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Sample records for model student misconceptions

  1. Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe…

  2. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  3. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  4. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  5. Students' misconceptions about light in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizak, D.; Chafiqi, F.; Kendil, D.

    2009-06-01

    Physics education research has shown that students have difficulties in learning essential optics concepts. Therefore, in this present work we deal with student's conceptions in geometrical optics field. Our objective is to show the Algerian students misconceptions. We proposed to 246 students in first year university (aged 18-21) a closed questionnaire where most of its questions were already used by other researchers. The misunderstandings identified were compared with those in literature. The results show that our students have the same misconceptions, related to the propagation of the light, the vision, the refraction and the reflexion, as the students in other countries (Andersson, Çiğdem ŞAHİN, Galili, Goldberg, Viennot). We investigate new students "misconception" concerning the propagation of the light in the vacuum.

  6. Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible. These examples…

  7. Undergraduate students' misconceptions about respiratory physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J A; Richardson, D; Rovick, A; Modell, H; Bruce, D; Horwitz, B; Hudson, M; Silverthorn, D; Whitescarver, S; Williams, S

    1999-12-01

    Approximately 700 undergraduates studying physiology at community colleges, a liberal arts college, and universities were surveyed to determine the prevalence of our misconceptions about respiratory phenomena. A misconception about the changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume (physiological variables whose changes can be directly sensed) that result in increased minute ventilation was found to be present in this population with comparable prevalence (approximately 60%) to that seen in a previous study. Three other misconceptions involving phenomena that cannot be experienced directly and therefore were most likely learned in some educational setting were found to be of varying prevalence. Nearly 90% of the students exhibited a misconception about the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure and hemoglobin saturation. Sixty-six percent of the students believed that increasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure leads to a decrease in alveolar carbon dioxide partial pressure. Nearly 33% of the population misunderstood the relationship between metabolism and ventilation. The possible origins of these respiratory misconceptions are discussed and suggestions for how to prevent and/or remediate them are proposed.

  8. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  9. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  10. Using a Teaching Model To Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona

    2000-01-01

    Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…

  11. Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

  12. Students' Levels of Explanations, Models, and Misconceptions in Basic Quantum Chemistry: A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Christina; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    We investigated students' knowledge constructions of basic quantum chemistry concepts, namely atomic orbitals, the Schrodinger equation, molecular orbitals, hybridization, and chemical bonding. Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning provided the theoretical framework and phenomenography the method of analysis. The semi-structured interview with…

  13. Omani Twelfth Grade Students' Most Common Misconceptions in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Shuaili, Ali H.; Taylor, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The current study, undertaken in the Sultanate of Oman, explored twelfth grade students' common misconceptions in seven chemistry conceptual areas. The sample included 786 twelfth grade students in Oman while the instrument was a two-tier test called Chemistry Misconceptions Diagnostic Test (CMDT), consisting of 25 items with 12 items…

  14. misconceptions of twelfth grade students on selected chemistry ...

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    diagnostic tests in measuring students' misconceptions and performance in terms of ... to be mostly attributed to the type of the diagnostic methods employed in each study .... proportions of students' scores and misconceptions were computed in terms of each tier ... and in which homonuclear bond don't exist, its valence and.

  15. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Kocakülah, Sabri

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal secondary school students' misconceptions about simple electric circuits and to define whether specific misconceptions peculiar to Turkish students exist within those identified. Data were obtained with a conceptual understanding test for simple electric circuits and semi-structured interviews. Conceptual…

  16. Students' Misconceptions about Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Elementary Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…

  17. Students' Misconceptions in Psychology: How You Ask Matters...Sometimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Annette Kujawski; Kowalski, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Misconceptions about psychology are prevalent among introductory students. Just how prevalent and what can be done to change these misconceptions depends on valid methods of assessment. The most common method of assessment, the true/false questionnaire, is problematic. The present study compared true/false with forced choice formats to determine…

  18. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  19. Common Student Misconceptions in Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P.; Doran, Dominic A.; MacLaren, Don P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study represents a preliminary investigation designed to identify common misconceptions in students' understanding of physiological and biochemical topics within the academic domain of sport and exercise sciences. A specifically designed misconception inventory (consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions) was administered to a cohort…

  20. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  1. Diagnosing Portuguese Students' Misconceptions about the Mineral Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, António; Nóbrega, Clévio; Abrantes, Isabel; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-11-01

    Educational researchers and teachers are well aware that misconceptions-erroneous ideas that differ from the scientifically accepted ones-are very common amongst students. Daily experiences, creative and perceptive thinking and science textbooks give rise to students' misconceptions which lead them to draw erroneous conclusions that become strongly attached to their views and somehow affect subsequent learning. The main scope of this study was to understand what students consider a mineral to be and why. Therefore, the goals were (1) to identify eleventh-grade students' misconceptions about the mineral concept; (2) to understand which variables (gender, parents' education level and attitude towards science) influenced students' conceptions; and (3) to create teaching tools for the prevention of misconceptions. In order to achieve these goals, a diagnostic instrument (DI), constituted of a two-tier diagnostic test and a Science Attitude Questionnaire, was developed to be used with a sample of 89 twelfth-grade students from five schools located in central Portugal. As far as we know, this is the first DI developed for the analysis of misconceptions about the mineral concept. Data analysis allows us to conclude that students had serious difficulties in understanding the mineral concept, having easily formed misconceptions. The variables gender and parents' education level influence certain students' conceptions. This study provides a valuable basis for reflection on teaching and learning strategies, especially on this particular theme.

  2. Students' Misconceptions about Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, G. L.; Loui, M. C.; Zilles, C.

    2011-01-01

    To improve instruction in computer engineering and computer science, instructors must better understand how their students learn. Unfortunately, little is known about how students learn the fundamental concepts in computing. To investigate student conceptions and misconceptions about digital logic concepts, the authors conducted a qualitative…

  3. Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Arthur Louis

    1995-01-01

    Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

  4. Investigations about Science Misconceptions

    CERN Document Server

    Risch, M

    2010-01-01

    Students entering engineering in universities of applied sciences were tested to see whether they understood easy Science problems within the first week of the first semester. The test comprised of mathematics and physics questions in both linear and diagrammatic form. Science misconceptions are investigated here by comparison to a model of misconception based on the findings of other investigators. The misconceptions demonstrated by the answers confirm this model of misconception. The results are discussed with traditional theories about education as well as with recent psychological research and with neuroscience insights. These comparisons enable further investigation of misconceptions.

  5. One Output Function: A Misconception of Students Studying Digital Systems--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotskovsky, E.; Sabag, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning processes are usually characterized by students' misunderstandings and misconceptions. Engineering educators intend to help their students overcome their misconceptions and achieve correct understanding of the concept. This paper describes a misconception in digital systems held by many students who believe that combinational…

  6. Faring with Facets: Building and Using Databases of Student Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A number of educational researchers have developed pedagogical approaches that involve the teacher in discovering and helping to correct misconceptions that students bring to their study of their subject matter. During the last decade, several computer systems have been developed to support teaching and learning using this kind of approach. A…

  7. Students' misconceptions about U.S. westward migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Ralph P; MacArthur, Charles A; Okolo, Cynthia M

    2007-01-01

    Fifth-grade students with learning disabilities (LD) and their typically achieving (TA) peers participated in an 8-week investigation about 19th-century U.S. westward migration. During their investigations, the students analyzed primary and secondary sources to understand the experiences of these emigrants and Native peoples. The analysis of source material was preceded by teacher-led discussions about the possibility of bias in evidence that affects the trustworthiness of historical documentation. Quantitative analyses showed that these investigations were associated with gains in students' knowledge about the period of westward expansion and a better understanding of historical content and historical inquiry; however, these gains were not always comparable for students with LD and their TA peers. Furthermore, misconceptions about this historical period and the processes of historical investigation were evident in students' responses before and after instruction. We discuss how design features of the instruction and its implementation may have contributed to the development and persistence of these misconceptions.

  8. One output function: a misconception of students studying digital systems - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotskovsky, E.; Sabag, N.

    2015-05-01

    Background:Learning processes are usually characterized by students' misunderstandings and misconceptions. Engineering educators intend to help their students overcome their misconceptions and achieve correct understanding of the concept. This paper describes a misconception in digital systems held by many students who believe that combinational logic circuits should have only one output. Purpose:The current study aims to investigate the roots of the misconception about one-output function and the pedagogical methods that can help students overcome the misconception. Sample:Three hundred and eighty-one students in the Departments of Electrical and Electronics and Mechanical Engineering at an academic engineering college, who learned the same topics of a digital combinational system, participated in the research. Design and method:In the initial research stage, students were taught according to traditional method - first to design a one-output combinational logic system, and then to implement a system with a number of output functions. In the main stage, an experimental group was taught using a new method whereby they were shown how to implement a system with several output functions, prior to learning about one-output systems. A control group was taught using the traditional method. In the replication stage (the third stage), an experimental group was taught using the new method. A mixed research methodology was used to examine the results of the new learning method. Results:Quantitative research showed that the new teaching approach resulted in a statistically significant decrease in student errors, and qualitative research revealed students' erroneous thinking patterns. Conclusions:It can be assumed that the traditional teaching method generates an incorrect mental model of the one-output function among students. The new pedagogical approach prevented the creation of an erroneous mental model and helped students develop the correct conceptual understanding.

  9. Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Transformation Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Tuba; Kurtulus, Aytac

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the students' performances in two-dimensional transformation geometry and explores the mistakes made by the students taking the analytic geometry course given by researchers. An examination was given to students of Education Faculties who have taken the analytic geometry course at Eskisehir Osmangazi University in Turkey. The…

  10. Exploring Lecturers' Views of First-Year Health Science Students' Misconceptions in Biomedical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…

  11. Exploring Lecturers' Views of First-Year Health Science Students' Misconceptions in Biomedical Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge…

  12. Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Rebecca V.

    2009-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…

  13. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  14. Misconceptions on classical mechanics by freshman university students: A case study in a Physics Department in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stylos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an empirical research study on Newton’s laws classical mechanics and its perceptions on freshman students at the Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Greece. Results and outcome measures reveal misconceptions on students’ perceptions in consideration of the fundamental concepts in freshman Physics education. The findings showed that the students continue to have the same misconceptions on concepts, such as the students of the high school. The research indicates that the students’ misconceptions remain largely throughout secondary education, which is a proof that there is no effort, where appropriate for conceptual change, according to the constructive model of learning and teaching physics. The objective intended to be reached in this communication is to provide an exchange forum of ideas that would help instructors originate the cause, and subsequently avoid misconceptions in freshman Physics education.

  15. Exploring lecturers' views of first-year health science students' misconceptions in biomedical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Elmi; Mamede, Sílvia; Hartman, Nadia; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-05-01

    Research has indicated that misconceptions hamper the process of knowledge construction. Misconceptions are defined as persistent ideas not supported by current scientific views. Few studies have explored how misconceptions develop when first year health students conceptually move between anatomy and physiology to construct coherent knowledge about the human body. This explorative study analysed lecturers' perceptions of first-year health science students' misconceptions in anatomy and physiology to gain a deeper understanding of how and why misconceptions could potentially arise, by attempting to link sources of misconceptions with four schools of thought, namely theories on concept formation, complexity, constructivism and conceptual change. This was a qualitative study where ten lecturers involved in teaching anatomy and physiology in the health science curricula at the University of Cape Town were interviewed to explore perceptions of students' misconceptions. Analytical induction was used to uncover categories within the interview data by using a coding system. A deeper analysis was done to identify emerging themes that begins to explore a theoretical understanding of why and how misconceptions arise. Nine sources of misconceptions were identified, including misconceptions related to language, perception, three dimensional thinking, causal reasoning, curricula design, learning styles and moving between macro and micro levels. The sources of misconceptions were then grouped together to assist educators with finding educational interventions to overcome potential misconceptions. This explorative study is an attempt in theory building to understand what is at the core of biomedical misconceptions. Misconceptions identified in this study hold implications for educators as not all students have the required building blocks and cognitive skills to successfully navigate their way through biomedical courses. Theoretical insight into the sources of misconceptions can

  16. STUDENTS? LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND MISCONCEPTIONS IN POINTING THE FRACTIONS ON THE NUMBER LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Cahit PESEN

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the 3rd grade students? n=113 learning difficulties in pointing the fractions on number line and to find out the misconceptions lying behind common mistakes For this purpose we have tried to determine learning difficulties in matching fractions with points on the number line and misconceptions by using the ?Diagnosis test? method on the 3rd grade students n=113 In this matching the learning difficulties and misconceptions these students enc...

  17. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  18. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  19. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  20. Student Misconceptions during Two Invasion Game Units in Physical Education: A Qualitative Investigation of Student Thought Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

    2000-01-01

    Described misconceptions of elementary students participating in physical education, testing ways of recording and classifying types of misconceptions. Data from observations, videotapes, interviews, and document analysis indicated that misconceptions fell into categories representing motor skill execution and confusion over terminology, strategy,…

  1. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures.

  2. The effects of a Web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Neset

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a web-based physics software program on students' achievement and misconceptions in force and motion concepts. During the fall of 1999, a total 125 students (54.4% female and 45.6% male) from two public high schools in Brevard County, Florida, were selected by a sample of convenience to participate in this quasi-experimental study. The MANCOVA analysis yielded a significant interaction for pretest (covariate = priory physics knowledge) and gender for each dependent variable (Y 1 = Achievement, and Y2 = Misconception). Thus, the test for homogeneity of regression failed rendering an invalid MANCOVA model. As a result, separate ATI's were performed for each dependent variable. ATI interaction between pretest and gender relative to achievement and misconception was significant. Of the six initial hypotheses, only hypothesis 2, which examined differences in-group misconception scores, was rejected. Specifically, group membership contributed 12.6% additional knowledge of posttest misconception score variability, which was statistically significant (F1,9 = 20.03, p < .05). Based on this result, it can be concluded that incorporating the web-based physics program with traditional lecturing did have a significant effect on dispelling students' physics misconceptions about force and motion concepts. Thus, only the test for this hypothesis and the two interactions, which were not initially considered as research hypotheses, were significant. All other tests of hypotheses were not statistically significant and hence were not rejected.

  3. Two-Dimensional, Implicit Confidence Tests as a Tool for Recognizing Student Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Taylor, Linda B.; Spindler, Shana R.; Garvin-Doxas, R. Kathy

    2006-01-01

    The misconceptions that students bring with them, or that arise during instruction, are a critical barrier to learning. Implicit-confidence tests, a simple modification of the multiple-choice test, can be used as a strategy for recognizing student misconceptions. An important issue, however, is whether such tests are gender-neutral. We analyzed…

  4. An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

    The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

  5. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Probability in an Introductory College Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, Leonid; Prado, Lucio

    2010-01-01

    College students' misconceptions about probability are common and widespread. These misconceptions impede students' ability to make sound judgments in situations of uncertainty and master fundamental concepts of inferential statistics. In this paper the authors report the results of a study undertaken with the objective of correcting three common…

  6. An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

    The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

  7. "Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a misconception among undergraduate students that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer. In this study, we evaluated the presence of this and other misconceptions surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole in students' conceptual frameworks. We…

  8. Exploring Common Misconceptions and Errors about Fractions among College Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Yazan M.; Alghazo, Runna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what common errors and misconceptions about fractions exist among Saudi Arabian college students. Moreover, the study aimed at investigating the possible explanations for the existence of such misconceptions among students. A researcher developed mathematical test aimed at identifying common errors…

  9. Breaking Down Barriers: Addressing student misconceptions in the K-12 classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; McCallister, J. D.; Knisely, L.

    2004-05-01

    A typical astronomy question an educator may ask their students is "What is a black hole?" Many times, students' responses sound more like an episode of Star Trek than an understanding about the universe and how it works: responses such as "Black holes are worm holes in space" or "A black hole is a huge vacuum in space, sucking everything in". These are all common astronomy misconceptions about black holes. A misconception is defined as a preconceived notion of how the world, or in the case of astronomy - the universe, works. Misconceptions may originate for a variety of reasons, from miscommunication, to oversimplification, to misrepresentation via the media or pop culture. Students who latch on to an astronomy misconception may have difficulty learning new information that is built upon the existing misconception. Additionally, educators who are not able to identify and address misconceptions can create learning barriers that may resonate throughout a students' life. This poster will introduce some of the extensive research that has gone into determining typical student misconceptions about astronomy, ways to identify them, and how students develop them. The poster will also explain why teachers need to be aware of ideas and concepts students may harbor as well as how misconceptions can be remedied.

  10. Identifying Students' Misconceptions about Nuclear Chemistry: A Study of Turkish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiboglu, Canan; Tekin, Berna Bulbul

    2006-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to elucidate and detail the types of misconceptions high school students hold relating to basic concepts and topics of nuclear chemistry. A diagnostic multiple-choice test was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) and the data were analyzed. The results show that high school students…

  11. A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Selahattin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

  12. Case Study: Formulating Questions That Address Student Misconceptions in a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Généreux, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions are sometimes called "alternative conceptions" in acknowledgement of the fact that although these concepts are inaccurate, they are congruent with prior experiences. The idea that misconceptions must be addressed to improve learning is helpful to remember when developing a case study. Students will bring their existing…

  13. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  14. A Study on Student Teachers' Misconceptions and Scientifically Acceptable Conceptions about Mass and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Selahattin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were considered under three headings. The first was to elicit misconception that science and physics student teachers (pre-service teachers) had about the terms, "inertial mass", "gravitational mass", "gravity", "gravitational force" and "weight". The second was to understand how prior learning affected their misconceptions,…

  15. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  16. Myths and Misconceptions in Popular Psychology: Comparing Psychology Students and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…

  17. Students' Misconceptions about the Ozone Layer and the Effect of Internet-Based Media on It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungordu, Nahide; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students' misconceptions about the ozone layer were investigated, looking specifically at the effect internet-based media has on the formation of these misconceptions. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to perform the research. As part of the quantitative portion of the research, the descriptive survey…

  18. Students' Misconceptions of Statistical Inference: A Review of the Empirical Evidence from Research on Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    A solid understanding of "inferential statistics" is of major importance for designing and interpreting empirical results in any scientific discipline. However, students are prone to many misconceptions regarding this topic. This article structurally summarizes and describes these misconceptions by presenting a systematic review of publications…

  19. Exploring Secondary Students' Knowledge and Misconceptions about Influenza: Development, validation, and implementation of a multiple-choice influenza knowledge scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Folk, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding infectious diseases such as influenza is an important element of health literacy. We present a fully validated knowledge instrument called the Assessment of Knowledge of Influenza (AKI) and use it to evaluate knowledge of influenza, with a focus on misconceptions, in Midwestern United States high-school students. A two-phase validation process was used. In phase 1, an initial factor structure was calculated based on 205 students of grades 9-12 at a rural school. In phase 2, one- and two-dimensional factor structures were analyzed from the perspectives of classical test theory and the Rasch model using structural equation modeling and principal components analysis (PCA) on Rasch residuals, respectively. Rasch knowledge measures were calculated for 410 students from 6 school districts in the Midwest, and misconceptions were verified through the χ 2 test. Eight items measured knowledge of flu transmission, and seven measured knowledge of flu management. While alpha reliability measures for the subscales were acceptable, Rasch person reliability measures and PCA on residuals advocated for a single-factor scale. Four misconceptions were found, which have not been previously documented in high-school students. The AKI is the first validated influenza knowledge assessment, and can be used by schools and health agencies to provide a quantitative measure of impact of interventions aimed at increasing understanding of influenza. This study also adds significantly to the literature on misconceptions about influenza in high-school students, a necessary step toward strategic development of educational interventions for these students.

