Impacts under baseline assumptions are estimated to be $0.007/kWh of electricity, $0.23/klb of steam, and $0.004/ton-h of chilled water (representing 2--9% of the market value of outputs). Impacts are largely related to ozone (48%) and particulate matter (42%). Addition of upstream emissions and nonpublic health impacts increases externalities by as much as 50%. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the importance of plant siting, meteorological conditions, epidemiological assumptions, and the monetary value placed on premature mortality as well as the potential influence of global warming. Comparative analyses demonstrate that their model provides reasonable impact estimates and would therefore be applicable in a broad range of policy settings

  20. MODELING OF EXTRUSION PROCESS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEELAM SHIHANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are a powerful tool for modeling of extrusion processing of food materials. Wheat flour and wheat– black soybean blend (95:5 were extruded in a single screw Brabender extruder with varying temperature (120 and 140 oC, dry basis moisture content (18 and 20% and screw speed (156, 168, 180, 192 and 204 rpm. The specific mechanical energy, water absorption index, water solubility index, expansion ratio and sensory characteristics (crispness, hardness, appearance and overall acceptability were measured. Well expanded products could be obtained from wheat flour as well as the blend of wheat– black soybean. The results showed that artificial neural network (ANN models performed better than the response surface methodology (RSM models in describing the extrusion process and characteristics of the extruded product in terms of specific mechanical energy requirement, expansion ratio, water absorption index, water solubility index as well the sensory characteristics. The ANN models were better than RSM models both in case of the individual as well as the pooled data of wheat flour and wheat- black soybean extrusion.

  1. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  2. Translational Pharmacokinetic‐Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation: Optimizing 5‐Fluorouracil Dosing in Children With Pediatric Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, VM; Patel, YT; Tagen, M; Turner, DC; Carcaboso, AM; Atkinson, JM; Gajjar, A; Gilbertson, RJ; Wright, KD

    2016-01-01

    We previously investigated novel therapies for pediatric ependymoma and found 5‐fluorouracil (5‐FU) i.v. bolus increased survival in a representative mouse model. However, without a quantitative framework to derive clinical dosing recommendations, we devised a translational pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic (PK‐PD) modeling and simulation approach. Results from our preclinical PK‐PD model suggested tumor concentrations exceeded the 1‐hour target exposure (in vitro IC90), leading to tumor growth delay and increased survival. Using an adult population PK model, we scaled our preclinical PK‐PD model to children. To select a 5‐FU dosage for our clinical trial in children with ependymoma, we simulated various 5‐FU dosages for tumor exposures and tumor growth inhibition, as well as considering tolerability to bolus 5‐FU administration. We developed a pediatric population PK model of bolus 5‐FU and simulated tumor exposures for our patients. Simulations for tumor concentrations indicated that all patients would be above the 1‐hour target exposure for antitumor effect. PMID:27104090

  3. Preclinical imaging and translational animal models of cancer for accelerated clinical implementation of nanotechnologies and macromolecular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Raquel; Spence, Tara; Huang, Huang; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-10

    The majority of animal models of cancer have performed poorly in terms of predicting clinical performance of new therapeutics, which are most often first evaluated in patients with advanced, metastatic disease. The development and use of metastatic models of cancer may enhance clinical translatability of preclinical studies focused on the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and macromolecular therapeutics, potentially accelerating their clinical implementation. It is recognized that the development and use of such models are not without challenge. Preclinical imaging tools offer a solution by allowing temporal and spatial characterization of metastatic lesions. This paper provides a review of imaging methods applicable for evaluation of novel therapeutics in clinically relevant models of advanced cancer. An overview of currently utilized models of oncology in small animals is followed by image-based development and characterization of visceral metastatic cancer models. Examples of imaging tools employed for metastatic lesion detection, evaluation of anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential and biodistribution of novel therapies, as well as the co-development and/or use of imageable surrogates of response, are also discussed. While the focus is on development of macromolecular and nanotechnology-based therapeutics, examples with small molecules are included in some cases to illustrate concepts and approaches that can be applied in the assessment of nanotechnologies or macromolecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Typologically robust statistical machine translation : Understanding and exploiting differences and similarities between languages in machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation

  5. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Berglund, Johan; Follin, Sven; Hakami, Eva; Halvarson, Jan; Hermanson, Jan; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Rhen, Ingvar; Wahlgren, C.H.