  20. THE COMPARASION BETWEEN EPISTOMOLOGICAL ANALYZE OF ATOM CONCEPT AND STUDENTS' MISCONCEPTIONS ON THE TOPIC

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür, Sami

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is to establish a link and/or similarity, if there is any, between the misconceptions with epistemological origin of the students on atom concept and the epistemological obstacles which have been encountered since early times on atom concept. To accomplish this aim a misconceptions diagnostic test composed of 5 open-ended questions of which reliability and validity studies had been done administered to 105 primary school students. Moreover, detailed data on the topic ...

  1. Analysis of Energy Literacy and Misconceptions of Junior High Students in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-Cheng Yeh; Jing-Yuan Huang; Hui-Ching Yu

    2017-01-01

    Decision-making regarding energy determines carbon emissions and the severity of climate change. Energy literacy plays a crucial role because well-informed citizens can support the design and implementation of smart and forward-looking policies. Research has shown that people hold misconceptions about energy, and for young students these may persist into adulthood. Thus, this study is to understand the energy literacy of junior high school students in Taiwan and what their misconceptions are ...

  2. Student Acquisition of Biological Evolution-Related Misconceptions: The Role of Public High School Introductory Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tony Brett

    2011-01-01

    In order to eliminate student misconceptions concerning biological evolution, it is important to identify their sources. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma public high school Biology I teachers; (b) identify biological evolution-related misconceptions held by Oklahoma…

  3. STUDENT MISCONCEPTION ON REDOX TITRATION (A CHALLENGE ON THE COURSE IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH COGNITIVE DISSONANCE BASED ON THE MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Widarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The misconception is one of the obstacles in the concept mastery that needed to be minimalized. This descriptive study was conducted to find the patterns of misconceptions which have occurred on college students who participating in the redox titration course subject. Efforts to minimize misconceptions have been conducted through lectures using the multiple representations with the cognitive dissonance strategies on the 30 students who joined the Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry course. The research instrument used in this study was 6 multiple-choice tests with reasons. In order to detect the misconception, Certainty of Response Index technique was performed. The preliminary study results showed that 34.30% of students experiencing the misconceptions on redox titration. After treatments, the misconceptions reduced to 28.17%. A misconception that cannot be eliminated was related to the concepts involving in the microscopic and symbolic appearances.

  4. Development and Application of an Instrument to Identify Students Misconceptions: Diffusion and Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test,…

  5. Student Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify student misconceptions and difficulties in writing symbolic-level balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. A sample of 105 college students were asked to provide balanced equations for dissolving four ionic compounds in water. Another 37 college students participated in semi-structured…

  6. A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…

  7. A Reply to ''Reinterpretation of Students' Ideas When Reasoning about Particle Model Illustrations. A Response to ''Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes'' by Smith and Villarreal (2015)''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    In this reply to Elon Langbeheim's response to an article recently published in this journal, authors Smith and Villarreal identify several types of general chemistry students' misconceptions concerning the concept of particle position during physical change. They focus their response on one of the misconceptions identified as such: Given a solid…

  8. An In-Your-Face Approach to Student Misconceptions About Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, N. F.

    1999-12-01

    The deep seated nature of misconceptions often requires drastic measures if they are to be successfully replaced. In this paper I report on the effects of asking misconception-based questions in an introductory astronomy class and encouraging students to answer them in writing. The questions are used to verify student attendance. Students are required to write the question on their attendance sheet, but they're not required to write the answer. Since I think up each question in that class, it serves to verify student attendance. Students are told that most of the attendance questions are based on common misconceptions. They are assured that their answers will not be graded. Initially, many students are angry or annoyed at being asked such questions. Nevertheless, over 90 percent of the students answer them. I answer each question at the beginning of the next class. As the semester goes on students become more actively engaged in the discovery process that this questioning motivates. By the middle of the semester they are actively cheering or moaning when the answer is given. Students eventually learn that their first answer is often going to be wrong. They then look for a plausible alternative, which is often also incorrect. While alternative answers are not always successful for them, students are at least opening to new possibilities. Besides helping students evaluate their prior beliefs, their answers have provided me with considerable insight into many common misconceptions. I present samples of responses to a variety of questions. At the end of the semester, students are asked to assess the value of being asked misconception-based questions. All 121 responses to this evaluation from the Fall 1998 semester were either positive or neutral.

  9. Improving Algebra Preparation: Implications from Research on Student Misconceptions and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…

  10. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  11. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology†

    OpenAIRE

    Amy G. Briggs; Stephanie K. Morgan; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping...

  12. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Amy G. Briggs; Stephanie K. Morgan; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping...

  13. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy G; Morgan, Stephanie K; Sanderson, Seth K; Schulting, Molly C; Wieseman, Laramie J

    2016-12-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  14. The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…

  15. Using Learning Analytics to Identify Medical Student Misconceptions in an Online Virtual Patient Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, Eric G.; Naismith, Laura M.; Doleck, Tenzin; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify misconceptions in medical student knowledge by mining user interactions in the MedU online learning environment. Data from 13000 attempts at a single virtual patient case were extracted from the MedU MySQL database. A subgroup discovery method was applied to identify patterns in learner-generated annotations and…

  16. Analysis of Errors and Misconceptions in the Learning of Calculus by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzangwa, Jonatan; Chifamba, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper is going to analyse errors and misconceptions in an undergraduate course in Calculus. The study will be based on a group of 10 BEd. Mathematics students at Great Zimbabwe University. Data is gathered through use of two exercises on Calculus 1&2.The analysis of the results from the tests showed that a majority of the errors were due…

  17. Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

  18. Reduction of cognitive conflict and learning style impact towards student-teacher's misconception load

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'yun, Kurroti; Suyono, Poedjiastoeti, Sri; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial issue in education is a misconception that is caused by the misconception of the students themselves. Therefore, this study provided the solution to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in the schools through the remediation of misconceptions to the chemistry teacher candidates. This study employed a mixed method approach using concurrent embedded designs where it tended more to the qualitative research, but it still relied on the quantitative research in the assessment of the learning impact. The results of this study were the students with higher levels of cognitive conflict still have high loads of misconceptions (MC), it possibly due to the type of students' learning styles that is the sequential-global balanced. To facilitate the cognitive conflict character and the learning style of sequential-global balanced, the researchers created an integrated worksheet conceptual change with peer learning (WCCPL). The peer learning undertaken in the last stages of conceptual change of WCCPL can increase the resistance of students' concept in a category of knowing the concept significantly, but it should be examined in an in-depth study related to the long-term memory.

  19. Exploring Seventh-Grade Students' and Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Astronomical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts and their misconceptions in these concepts is crucial to study since they will teach these subjects in middle schools after becoming teachers. This study aimed to explore both seventh-grade students' and the science teachers' understanding of astronomical concepts and…

  20. How persistent are the misconceptions about force and motion held by college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Salameh, Hisham N.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of our introductory mechanics instructions in changing students’ misconceptions about Newtonian concepts. We gave the force concept inventory (FCI) test to 341 of our students twice, before and after instructions. The data were analyzed using a method first reported by Martín-Blas et al (2010 Eur. J. Eng. Educ. 35 597-606). We examined all of the known misconceptions found in the original paper by Hestenes et al (1992 Phys. Teach. 30 141-51) and determined the dominant ones from students’ incorrect answers for each of the 30 questions in the inventory. By comparing the dominant misconceptions held by our students in the pre- and post-tests, we were able to determine which ones were unchangeable by instructions and students couldn’t overcome. Results indicate some overall improvement in students’ performance but also the existence of very resistive to change misconceptions that were not affected by instructions.

  1. Overcoming Students' Misconceptions Concerning Thermal Physics with the Aid of Hints and Peer Interaction during a Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2013-01-01

    As has been shown by previous research, students may possess various misconceptions in the area of thermal physics. In order to help them overcome misconceptions observed prior to instruction, we implemented a one-hour lecture-based intervention in their introductory thermal physics course. The intervention was held after the conventional lectures…

  2. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  3. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  4. An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

  5. MISCONCEPTION REMEDIATION OF ATOMIC ORBITAL, MOLECULAR ORBITAL, AND HIBRIDIZIATION CONCEPTS BY COMPUTER ASISSTED INSTRUCTION WITH ANIMATION AND SIMULATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mursiti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation was used to misconception remediation of atomic orbital, molecular orbital, and hibridiziation concepts. The applicated instruction model was focused on concept approach with macromedia flash player and power point programme. The subject of this research were the 2nd semestre students of Chemistry Department. The data were collected by using of true-false pre-test and post- test followed by the reason of its. The analysis reveals that the Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation model increased the understanding of atomic orbital, molecular orbital, and hibridiziation concepts or remediation of concepts missconception, shown by the significant score gained between before and after the implementation of Computer Asissted Instruction with animation and simulation model. The instruction model developed the students's generic skills too.   Keywords: animation simulation,misconception remediation, orbital, hibridization

  6. Student Misconceptions about Newtonian Mechanics: Origins and Solutions through Changes to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Aaron Michael

    In order for Physics Education Research (PER) to achieve its goals of significant learning gains with efficient methods, it is necessary to figure out what are the sorts of preexisting issues that students have prior to instruction and then to create teaching methods that are best able to overcome those problems. This makes it necessary to figure out what is the nature of student physics misconceptions---prior beliefs that are both at variance to Newtonian mechanics and also prevent a student from properly cognizing Newtonian concepts. To understand the prior beliefs of students, it is necessary to uncover their origins, which may allow instructors to take into account the sources for ideas of physics that are contrary to Newtonian mechanics understanding. That form of instruction must also induce the sorts of metacognitive processes that allow students to transition from their previous conceptions to Newtonian ones, let alone towards those of modern physics. In this paper, the notions of basic dynamics that are common among first-year college students are studied and compared with previous literature. In particular, an analysis of historical documents from antiquity up to the early modern period shows that these conceptions were rather widespread and consistent over thousands of years and in numerous cultural contexts. This is one of the only analyses in PER that considers the original languages of some of these texts, along with appropriate historical scholarship. Based on the consistent appearance of these misconceptions, a test and interview module was devised to help elucidate the feelings students have that may relate to fictitious forces. The test looked at one-dimensional motion and forces. The first part of the interview asked each student about their answers to the test questions, while the second part asked how students felt when undergoing three cases of constant acceleration in a car. We determined that students confabulated relative motion with the

  7. students' conceptions and misconceptions in chemical kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    40 items ... secondary (SS3) and University (US) chemistry students in chemical kinetics in Rivers State, ... year university students in Turkey reported that students encounter difficulties in chemical .... Molar mass of CaCO3 = 40 + 12 + (16 x 3).

  8. Using formative feedback to identify and support first-year chemistry students with missing or misconceptions. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen Lawrie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Students entering tertiary studies possess a diverse range of prior experiences in their academic preparation for tertiary chemistry so academics need tools to enable them to respond to issues in diversity in conceptual models possessed by entering students. Concept inventories can be used to provide formative feedback to help students identify concepts that they need to address to improve construction of subsequent understanding enabling their learning.Modular, formative learning activities that can be administered inside or outside of class in first year chemistry courses have been developed. These activities address key missing and mis-conceptions possessed by incoming student. Engagement in these learning activities by students and academics will help shift the culture of diagnostic and formative assessment within the tertiary context and address issues around the secondary/tertiary transition. This diagnostic/intervention framework is currently being trialed across five Australian tertiary institutions encompassing a large heterogeneous sample of students.

  9. Essay contest reveals misconceptions of high school students in genetics content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Van Horne, Katie; Zhang, Hubert; Boughman, Joann

    2008-03-01

    National educational organizations have called upon scientists to become involved in K-12 education reform. From sporadic interaction with students to more sustained partnerships with teachers, the engagement of scientists takes many forms. In this case, scientists from the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), the Genetics Society of America (GSA), and the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) have partnered to organize an essay contest for high school students as part of the activities surrounding National DNA Day. We describe a systematic analysis of 500 of 2443 total essays submitted in response to this contest over 2 years. Our analysis reveals the nature of student misconceptions in genetics, the possible sources of these misconceptions, and potential ways to galvanize genetics education.

  10. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…

  11. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students' Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What…

  12. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy G.; Morgan, Stephanie K.; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble. PMID:28101260

  13. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Briggs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein. Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  14. Common misconceptions and future intention to smoke among secondary school students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caszo, Brinnell; Khair, Muhammad; Mustafa, Mohd Habbib; Zafran, Siti Nor; Syazmin, Nur; Safinaz, Raja Nor Intan; Gnanou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking among secondary school children continues to remain unchanged over the last 3 decades even though awareness regarding the health effects of smoking is increasing. Common misconceptions about smoking and parental influence could be factors influencing future intentions to smoke among these students. Hence, we looked at the common misconceptions as well as student perceptions about their future intention to smoke among Form 4 students in Shah Alam, Malaysia. This study was conducted by distribution of a questionnaire developed as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to Form 4 student in 3 schools at Shah Alam. Prevalence of smoking (current smokers) was 7.5%. Almost half of the children came from families where one or both parents smoked and a third of the parents had no discussion regarding consequences of smoking with them. A large number of students were classified as "triers" as they had tried smoking and were unsure of whether they would not be smoking in the future. Contrary to our expectations, students generally felt smoking did make one feel more uncomfortable and helped one to reduce body weight. Most students seemed to be aware of the ill-effects of smoking on health. They felt they had received adequate information from school regarding the effects on smoking on health. Our study showed that even though Form 4 students in Shah Alam were knowledgeable about ill-effects of smoking and were taught so as part of their school curriculum, the prevalence of smoking was still high. Students in the "trier group" represent a potential group of future smokers and strategies targeting tobacco control may be aimed at tackling these vulnerable individuals. Efforts are also needed to help educate secondary school children about common misconceptions and dispel myths associated with cigarette smoking.

  15. High school students' misconceptions in electricity and magnetism and some experiments that can help students to reduce them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Vera; Dvorak, Leos

    2016-05-01

    The Czech Conceptual test from the area of Electricity and Magnetism was prepared at Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague. The first part of the paper presents three problematic topics which were identified using this test -- charge distribution on an insulators, Coulomb's law and electromagnetic induction. However, to identify misconceptions is not enough. Therefore, the main part of the paper presents some experiments which can help students to overcome their misconceptions and to better understand not only the topics mentioned above. Most of these experiments can be done with very simple tools and materials.

  16. Student Misconceptions: A Qualitative Study of Conceptual Barriers in Plate Tectonics and in the Solar System among Upper Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, L. M.; Corrigan, S.

    2010-12-01

    Constructivist theory points to the importance of recognizing student conceptions and the need to address them if students are going to move from their first conceptions to scientifically accepted understandings. Research into students’ conceptions has therefore been conducted in the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, but so far has been limited in the earth sciences. In addition to this gap in the literature, there is a growing interest in making such research more accessible and useful to practitioners. Helpful to both of these needs are recent efforts to describe a particular class of students’ geoscience misconceptions termed “conceptual barriers”. Conceptual barriers are foundational or fundamental misconceptions in the sense that they bare relationships with many other concepts in a domain and stand to seriously impede students’ conceptual understanding. Rather than investigating discrete misconceptions, studies of conceptual barriers investigate the ramifications of such fundamental misconceptions for students’ understanding and reasoning throughout a topic. Where examples of students’ ill- or misconceived patterns of reasoning can be generated, they stand to aid practitioners in not only diagnosing students misconceptions but also in responding to them. We have conducted interviews with over twenty upper elementary and middle school students in order to investigate and describe conceptual barriers to student understanding in the earth sciences - specifically plate tectonics and gravity in the solar system. Student interviews were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Through this work we have been able to identify several possible conceptual barriers in students’ understandings and to describe the ways these barriers impact students’ understanding of related phenomena.

  17. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  18. Diagnosing and Dealing with Student Misconceptions: Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue; Tomita, Miki K.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some of their existing knowledge provides good foundation for formal schooling, but other prior conceptions, however, are incompatible with currently…

  19. Misconceptions indeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumayer, D.; Scott, T. F.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent article Fotou and Abrahams (2016 Phys. Educ. 51 044003) described a study which investigated how students approach novel situations and whether their reasoning can be understood as theory-like misconceptions or phenomenological primitives. Two exemplary questions polling students’ concepts of gravity were presented in their article. Although we find the authors’ motivation and approach interesting we also raise concerns about one of these problems.

  20. Diagnostic Opportunities Using Rasch Measurement in the Context of a Misconceptions-Based Physical Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A.; Gale, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) items that are constructed such that distractors target known misconceptions for a particular domain provide useful diagnostic information about student misconceptions (Herrmann-Abell & DeBoer, 2011, 2014; Sadler, 1998). Item response theory models can be used to examine misconceptions distractor-driven multiple-choice…

  1. Development and application of an instrument to identify students misconceptions: Diffusion and osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misischia, Cynthia M.

    A large number of undergraduate students have naive understandings about the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis. Some students overcome these misconceptions, but others do not. The study involved nineteen undergraduate movement science students at a Midwest University. Participants' were asked to complete a short answer (fill-in the blank) test, and if possible participate in a follow-up interview. The researcher constructed short answer test that consisted of a three-tier structure that required students to generate answers, diminishing the influence found in two-tiered instruments such as 'recognition' of correct answers and test taking skills More importantly, each level built upon knowledge demonstrated in the previous tier; this allowed the researcher to determine where the breakdown occurred. Part one of the test consisted of 9 questions that prompted students to provide short answer definitions. Part two of the exam consisted of 7 questions that contained two parts. The first question required a true or false answer and the second required a brief explanation. The final part of the test consisted of 12 questions related to three scenarios. After each question students were also asked to record how confident they were with their answers on a three point scale. This helped to determine whether students had 'confidence' in their answers, or if they were just guessing. A total of three students agreed to participate in audio-recorded interviews. Descriptive and correlational data was used in the analysis of this study. This data included: (1) test; (2) interview; (3); Point biserial correlation coefficients; (4) Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficients; (5) Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficients; (5) and error pattern analysis Evidence from this study demonstrates that students do have misconceptions, about the processes of diffusion and osmosis.

  2. Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

  3. Science Teachers' Perceptions of and Approaches towards Students' Misconceptions on Photosynthesis: A Comparison Study between US and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyungwoon; Park, Soonhye; Choi, Aeran

    2017-01-01

    A critical component of teacher effectiveness is how teachers notice students' misconceptions and adjust the instructional approach accordingly. Taking a stance that the teachers' instructional quality is crucial to students' learning, a qualitative international comparison study was performed to examine science teachers' perceptions of and their…

  4. "I Thought It Would Be More Glamorous": Preconceptions and Misconceptions among Students in the Public Relations Principles Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Shannon A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses public speaking students' preconceptions as they begin their study and the misconceptions to which they ascribe. Finds that students often enter the basic course unaware of a management focus, shocked by the level of strategic decision making required of practitioners, and surprised by the amount of research knowledge and activity…

  5. Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

  6. Impact of an integrated science and reading intervention (INSCIREAD) on bilingual students' misconceptions, reading comprehension, and transferability of strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Patricia

    This thesis describes a research study that resulted in an instructional model directed at helping fourth grade diverse students improve their science knowledge, their reading comprehension, their awareness of the relationship between science and reading, and their ability to transfer strategies. The focus of the instructional model emerged from the intersection of constructs in science and reading literacy; the model identifies cognitive strategies that can be used in science and reading, and inquiry-based instruction related to the science content read by participants. The intervention is termed INSCIREAD (Instruction in Science and Reading). The GoInquire web-based system (2006) was used to develop students' content knowledge in slow landform change. Seventy-eight students participated in the study. The treatment group comprised 49 students without disabilities and 8 students with disabilities. The control group comprised 21 students without disabilities. The design of the study is a combination of a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design (Study 1), and a single subject design with groups as the unit of analysis (Study 2). The results from the quantitative measures demonstrated that the text recall data analysis from Study 1 yielded near significant statistical levels when comparing the performance of students without disabilities in the treatment group to that of the control group. Visual analyses of the results from the text recall data from Study 2 showed at least minimal change in all groups. The results of the data analysis of the level of the generated questions show there was a statistically significant increase in the scores students without disabilities obtained in the questions they generated from the pre to the posttest. The analyses conducted to detect incongruities, to summarize and rate importance, and to determine the number of propositions on a science and reading concept map data showed a statistically significant difference between students

  7. Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

  8. Misconceptions and biases in German students' perception of multiple energy sources: implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-04-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way for informed decision-making. This study examined German students' knowledge of the contribution of diverse energy sources to their nation's energy mix as well as their affective energy responses so as to identify implications for science education. Specifically, the study investigated whether and to what extent students hold mistaken beliefs about the role of multiple energy sources in their nation's energy mix, and assessed how misconceptions could act as self-generated reference points to underpin support/resistance of proposed developments. An in-depth analysis of spontaneous affective associations with five key energy sources also enabled the identification of underlying concerns driving people's energy responses and facilitated an examination of how affective perception, in acting as a heuristic, could lead to biases in energy judgment and decision-making. Finally, subgroup analysis differentiated by education and gender supported insights into a 'two culture' effect on energy perception and the challenge it poses to science education.

  9. Using Analogies To Produce Long Term Conceptual Change: Overcoming High School Mathematics Students' Probability Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gerald R.

    The existence of probability misconceptions at all levels has been well documented. Furthermore, these misconceptions have been shown to be widespread and highly resistant to change. Previous research has shown considerable success in overcoming misconceptions in the short term by basing the knowledge reconstruction process on problems which draw…

  10. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

  11. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

  12. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: Overcoming a Misconception Using Conceptual Change to Teach the Energy-Yielding Metabolism to Brazilian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Oliveira, Gabriel A.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2013-01-01

    A misconception regarding the human metabolism has been shown to be widespread among high school students. The students consider glucose as the sole metabolic fuel, disregarding that lipids and amino acids can be oxidized for ATP production by human cells. This misconception seems to be a consequence of formal teaching in grade and high schools.…

  13. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: Overcoming a Misconception Using Conceptual Change to Teach the Energy-Yielding Metabolism to Brazilian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Oliveira, Gabriel A.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2013-01-01

    A misconception regarding the human metabolism has been shown to be widespread among high school students. The students consider glucose as the sole metabolic fuel, disregarding that lipids and amino acids can be oxidized for ATP production by human cells. This misconception seems to be a consequence of formal teaching in grade and high schools.…

  14. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  15. Using the method of dominant incorrect answers with the FCI test to diagnose misconceptions held by first year college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Salameh, Hisham N.

    2017-01-01

    We started this work with the goal of detecting misconceptions held by our students about force and motion. A total of 341 students participated in this study by taking the force concept inventory (FCI) test both before and after receiving instructions about force or motion. The data from this study were analysed using different statistical techniques with results from frequencies and the dominant incorrect answer reported in this paper. All misconceptions reported in the original paper of the designers of the FCI test (Hestenes et al 1992 Phys. Teach. 30 141-58) were examined and the results are reported. Only pre test results are reported in this paper leaving post data for future work. We used the modified version of the FCI containing 30 questions and therefore used the revised list of misconceptions. Problems with impetus and active force are among the most dominant ones found with the full list reported in this paper.

  16. How Biomedical Misconceptions May Arise and Affect Medical Students׳ Learning: A Review of Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmi Badenhorst

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate on whether biomedical knowledge contributes significantly to the clinical reasoning process is on-going. Despite this debate, one cannot underestimate that subjects such as anatomy and physiology play a key role in the understanding of the human body. Misconceptions that exist or arise in biomedical subjects, such as physiology and anatomy, can impact on the learning processes of medical students. The present paper presents an overview of research in the field of biomedical misconceptions and consists of two parts. First, the authors draw on three theoretical frameworks, constructivism, concept formation and element interactivity in complex reasoning, to offer insight as to why misconceptions in biomedical subjects could potentially arise and exist. In the second part, the authors synthesize empirical studies on biomedical misconceptions that draw on similar theoretical frameworks. The limited research available in this field suggests that the three theories discussed in this paper do provide valuable insights into how misconceptions in anatomy and physiology can hamper coherent knowledge construction, and potentially play an obstructive role when students are required to perform complex cognitive tasks such as clinical reasoning.

  17. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p English and Chinese undergraduates had similar misconceptions, they tended to explain these by drawing upon very similar erroneous analogies and these appear to be only nominally culturally independent in that they are based on globally shared everyday experiences. Conclusion:Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the

  18. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-03-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it is argued that many misconceptions in chemistry may derive from students' failure to consider emergence in a systemic manner by taking into account all relevant factors in conjunction. Based on this argument, undergraduate students' conceptions of acids, and acid strength (an emergent chemical property) were investigated and it was examined whether or not they conceptualized acid strength as an emergent chemical property. The participants were 41 third- and fourth-year undergraduate students. A concept test and semi-structured interviews were used to probe students' conceptualizations and reasoning about acid strength. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the undergraduate students did not conceptualize acid strength as an emergent property that arises from interactions among multiple factors. They generally focused on a single factor to predict and explain acid strength, and their faulty responses stemmed from their failure to recognize and consider all factors that affect acid strength. Based on these findings and insights from philosophy of chemistry, promoting system thinking and epistemologically sound argumentative discourses among students is suggested for meaningful chemical education.

  19. Using students' misconceptions of primary coloured lights to design a hands-on coloured light mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2009-06-01

    A surface mount typed multi-coloured Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is used as a light source for the hands-on coloured light mixer. The LED consists of red, green and blue tiny sources but the mixer is designed to have four switches corresponding to red, green, blue and yellow light. These colours correspond to students' misconceptions of primary coloured lights; they realize that the primary colours and the rules for lights mixing are the same as those of paints. To generate a yellow light, a microcontroller placed between four input switches and the LED operates both a red and green tiny sources. In addition, the microcontroller is employed to eliminate some combinations of coloured light mixing to simplify the experiment (basic mode) for non advanced students. If the mixer is used with more advanced students, a number of combinations will increase and students need more analytical skills to find out the primary coloured lights (the coloured lights that can not be produced by the mixing of any other coloured lights). Therefore, the mixer is able to use with more advanced and non advanced students depending on the program in the microcontroller and some modifications of the circuit. Furthermore, to introduce students an idea that other hues or shades can be generated by mixing of these three primary coloured lights of different intensities, a tuning circuit is integrated to vary an intensity of the green light source.

  20. Students' Misconceptions in Interpreting Center and Variability of Data Represented via Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses misconceptions that students have in making judgments of center and variability when data are presented graphically. An assessment addressing interpreting center and variability in histograms and stem-and-leaf plots was administered to, and follow-up interviews were conducted with, undergraduates enrolled in…

  1. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  2. The influence of implementation of interactive lecture demonstrations (ILD) conceptual change oriented toward the decreasing of the quantity students that misconception on the Newton's first law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Yudi; Suhandi, Andi; Hasanah, Lilik

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to know the influence of implementation of ILD conceptual change oriented (ILD-CC) toward the decreasing of the quantity of students that misconception on the Newton's First Law. The Newton's First Law misconceptions separated into five sub-misconceptions. This research is a quantitative research with one group pretest-posttest design. The samples of this research were 32 students on 9th grade of junior high school in Pandeglang, Banten, Indonesia. The diagnostic test is a multiple-choice form with three-tier test format. The result of this study found that there was decreasing of the quantity of students that misconception on the Newton's First Law. The largest percentage in the decreasing of the number of the students that misconception was on the Misconception 4 about 80, 77%. The Misconception 4 is "The cause of tendency of the body passenger that sat upright on the accelerated bus from motionless bus suddenly to backward be a backward force". For the future studies, it suggested to combine other methods to optimize the decreasing the number of students that misconception.

  3. Catastrophic Misconceptions in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, E.

    1988-01-01

    Models the ideas of children's misconceptions and subsequent acceptance of conventional scientific thought on the simple cusp of catastrophe theory. Demonstrates one theory of the forces which are necessary to change a misconception to a scientific concept. (CW)

  4. Identifying Students' Misconceptions in Writing Balanced Equations for Dissolving Ionic Compounds in Water and Using Multiple-Choice Questions at the Symbolic and Particulate Levels to Confront These Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil M.

    2012-01-01

    Students who harbor misconceptions often find chemistry difficult to understand. To improve teaching about the dissolving process, first semester introductory chemistry students were asked to complete a free-response questionnaire on writing balanced equations for dissolving ionic compounds in water. To corroborate errors and misconceptions…

  5. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  6. Students misconceptions on chemical equilibrium and their consequences to biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that misconceptions onchemical equilibrium (CE are widespread among students in  higher education. Nevertheless CE concept is critical for biochemistry topics development such as buffer solutions, enzymekinetics, allosteric enzymes, metabolic networks, among others. In the present work weperformed tests in order to diagnose howstudents use the concepts of CE acquired inother courses. We tested high school andundergraduate students from two courses intwo institutions, in four moments of their course: a. freshmen; b. after basic general chemistry courses; c. along the biochemistrycourse and d. after physical chemistry courses. The tests dealt with: 1. tasks containing current terms, keywords and concepts about CE; 2. tests that exclusively use symbolic representations of CE and 3. application of elementary concepts of CE in biochemistry. The resultsshow that among thestudents: 1. more than 95% correctly answer questions of group1; 2. more than 50% fail in questions of group 2, and; 3. morethan 50% fail in questions of the group 3. We conclude that students solve tests  on CE without really understand the concepts involved; consequently studentsare unable to work CE concepts without mathematical tools or conventional formulas.Finally, the results show that students are restricted to use CE concept only in the context in which it was learned and this certainly impairs the significant learning of the forthcoming biochemical contents.

  7. Development and use of a three-tier diagnostic test to assess high school students' misconceptions about the photoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2016-05-01

    Background: In the last few decades, researchers have turned their attention to students' understanding of scientific concepts at different school levels. The results indicate that the learners have different ideas, and most of them are inaccurate in terms of those generally accepted by the scientific community. Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the development, validation and use of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test (PEMT) to reveal Turkish high school students' common misconceptions in terms of the photoelectric effect. Sample: In this study, 243 students (male=86, female=137) from six high schools made up the sample which comprised approximately 76% of the 11th grade population. Design and Methods: Based on findings from the literature, open-ended questions and interviews, the PEMT was developed and administered to 243 students. The data was analysed descriptively. Results: The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the scores was estimated as .83. Construct, content and face validities were established by senior experts and through the use of statistical techniques. The findings denoted that the test is a valid and reliable measure of students' qualitative understanding of the photoelectric concept. The results revealed that the majority of the students demonstrated a limited understanding of the photoelectric effect and have five prevalent misconceptions. These are: (1) an increase in intensity would provide the photon with enough energy to release electrons; (2) the photoelectric effect results from the ionization of atoms through the interaction with light; (3) a light beam whose photons have smaller energies than the work function would release electrons with the help of a voltage source; (4) the number of photoelectrons depends on the energy of the photon and (5) the photon has kinetic energy and it depends on the colour of light. The last two misconceptions were discovered in the current study. Conclusion: The findings

  8. Climate Change Misconceptions: Can Instruction Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuin, J. L.; Hayhoe, K.; Hayhoe, D.

    2014-12-01

    Public understanding of climate change is fraught with misconceptions. In some cases, these may arise due to the complexity of the topic: the difference between personal experience of short-term weather events, for example, as compared to long-term analysis of a climate trend. In others, myths may be deliberately introduced: that climate has ceased to change, or that changes have been proven to be due to natural causes. Whatever their origin, these misconceptions hold powerful implications for education on climate change and related science topics. Conceptual change theory demonstrates how pre-existing misconceptions persist under regular instruction and interfere with student acquisition of correct concepts. Here, we assess the extent to which incorporating corrective instruction on misconceptions related to the greenhouse effect and on the role of human activities in climate change affects student acquisition and retention of key scientific concepts. We investigate the efficacy of this approach using two reading passages: one that simply discusses the science, and another that provides both science and misconceptions-related information. Study subjects were drawn from a first year Atmospheric Sciences course at a large public university, yielding 197 students who successfully completed the pretest, instructional treatment, immediate posttest, delayed posttest, and a background survey. While both treatments produced significant gains in the posttest and delayed posttest overall, only the treatment that directly targeted misconceptions produced long-term gains on misconception-related questions. Our results support the conceptual change model's basic claim that misconceptions may persist through concept-based instruction, but may be uprooted by even a relatively brief reading passage that addresses them directly. However, our results also contain a striking anomaly: for questions involving the phrase "global warming," misconceptions-based instruction did not

  9. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change and its application to misconceptions in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joanna Kate

    Previous work has attempted to account for the factors involved in conceptual change (e.g. Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993). While progress has been made, cognitive restructuring remains to be positioned within a unifying theory of change. Here, a new model of conceptual change is put forward. The Persuasion Model of conceptual change builds on previous frameworks (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Vosniadou, 1994) including the psychology of persuasion (Heuristic-Systematic Model, Chaiken, 1980; Elaboration Likelihood Model, Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Social Judgement Theory, Sherif & Hovland, 1953) and cognitive and motivational theories of learning (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Mayer & Moreno, 1988; Wittrock, 1974b). High quality, elaborative processing of a persuasive message leads to change. Mental models are positioned as the mechanism by which meaning is created, manipulated, inspected and evaluated. These processes result in a continuum of cognitive restructuring. A study of conceptual change in Evolutionary Biology examined the viability of the Persuasion Model. It was predicted that knowledge, beliefs, interest and cognitive style would predict elaborative processing. Processing was hypothesized to influence information comprehensibility, plausibility, fruitfulness and compatibility with prior knowledge. Judgments were hypothesized to influence learning outcomes. Evolutionary knowledge and beliefs were assessed at pre- and posttest in 375 college students using multiple choice, likert-scale and extended response items. Need for Cognition, Need for Cognitive Closure, Epistemological Beliefs, Religiosity, Dogmatism, Moral Values and Argument Evaluation Ability were measured using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Participants read a text and indicated elaborative processing and information evaluation. Ninety percent of participants held at least one misconception at pre-test. Significant gains on

  10. Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

  11. Genius Is Not Immune to Persistent Misconceptions: Conceptual Difficulties Impeding Isaac Newton and Contemporary Physics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Melvin S.; And Others

    Recent research has shown that serious misconceptions frequently survive high school and university instruction in mechanics. It is interesting to inquire whether Newton himself encountered conceptual difficulties before he wrote the "Principia." This paper compares Newton's pre-"Principia" beliefs, based upon his writings,…

  12. Effect of Cabri-Assisted Instruction on Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Graphs of Quadratic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklu, Oguz; Topcu, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Pre-existing misconceptions are serious impediments to learning in mathematics. Means for detecting and correcting them have received much attention in the literature of educational research. Dynamic geometry software has been tried at different grade levels. This quasi-experimental study investigates the effect of Cabri-assisted instruction on…

  13. Misconceptions and Biases in German Students' Perception of Multiple Energy Sources: Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-01-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way…

  14. Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel: overcoming a misconception using conceptual change to teach the energy-yielding metabolism to Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Mauricio R M P; Oliveira, Gabriel A; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2013-01-01

    A misconception regarding the human metabolism has been shown to be widespread among high school students. The students consider glucose as the sole metabolic fuel, disregarding that lipids and amino acids can be oxidized for ATP production by human cells. This misconception seems to be a consequence of formal teaching in grade and high schools. The present study reports the evaluation of a teaching strategy based on the use of a dialogic teaching methodology within a conceptual change approach to remediate that misconception. Students were stimulated to formulate hypotheses, outline experiments, and to discuss their outcomes. The results showed that students were able to reformulate their original concepts immediately after teaching. The majority of the students showed adequate learning of the topic eight months after the application of the teaching strategy, although some level of misconception recurrence was observed. The educational consequences of the teaching unit are discussed in the context of the possible reasons for its success as well as the need for similar initiatives at grade school to avoid the establishment of the misconception. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Diagnostic of students' misconceptions using the Biological Concepts Instrument (BCI): A method for conducting an educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne Queloz, Annie; Klymkowsky, Michael W; Stern, Elsbeth; Hafen, Ernst; Köhler, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Concept inventories, constructed based on an analysis of students' thinking and their explanations of scientific situations, serve as diagnostics for identifying misconceptions and logical inconsistencies and provide data that can help direct curricular reforms. In the current project, we distributed the Biological Concepts Instrument (BCI) to 17-18-year-old students attending the highest track of the Swiss school system (Gymnasium). Students' performances on many questions related to evolution, genetics, molecular properties and functions were diverse. Important common misunderstandings were identified in the areas of evolutionary processes, molecular properties and an appreciation of stochastic processes in biological systems. Our observations provide further evidence that the BCI is efficient in identifying specific areas where targeted instruction is required. Based on these observations we have initiated changes at several levels to reconsider how biological systems are presented to university biology studies with the goal of improving student's foundational understanding.

  16. Undergraduates’ Misconceptions Concerning Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Çakmak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In their education lives undergraduate students’ one of the most encountered difficulty is to provide citations for their research projects and term papers. This difficulty drives students to two kinds of plagiarism: intentional or unintentional plagiarism. In this context, plagiarism is a no ethical  scientific behaviour we encounter most frequently among undergraduate students. When plagiarism is investigated in national and international literature, which is considered as an important problem regarding scientific communication and ethics principles, it is seen that research focused on intentional plagiarism. In this context the present study aimed to focus on university students’ unintentional plagiarism, a nonethical academic behaviour, based on their misconceptions. Adding it is aimed to attract the attention of the researchers in librarianship and information sciences to the problem, increase their awareness and to encourage them to make in-depth research. Thus the present study includes issues of conceptions; learning concepts; misconceptions; plagiarism; misconceptions of university students regarding plagiarism and the reasoning; defining and preventing misconceptions; the roles of librarianships and teachers in correcting the misconceptions regarding plagiarism. Present study followed a comprehensive review utilizing descriptive approaches to reveal the situation. At the end of the study a short summary evaluating the situation depending on the literature analysed is also added. Adding ideas and suggestions in how to reveal probable misconceptions and how to prevent or decrease their formation are also presented.

  17. Development of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Concept Inventory: Preliminary Results on University Students' Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, Nataša; Aviani, Ivica; Mešic, Vanes; Gluncic, Matko; Žauhar, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' understanding of concepts related to the microscopic model of gas. We thoroughly reviewed the relevant literature and conducted think alouds with students by asking them to answer open-ended questions about the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Thereafter, we transformed the open-ended questions into…

  18. Using intervention-oriented evaluation to diagnose and correct students' persistent climate change misconceptions: A Singapore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Liberty; Chang, Chew-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of classroom-based educational interventions is fraught with tensions, the most critical of which is choosing between focusing the inquiry on measuring the effects of treatment or in proximately utilizing the data to improve practice. This paper attempted to achieve both goals through the use of intervention-oriented evaluation of a professional development program intended to diagnose and correct students' misconceptions of climate change. Data was gathered, monitored and analyzed in three stages of a time-series design: the baseline, treatment and follow-up stages. The evaluation itself was the 'intervention' such that the data was allowed to 'contaminate' the treatment. This was achieved through giving the teacher unimpeded access to the collected information and to introduce midcourse corrections as she saw fit to her instruction. Results showed a significant development in students' conceptual understanding only after the teacher's decision to use direct and explicit refutation of misconceptions. Due to the accessibility of feedback, it was possible to locate specifically at which point in the process that the intervention was most effective. The efficacy of the intervention was then measured through comparing the scores across the three research stages. The inclusion of a comparison group to the design is recommended for future studies.