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline and after this

  6. Use of the cross-translational model to study self-injurious behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; El-Mallah, Saif N; Menard, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior occurs in the general human population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Some rhesus macaques also develop self-injurious behavior (SIB) as adolescents or young adults. In both of these cases, the development of harmful behaviors is idiopathic, only coming to the attention of physicians or veterinarians after the disorder is established. Thus, a combination of retrospective, statistical, and empirical procedures are used to understand this disorder. Here, we identify concordances between macaques and humans across five different levels of analysis-(1) form and prevalence, (2) etiology, (3) triggering events, (4) function/maintenance, and (5) therapeutic intervention-and show the value of the cross-translational model (macaques to humans and humans to macaques) in understanding this phenomenon. Substantial concordance is present with respect to the range of severity, the presence of early life stress exposure, and emotional dysregulation. In the macaque model, additional information is available on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response system, possible genetic involvement, and the immediate contextual situations that appear to trigger or exacerbate SIB episodes. In contrast, considerably more information is available from human studies on the effectiveness of various treatment regimens. Veterinarians have drawn on this information to explore these therapeutic interventions in monkeys. We expect that models of SIB will continue to have cross-translational impact as scientists and practitioners move from preclinical to clinical research and treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Anesthesia in swine : optimizing a laboratory model to optimize translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehböck, D; Dietrich, H; Klima, G; Paal, P; Lindner, K H; Wenzel, V

    2015-01-01

    In order to extrapolate novel therapies from the bench to the bedside (translational research), animal experiments are scientifically necessary. Swine are popular laboratory animals as their cardiorespiratory physiology is very similar to humans. Every study has to be approved by the local and/or national animal ethical committees. As swine are extremely sensitive to stress the primary goal is therefore to provide a calm, stress-free environment in both housing and experimental facilities. Swine should be properly sedated for transport and normothermia needs to be ensured. It is recommended to commence anesthesia by injecting ketamine and propofol followed by endotracheal intubation during spontaneous breathing. After intubation, anesthesia maintenance is performed with morphine or piritramide, propofol and rocuronium and routine monitoring is applied analogue to a clinical operating theater for humans. Normothermia (38.5 °C) needs to be ensured. While surgical procedures can be readily extrapolated from a human operating theater to swine, non-anesthesiologist scientists may lose the animal rapidly due to airway management problems. Vascular access can be secured by cut-downs or ultrasound-guided techniques in the inguinal and the neck region. For humane euthanasia of pigs, morphine, followed by propofol, rocuronium and potassium chloride are recommended. As radical animal right groups may threaten scientists, it is prudent that animal laboratories have unmarked entrance doors, are located in buildings that are not accessible to the public and strictly controlled access of laboratory staff is enforced. In conclusion, swine are an excellent laboratory animal for bench to bedside research and can be managed properly when basic knowledge and adequate skills on careful handling, anesthesia and surgical considerations are present.

  8. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  9. A Model-Based Prognostics Methodology For Electrolytic Capacitors Based On Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for electrolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical...

  10. Integrated Methodology for Information System Change Control Based on Enterprise Architecture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirta Ruta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The information system (IS change management and governance, according to the best practices, are defined and described in several international methodologies, standards, and frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, ValIT etc.. These methodologies describe IS change management aspects from the viewpoint of their particular enterprise resource management area. The areas are mainly viewed in a partly isolated environment, and the integration of the existing methodologies is insufficient for providing unified and controlled methodological support for holistic IS change management. In this paper, an integrated change management methodology is introduced. The methodology consists of guidelines for IS change control by integrating the following significant resource management areas – information technology (IT governance, change management and enterprise architecture (EA change management. In addition, the methodology includes lists of controls applicable at different phases. The approach is based on re-use and fusion of principles used by related methodologies as well as on empirical observations about typical IS change management mistakes in enterprises.

  11. A Model-based Prognostics Methodology for Electrolytic Capacitors Based on Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for elec- trolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical...