  19. Astronomical Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    Do you think that the Moon does not rotate? Do you think that the phases of the Moon are created by the Earth's shadow? Do you think that the seasons are a result of the Earth's distance from the Sun? If you answered "yes" to any of these, then you are one of many who possess misconceptions about astronomy.

  20. The Elements of Item Response Theory and its Framework in Analyzing Introductory Astronomy College Student Misconceptions. I. Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Favia, Andrej; Thorpe, Geoffrey L

    2013-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers that analyze college student beliefs in realms where common astronomy misconceptions are prevalent. Data was collected through administration of an inventory distributed at the end of an introductory college astronomy course. In this paper, we present the basic mathematics of item response theory (IRT), and then we use it to explore concepts related to galaxies. We show how IRT determines the difficulty of each galaxy topic under consideration. We find that the concept of galaxy spatial distribution presents the greatest challenge to students of all the galaxy topics. We also find and present the most logical sequence to teach galaxy topics as a function of the audience's age.

  1. Unweaving misconceptions: Guided learning, simulations, and misconceptions in learning principles of natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Brian E.

    College students often come to the study of evolutionary biology with many misconceptions of how the processes of natural selection and speciation occur. How to relinquish these misconceptions with learners is a question that many educators face in introductory biology courses. Constructivism as a theoretical framework has become an accepted and promoted model within the epistemology of science instruction. However, constructivism is not without its skeptics who see some problems of its application in lacking necessary guidance for novice learners. This study within a quantitative, quasi-experimental format tested whether guided online instruction in a video format of common misconceptions in evolutionary biology produced higher performance on a survey of knowledge of natural selection versus more constructivist style learning in the form of student exploration of computer simulations of the evolutionary process. Performances on surveys were also explored for a combination of constructivist and guided techniques to determine if a consolidation of approaches produced higher test scores. Out of the 94 participants 95% displayed at least one misconception of natural selection in the pre-test while the study treatments produced no statistically significant improvements in post-test scores except within the video (guided learning treatment). These overall results demonstrated the stubbornness of misconceptions involving natural selection for adult learners and the difficulty of helping them overcome them. It also bolsters the idea that some misconceptions of natural selection and evolution may be hardwired in a neurological sense and that new, more long-term teaching techniques may be warranted. Such long-term strategies may not be best implemented with constructivist techniques alone, and it is likely that some level of guidance may be necessary for novice adult learners. A more substantial, nuanced approach for undergraduates is needed that consolidates successful

  2. Overcoming Junior High School Students' Misconceptions About Microscopic Views of Phase Change: A Study of an Analogy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of an analogy activity, which was designed to overcome junior high students' misconceptions about the microscopic views of phase change. Eighty Taiwanese 8 th graders were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. For the control group, the subjects were instructed through traditional teaching whereas for the experimental group, an analogy activity was conducted on students. This specific analogy activity was presented in the form of role-playing in which students acted as particles and worked together to perform the conditions of phase changes. Through analyzing these students' drawings of the atom arrangements for the three states of some substances, it was found that the students of experimental group, though in many cases, did not perform statistically better than did those of control group in an immediate posttest. The comparisons of a delay test between these two groups indicated that the analogy activity had clearly positive impacts on students' conceptual change on these scientific concepts in terms of long-term observations.

  3. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  4. Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…

  5. A case study on the use of a formative assessment probe to determine the presence of science misconceptions in elementary school students: Implications for teaching and curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambi, Elizabeth A.

    While there may be disagreement on exactly what scientific literacy means, there is arguably little disagreement that students in the United States are desperately lacking in it. If the goal of science education is to produce scientifically literate individuals, then weaknesses in their knowledge must be identified and corrected. These weaknesses arise from misconceptions that exist in the students' conceptual and contextual understanding, as well as other forces. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patterns exist in students' misconceptions, specifically in physical science, and if so, whether the misconceptions change as students move from grade to grade. The use of a two-tiered science assessment probe facilitated this determination. This study reported on students in grades one through five who were instructed in the topic of phases of matter during science lessons developed for use in each of the above-mentioned grades. This constructivist curricular program was developed to provide science content, foster critical thinking skills, and bridge the gap between students' prior knowledge and new application. A total of 539 students participated in the study. An assessment probe, consisting of a scenario with one multiple-choice question and six responses, and a rationale section, was administered. Interviews were also conducted of students in each grade level. Results from the study indicated that students in each grade level shared similar ideas about the phases of matter. Chi-square analysis of the results also revealed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of each multiple-choice response across grade levels as well. Despite detailed instruction on the topic in grades three and four, fewer fifth grade students answered correctly than did those in second grade, who had not yet received the detailed instruction. Recommendations were made by the researcher for the use of formative assessments to determine the presence of

  6. Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

    2008-01-01

    Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

  7. Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

    2008-01-01

    Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

  8. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  9. Remediating High School Students' Misconceptions Concerning Diffusion and Osmosis through Concept Mapping and Conceptual Change Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and concept mapping strategies on students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Results indicate that while the average percentage of students in the experimental group holding a scientifically correct view rose, the percentage of correct responses in the control group…

  10. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

  11. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  12. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…

  13. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  14. The Negative Sign and Exponential Expressions: Unveiling Students' Persistent Errors and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…

  15. Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

  16. The Negative Sign and Exponential Expressions: Unveiling Students' Persistent Errors and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, Richard; Madrid, Silvia; Cooper, Sandra; Olson, Jo; Hartter, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not certain errors made when simplifying exponential expressions persist as students progress through their mathematical studies. College students enrolled in college algebra, pre-calculus, and first- and second-semester calculus mathematics courses were asked to simplify exponential…

  17. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  18. Rate of Change: AP Calculus Students' Understandings and Misconceptions after Completing Different Curricular Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Dawn; Reys, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Advanced Placement Calculus students' mathematical understanding of rate of change, after studying four years of college preparatory (integrated or single-subject) mathematics. Students completed the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) and two open-ended tasks with questions about rates of change. After adjusting for prior…

  19. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-12-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in obtaining their estimates of these quantities before and after watching a video recording of a car braking from various initial speeds to a complete stop and subsequent application of mathematical statistics to the obtained sets of students' answers. The results revealed that the difference between the value of the car braking distance estimated before watching the video and the real value of this distance was not caused by a random error but by a systematic error which was due to the incorrect students' conceptions about the car braking process. Watching the video significantly improved the students' estimates of the car braking distance, and we show that in this case, the difference between the estimated value and the real value of the car braking distance was due only to a random error, i.e. the students' conceptions about the car braking process were corrected. Some of the students subsequently performed video analysis of the braking processes of cars of various brands and under various conditions by means of Tracker that gave them exact knowledge of the physical quantities, which characterize a motor vehicle braking. Interviewing some of these students brought very positive reactions to this novel method of learning.

  20. To determine and overcome misconceptions in biology held by students and educators in the Irish schooling system

    OpenAIRE

    Galvin, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The investigation of misconceptions in Biology has been a substantive feature of the work of the Science Education research community for the past 30 years. It has been found to be one small but important aspect of teaching conceptual change in the classroom and is part of the broader educative work of the teacher and educator – generally regarded as work that is intellectual, social, moral and political. The importance of investigating misconceptions is emphasised by the num...

  1. Seeing is believing - reducing misconceptions about children's hospice care through effective teaching with undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jayne; Dornan, Jean; Quail, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Children's palliative care has evolved in recent years and is now recognised as a distinct area of health and social care practice. Whilst children's hospices are viewed as central to quality care for these children and families, lack of knowledge regarding the exact nature of care they provide exists. Education can go part way to changing attitudes and knowledge about the key contribution of hospices, thus improving future care. Alternative and innovative strategies to stimulate meaningful learning are pivotal to children's nurse education and this paper examines one such innovation adopted with 2nd year children's nursing students. Aiming to help students explore the ethos of children's hospice an educational visit was arranged, followed by an on line discussion. Although some practical challenges were encountered, the visit heightened student awareness moving them from the readily held perception that children's hospices were exclusively for dying children and was viewed by students as more effective than a traditional classroom session.

  2. Neuromyths in Music Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers and Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kopiez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, educational neuroscience has become increasingly important in the context of instruction, and its applications have been transformed into new teaching methods. Although teachers are interested in educational neuroscience, communication between scientists and teachers is not always straightforward. Thus, misunderstandings of neuroscientific research results can evolve into so-called neuromyths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of such music-related neuromyths among music teachers and music students. Based on an extensive literature research, 26 theses were compiled and subsequently evaluated by four experts. Fourteen theses were selected, of which seven were designated as scientifically substantiated and seven as scientifically unsubstantiated (hereafter labeled as “neuromyths”. One group of adult music teachers (n = 91 and one group of music education students (n = 125 evaluated the theses (forced-choice discrimination task in two separate online surveys. Additionally, in both surveys person-characteristic variables were gathered to determine possible predictors for the discrimination performance. As a result, identification rates of the seven scientifically substantiated theses were similar for teachers (76% and students (78%. Teachers and students correctly rejected 60 and 59%, respectively, of the seven neuromyths as scientifically unsubstantiated statements. Sensitivity analysis by signal detection theory revealed a discrimination performance of d' = 1.25 (SD = 1.12 for the group of teachers and d' = 1.48 (SD = 1.22 for the students. Both groups showed a general tendency to evaluate the theses as scientifically substantiated (teachers: c = −0.35, students: c = −0.41. Specifically, buzz words such as “brain hemisphere” or “cognitive enhancement” were often classified as correct. For the group of teachers, the best predictor of discrimination performance was having read a large

  3. Investigating Knowledge Acquisition and Developing Misconceptions of High School Students Enrolled in an Invasion Games Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded within constructivist theory, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate knowledge acquisition and developing conceptions of high school-aged students during a unit of instruction in badminton. Six different qualitative methods were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, (c) informal interviews, (d) think aloud…

  4. Misconceptions Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary J.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Andrews, Tessa C.

    2014-01-01

    A recent essay in "CBE-Life Sciences Education" criticized biology education researchers' use of the term "misconceptions" and recommended that, in order to be up-to-date with education research, biology education researchers should use alternative terms for students' incorrect ideas in science. We counter that…

  5. Students' Misconceptions About the Correspondences Between a Map and the Terrain Represented by the Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Griffith, J.; Liben, L.; Pistolesi, L.

    2003-12-01

    Skillful use of maps is a prerequisite for success in many fields of geoscience. Geoscience instructors find that many high school and undergraduate students are not skilled at using maps and other spatial representations to obtain or convey information. In an attempt to understand why so many students come to their study of geoscience with such poor map skills, we are studying map comprehension and map curricula in elementary schools. An analysis of published K-5 map skills curriculum materials shows that students are rarely explicitly instructed on the crucial skill of translating from map to reality and vice versa. Instead they are asked questions that can be answered entirely within the frame of reference of the map without thinking about the terrain represented by the map. We have developed a field-based test of map skills that requires students to transfer information from a map into the real world and from the real world onto a map. In the world-to-map task, students place stickers on a map to show where colored flags are located in the real world, just as a field geologist places colored pencil marks on a map to show where specific rock units are located. In the map-to-world test, students use a map to go to locations specified by stickers on a map and place markers on the ground at each location. This is the same skill required by an environmental scientist who follows a map to go to specific sampling locations. Approximately a fifth of 4th graders produce deeply-flawed answers on these tasks, showing a lack of understanding of the basic correspondences between features on the map and the represented terrain. Flaws include placing round stickers arbitrarily on round map symbols, and placing a sticker on a built object that should have been on a natural feature or vice versa. Another category of mistake is to reverse west/east and/or north/south; this mistake tends to be associated with poor performance on a standard psychometric test of mental rotations

  6. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  7. Mathematics, Thermodynamics, and Modeling to Address Ten Common Misconceptions about Protein Structure, Folding, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, Srebrenka

    2010-01-01

    To fully understand the roles proteins play in cellular processes, students need to grasp complex ideas about protein structure, folding, and stability. Our current understanding of these topics is based on mathematical models and experimental data. However, protein structure, folding, and stability are often introduced as descriptive, qualitative…

  8. The use of astronomy questions as an instrument to detect student's misconceptions regarding physics concepts at high school level by using CRI (Certainty of Response Index) as identification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, D. N.; Wulandari, H. R. T.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research is to detect misconceptions in the concept of physics at high school level by using astronomy questions as a testing instrument. Misconception is defined as a thought or an idea that is different from what has been agreed by experts who are reliable in the field, and it is believed to interfere with the acquisition of new understanding and integration of new knowledge or skills. While lack of concept or knowledge can be corrected with the next instruction and learning, students who have misconceptions have to “unlearn” their misconception before learning a correct one. Therefore, the ability to differentiate between these two things becomes crucial. CRI is one of the methods that can identify efficiently, between misconceptions and lack of knowledge that occur in the students. This research used quantitative- descriptive method with ex-post-facto research approach. An instrument used for the test is astronomy questions that require an understanding of physics concepts to solve the problem. By using astronomy questions, it is expected to raise a better understanding such that a concept can be viewed from various fields of science. Based on test results, misconceptions are found on several topics of physics. This test also revealed that student's ability to analyse a problem is still quite low.

  9. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  10. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  11. Misconceptions persistent despite school studying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Slobodanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with theoretical research of the phenomenon of misconceptions, i.e. retention (after regular learning during schooling of unscientific, personal, intuitive understanding of contents from different scientific disciplines. The phenomenon is equally present among pupils, students and adults. The aim of the discussion is to draw attention of scientific and professional audience to the phenomenon which we find is over-present in pedagogic practice but which, so far, has not been sufficiently recognized or discussed in our circles. Additionally, the intention is to consider pedagogic implications of this problem. The paper contains four parts. The first part discusses terminology (similarities and differences. In the second part a typology of misconceptions is offered. Two theoretical approaches/frameworks attempted to explain the phenomenon of misconceptions (traditional and constructivist approach to students’ learning are presented in the third part, while the fourth part focuses on pedagogic implications and importance of this problem for practice, and the strategies for its overcoming (the need for misconceptions to be made visible in the teaching process and for developing situations which will create cognitive conflicts in students, and the like. .

  12. Misconceptions in the use of the General Linear Model applied to functional MRI: a tutorial for junior neuro-imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril R Pernet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This tutorial presents several misconceptions related to the use the General Linear Model (GLM in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. The goal is not to present mathematical proofs but to educate using examples and computer code (in Matlab. In particular, I address issues related to (i model parameterization (modelling baseline or null events and scaling of the design matrix; (ii hemodynamic modelling using basis functions, and (iii computing percentage signal change. Using a simple controlled block design and an alternating block design, I first show why 'baseline' should not be modelled (model over-parameterization, and how this affects effect sizes. I also show that, depending on what is tested; over-parameterization does not necessarily impact upon statistical results. Next, using a simple periodic vs. random event related design, I show how the haemodynamic model (haemodynamic function only or using derivatives can affects parameter estimates, as well as detail the role of orthogonalization. I then relate the above results to the computation of percentage signal change. Finally, I discuss how these issues affect group analysis and give some recommendations.

  13. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice ePotvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two (22 scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  14. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  15. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  16. Transforming Misconceptions: Using Transformative Experience to Promote Positive Affect and Conceptual Change in Students Learning about Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…

  17. Transforming Misconceptions: Using Transformative Experience to Promote Positive Affect and Conceptual Change in Students Learning about Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning about complex scientific content, such as biological evolution, is challenging in part because students have a difficult time seeing the relevance of evolution in their everyday lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the Teaching for Transformative Experiences in Science (TTES) model (Pugh, 2002)…

  18. Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

  19. Integrating Technology Into Classroom Instructions for Reduced Misconceptions in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizam Alias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconceptions in statistics among students of non-statistics major are quite common. This paper will present the humble efforts of the author in trying to reduce misconceptions among her statistics students using technology. The examples were drawn from the teaching and learning of statistics to Master of Technical and Vocational Education students in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. EXCEL spreadsheet, power point presentation slides and a concept-mapping tool were integrated into classroom instructions on descriptive statistics. Increased class-room interactions were observed through out the learning process and a decrease in the percentage of students committing the specific misconceptions were recorded.

  20. Correcting Misconceptions on Electronics: Effects of a Simulation-Based Learning Environment Backed by a Conceptual Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Pan, Pei-Rong; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulation has significant potential as a supplementary tool for effective conceptual-change learning based on the integration of technology and appropriate instructional strategies. This study elucidates misconceptions in learning on diodes and constructs a conceptual-change learning system that incorporates…

  1. Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Perry David

    Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and

  2. Flawed Assumptions, Models and Decision Making: Misconceptions Concerning Human Elements in Complex System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE,JAMES C.; WENNER,CAREN A.

    1999-11-03

    The history of high consequence accidents is rich with events wherein the actions, or inaction, of humans was critical to the sequence of events preceding the accident. Moreover, it has been reported that human error may contribute to 80% of accidents, if not more (dougherty and Fragola, 1988). Within the safety community, this reality is widely recognized and there is a substantially greater awareness of the human contribution to system safety today than has ever existed in the past. Despite these facts, and some measurable reduction in accident rates, when accidents do occur, there is a common lament. No matter how hard we try, we continue to have accidents. Accompanying this lament, there is often bewilderment expressed in statements such as, ''There's no explanation for why he/she did what they did''. It is believed that these statements are a symptom of inadequacies in how they think about humans and their role within technological systems. In particular, while there has never been a greater awareness of human factors, conceptual models of human involvement in engineered systems are often incomplete and in some cases, inaccurate.

  3. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  4. The Effect of Online Collaboration on Middle School Student Science Misconceptions as an Aspect of Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jillian L.; Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in online…

  5. Cannabidiol Claims and Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2017-03-01

    Once a widely ignored phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol now attracts great therapeutic interest, especially in epilepsy and cancer. As with many rising trends, various myths and misconceptions have accompanied this heightened public interest and intrigue. This forum article examines and attempts to clarify some areas of contention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and Use of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess High School Students' Misconceptions about the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the last few decades, researchers have turned their attention to students' understanding of scientific concepts at different school levels. The results indicate that the learners have different ideas, and most of them are inaccurate in terms of those generally accepted by the scientific community. Purpose: This study was undertaken…

  7. An Analysis of Misconceptions in Science Textbooks: Earth science in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris John Henry

    2010-03-01

    Surveys of the earth science content of all secondary (high school) science textbooks and related publications used in England and Wales have revealed high levels of error/misconception. The 29 science textbooks or textbook series surveyed (51 texts in all) showed poor coverage of National Curriculum earth science and contained a mean level of one earth science error/misconception per page. Science syllabuses and examinations surveyed also showed errors/misconceptions. More than 500 instances of misconception were identified through the surveys. These were analysed for frequency, indicating that those areas of the earth science curriculum most prone to misconception are sedimentary processes/rocks, earthquakes/Earth's structure, and plate tectonics. For the 15 most frequent misconceptions, examples of quotes from the textbooks are given, together with the scientific consensus view, a discussion, and an example of a misconception of similar significance in another area of science. The misconceptions identified in the surveys are compared with those described in the literature. This indicates that the misconceptions found in college students and pre-service/practising science teachers are often also found in published materials, and therefore are likely to reinforce the misconceptions in teachers and their students. The analysis may also reflect the prevalence earth science misconceptions in the UK secondary (high school) science-teaching population. The analysis and discussion provide the opportunity for writers of secondary science materials to improve their work on earth science and to provide a platform for improved teaching and learning of earth science in the future.

  8. Students’ learning difficulties and misconceptions in pointing the fractions on the number line

    OpenAIRE

    Cahit PESEN

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the 3rd grade students’ (n=113) learning difficulties in pointing the fractions on number line and to find out the misconceptions lying behind common mistakes. For this purpose, we have tried to determine learning difficulties in matching fractions with points on the number line and misconceptions by using the “Diagnosis test” method on the 3rd grade students (n=113). In this matching, the learning difficulties and misconceptions these students enc...

  9. The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to Change Students' Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and temperature. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or change and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…

  10. Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Misconceptions about Seasonal Flu and Flu Vaccines Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... for Vaccination Misconceptions: Stomach Flu Misconceptions about Flu Vaccines Can a flu shot give you the flu? ...

  11. Rethinking Therapeutic Misconception in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Some authors have noted that in biobank research participants may be guided by what is called therapeutic misconception, whereby participants attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures.This article argues that the notion of therapeutic misconception is increasingly less justified when ev...

  12. Development of the kinetic molecular theory of gases concept inventory: Preliminary results on university students’ misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Erceg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated students’ understanding of concepts related to the microscopic model of gas. We thoroughly reviewed the relevant literature and conducted think alouds with students by asking them to answer open-ended questions about the kinetic molecular theory of gases. Thereafter, we transformed the open-ended questions into multiple-choice questions, whereby distractors were based on the results of the think alouds. Thus, we obtained a set of 22 questions, which constitutes our current version of the kinetic molecular theory of gases concept inventory. The inventory has been administered to 250 students from different universities in Croatia, and its content validity has been investigated trough physics teacher surveys. The results of our study not only corroborate the existence of some already known student misconceptions, but also reveal new insights about a great spectrum of students’ misconceptions that had not been reported in earlier research (e.g., misconceptions about intermolecular potential energy and molecular velocity distribution. Moreover, we identified similar distribution of students’ responses across the surveyed student groups, despite the fact that they had been enrolled in different curricular environments.

  13. Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within 5E Model: A Sample Teaching Design of "Cell" Concept and its Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Mustafa; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Since students' misconceptions are not completely remedied by means of only one conceptual change method, the authors assume that using different conceptual methods embedded within the 5E model will not only be more effective in enhancing students' conceptual understanding, but also may eliminate all students' misconceptions. The aim of this study…

  14. DESCRIBING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MISCONCEPTIONS IN SCIENCE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Yağbasan, Rahmi; GÜLÇİÇEK, Arş. Gör. Çağlar

    2003-01-01

    Many teachers think of their students as tabula rasa and assume a role as a teacher that is oriented to fill students’ empty minds. The problem with this approach is that students’ minds are not empty vessels that can be simply filled but already contain certain preconceptions and intuitions which pave the way to misconceptions. A misconception can be defined as an individual’s understanding of a concept as substantially different from the commonly accepted scientific meaning of it...

  15. DESCRIBING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MISCONCEPTIONS IN SCIENCE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Yağbasan, Rahmi; GÜLÇİÇEK, Arş. Gör. Çağlar

    2014-01-01

    Many teachers think of their students as tabula rasa and assume a role as a teacher that is oriented to fill students’ empty minds. The problem with this approach is that students’ minds are not empty vessels that can be simply filled but already contain certain preconceptions and intuitions which pave the way to misconceptions. A misconception can be defined as an individual’s understanding of a concept as substantially different from the commonly accepted scientific meaning of it...

  16. Misconceptions on ATP thermodynamic role in cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and permanence of misconceptions have negative implications on the learning processes  since it impairs theconstruction of significant learning. Misconceptions correction is a complex task due to the difficulties intheir detection and high resistance to their removal. The mainobjective of the present work was to investigate misconceptions about the thermodynamic role of theATP in cellular processes. Tests were realized with high school (HS, undergraduate (UG and graduate students involved in PhD programs (G. In this survey students answered a 15 item questionnaire dealing with the ATP role as the cellular energy source. The stability of such misconceptionswere verified: one result shows that 68% HS, 92% UG and 91% G students state that the energy from ATP hydrolysis is responsiblefor driving cellular processes. Overall results show that students carry misconceptions on basic thermodynamic concepts such as energy transfer and chemical reactions spontaneity. One source of the prevalence of the discussed misconceptions aretextbooks, where schemes, figures and even text early introducefalse concepts on the ATP role.

  17. Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

  18. Internet as a Source of Misconception: "Radiation and Radioactivity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Ince, Elif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine students' usage styles of the Internet for seeking information and to investigate whether information obtained from the Internet is a source of misconceptions. For this reason, a two-stage study was conducted. At the first stage, a questionnaire was developed to get information about students' Internet usage…

  19. Genetics and Cinema: Personal Misconceptions That Constitute Obstacles to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muela, Francisco Javier; Abril, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to find out whether the genetic concepts conveyed by cinema could encourage students' personal misconceptions in this area. To that end, two sources of conceptions were compared: the students' personal concepts (from a consolidated bibliography and from an experimental sample) and the concepts conveyed by…

  20. Misconceptions in Optics: Their Persistence at University Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Llinas, J.; Suero Lopez, M. I.; Perez Rodriguez, A. L.; Solano Macias, F.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study on misconceptions in optics with the objective of checking their persistence over time in spite of the continued academic instruction of students. Involves (n=4000) students of all levels of the Spanish educational system as well as with those at a Spanish university with degrees in medicine, chemical sciences, technical…

  1. Investigating Undergraduate Science Students’ Conceptions and Misconceptions of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Kathryn I.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research exploring ocean acidification has grown significantly in past decades. However, little science education research has investigated the extent to which undergraduate science students understand this topic. Of all undergraduate students, one might predict science students to be best able to understand ocean acidification. What conceptions and misconceptions of ocean acidification do these students hold? How does their awareness and knowledge compare across disciplines? Undergraduate biology, chemistry/biochemistry, and environmental studies students, and science faculty for comparison, were assessed on their awareness and understanding. Results revealed low awareness and understanding of ocean acidification among students compared with faculty. Compared with biology or chemistry/biochemistry students, more environmental studies students demonstrated awareness of ocean acidification and identified the key role of carbon dioxide. Novel misconceptions were also identified. These findings raise the question of whether undergraduate science students are prepared to navigate socioenvironmental issues such as ocean acidification. PMID:26163563

  2. Mathematical misconception in calculus 1: Identification and gender difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassir, Asyura Abd; Abdullah, Nur Hidayah Masni; Ahmad, Salimah; Tarmuji, Nor Habibah; Idris, Aminatul Solehah

    2017-08-01

    A few years of experience of teaching mathematics make us notice that the same types of mistakes are done repeatedly by students. This paper presents an insight into categories of mistakes, how male and female students differ in terms of mistakes that are commonly done and the ability of the students to identify the mistakes. Sample of mistakes were taken from Calculus 1 final exam answer scripts, then it was listed and analyzed. Data analysis revealed that students' misconceptions fall into four categories. The first category is misunderstanding the meaning of brackets, followed by misconception of basic mathematics rules, misconception in notation and misconception in properties of trigonometry. A mistake identification test which consists of ten false mathematical statements was designed based on the mistake done by the previous batch of students that covered topics algebra, trigonometry, index, limit, differentiation and integration. Then, the test was given to students who enrolled in Calculus I course. Respondents of this study were randomly selected among two hundreds engineering students. Data obtained were analyzed using basic descriptive analysis and Chi Square test to capture gender differences in the mistake done for each category. Findings indicate that thirty five percent of the students have the ability to identify the mistakes and make a proper correction for at most two statements. Thirty one percent of the students are able to identify the mistakes but unable to make proper correction. Twenty five percent of the students failed to identify the mistakes in six out of ten false statements. Female students' misconception is more likely in basic mathematics rules compared to male. The findings of this study could serve as baseline information to be stressed in improving teaching and learning mathematics.

  3. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  4. Utility of Concept Cartoons in Diagnosing and Overcoming Misconceptions Related to Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…

  5. Revising Psychology Misconceptions by Integrating a Refutation-Style Text Framework into Poster Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Karla A.; Kolquist, Molly; Vergin, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Refutation-style texts have been considered a viable strategy for changing psychological misconceptions. The current study aims to integrate refutation-style texts into a classroom-based method of learning. Psychology students were administered a true/false misconception survey and then viewed several refutation-style poster presentations…

  6. Revisiting Science Misconceptions: How are we doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millham, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Misconceptions in science continue in K-12 settings. Although "A Nation at Risk" helped spearheaded the development of creative instructional strategies, concept maps, and a multitude of other reforms, many basic science concepts remain misunderstood by students. Recent research conducted by the author and colleagues finds it difficult to determine if a student knows and understands a scientific concept when the student cannot find the language necessary to explain what s/he thinks they know. In fact, student explanations for understandings are often confusing and include mixed conceptual ideas. This session discusses the findings, instructional tools, and the use of academic language as a tool for conceptual development. In my research, I found it difficult to determine if students know and understand scientific concepts. A majority of students surveyed were unable to use language to explain what they think they know, and explanations were often confusing, containing mixed concepts. This demonstrates the importance of teacher content, academic language, and active engagement in learning through doing science. We will focus on how to identify whether or not students have the language necessary to explicitly explain their scientific understandings, and how we can help them to develop their skills through the consistent use of academic language to mitigate scientific misconceptions. Embedded will be the importance of content knowledge and active engagement in teaching and learning. This interactive dialogue and activity is designed to provoke thinking about strong content background, engagement of students in learning, and related clusters of vocabulary to express content (i.e. acid vs base, or fault vs earthquakes). Total number of students who either agreed or disagreed with a statement. Comparing the correctness of the agree or disagree statements with written explanations.

  7. Using Astronomical Photographs to Investigate Misconceptions about Galaxies and Spectra: Question Development for Clicker Use

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyunju

    2015-01-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has been scarcely conducted. In this study we probed college students' understanding of astronomical photographs and visual data about galaxies and spectra, and developed a set of concept questions based on their common misconceptions. The study was conducted mainly in three successive surveys: 1) open-ended questions looking for students' ideas and common misconceptions, 2) combined multiple-choice and open-ended questions seeking to explore student reasoning and to improve concept questions for clickers, and 3) a finalized version of the concept questions used to investigate the strength of each misconception among the students in introductory astronomy courses. This stu...

  8. Assessing 10- to 11-Year-Old Children's Performance and Misconceptions in Number Sense Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Number sense is a key topic in mathematics education, and the identification of children's misconceptions about number is, therefore, important. Information about students' serious misconceptions can be quite significant for teachers, allowing them to change their teaching plans to help children overcome these misconceptions. In…

  9. Using Analogies to Prevent Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Pekmez, Esin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to find the effectiveness of using analogies to prevent misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Nineteen analogies, which were based on dynamic aspects of chemical equilibrium and application of Le Chatelier's principle, were developed. The participations of this study consisted of 11th grade students (n: 151)…

  10. TWO IDEAS OF THE REDOX REACTION: MISCONCEPTIONS AND ...

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    This paper addresses the question of misconceptions according to the two well known ... everyday life the concept of electron transfer in redox reactions, a good instruction ... About half of the students in grades 10 – 12 chose the correct answer (i). ... distinguish between ions and atoms, between atoms or ions and related ...

  11. The Evolution with Age of Probabilistic, Intuitively Based Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim; Schnarch, Ditza

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated probabilistic intuitions held by students (N=98) from grade 7 through college through the use of a questionnaire. Of the misconceptions that were investigated, availability was the only one that was stable across age groups. Contains 20 references. (DDR)

  12. 高中生海洋科學素養及迷思概念評量分析 Marine Science Literacy and Misconceptions among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    羅綸新 Lwun-Syin Lwo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在:一、應用概念圖命題模式及開放性問答評量高中生海洋科學概念與素養之現況。二、以問卷試題診斷高中生海洋科學迷思概念之情形。研究以基隆市5 所公立高級中學學生為對象,共計發出361 份問卷,有效樣本346 份,回收率為96%。研究結果顯示:一、高中生在海洋科學概念詞彙運用前三名為暖化、地震及地球。二、高中生在海洋科學概念詞彙運用產生迷思的三大詞彙為生質能源、黑潮及親潮。三、高中生海洋概念以知識面向的概念最高。四、高中生在海洋科學迷思概念試題評量中,平均答對率只有53%。五、黑潮得名緣由為高中生在海洋科學迷思概念評量中答對率最低的題目,僅有16%。六、「瞭解冰期與間冰期海平面的升降,對全球生物與自然環境可能造成影響」為高中生最常帶有迷思概念的能力指標。研究的結果可供我國海洋教育相關人員及高中教師參考,以提升海洋教育實施之成效與國民海洋科學素養。 The purposes of this study were to examine the literacy of senior high school students regarding marine-science concepts by using the concept-map method (open-ended tasks and an open-ended question, and to assess their misconceptions about marine science. A survey was conducted among students from five senior high schools in northern Taiwan. A total of 361 questionnaires were distributed and a validity count of 346 was returned. The results of this study were as follows: (1 The terms “warming,” “earthquake,” and “earth” were most commonly used by students to express marine-science concepts. (2 The terms “bioenergy,” “Kuroshio Currents,” and “Oyashio Currents” caused the most confusion among students. (3 The marine concepts described by the students were more in cognitive domain, than in attitude and affective domains. (4 The students

  13. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

  14. Students’ learning difficulties and misconceptions in pointing the fractions on the number line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit PESEN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the 3rd grade students’ (n=113 learning difficulties in pointing the fractions on number line and to find out the misconceptions lying behind common mistakes. For this purpose, we have tried to determine learning difficulties in matching fractions with points on the number line and misconceptions by using the “Diagnosis test” method on the 3rd grade students (n=113. In this matching, the learning difficulties and misconceptions these students encounter have been determined and some proposals have been developed to come over these difficulties.

  15. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  16. From Misconceptions to Conceptual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Julia; Metz, Bill

    2011-01-01

    We all have misconceptions about the world in which we live--how it works, how we interact with it, how it changes, and the reasons behind those changes. These misunderstandings are personal notions we create to make meaning of our surroundings. Often, these misunderstandings go unchallenged for a lifetime. This article addresses how these…

  17. Teaching Electric Circuits: Teachers' Perceptions and Learners' Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kimera; Gaigher, Estelle

    2017-06-01

    An exploratory case study involving six grade 9 science teachers was undertaken to probe how teachers' understanding of learners' misconceptions relate to their perceptions about teaching simple circuits. The participants' understanding of documented misconceptions in electricity were explored by means of a questionnaire, while their perceptions about teaching electric circuits were also explored in the questionnaire, followed by a semi-structured interview. Results were analysed using content analysis and interpreted using pedagogical content knowledge as a theoretical lens. The results indicated that understanding learners' misconceptions did not always correlate with conceptual perceptions about teaching electric circuits. While fair understanding of misconceptions was demonstrated by teachers who studied Physics at undergraduate level, only those who also held qualifications in Education showed conceptual perceptions about teaching electricity. Teachers who did not study Science Education revealed technical perceptions, focused on facts, demonstrations and calculations. From these results, a developmental model for pedagogical content knowledge was proposed. It was recommended that teacher education programs should involve misconceptions and also facilitate the development of conceptual perceptions about teaching.

  18. An investigation of difficulties experienced by students developing unified modelling language (UML) class and sequence diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-12-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they essentially do not know "what" to model. This article investigates the difficulties and misconceptions undergraduate students have with analysing systems using unified modelling language analysis class and sequence diagrams. These models were chosen because they represent important static and dynamic aspects of the software system under development. The results of this study will help students produce effective OO models, and facilitate software engineering lecturers design learning materials and approaches for introductory OOAD courses.

  19. Misconceptions and realities about teaching online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Joan E

    2005-07-01

    This article is intended to guide online course developers and teachers. A brief review of the literature on the misconceptions of beginning online teachers reveals that most accept the notion that putting one's lecture notes online produces effective learning, or that technology will make education more convenient and cost-effective for all concerned. Effective online learning requires a high level of responsibility for learning on the part of students and a reduction of the teacher-student power differential. This, in turn, has major implications for faculty and course development, student selection criteria, the cost of instruction, and the outcomes of education. Effective online teaching focuses on processes of learning rather than outcomes, and is consistent with modern principles of learning that emphasize focusing on issues of high interest to learners, teaching students to use skills of active and effective learning, providing prompt feedback, and enabling students to establish learning goals and employ alternative paths to achieving those goals. Multiple ways of operationalizing these goals online are presented. Tips are offered concerning selection of students who are capable of benefiting from the online experience, developing curriculum that is user-friendly, using resources that stimulate good writing and critical thinking, and limiting class size to a manageable number.

  20. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  1. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  2. Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to

  3. Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

  4. The Mathematical Concept of Set and the 'Collection' Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim; Baltsan, Madlen

    1999-01-01

    Hypothesizes that various misconceptions held by students with regard to the mathematical set concept may be explained by the initial collection model. Study findings confirm the hypothesis. (Author/ASK)

  5. Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway (http://cleanet.org) as part of the National Science Digital Library (http://www.nsdl.org) strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high

  6. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-03-02

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions.

  7. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  8. Using astronomical photographs to investigate misconceptions about galaxies and spectra: Question development for clicker use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.

    2015-12-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has been scarcely conducted. In this study we probed college students' understanding of astronomical photographs and visual data about galaxies and spectra, and developed a set of concept questions based on their common misconceptions. The study was conducted mainly in three successive surveys: (i) open-ended questions looking for students' ideas and common misconceptions, (ii) combined multiple-choice and open-ended questions seeking to explore student reasoning and to improve concept questions for clickers, and (iii) a finalized version of the concept questions used to investigate the strength of each misconception among the students in introductory astronomy courses. This study reports on the procedures and the development of the concept questions with the investigated common misconceptions about galaxies and spectra. We also provide the set of developed questions for teachers and instructors seeking to implement in their classes for the purpose of formative assessment with the use of classroom response systems. These questions would help them recognize the gap between their teaching and students' understanding, and ultimately improve teaching of the concepts.

  9. Using astronomical photographs to investigate misconceptions about galaxies and spectra: Question development for clicker use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.

    2015-12-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and research about students' interpretation of astronomical images has been scarcely conducted. In this study we probed college students' understanding of astronomical photographs and visual data about galaxies and spectra, and developed a set of concept questions based on their common misconceptions. The study was conducted mainly in three successive surveys: (i) open-ended questions looking for students' ideas and common misconceptions, (ii) combined multiple-choice and open-ended questions seeking to explore student reasoning and to improve concept questions for clickers, and (iii) a finalized version of the concept questions used to investigate the strength of each misconception among the students in introductory astronomy courses. This study reports on the procedures and the development of the concept questions with the investigated common misconceptions about galaxies and spectra. We also provide the set of developed questions for teachers and instructors seeking to implement in their classes for the purpose of formative assessment with the use of classroom response systems. These questions would help them recognize the gap between their teaching and students' understanding, and ultimately improve teaching of the concepts.

  10. Five popular misconceptions about osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Eric M.; Myers, David R.

    2012-08-01

    Osmosis is the flow of solvent across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower to higher solute concentration. It is of central importance in plant and animal physiology and finds many uses in industry. A survey of published papers, web resources, and current textbooks reveals that numerous misconceptions about osmosis continue to be cited and taught. To clarify these issues, we re-derive the thermodynamics of osmosis using the canonical formalism of statistical mechanics and go on to discuss the main points that continue to lead to misunderstandings.