  12. Incorporation of ice sheet models into an Earth system model: Focus on methodology of coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Volodin, Evgeny; Morozova, Polina; Nevecherja, Artiom

    2018-03-01

    Elaboration of a modern Earth system model (ESM) requires incorporation of ice sheet dynamics. Coupling of an ice sheet model (ICM) to an AOGCM is complicated by essential differences in spatial and temporal scales of cryospheric, atmospheric and oceanic components. To overcome this difficulty, we apply two different approaches for the incorporation of ice sheets into an ESM. Coupling of the Antarctic ice sheet model (AISM) to the AOGCM is accomplished via using procedures of resampling, interpolation and assigning to the AISM grid points annually averaged meanings of air surface temperature and precipitation fields generated by the AOGCM. Surface melting, which takes place mainly on the margins of the Antarctic peninsula and on ice shelves fringing the continent, is currently ignored. AISM returns anomalies of surface topography back to the AOGCM. To couple the Greenland ice sheet model (GrISM) to the AOGCM, we use a simple buffer energy- and water-balance model (EWBM-G) to account for orographically-driven precipitation and other sub-grid AOGCM-generated quantities. The output of the EWBM-G consists of surface mass balance and air surface temperature to force the GrISM, and freshwater run-off to force thermohaline circulation in the oceanic block of the AOGCM. Because of a rather complex coupling procedure of GrIS compared to AIS, the paper mostly focuses on Greenland.

  13. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  14. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working with a sys......The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...

  15. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  16. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  17. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference between

  18. Review of Project SAFE: Comments on biosphere conceptual model description and risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard; Wilmot, Roger [Galson Sciences Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB's) most recent assessment of the safety of the Forsmark repository for low-level and intermediate-level waste (Project SAFE) is currently undergoing review by the Swedish regulators. As part of its review, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) identified that two components of SAFE require more detailed review: (i) the conceptual model description of the biosphere system, and (ii) SKB's risk assessment methodology. We have reviewed the biosphere system interaction matrix and how this has been used in the identification, justification and description of biosphere models for radiological assessment purposes. The risk assessment methodology has been reviewed considering in particular issues associated with scenario selection, assessment timescale, and the probability and risk associated with the well scenario. There is an extensive range of supporting information on which biosphere modelling in Project SAFE is based. However, the link between this material and the biosphere models themselves is not clearly set out. This leads to some contradictions and mis-matches between description and implementation. One example concerns the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. The supporting description of lakes indicates that interaction between groundwaters entering the biosphere through lake bed sediments could lead to accumulations of radionuclides in sediments. These sediments may become agricultural areas at some time in the future. In the numerical modelling of the biosphere carried out in Project SAFE, the direct accumulation of contaminants in bed sediments is not represented. Application of a more rigorous procedure to ensure numerical models are fit for purpose is recommended, paying more attention to issues associated with the geosphere-biosphere interface. A more structured approach to risk assessment would be beneficial, with a better explanation of the difference

  19. Digital System Categorization Methodology to Support Integration of Digital Instrumentation and Control Models into PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that by categorizing the various digital systems used in safety critical applications in nuclear power plants, it would be possible to determine which systems should be modeled in the analysis of the larger plant wide PRA, at what level of detail the digital system should be modeled and using which methods. The research reported in this paper develops a categorization method using system attributes to permit a modeler to more effectively model the systems that will likely have the most critical contributions to the overall plant safety and to more effectively model system interactions for those digital systems where the interactions are most important to the overall accuracy and completeness of the plant PRA. The proposed methodology will categorize digital systems based on certain attributes of the systems themselves and how they will be used in the specific application. This will help determine what digital systems need to be modeled and at what level of detail, and can be used to guide PRA analysis and regulatory reviews. The three-attribute categorization strategy that was proposed by Arndt is used as the basis for the categorization methodology developed here. The first attribute, digital system complexity, is based on Type Il interactions defined by Aldemir and an overall digital system size and complexity index. The size and complexity index used are previously defined software complexity metrics. Potential sub-attributes of digital system complexity include, design complexity, software complexity, hardware complexity, system function complexity and testability. The second attribute, digital system interactions/inter-conductivity, is a combination of Rushby's coupling and Ademir's Type I interactions. Digital systems that are loosely coupled and/or have very few Type I interaction would not interact dynamically with the overall system and would have a low interactions/inter-conductivity score. Potential sub-attributes of digital system

  20. Digital System Categorization Methodology to Support Integration of Digital Instrumentation and Control Models into PRAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Steven A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington D.C. (United States)

    2011-08-15

    It has been suggested that by categorizing the various digital systems used in safety critical applications in nuclear power plants, it would be possible to determine which systems should be modeled in the analysis of the larger plant wide PRA, at what level of detail the digital system should be modeled and using which methods. The research reported in this paper develops a categorization method using system attributes to permit a modeler to more effectively model the systems that will likely have the most critical contributions to the overall plant safety and to more effectively model system interactions for those digital systems where the interactions are most important to the overall accuracy and completeness of the plant PRA. The proposed methodology will categorize digital systems based on certain attributes of the systems themselves and how they will be used in the specific application. This will help determine what digital systems need to be modeled and at what level of detail, and can be used to guide PRA analysis and regulatory reviews. The three-attribute categorization strategy that was proposed by Arndt is used as the basis for the categorization methodology developed here. The first attribute, digital system complexity, is based on Type Il interactions defined by Aldemir and an overall digital system size and complexity index. The size and complexity index used are previously defined software complexity metrics. Potential sub-attributes of digital system complexity include, design complexity, software complexity, hardware complexity, system function complexity and testability. The second attribute, digital system interactions/inter-conductivity, is a combination of Rushby's coupling and Ademir's Type I interactions. Digital systems that are loosely coupled and/or have very few Type I interaction would not interact dynamically with the overall system and would have a low interactions/inter-conductivity score. Potential sub-attributes of

  1. Neuroinflammation in epileptogenesis: Insights and translational perspectives from new models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Löscher, Wolfgang; White, H Steve; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2017-07-01

    Animal models have provided a wealth of information on mechanisms of epileptogenesis and comorbidogenesis, and have significantly advanced our ability to investigate the potential of new therapies. Processes implicating brain inflammation have been increasingly observed in epilepsy research. Herein we discuss the progress on animal models of epilepsy and comorbidities that inform us on the potential role of inflammation in epileptogenesis and comorbidity pathogenesis in rodent models of West syndrome and the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) mouse model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy. Rat models of infantile spasms were generated in rat pups after right intracerebral injections of proinflammatory compounds (lipopolysaccharides with or without doxorubicin, or cytokines) and were longitudinally monitored for epileptic spasms and neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits. Anti-inflammatory treatments were tested after the onset of spasms. The TMEV mouse model was induced with intracerebral administration of TMEV and prospective monitoring for handling-induced seizures or seizure susceptibility, as well as long-term evaluations of behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy. Inflammatory processes are evident in both models and are implicated in the pathogenesis of the observed seizures and comorbidities. A common feature of these models, based on the data so far available, is their pharmacoresistant profile. The presented data support the role of inflammatory pathways in epileptogenesis and comorbidities in two distinct epilepsy models. Pharmacoresistance is a common feature of both inflammation-based models. Utilization of these models may facilitate the identification of age-specific, syndrome- or etiology-specific therapies for the epilepsies and attendant comorbidities, including the drug-resistant forms. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  3. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih, Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel's speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel's speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  4. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-01-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate

  5. Methodological issues in cardiovascular epidemiology: the risk of determining absolute risk through statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Vassilis StavrinosOffice of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Department of Dietetics, Nutrition, Harokopio University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations  overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk, models

  6. Development of a system dynamics model based on Six Sigma methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jovani Cardiel Ortega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model to analyze the complexity associated with the manufacturing systems and to improve the performance of the process through the Six Sigma philosophy is proposed. The research focuses on the implementation of the system dynamics tool to comply with each of the phases of the DMAIC methodology. In the first phase, define, the problem is articulated, collecting data, selecting the variables, and representing them in a mental map that helps build the dynamic hypothesis. In the second phase, measure, model is formulated, equations are developed, and Forrester diagram is developed to carry out the simulation. In the third phase, analyze, the simulation results are studied. For the fourth phase, improving, the model is validated through a sensitivity analysis. Finally, in control phase, operation policies are proposed. This paper presents the development of a dynamic model of the system of knitted textile production knitted developed; the implementation was done in a textile company in southern Guanajuato. The results show an improvement in the process performance by increasing the level of sigma allowing the validation of the proposed approach.

  7. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  8. ABOUT THE RELEVANCE AND METHODOLOGY ASPECTS OF TEACHING THE MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PEDAGOGICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Perminov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the need for profile training in mathematical modeling for pedagogical students, caused by the total penetration of mathematics into different sciences, including the humanities; fast development of the information communications technologies; and growing importance of mathematical modeling, combining the informal scientific and formal mathematical languages with the unique opportunities of computer programming. The author singles out the reasons for mastering and using the mathematical apparatus by teaches in every discipline. Indeed, among all the modern mathematical methods and ideas, mathematical modeling retains its priority in all professional spheres. Therefore, the discipline of “Mathematical Modeling” can play an important role in integrating different components of specialists training in various profiles. By mastering the basics of mathematical modeling, students acquire skills of methodological thinking; learn the principles of analysis, synthesis, generalization of ideas and methods in different disciplines and scientific spheres; and achieve general culture competences. In conclusion, the author recommends incorporating the “Methods of Profile Training in Mathematical Modeling” into the pedagogical magistracy curricula. 