  11. Student Modelling in an Intelligent Tutoring System for the Passive Voice of English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Maras

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an intelligent multimedia tutoring system for the passive voice of the English grammar. The system may be used to present theoretical issues about the passive voice and to provide exercises that the student may solve. The main focus of the tutor is on the student's error diagnosis process, which is performed by the student modelling component. When the student types the solution to an exercise, the system examines the correctness of the answer. If the student's answer has been erroneous it attempts to diagnose the underlying misconception of the mistake. In order to provide individualised help, the system holds a profile for every student, the long term student model. The student’s progress and his/her usual mistakes are recorded to this long term student model. This kind of information is used for the individualised error diagnosis of the student in subsequent sessions. In addition, the information stored about the student can also be used for the resolution of an arising ambiguity, as to what the underlying cause of a student error has been.

  12. Some Misconceptions about Communicative Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoff

    1996-01-01

    Presents four misconceptions surrounding communicative language teaching (CLT) and discusses the reasons for their existence. These misconceptions are: (1) CLT means not teaching grammar; (2) CLT means teaching only speaking; (3) CLT means pair work, which means role play; and (4) CLT means expecting too much from the teacher. (13 references)…

  13. "In Fourteen Hundred and Ninety-Two, Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue": Effects of Multiple Document Readings on Student Attitudes and Misconceptions. Reading Research Report No. 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Steven A.; And Others

    To examine the effects of students reading multiple documents on their perceptions of a historical event, in this case the "discovery" of America by Christopher Columbus, 85 high school freshmen read 3 of 4 different texts (or sets of texts) dealing with Columbus. One text was an encyclopedia article, one a set of articles from…

  14. A Study on Overcoming Misconceptions of 6th Graders About Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde AKYÜZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine and overcome misconceptions of 6th graders about first degree equations with one unknown. The study has a mixed research design and was conducted with 25 sixth graders in a public school during the spring semester of the 2011-2012 academic year. Data were collected through a test of 20 open-ended items developed by the researcher. The misconceptions were detected through descriptive analysis of the test. Then, students were being taught based on activity-based instructional methods for eight hours. The test was also given at the end of the instruction as a post-test to examine the effectiveness of the activity-based instruction with overcoming their misconceptions. Data were analyzed by paired samples t test through SPSS 16.0. Findings indicated that activity-based instruction was effective in overcoming students’ misconceptions.

  15. Examination of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers’ Knowledge of Students’ Misconceptions on the Topic of Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    KARAAĞAÇ, Mehmet Kerem; KÖSE, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study is to explore in service and prospective mathematics teachers’ knowledge about students misconceptions on fractions. As being mainly qualitative in nature, the study employed multiple case study methodology. The cases consisted of two pre-service, four in-service teachers and 90 7th grade students. Two phased misconception test has been utilized as main data collection tool. Semi-structured interviews also have been carried out as an additional data. In this paper results...

  16. Error and misconception: Relation of fraction and part-wholeHata ve kavram yanılgısı: Kesir ve parça bütün ilişkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Kemal Altıparmak; Melike Özüdoğru

    2015-01-01

    In this study, students’ fraction concept has been studied to reveal their errors and misconceptions. For this purpose, researchers prepared an “error and misconception diagnostic test” which consists of 34 questions about part-whole relationship (simple and compound fractions), number line, and comment. The reliability coefficient of this test is 0.86. The misconceptions diagnostic test was applied to 73 secondary school students and 113 university students. According to results, students pa...

  17. The Effects of Concept Cartoons on Eliminating Students’ Misconceptions: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Cerrah Ozsevgeç

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the effects of concept cartoons on eliminating students’ misconceptions about the global warming and greenhouse effect. The sample of the study is consisted of 17 students from the 7 grade of Rize Çay Primary School. Simple experimental study design was used in the study. Test and semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that the students had misconceptions about global warming and greenhouse effect. The teaching process comprising concept cartoons treated most of these misconceptions. Students indicated that the teaching process was enjoyable and it eased the students’ remembering of the given knowledge. Based on the results, it was suggested that the teachers should be informed about the usage of concept cartoon in the classroom and combination of different teaching methods which is supported by concept cartoon may be more useful for different science subjects.

  18. Using Astronomical Photographs to Investigate Misconceptions about Galaxies and Spectra: Question Development for Clicker Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Schneider, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Many topics in introductory astronomy at the college or high-school level rely implicitly on using astronomical photographs and visual data in class. However, students bring many preconceptions to their understanding of these materials that ultimately lead to misconceptions, and the research about students' interpretation of astronomical images…

  19. Detection of Misconceptions about Colour and an Experimentally Tested Proposal to Combat them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Borreguero, Guadalupe; Pérez-Rodríguez, Ángel Luis; Suero-López, María Isabel; José Pardo-Fernández, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    We study the misconceptions about colour that most people hold, determining the general phenomenological laws that govern them. Concept mapping was used to combat the misconceptions which were found in the application of a test specifically designed to determine these misconceptions, while avoiding the possible misleading inductions that could have arisen from the use of everyday language. In particular, care was taken to avoid the distorting effect that the use of the verb 'to be' applied to coloured objects could have on the responses. The misconceptions found were shown to have an internal consistency in the form of authentic mini-theories (implicit theories). We compared experimentally the results of two different teaching methods applied to combat these misconceptions. This study was conducted with 470 undergraduates of the University of Extremadura. We analysed the persistence over time of their learning made to overcome those misconceptions. The students were divided randomly into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). To combat their misconceptions, EG were taught following a method based on the use of concept maps, and CG were taught following traditional teaching methods. The results of a pre-test and a post-test were compared for the two groups, finding statistically significant differences. The results allowed the principal working hypothesis to be accepted-concept maps are learning tools which foster conceptual change and allow misconceptions to be eradicated via meaningful learning maintained over time, i.e. EG acquired a relative long-lasting gain in learning that was superior to that acquired by CG.

  20. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Removing the Misconceptions of Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YUMUŞAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Training young scientists, enabling conceptual understanding in science education is quite important. Misconception is one of the important indications for whether the concepts are understood or not. The most important educational tools to remove misconceptions are conceptual change texts. In addition, one of the important methods to remove misconceptions is computer-assisted instruction. The goal of this study is to research the effects of the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI, conceptual change texts (CCT, computer-assisted instruction with conceptual change texts (CAI+CCT, and use of traditional teaching method (TTM on removing the misconceptions of science teacher candidates on the subject of radioactivity. Research sample was made of totally 92 students studying at four different groups of senior students in Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education in 2011-2012 academic year. A different teaching method was used in each group. Experimental groups were randomly determined; in the first experimental group, computer-assisted instruction was used (23 students; in the second experimental group, conceptual change texts were used (23 students; in the third experimental group, computer-assisted instruction with conceptual change texts were used (23 students; and the fourth group, on which traditional education method was used, was called control group (23 students. Two-tier misconception diagnostic instrument, which was developed by the researcher, was used as data collection tool of the research. “Nonequivalent Control Groups Experimental Design” was used in this research in order to determine the efficiency of different teaching methods. Obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0. As a result of the research, it was determined that methods used on experimental groups were more successful than traditional teaching method practiced on control group in terms of removing misconceptions on

  1. Misconceptions in Halliday, Resnick and Walker's textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S

    2005-01-01

    Eleven misconceptions involving Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology are exposed, that appeared in the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition, by Halliday, Resnick and Walker, Willey, New York (2005), or other companion textbooks.

  2. The nature and role of physical models in enhancing sixth grade students' mental models of groundwater and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Debra Lynne Foster

    Through a non-experimental descriptive and comparative mixed-methods approach, this study investigated the experiences of sixth grade earth science students with groundwater physical models through an extended SE learning cycle format. The data collection was based on a series of quantitative and qualitative research tools intended to investigate students' ideas and changes in ideas rather than measure their achievement. The measures included a groundwater survey, classroom observations, and one-on-one follow-up student interviews for triangulation of data sources. The research was carried out at a K-12 independent school in eastern Virginia using two classes of sixth grade earth science students (n=30). The findings suggest that physical models help students identify the components porosity and permeability with respect to water flow in groundwater systems. Higher levels of system thinking were best demonstrated in model components that allowed students to experience groundwater pollution activities and pumping groundwater wells. However, the results also indicated that due to model constraints, students can develop misconceptions during the use of physical models, specifically more complex physical models as in the Groundwater Exploration Activity Model. A pure discovery learning format while using physical models without guidance or formative assessment probes can lead to misconceptions about groundwater processes as well as confusion between model attributes and real world groundwater systems. The implications of this study relate directly to the inclusion of groundwater in the new national science standards released in 2011; A Framework for K-12 Science Standard; Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2011). The new national standards, as in other educational reform efforts, will have the ability to affect curricular and instructional strategies in science education. From the results of this study, it was concluded that best practices for using

  3. Student’s Misconception of Digestive System Materials in MTs Eight Grade of Malang City and the Role of Teacher’s Pedadogic Competency in MTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuswa Istikomayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconception research has important value in the development of students' thinking processes especially in science field. As the identification of important concepts that must be mastered by the students can be done, the teacher will easily able to emphasis the important or main concepts. This study aims to identify the students’ misconception in digestive system materials in eight grade of MTs and teacher pedagogic competence role. The survey was conducted in 8A (16 students and 8B (17 students MTs Muhammadiyah 1 and 8E (19 students Surya Buana Malang. The stages of research survey were: preparation of research goals (formulation, sample determination, preparation and instruments validation, data collection, and data analysis. The instruments used were: misconception test, student response questionnaire, learning observation guide, and teacher pedagogic competency form. The findings of the learning outcomes were discussed with the observer team, which then were assessed by using the assessment rubric and classified into the categories of student misconceptions. The results showed that the three teachers, neither certified nor uncertified were proved to be limited in overcoming misconceptions in the learning process; meanwhile, the results of students’ misconception test were mostly reach only level 3 (medium. Thus, the study of misconceptions of the digestive system material or other physiological material matter needs to get the attention of the teachers and educational practitioners.

  4. Assumptions of Multiple Regression: Correcting Two Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt N. Williams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, an article entitled - Four assumptions of multiple regression that researchers should always test- by.Osborne and Waters was published in PARE. This article has gone on to be viewed more than 275,000 times.(as of August 2013, and it is one of the first results displayed in a Google search for - regression.assumptions- . While Osborne and Waters' efforts in raising awareness of the need to check assumptions.when using regression are laudable, we note that the original article contained at least two fairly important.misconceptions about the assumptions of multiple regression: Firstly, that multiple regression requires the.assumption of normally distributed variables; and secondly, that measurement errors necessarily cause.underestimation of simple regression coefficients. In this article, we clarify that multiple regression models.estimated using ordinary least squares require the assumption of normally distributed errors in order for.trustworthy inferences, at least in small samples, but not the assumption of normally distributed response or.predictor variables. Secondly, we point out that regression coefficients in simple regression models will be.biased (toward zero estimates of the relationships between variables of interest when measurement error is.uncorrelated across those variables, but that when correlated measurement error is present, regression.coefficients may be either upwardly or downwardly biased. We conclude with a brief corrected summary of.the assumptions of multiple regression when using ordinary least squares.

  5. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  6. Three Misconceptions About Radiation — And What We Teachers Can Do to Confront Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    During the last few years teaching physics, I have noticed that my students are becoming more and more interested in the topic of radiation. Mobile phones, modern game consoles, and WiFi—all of these devices involving some kind of radiation are part of our students' everyday lives. Students are also frequently confronted in the media with debates relating to different types of radiation: What are the effects of nuclear contamination going to be after the Fukushima accident? Can radiation from mobile phones really cause cancer? Should the use of tanning booths be forbidden for teenagers? Although students seem to be very motivated to learn about the topic of radiation, I have encountered several misconceptions about this topic that my students bring into the physics classroom. Some of these misconceptions might be caused by biased media reports, while others can be attributed to a different usage of the word radiation in everyday language (when compared to the scientific usage of this term). In this paper, I would like to present the most common misconceptions about radiation that I have encountered in my physics courses and I would like to give some ideas how to confront these ideas in teaching. A detailed description of these misconceptions discovered through empirical research can be found in one of my research articles.1

  7. Showing Automatically Generated Students' Conceptual Models to Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Marin, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A student conceptual model can be defined as a set of interconnected concepts associated with an estimation value that indicates how well these concepts are used by the students. It can model just one student or a group of students, and can be represented as a concept map, conceptual diagram or one of several other knowledge representation…

  8. A Lakatosian Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy Based on Student Ability to Build Models with Varying Degrees of Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, M.

    The main objective of this study is to construct a Lakatosian teaching strategy that can facilitate conceptual change in students'' understanding of chemical equilibrium. The strategy is based on the premise that cognitive conflicts must have been engendered by the students themselves in trying to cope with different problem solving strategies. Results obtained (based on Venezuelan freshman students) show that the performance of the experimental group of students was generally better (especially on the immediate post tests) than that of the control group. It is concluded that a conceptual change teaching strategy must take into consideration the following aspects: a) core beliefs of the students in the topic (cf. ''hard core'', Lakatos 1970); b) exploration of the relationship between core beliefs and student alternative conceptions (misconceptions); c) cognitive complexity of the core belief can be broken down into a series of related and probing questions; d) students resist changes in their core beliefs by postulating ''auxiliary hypotheses'' in order to resolve their contradictions; e) students'' responses based on their alternative conceptions must be considered not as wrong, but rather as models, perhaps in the same sense as used by scientists to break the complexity of a problem; and f) students'' misconceptions be considered as alternative conceptions (theories) that compete with the present scientific theories and at times recapitulate theories scientists held in the past.

  9. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  10. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Teaching on Remedying Misconceptions: The Case of the Subject "Probability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Birgin, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on remedying misconceptions students often have regarding some probability concepts in mathematics. Toward this aim, computer-assisted teaching materials were developed and used in the process of teaching. Within the true-experimental research method, a pre- and…

  11. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  12. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  13. An Inventory on Rotational Kinematics of a Particle: Unravelling Misconceptions and Pitfalls in Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

    2012-01-01

    Student difficulties regarding the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) of a particle have remained relatively unexplored in contrast to their linear counterparts. We present an inventory comprising multiple choice questions aimed at probing misconceptions and eliciting ill-suited reasoning patterns. The…

  14. Using Structured Examples and Prompting Reflective Questions to Correct Misconceptions about Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, E. O.; Doyoyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of using "structured examples in concert with prompting reflective questions" to address misconceptions held by mechanical engineering students about thermodynamic principles by employing pre-test and post-test design, a structured questionnaire, lecture room observation, and participants'…

  15. Shedding light on some common dietetic misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virag Ganesh Gokhale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain misconceptions in dietetics are so deeply ingrained in the minds of people that it is difficult to convince them as to what the truth is. Busy family physicians often skip queries on such topics or give some casual replies that may further support the misunderstanding. Some of these misconceptions can even be harmful. A few such misconceptions like - that ghee is harmful or that beetroot is good for treating iron deficiency, that Sunflower oil is heart friendly, that a patient of hepatitis should avoid fatty food, or that vegetarian proteins are poor quality proteins are some such beliefs. That the truth is contrary to such beliefs is pointed out with scientific evidence.

  16. Role Modeling for FNP Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jane Ehlinger

    1980-01-01

    A model is described in which student nurses' preceptors are the joint-appointee nurse practitioners, with physicians providing consultation and serving as team participants. Key points that are examined are program development at the University of Illinois, how the program actually operated, and some of the problems encountered. (CT)

  17. Clarification of Selected Misconceptions in Physical Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Burton D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses some misconceptions relating to location and to the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Provides correction and explanation of various phenomena. Includes ocean names and sizes, sea level, coriolis effect, greenhouse effect, lightning, magma, and mass wasting. Suggests that myths can be dispelled by exposure combined with…

  18. Reply to ‘Misconceptions indeed’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotou, N.; Abrahams, I.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent letter to the editor (2016 Phys. Educ. 51 066503), Schumayer and Scott raised concerns about one of the novel situations presented in our article titled 'Students’ analogical reasoning in novel situations: theory-like misconceptions or p-prims?' (2016 Phys. Educ. 51 044003). We greatly appreciate their interest in our study and in this reply we address the concerns raised.

  19. Tracking Decimal Misconceptions: Strategic Instructional Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Linda B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the decimal system is challenging, requiring coordination of place-value concepts with features of whole-number and fraction knowledge (Moloney and Stacey 1997). Moreover, the learner must discern if and how previously learned concepts and procedures apply. The process is complex, and misconceptions will naturally arise. In a…

  20. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.

    2014-07-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.

  1. Common misconceptions about cognitive mediation of treatment change: a commentary to Longmore and Worrell (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G

    2008-01-01

    The article by Richard J. Longmore and Michael Worrell [Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 27, 2007, pp. 173-187] reviews a selection of studies showing no significant difference between treatment conditions that include formal cognitive restructuring techniques and other behavioral treatment modalities that do not include techniques to directly challenge cognitions. Based on this literature, Longmore and Worrell question the validity of the cognitive behavioral treatment model and argue that changes in symptoms are not mediated by changes in cognitions. Longmore and Worrell's arguments are based on common misconceptions about mediation models of treatment change. This commentary discusses and clarifies these misconceptions.

  2. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  3. A PHYSICS LESSON DESIGNED ACCORDING TO 7E MODEL WITH THE HELP OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY (LESSON PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin GONEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Students enter the classrooms with a preexisting knowledge of science concepts. These science concepts sometimes show inconsistency with the accepted ones by the scientists and called as misconceptions. Studies applied science field have to get possession of abilities that not only detect these misconceptions also help to solve these problems. Hence, instructional methods that correct students’ misconceptions become important. In this sense, a material related to the physics course is designed according to 7E model with the help of instructional technology.

  4. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Uncover Misconceptions and Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Secolsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students to answer 20 basic mathematics items and, in addition, to evaluate four possible solution strategies. For each item, frequencies of selected solution strategies and the association between strategy selection and performance on the 20-question math test are presented as a means for improving instruction. Follow-up research is proposed for determining whether undoing the student misconceptions first before teaching material on a new unit of instruction may yield more positive student outcomes.

  5. Conceptions and Misconceptions of Hostels Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Somlai, Réka

    2014-01-01

    Present research is inspired to study the conceptions and misconceptions of hostels in eight different countries (Spain, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Hungary, Venezuela, China, Australia). The outcome of the research reports that the participants in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and in Hungary define hostels as youth accommodations, Spanish participants as cheap hotels and Venezuelans call them homeless shelters. The majority of the participants of all the above mentio...

  6. Using the Activity Model of Inquiry to Enhance General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlewicz, Sara C.; Wink, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Nature of science refers to the processes of scientific activity and the social and cultural premises involved in the creation of scientific knowledge. Having an informed view of nature of science is important in the development of scientifically literate citizens. However, students often come to the classroom with misconceptions about nature of…

  7. Using the Activity Model of Inquiry to Enhance General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlewicz, Sara C.; Wink, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Nature of science refers to the processes of scientific activity and the social and cultural premises involved in the creation of scientific knowledge. Having an informed view of nature of science is important in the development of scientifically literate citizens. However, students often come to the classroom with misconceptions about nature of…

  8. Globalized Economy and Energy Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Gonçalves Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalized economy conditions increasingly in volume and intensity, the exploitation of fossil-based energy and not only notably oil, natural gas and electricity.This causes impacts on the environment, in order to check a significant part of the efforts focused on the design, promotion and implementation of more sustainable models in terms of socioeconomic growth and development. The order of the overall system, as well as its economic, geopolitical and geo-strategic implication, impose misguided choices in terms of energy, and also restrictions on countries in possession of natural resources by setting intense models with respect to the exploitation thereof, as a result of the integration of developing countries in the process of globalized markets, in order to provoke consequences on the environment and development model of these countries with extremely adverse impacts in social and environmental terms.