  9. Partial least squares path modeling basic concepts, methodological issues and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noonan, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents the recent developments in partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM) and provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the most advanced research related to PLS-PM. The first section of this book emphasizes the basic concepts and extensions of the PLS-PM method. The second section discusses the methodological issues that are the focus of the recent development of the PLS-PM method. The third part discusses the real world application of the PLS-PM method in various disciplines. The contributions from expert authors in the field of PLS focus on topics such as the factor-based PLS-PM, the perfect match between a model and a mode, quantile composite-based path modeling (QC-PM), ordinal consistent partial least squares (OrdPLSc), non-symmetrical composite-based path modeling (NSCPM), modern view for mediation analysis in PLS-PM, a multi-method approach for identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity, multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA), the assessment of the common method b...

  10. A case study in data audit and modelling methodology-Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelbaum, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to outline a rigorous, spatially consistent and cost-effective transport planning tool that projects travel demand, energy and emissions for all modes associated with domestic and international transport. The planning tool (Aus e Tran) is a multi-modal, multi-fuel and multi-regional macroeconomic and demographic-based computational model of the Australian transport sector that overcomes some of the gaps associated with existing strategic level transport emission models. The paper also identifies a number of key data issues that need to be resolved prior to model development with particular reference to the Australian environment. The strategic model structure endogenously derives transport demand, energy and emissions by jurisdiction, vehicle type, emission type and transport service for both freight and passenger transport. Importantly, the analytical framework delineates the national transport task, energy consumed and emissions according to region, state/territory of origin and jurisdictional protocols, provides an audit mechanism for the evaluation of the methodological framework, integrates a mathematical protocol to derive time series FFC emission factors and allows for the impact of non-registered road vehicles on transport, fuel and emissions.

  11. Modeling and process optimization of electrospinning of chitosan-collagen nanofiber by response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Nafise; Moradi, Ali; Abolghasem Sajjadi Tabasi, Sayyed; Movaffagh, Jebrail

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan-collagen composite nanofiber is of a great interest to researchers in biomedical fields. Since the electrospinning is the most popular method for nanofiber production, having a comprehensive knowledge of the electrospinning process is beneficial. Modeling techniques are precious tools for managing variables in the electrospinning process, prior to the more time- consuming and expensive experimental techniques. In this study, a central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop a statistical model as well as to define the optimum condition for fabrication of chitosan-collagen nanofiber with minimum diameter. The individual and the interaction effects of applied voltage (10–25 kV), flow rate (0.5–1.5 mL h‑1), and needle to collector distance (15–25 cm) on the fiber diameter were investigated. ATR- FTIR and cell study were done to evaluate the optimized nanofibers. According to the RSM, a two-factor interaction (2FI) model was the most suitable model. The high regression coefficient value (R 2 ≥ 0.9666) of the fitted regression model and insignificant lack of fit (P = 0.0715) indicated that the model was highly adequate in predicting chitosan-collagen nanofiber diameter. The optimization process showed that the chitosan-collagen nanofiber diameter of 156.05 nm could be obtained in 9 kV, 0.2 ml h‑1, and 25 cm which was confirmed by experiment (155.92 ± 18.95 nm). The ATR-FTIR and cell study confirmed the structure and biocompatibility of the optimized membrane. The represented model could assist researchers in fabricating chitosan-collagen electrospun scaffolds with a predictable fiber diameter, and optimized chitosan-collagen nanofibrous mat could be a potential candidate for wound healing and tissue engineering.

  12. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models : An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinska, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Maelandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histologic and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These

  13. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LANT has a suite of related Language Technology products: LANT-Master, a language checker, integrates into existing word processors like MS-Word and allows the vocabulary and style oftexts to be in a controlled language which can then be automatically translated; Pangaea is an electronic dictionary that allows the.

  14. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning...