  9. Students' Mental Models of Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…

  10. Dynamic Bayesian Network Modeling of Game Based Diagnostic Assessments. CRESST Report 837

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Digital games offer an appealing environment for assessing student proficiencies, including skills and misconceptions in a diagnostic setting. This paper proposes a dynamic Bayesian network modeling approach for observations of student performance from an educational video game. A Bayesian approach to model construction, calibration, and use in…

  11. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PREDICT-OBSERVE-EXPLAIN-WRITE UNTUK MENDAPATKAN GAMBARAN KUANTITAS MISKONSEPSI SISWA SMA MATERI SUHU DAN KALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati Supriyati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of learning models POEW done to minimize the quantity of misconceptions experienced by students. The research was conducted by applying the POEW model of the experimental class and POE model of the control class. A method use quasi-experimental by design “Randomized Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design” implemented in X class one of high school at the city Cimahi in 2012/2013. Research results show that the description of misconception experienced by students in the experimental class lower than the control class. Responses of students to learn with the application of this POEW generally positive.

  12. Addressing the multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller misconceptions via prediction and clickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the lesson was effective in creating awareness that multiplication does not always make bigger and division does not always makes smaller, uncovering students' misconceptions, and providing opportunities for students to learn from mistakes. Students liked the activity for various reasons, such as getting to learn certain mathematical ideas, to think about the problems, to work in groups and to have fun. The lesson was implemented slightly differently in two classes. The class with an additional phase involving prediction and voting via clickers in the PowerPoint lesson showed a gain of 36 points (an effect size of 1.3 standard deviations, SDs) from the pre-test to the exit-test whereas, the comparison class showed a gain of 25 points (an effect size of 0.87 SDs). In terms of students' written responses with regards to addressing the MMB-DMS misconceptions, there was however not much difference between the two classes.

  13. Developing students' understanding of scientific modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christine Virginia

    Teaching students to create and use scientific models as well as to understand their nature has become an increasingly important goal in science education. This thesis reports on the evaluation of the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum, a ten and a half week physics curriculum designed to develop students' understanding of scientific modeling. In the curricular trials, eight classes of seventh grade students participated in model-oriented activities such as creating non-Newtonian computer microworlds to embody their conceptual models of force and motion, evaluating the accuracy and plausibility of their models, and reflecting on the nature of models. Analysis of pre- and post-curricular assessments as well as student research books, project reports, and in-depth interviews indicate that students had a significantly better understanding of the nature and utility of models after completing the Model-Enhanced ThinkerTools curriculum. Students also gained an understanding of a number of processes for developing and evaluating models. While interacting with the software and engaging in reflective discussions about the nature of models, students learned that models can include abstract representations and that models are useful for predicting events and testing ideas. Students also demonstrated sophisticated understanding of models in their interviews several months after the curriculum, particularly about the nature and. utility of models. Further, the curriculum developed students' conceptual models of force and motion as well as their inquiry skills and epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge and learning. Correlations among the four pre/post curricular assessments suggest that modeling knowledge may play a role in the acquisition of the other types of knowledge. These results indicate that, while modeling knowledge may be difficult to develop, progress can be made by engaging students in generating and reflecting on the nature of models

  14. Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie K. Wright

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA and gene expression (mRNA/protein and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression.

  15. Seeing & Feeling How Enzymes Work Using Tangible Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kwok-chi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a tangible model used to help students tackle some misconceptions about enzyme actions, particularly the induced-fit model, enzyme-substrate complementarity, and enzyme inhibition. The model can simulate how substrates induce a change in the shape of the active site and the role of attraction force during enzyme-substrate…

  16. Seeing & Feeling How Enzymes Work Using Tangible Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kwok-chi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a tangible model used to help students tackle some misconceptions about enzyme actions, particularly the induced-fit model, enzyme-substrate complementarity, and enzyme inhibition. The model can simulate how substrates induce a change in the shape of the active site and the role of attraction force during enzyme-substrate…

  17. Student Success: Approaches to Modeling Student Matriculation and Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jien-Jou

    2013-01-01

    Every year a group of graduates from high schools enter the engineering programs across this country with remarkable academic record. However, as reported in numerous studies, the number of students switching out of engineering majors continues to be an important issue. Previous studies have suggested various factors as predictors for student retention in engineering. To assist the engineering students with timely advising early in their program, an effective prediction model of matriculation...

  18. Will Writing Awareness Transfer to Writing Performance? Response to Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle, "Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutney, Joshua P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his critiques on Downs and Wardle's course, Introduction to Writing Studies. Downs and Wardle use their course to alert students to the very misconceptions that prompt the shift from "teaching writing" to "teaching about writing"--namely the inability of first-year composition courses to make good on the pledge…

  19. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Remedying Misconceptions of Operating System Concepts: A Design-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öngöz, Sakine

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine students' experiences on collaborative work with peer tutoring in projects. The study also focused impact of peer tutoring on remedying misconceptions. The study was conducted in the context of an operating system course in which 30 pre-service ICT teachers are the participants. Data were gathered from pre-tests,…

  20. Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

  1. Re-Examining the Similarities between Teacher and Student Conceptions about Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science…

  2. Misconceptions about the Moon Held by Preservice Teachers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meme F.; Capie, William

    The objective of this study was to assess the misconceptions held by preservice teachers about essential concepts of the moon related to information taught in elementary schools in Taiwan and to develop multiple-choice test items to identify the misconceptions about the moon. Additionally, this study considered relationships of gender, religion,…

  3. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  4. Misconceptions about Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify three current misconceptions about the Islamic faith and issues of human rights and women's rights in the West. The first misconception is that Muslims are terrorists because they believe in Jihad. It is factually the case that Islamic teachings stress the value of peace and prosperity for all human beings. The second…

  5. [Science and ethics, therapeutic misconception and mirage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Long, H

    2008-12-01

    Medical practice changes constantly. Ethical imperatives are however incorrigible. How can we reconcile ethics, practice and progress? Some bioethicians argue that research and care should be disentangled to minimize the 'therapeutic misconception', a clinical propensity to believe that patients are the object of medical care, while in fact they are the subjects of a scientific experiment. On the contrary, we believe that clinical research should be an integral part of the good practice. A divorce between research and clinical practice leads to an incorrigible medicine, liable to the therapeutic mirage, that is the false belief that everything modern medicine can offer has been proved beneficial. But both therapeutic misconception and mirage are possible because of a misunderstanding of either research or clinical practice. In this essay we review ethical principles behind clinical trial methodology and attempt to reconcile ethics, science and clinical practice. Not only should clinical research be integrated to the good practice of medicine, it should also be part of training in our specialty.

  6. Detecting and Reducing Science Teacher Candidate’s (STC) Misconception About Motion and Force By Using Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and problem Based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktarisa, Y.; Utami, I. S.; Denny, Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    This study has been done to 34 science teacher candidates of Teachers’ Training and Education Faculty of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University at their first year of study during 2015-2016 school years. This research focused on student’s misconception about motion and force and how Problem Based Learning (PBL) reducing it. Diagnostic test of misconception about motion and force has been detected by using Force Concept Inventory (FCI). FCI had been used in pretest and posttest, and to find the reducing of students’ misconception N-Gain pretest and posttest of each student had been calculated. Quasi experiment one group pretest and posttest had been used as the research method, and Problem Based Learning (PBL) used as the treatment of manipulation. After two weeks learning motion and force with PBL approach, N-gain which obtained prove that misconception about motion and force had been reducing.

  7. Mental models students hold of zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  8. Cognitive Diagnostic Models for Tests with Multiple-Choice and Constructed-Response Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Chen, Chun-Hua; Yang, Chih-Wei; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, teachers evaluate students' abilities via their total test scores. Recently, cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) have begun to provide information about the presence or absence of students' skills or misconceptions. Nevertheless, CDMs are typically applied to tests with multiple-choice (MC) items, which provide less diagnostic…

  9. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…

  10. Why is therapeutic misconception so prevalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, Charles W; Albert, Karen; Appelbaum, Paul; Dunn, Laura B; Overton, Eve; Pivovarova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM)-when clinical research participants fail to adequately grasp the difference between participating in a clinical trial and receiving ordinary clinical care-has long been recognized as a significant problem in consent to clinical trials. We suggest that TM does not primarily reflect inadequate disclosure or participants' incompetence. Instead, TM arises from divergent primary cognitive frames. The researchers' frame places the clinical trial in the context of scientific designs for assessing intervention efficacy. In contrast, most participants have a cognitive frame that is personal and focused primarily on their medical problems. To illustrate this, we draw on interview material from both clinical researchers and participants in clinical trials. We suggest that reducing TM requires encouraging subjects to adjust their frame, not just add information to their existing frame. What is necessary is a scientific reframing of participation in a clinical trial.

  11. A Student-Centered Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihyar Hesson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the authors experience in applying different approaches of active learning and student-centered teaching, the main problem that prevented the achievement of the full advantages of these approaches is the lack of motivation of students for self-centered learning. A new model for a student-centered learning is presented in this work. This model is of teaching integrative thinking, based on existing models of creativity and synthesis. In this model, the student is put at the heart of a bigger learning process that includes instructors, specialists and the public. Usually students who are in the final year of their study will be the target of the application of this model as a part of a capstone course or final year project. This model promotes the research and thinking skills of the students as well as the gained motivation of self-learning as a result of being in contact with the specialists who might be their potential future employers. A proto-type web-based system based on this model was developed. Although it is applied on a sample of students from the Biology department, the system is readily expandable to any number of other disciplines without any complications or programming overheads. The results achieved from the application of this model were very encouraging.

  12. Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epp, R J

    2006-02-23

    Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

  13. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2008-01-01

    Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception…

  14. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2008-01-01

    Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception…

  15. Student Modelling for Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes the student model of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system that is based on current theories in the field of second-language acquisition. Highlights include acquisition order of the target rules; language learning strategies; language transfer; language awareness; and student reactions. (Contains seven…

  16. Misconception of pre-service chemistry teachers about the concept of resonances in organic chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widarti, Hayuni Retno; Retnosari, Rini; Marfu'ah, Siti

    2017-08-01

    A descriptive quantitative research has been done to identify the level of understanding and misconceptions of the pre-service chemistry teachers related to the concept of resonance in the organic chemistry course. The subjects of the research were 51 students of State University of Malang, majoring Chemistry Education, currently in their fourth semester, 2015-2016 academic year who have taken the course of Organic Chemistry I. The instruments used in this research is a combination of 8 numbers of multiple choice tests with open answer questions and certainty of response index (CRI). The research findings revealed that there are still misconceptions found in the organic chemistry course, especially about the concept of resonance. There were several misconceptions of the pre-service chemistry teachers, such as resonance structures are in equilibrium with each other; resonance structures are two or more Lewis structures with different in arrangement of both atom and electron; resonance structures are only structures containing charged atoms; formal charge and resonance structures are not related; and the stability of resonance structures are only determined by location of charges in atoms found in such structures. There is also a lack of understanding of curved arrows notation to show electron pair movement.

  17. Common origins of diverse misconceptions: cognitive principles and the development of biology thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Our goal in this feature is to explore how these difficulties may stem not from the complexity or opacity of the concepts themselves, but from the fact that they may clash with informal, intuitive, and deeply held ways of understanding the world that have been studied for decades by psychologists. We give a brief overview of the field of developmental cognitive psychology. Then, in each of the following sections, we present a number of common challenges faced by students in the biological sciences. These may be in the form of misconceptions, biases, or simply concepts that are difficult to learn and teach, and they occur at all levels of biological analysis (molecular, cellular, organismal, population, and ecosystem). We then introduce the notion of a cognitive construal and discuss specific examples of how these cognitive principles may explain what makes some misconceptions so alluring and some biological concepts so challenging for undergraduates. We will argue that seemingly unrelated misconceptions may have common origins in a single underlying cognitive construal. These ideas emerge from our own ongoing cross-disciplinary conversation, and we think that expanding this conversation to include other biological scientists and educators, as well as other cognitive scientists, could have significant utility in improving biology teaching and learning.

  18. Knowledge of and misconceptions about the spread and prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-27

    May 27, 2009 ... and misconceptions regarding the spread and prevention of HIV in older women attending the Tshwane District ... in this group.10,11 In such relations, the woman's risk is nine ..... Public media education campaigns targeting.

  19. Misconceptions of Concepts in Chemistry among Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misconceptions of Concepts in Chemistry among Senior Secondary School ... and nomenclature of carbon compounds, natural products, chemistry in industry, ... Research data were collected using 60-item multiple choice tests of the concepts ...

  20. Externalising Students' Mental Models through Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Nu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use concept maps as an "expressed model" to investigate students' mental models regarding the homeostasis of blood sugar. The difficulties in learning the concept of homeostasis and in probing mental models have been revealed in many studies. Homeostasis of blood sugar is one of the themes in junior high school…

  1. Conceptual Change Texts in Chemistry Teaching: A Study on the Particle Model of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerenwinkel, Anne; Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effect of a conceptual change text on students' awareness of common misconceptions on the particle model of matter. The conceptual change text was designed based on principles of text comprehensibility, of conceptual change instruction and of instructional approaches how to introduce the particle model. It was evaluated in…

  2. A Working Model of Natural Selection Illustrated by Table Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Muhittin; Kilic, Selda; Aladag, Caner

    2013-01-01

    Natural selection is one of the most important topics in biology and it helps to clarify the variety and complexity of organisms. However, students in almost every stage of education find it difficult to understand the mechanism of natural selection and they can develop misconceptions about it. This article provides an active model of natural…

  3. The Loyalty Model of Private University Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university.

  4. The Loyalty Model of Private University Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university..

  5. China's Developing Arctic Policies: Myths and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lanteigne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.

  6. Modern moisturizer myths, misconceptions, and truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-06-01

    Xerosis is a highly prevalent condition that can be caused by environmental factors, age, or various diseases. Although the causes, symptoms, and severity of dry skin vary widely, moisturizers form the mainstay of treatment in simple cases and can be used as adjunctive therapy in more serious clinical cases. The market now contains a plethora of moisturizing formulations from which consumers can choose, but dermatologists need to distinguish among marketing claims, anecdotal evidence, and proven clinical effects when recommending moisturizers to their patients. Many lesser-quality moisturizers were never designed to mitigate dry skin or more serious skin conditions in a therapeutically relevant manner and are unlikely to provide clinically adequate moisturizing therapy. This article aims to clarify some common prevailing myths and misconceptions about moisturizers in the dermatology community. Recent advances in research have revealed that natural moisturizing factor (NMF), ceramides, and aquaporins (AQPs) are key factors in skin hydration. The impact of these advances on the ingredients that are being used in moisturizers is discussed, along with the importance of dermatologists choosing clinically proven products released by laboratories with demonstrated track records in research.

  7. Students’ analogical reasoning in novel situations: theory-like misconceptions or p-prims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotou, Nikolaos; Abrahams, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been much research in the area of students’ misconceptions. Whilst this research has been useful in helping to inform the design of instructional approaches and curriculum development it has not provided much insight into how students reason when presented with a novel situation and, in particular, the knowledge they draw upon in an attempt to make predictions about that novel situation. This article reports on a study of Greek students, aged from 10 to 17 years old, who were asked to make predictions in novel situations and to then provide, without being told whether their predictions were correct or incorrect, explanations about their predictions. Indeed, their explanations in such novel situations have the potential to reveal how their ideas, as articulated as predictions, are formed as well as the sources they draw upon to make those predictions. We also consider in this article the extent to which student ideas can be seen either as theory-like misconceptions or, alternatively, as situated acts of construction involving the activation of fragmented pieces of knowledge referred to as phenomenological primitives (p-prims). Our findings suggest that in most cases students’ reasoning in novel situations can be better understood in terms of their use of p-prims and that teaching might be made more effective if teachers were more aware of the p-prims that students were likely to be using when presented with new situations in physics.

  8. Possibilistic networks for uncertainty knowledge processing in student diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina COCU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a possibilistic network implementation for uncertain knowledge modeling of the diagnostic process is proposed as a means to achieve student diagnosis in intelligent tutoring system. This approach is proposed in the object oriented programming domain for diagnosis of students learning errors and misconception. In this expertise domain dependencies between data exist that are encoded in the structure of network. Also, it is available qualitative information about these data which are represented and interpreted with qualitative approach of possibility theory. The aim of student diagnosis system is to ensure an adapted support for the student and to sustain the student in personalized learning process and errors explanation.

  9. Student Models of Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliaro, Susan G.; Shambaugh, Neal

    2006-01-01

    Mental models are one way that humans represent knowledge (Markman, 1999). Instructional design (ID) is a conceptual model for developing instruction and typically includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (i.e., ADDIE model). ID, however, has been viewed differently by practicing teachers and instructional designers…

  10. High School Students' Meta-Modeling Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortus, David; Shwartz, Yael; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2016-12-01

    Modeling is a core scientific practice. This study probed the meta-modeling knowledge (MMK) of high school students who study science but had not had any explicit prior exposure to modeling as part of their formal schooling. Our goals were to (A) evaluate the degree to which MMK is dependent on content knowledge and (B) assess whether the upper levels of the modeling learning progression defined by Schwarz et al. (2009) are attainable by Israeli K-12 students. Nine Israeli high school students studying physics, chemistry, biology, or general science were interviewed individually, once using a context related to the science subject that they were learning and once using an unfamiliar context. All the interviewees displayed MMK superior to that of elementary and middle school students, despite the lack of formal instruction on the practice. Their MMK was independent of content area, but their ability to engage in the practice of modeling was content dependent. This study indicates that, given proper support, the upper levels of the learning progression described by Schwarz et al. (2009) may be attainable by K-12 science students. The value of explicitly focusing on MMK as a learning goal in science education is considered.

  11. Putting to rest WISHE-ful misconceptions for tropical cyclone intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montomery, Michael T.; Persing, John; Smith, Roger K.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to point out and correct several misconceptions about the putative WISHE mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification that currently are being taught to atmospheric science students, to tropical weather forecasters, and to laypeople who seek to understand how tropical cyclones intensify. The mechanism relates to the simplest problem of an initial cyclonic vortex in a quiescent environment. This first part is important because the credibility of tropical cyclone science depends inter alia on being able to articulate a clear and consistent picture of the hypothesized intensification process and its dependencies on key flow parameters. The credibility depends also on being able to test the hypothesized mechanisms using observations, numerical models, or theoretical analyses. The second purpose of the paper is to carry out new numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art numerical model to test a recent hypothesis invoking the WISHE feedback mechanism during the rapid intensification phase of a tropical cyclone. The results obtained herein, in conjunction with prior work, do not support this recent hypothesis and refute the view that the WISHE intensification mechanism is the essential mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification in the idealized problem that historically has been used to underpin the paradigm. This second objective is important because it presents a simple way of testing the hypothesized intensification mechanism and shows that the mechanism is neither essential nor the dominant mode of intensification for the prototype intensification problem. In view of the operational, societal, and scientific interest in the physics of tropical cyclone intensification, we believe this paper will be of broad interest to the atmospheric science community and the findings should be useful in both the classroom setting and frontier research.

  12. Understanding your student: Using the VARK model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I J Prithishkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students have different preferences in the assimilation and processing of information. The VARK learning style model introduced by Fleming includes a questionnaire that identifies a person′s sensory modality preference in learning. This model classifies students into four different learning modes; visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R, and kinesthetic (K. Materials and Methods: The 16-point multiple choice VARK questionnaire version 7.1 was distributed to first year undergraduate medical students after obtaining permission for use.Results: Seventy-nine students (86.8% were multimodal in their learning preference, and 12 students (13.8% were unimodal. The highest unimodal preference was K-7.7%. Surprisingly, there were no visual unimodal learners. The commonest learning preference was the bimodal category, of which the highest percentage was seen in the AK (33% and AR (16.5% category. The most common trimodal preference was ARK (8.9%. The total individual scores in each category were V-371, A-588, R/W-432, and K-581; auditory and kinesthetic being the highest preference. Visual mode had the lowest overall score. There was no significant difference in preference between the sexes. Conclusion: Students possess a wide diversity in learning preferences. This necessitates teachers to effectively deliver according to the needs of the student. Multiple modalities of information presentation are necessary to keep the attention and motivation of our students requiring a shift from the traditional large-group teacher-centric lecture method to an interactive, student-centric multimodal approach.