  15. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Anders; Thygesen, Peter; Agersø, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    and validated through simulations relative to patient data. KEY RESULTS: The final model described rhGH PK as a two compartmental model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination terms, parallel first-order absorption with a total s.c. bioavailability of 87% in rats. Induction of IGF-1 was described...... by an indirect response model with stimulation of kin and related to rhGH exposure through an Emax relationship. Increase in bodyweight was directly linked to individual concentrations of IGF-1 by a linear relation. The scaled model provided robust predictions of human systemic PK of rhGH, but exposure following...... a clinically relevant biomarker, IGF-1, to a primary clinical end-point, growth/bodyweight gain. Scaling of the model parameters provided robust predictions of the human PKPD in growth hormone-deficient patients including variability....

  16. In Vivo Imaging Biomarkers in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease: Are We Lost in Translation or Breaking Through?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Delatour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD is a critical priority to efficiently diagnose the patients, to stage the progression of neurodegeneration in living subjects, and to assess the effects of disease-modifier treatments. This paper addresses the development and usefulness of preclinical neuroimaging biomarkers of AD. It is today possible to image in vivo the brain of small rodents at high resolution and to detect the occurrence of macroscopic/microscopic lesions in these species, as well as of functional alterations reminiscent of AD pathology. We will outline three different types of imaging biomarkers that can be used in AD mouse models: biomarkers with clear translational potential, biomarkers that can serve as in vivo readouts (in particular in the context of drug discovery exclusively for preclinical research, and finally biomarkers that constitute new tools for fundamental research on AD physiopathogeny.

  17. The Kidney Disease Screening and Awareness Program (KDSAP): a novel translatable model for increasing interest in nephrology careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Li-Li; Wu, Jingshing; Yeh, Albert C; Shieh, Eric C; Cui, Cheryl; Li, Ang; Polding, Laura C; Ahmed, Rayhnuma; Lim, Kenneth; Lu, Tzong-Shi; Rhee, Connie M; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-09-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of CKD in the United States, there is a declining interest among United States medical graduates in nephrology as a career choice. Effective programs are needed to generate interest at early educational stages when career choices can be influenced. The Kidney Disease Screening and Awareness Program (KDSAP) is a novel program initiated at Harvard College that increases student knowledge of and interest in kidney health and disease, interest in nephrology career paths, and participation in kidney disease research. This model, built on physician mentoring, kidney screening of underserved populations, direct interactions with kidney patients, and opportunities to participate in kidney research, can be reproduced and translated to other workforce-challenged subspecialties. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. An Innovative Structural Mode Selection Methodology: Application for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Homero, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An innovative methodology for determining structural target mode selection and mode selection based on a specific criterion is presented. An effective approach to single out modes which interact with specific locations on a structure has been developed for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model (FEM). We presented Root-Sum-Square (RSS) displacement method computes resultant modal displacement for each mode at selected degrees of freedom (DOF) and sorts to locate modes with highest values. This method was used to determine modes, which most influenced specific locations/points on the X-33 flight vehicle such as avionics control components, aero-surface control actuators, propellant valve and engine points for use in flight control stability analysis and for flight POGO stability analysis. Additionally, the modal RSS method allows for primary or global target vehicle modes to also be identified in an accurate and efficient manner.

  19. Cognitive models of executive functions development: methodological limitations and theoretical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Stelzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF have been defined as a series of higher-order cognitive processes which allow the control of thought, behavior and affection according to the achievement of a goal. Such processes present a lengthy postnatal development which matures completely by the end of adolescence. In this article we make a review of some of the main models of EF development during childhood. The aim of this work is to describe the state of the art related to the topic, identifying the main theoretical difficulties and methodological limitations associated with the different proposed paradigms. Finally, some suggestions are given to cope with such difficulties, emphasizing that the development of an ontology of EF could be a viable alternative to counter them. We believe that futture researches should guide their efforts toward the development of that ontology.

  20. Investigating Communicative Models in French as a Foreign Language Classroom: Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiboe Kofi Tsivanyo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines some methodological challenges in investigating communicative models of teachers and students in French language classroom in some Senior High Schools in the Cape Coast metropolis - Ghana. The data collection procedure for this study focused on natural setting, use of objective views on the Ghanaian belief systems in the investigation process in order to structure the research and to avoid manipulating the study variables. The database consisted of classroom activities as well as extensive interviews with some old students on a year abroad linguistic programme in University of Strasbourg, France. The results showed that language usage in the French classroom was controlled by teachers. However, strategies used by teachers could contribute to effective language teaching if cultural dimensions were taken into consideration.

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