  13. First-Year University Students' Understanding of Rate of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Explores first-year students' understanding of fundamental calculus concepts using written tests and interviews. Analysis of the written and verbal responses to the test items revealed significant misconceptions on which students' mathematical activities were based. Describes some of those misconceptions and errors relating to students'…

  14. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge Arslan, Harika; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a lack of knowledge from a misconception, a certainty response index is added as a third tier to each item. Based on propositional knowledge statements, related literature, and the identified misconceptions gathered initially from 157 pre-service teachers, the AREPDiT was constructed and administered to 256 pre-service teachers. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the pre-service teachers' scores was estimated to be 0.74. Content and face validations were established by senior experts. A moderate positive correlation between the participants' both-tiers scores and their certainty scores indicated evidence for construct validity. Therefore, the AREPDiT is a reliable and valid instrument not only to identify pre-service teachers' misconceptions about GW, GE, OLD, and AR but also to differentiate these misconceptions from lack of knowledge. The results also reveal that a majority of the respondents demonstrated limited understandings about atmosphere-related environmental problems and held six common misconceptions. Future studies could test the AREPDiT as a tool for assessing the misconceptions held by pre-service teachers from different programs as well as in-service teachers and high school students.

  15. Students' Views of Scientific Models and Modeling: Do Representational Characteristics of Models and Students' Educational Levels Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential impact of the representational characteristics of models and students' educational levels on students' views of scientific models and modeling (VSMM). An online multimedia questionnaire was designed to address three major aspects of VSMM, namely the "nature of models," the "nature…

  16. Prospective Teachers' Misconceptions about the Atomic Structure in the Context of Electrification by Friction and an Activity in Order to Remedy Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Science educators have generally agreed that understanding the atom concept is the basis of science education. However, the numerous research studies have shown that many students at all educational levels have difficulties understanding this concept. This study was developed under three headings. The first was to identify misconceptions that…

  17. WWC Review of the Report "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 study, "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions," examined the effects of using the true-to-scale (TTS) display mode versus the orrery display mode in the iPad's Solar Walk software application on students' knowledge of the Earth's place in the solar system. The…

  18. Investigating and Improving the Models of Programming Concepts Held by Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Ferguson, J.; Roper, M.; Wood, M.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of introductory computer programming seems far from successful, with many first-year students performing more poorly than expected. One possible reason for this is that novices hold "non-viable" mental models (internal explanations of how something works) of key programming concepts which then cause misconceptions and difficulties. An…

  19. Metrics for Evaluation of Student Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Researchers use many different metrics for evaluation of performance of student models. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of commonly used metrics, to discuss properties, advantages, and disadvantages of different metrics, to summarize current practice in educational data mining, and to provide guidance for evaluation of student…

  20. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  1. School Improvement Model to Foster Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    Many classroom teachers are still using the traditional teaching methods. The traditional teaching methods are one-way learning process, where teachers would introduce subject contents such as language arts, English, mathematics, science, and reading separately. However, the school improvement model takes into account that all students have…

  2. The Gravity Model for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)

  3. A Predictive Model for MSSW Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Angela Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a hypothetical model for predicting both graduate GPA and graduation of University of Louisville Kent School of Social Work Master of Science in Social Work (MSSW) students entering the program during the 2001-2005 school years. The preexisting characteristics of demographics, academic preparedness and culture shock along with…

  4. Biogeochemistry Science and Education Part One: Using Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes as Environmental Tracers Part Two: Identifying and Measuring Undergraduate Misconceptions in Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris

    This dissertation is presented in two sections. First, I explore two methods of using stable isotope analysis to trace environmental and biogeochemical processes. Second, I present two related studies investigating student understanding of the biogeochemical concepts that underlie part one. Fe and Hg are each biogeochemically important elements in their own way. Fe is a critical nutrient for phytoplankton, while Hg is detrimental to nearly all forms of life. Fe is often a limiting factor in marine phytoplankton growth. The largest source, by mass, of Fe to the open ocean is windblown mineral dust, but other more soluble sources are more bioavailable. To look for evidence of these non-soil dust sources of Fe to the open ocean, I measured the isotopic composition of aerosol samples collected on Bermuda. I found clear evidence in the fine size fraction of a non-soil dust Fe source, which I conclude is most likely from biomass burning. Widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Isotope analysis would be a useful tool in quantifying this impact if the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL were known. My measurements show that CFL-Hg is isotopically fractionated, in a unique pattern, during normal operation. This fractionation is large and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg can be uniquely identified from other sources. Misconceptions research in geology has been a very active area of research, but student thinking regarding the related field of biogeochemistry has not yet been studied in detail. From interviews with 40 undergraduates, I identified over 150 specific misconceptions. I also designed a multiple-choice survey (concept inventory) to measure understanding of these same biogeochemistry concepts. I present statistical evidence, based on the Rasch model, for the reliability and validity of this instrument. This instrument will allow teachers and researchers to

  5. Detection of Misconceptions about Colour and an Experimentally Tested Proposal to Combat Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Borreguero, Guadalupe; Perez-Rodriguez, Angel Luis; Suero-Lopez, Maria Isabel; Pardo-Fernandez, Pedro Jose

    2013-01-01

    We study the misconceptions about colour that most people hold, determining the general phenomenological laws that govern them. Concept mapping was used to combat the misconceptions which were found in the application of a test specifically designed to determine these misconceptions, while avoiding the possible misleading inductions that could…

  6. Refutations in science texts lead to hypercorrection of misconceptions held with high confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, Mariëtte H.; Dunlosky, John; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen J.g.; De Bruin, Anique B.h.

    2015-01-01

    Misconceptions about science are often not corrected during study when they are held with high confidence. However, when corrective feedback co-activates a misconception together with the correct conception, this feedback may surprise the learner and draw attention, especially when the misconception

  7. Student Models of Learning and Their Impact on Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Johan; Valcke, Martin; Schuyten, Gilberte

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify student models of learning (sets of "intra-student" cognitions about learning) and to investigate their effect on study strategies. A two-step cluster analysis identified four student models of learning, representing students' self-efficacy beliefs, learning conceptions, attributions for academic performance…

  8. The Underprepared Student: A Student Centered Process Coordination Model. Responsibilities, Recommendations, and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popejoy, Michael W.

    This five part paper reviews problems faced by underprepared students and describes a model developed by faculty at the South Campus of Florida's Palm Beach Community College for dealing with such students. Section I reviews issues related to defining student underpreparedness and developing a model to serve all types of underprepared students,…

  9. The Effects of 3D Computer Modelling on Conceptual Change about Seasons and Phases of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukozer, Huseyin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, prospective science teachers' misconceptions about the seasons and the phases of the Moon were determined, and then the effects of 3D computer modelling on their conceptual changes were investigated. The topics were covered in two classes with a total of 76 students using a predict-observe-explain strategy supported by 3D computer…

  10. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  11. Misconceptions Concerning the Clinical Use of Hypnosis in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-17

    comfort during long, arduous periods of dental work; 4. accustoming the patient to orthodontic or prosthetic appliances; 5. modification of noxious dental...misconception is that the subject being treated will never awaken should the hypnotist suddenly succumb to some unforeseen emergency . If such an event

  12. A Compilation and Review of over 500 Geoscience Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper organizes and analyses over 500 geoscience misconceptions relating to earthquakes, earth structure, geologic resources, glaciers, historical geology, karst (limestone terrains), plate tectonics, rivers, rocks and minerals, soils, volcanoes, and weathering and erosion. Journal and reliable web resources were reviewed to discover (1) the…

  13. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  14. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice-a systematic review of common misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F; Albers, Casper J

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  15. Seventh Grade Students' Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn

    2011-01-01

    This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…

  16. A Collective Case Study of Secondary Students' Model-Based Inquiry on Natural Selection through Programming in an Agent-Based Modeling Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lin

    This is a collective case study seeking to develop detailed descriptions of how programming an agent-based simulation influences a group of 8 th grade students' model-based inquiry (MBI) by examining students' agent-based programmable modeling (ABPM) processes and the learning outcomes. The context of the present study was a biology unit on natural selection implemented in a charter school of a major California city during spring semester of 2009. Eight 8th grade students, two boys and six girls, participated in this study. All of them were low socioeconomic status (SES). English was a second language for all of them, but they had been identified as fluent English speakers at least a year before the study. None of them had learned either natural selection or programming before the study. The study spanned over 7 weeks and was comprised of two study phases. In phase one the subject students learned natural selection in science classroom and how to do programming in NetLogo, an ABPM tool, in a computer lab; in phase two, the subject students were asked to program a simulation of adaptation based on the natural selection model in NetLogo. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected in this study. The data resources included (1) pre and post test questionnaire, (2) student in-class worksheet, (3) programming planning sheet, (4) code-conception matching sheet, (5) student NetLogo projects, (6) videotaped programming processes, (7) final interview, and (8) investigator's field notes. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied to analyze the gathered data. The findings suggested that students made progress on understanding adaptation phenomena and natural selection at the end of ABPM-supported MBI learning but the progress was limited. These students still held some misconceptions in their conceptual models, such as the idea that animals need to "learn" to adapt into the environment. Besides, their models of natural selection appeared to be

  17. Applying Agnotology-Based Learning in a Mooc to Counter Climate Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge facing educators and climate communicators is the wide array of misconceptions about climate science, often fostered by misinformation. A number of myths interfere with a sound understanding of the science, with key myths moderating public support for mitigation policies. An effective way to reduce the influence of misinformation is through agnotology-based learning. Agnotology is the study of ignorance while agnotology-based learning teaches students through the direct addressing of myths and misconceptions. This approach of "refutational teaching" is being applied in a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) currently being developed by Skeptical Science and The University of Queensland, in collaboration with universities in Canada, USA and the UK. The MOOC will examine the science of climate change denial. Why is the issue so controversial given there is an overwhelming consensus on human-caused global warming? How do climate myths distort the science? What can scientists and laypeople do in response to misinformation? The MOOC will be released on the EdX platform in early 2015. I will summarise the research underpinning agnotology-based learning and present the approach taken in the MOOC to be released in early 2015

  18. Implementing a leadership course and mentor model for students in the National Student Nurses' Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Elaine A; Schmidt, Cheryl K

    2007-01-01

    To help student development as responsible and accountable leaders, a mentor model was incorporated into an established voluntary leadership course offered each semester. The student joins the National Student Nurses' Association, completes leadership projects, and contracts for the course grade. The mentor model is a leadership option that pairs senior students wanting to mentor with junior students wishing to be mentored. The authors describe the outcomes of the leadership-mentor experience.

  19. Critical Thinking: Discovery of a Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Sandie

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking skills in the healthcare field are imperative when making quick-thinking decisions. This descriptive comparative study investigated to what extent completing a critical thinking course improved college students' critical thinking skills. The study further investigated whether the instructors' critical thinking skills were…

  20. A Model for Teaching Electronic Commerce Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C. Woodard

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of information technology in an ever-changing world at universities presents a challenge. Are courses taught as concepts, while ignoring hands-on courses, leaving the hands-on classes to the technical colleges or trade schools? Does this produce the best employees for industry or give students the knowledge and skills necessary to function in a high-tech world? At GeorgiaCollege & StateUniversity (GC&SU a model was developed that combines both concepts and practical hands-on skill to meet this challenge. Using this model, a program was developed that consists of classroom lecture of concepts as well as practical hands-on exercises for mastering the knowledge and developing the skills necessary to succeed in the high-tech world of electronic commerce. The students become productive day one of a new job assignment. This solves the problem of students having the "book knowledge" but not knowing how to apply what has been learned.

  1. What about Master's Students? The Master's Student Persistence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the factors that affect master's student persistence in the United States. More specifically, this study explored whether the following factors: students' background, institution's, academic, environmental and psychological influences, had a significant effect on whether a master's student persisted and/or…

  2. Students' Views of Scientific Models and Modeling: Do Representational Characteristics of Models and Students' Educational Levels Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential impact of the representational characteristics of models and students' educational levels on students' views of scientific models and modeling (VSMM). An online multimedia questionnaire was designed to address three major aspects of VSMM, namely the nature of models, the nature of modeling, and the purpose of models. The three scales of representational characteristics included modality, dimensionality, and dynamics. A total of 102 eighth graders and 87 eleventh graders were surveyed. Both quantitative data and written responses were analyzed. The influence of the representational characteristics seemed to be more salient on the nature of models and the purpose of models. Some interactions between the educational levels and the representational characteristics showed that the high school students were more likely to recognize textual representations and pictorial representations as models, while also being more likely to appreciate the differences between 2D and 3D models. However, some other differences between educational levels did not necessarily suggest that the high school students attained more sophisticated VSMM. For instance, in considering what information should be included in a model, students' attention to particular affordances of the representation can lead to a more naive view of modeling. Implications for developing future questionnaires and for teaching modeling are suggested in this study.

  3. Modeling Environmental Literacy of Malaysian Pre-University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamuganathan, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    In this study attempt was made to model the environmental literacy of Malaysian pre-university students enrolled in a matriculation college. Students enrolled in the matriculation colleges in Malaysia are the top notch students in the country. Environmental literacy of this group is perceived important because in the future these students will be…

  4. Modelling User Needs: Students as Enterprise Analysts%Modelling User Needs: Students as Enterprise Analysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GIANMARIO Motta; THIAGO Barroero Daniele Sacco

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate a case study, where students designed enterprise architectures, that were not only welcome but successfully implemented. The success key was threefold. First the analysis framework, that integrates all the aspects of the systems that are relevant to users, namely user interface, rules, and information. Second, the analysis approach, that guides, trough confirmatory sessions, to elicit real requirements from users. Third, the model-to-model transformation, that assures consistency from the highest aggregate abstraction down to an executable model.

  5. Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

    2012-12-01

    Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1

  6. A Structural Equation Model for Predicting Business Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomykalski, James J.; Dion, Paul; Brock, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a structural equation model that accounted for 79% of the variability of a student's final grade point average by using a sample size of 147 students. The model is based on student grades in 4 foundational business courses: introduction to business, macroeconomics, statistics, and using databases. Educators and…

  7. Suggested Model (Related to the Student Portfolio) Used in Evaluation the Students in University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Omar M.; Murad, Odeh S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suggested model related to the student's portfolio used in evaluating the students in the university courses. After revising the theoretical literature and previous studies, two tools of the study have been constructed: Suggested model related to the student portfolio, and identifying the specifications towards using…

  8. Tradition, Misconception, and Contribution: Chinese Influences in Philippine Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maningning C. Miclat

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Chinese influence on Philippine arts and crafts, as shown in artifacts from the Sino-Philippine trade of pre-Hispanic times-the churches, religious icons, and paintings of the Spanish period-and in the contemporary art of the Chinese Filipinos. The Chinese traditional elements are given new meanings in a new environment, and it is these misconceptions and misinterpretations of the imported concepts that influence and enrich our culture.

  9. Misconceptions on neuropsychological rehabilitation and traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García- Molina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries, their recovery and outcome; misconceptions that have their origin in a lack of information influenced by the image that the media show of the brain damage. Development. Based on clinical experience, the authors of this essay sets out his personal view on some of the most frequent misconceptions in the field of neuropsychological rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury: 1 All deficits are evident; 2 The recovery depends mainly on the involvement of the patient: more effort, more rapid recovery; 3 Two years after traumatic brain injury there is no possibility of improvement and recovery; and 4 The “miracle” of recovery will occur when is found the appropriate professional or treatment. These and other beliefs may influence directly or indirectly on the recovery process and the expectations placed on it by the families and patients. Conclusions. Provide accurate, clear and honest information, at the right time, helps patients and their families to better understand the deficits, the course of recovery and to adapt to the new reality resulting from a traumatic brain injury.

  10. Common misconceptions in molecular ecology: echoes of the modern synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Stephen A; Toonen, R J; Grant, W S; Bowen, B W

    2012-09-01

    The field of molecular ecology has burgeoned into a large discipline spurred on by technical innovations that facilitate the rapid acquisition of large amounts of genotypic data, by the continuing development of theory to interpret results, and by the availability of computer programs to analyse data sets. As the discipline grows, however, misconceptions have become enshrined in the literature and are perpetuated by routine citations to other articles in molecular ecology. These misconceptions hamper a better understanding of the processes that influence genetic variation in natural populations and sometimes lead to erroneous conclusions. Here, we consider eight misconceptions commonly appearing in the literature: (i) some molecular markers are inherently better than other markers; (ii) mtDNA produces higher F(ST) values than nDNA; (iii) estimated population coalescences are real; (iv) more data are always better; (v) one needs to do a Bayesian analysis; (vi) selective sweeps influence mtDNA data; (vii) equilibrium conditions are critical for estimating population parameters; and (viii) having better technology makes us smarter than our predecessors. This is clearly not an exhaustive list and many others can be added. It is, however, sufficient to illustrate why we all need to be more critical of our own understanding of molecular ecology and to be suspicious of self-evident truths.

  11. Enriching the Student Experience Through a Collaborative Cultural Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInally, Wendy; Metcalfe, Sharon; Garner, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a knowledge and understanding of an international, collaborative, cultural learning model for students from the United States and Scotland. Internationalizing the student experience has been instrumental for student learning for the past eight years. Both countries have developed programs that have enriched and enhanced the overall student learning experience, mainly through the sharing of evidence-based care in both hospital and community settings. Student learning is at the heart of this international model, and through practice learning, leadership, and reflective practice, student immersion in global health care and practice is immense. Moving forward, we are seeking new opportunities to explore learning partnerships to provide this collaborative cultural learning experience.

  12. Modelling sociocognitive aspects of students' learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, I. T.; Kokkonen, T.; Nousiainen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a computational model of sociocognitive aspects of learning. The model takes into account a student's individual cognition and sociodynamics of learning. We describe cognitive aspects of learning as foraging for explanations in the epistemic landscape, the structure (set by instructional design) of which guides the cognitive development through success or failure in foraging. We describe sociodynamic aspects as an agent-based model, where agents (learners) compare and adjust their conceptions of their own proficiency (self-proficiency) and that of their peers (peer-proficiency) in using explanatory schemes of different levels. We apply the model here in a case involving a three-tiered system of explanatory schemes, which can serve as a generic description of some well-known cases studied in empirical research on learning. The cognitive dynamics lead to the formation of dynamically robust outcomes of learning, seen as a strong preference for a certain explanatory schemes. The effects of social learning, however, can account for half of one's success in adopting higher-level schemes and greater proficiency. The model also predicts a correlation of dynamically emergent interaction patterns between agents and the learning outcomes.

  13. MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING STUDENT LOYALTY IN POLITEKNIK OF HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Hammad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Loyalty of nursing student is an important factor that nursing education should pay attention in order to compete with other nursing educations; involved by perceived value, expectation, and quality assurance in nursing higher education. The purpose of this study was to develop a loyalty model of nursing student in nursing higher education. Methods: This study was an explanatory research with cross sectional approach. Population were nursing student in Poltekkes Banjarmasin, with 112 samples which is selected by proportional random sampling. Data was collected by giving questionnaire and analyzed by partial least square. Result: Result of this study indicates that was an effect of costumer expectation on quality assurance in nursing higher education, there was effect of costumer expectation on perceived value in nursing student, there was an effect of customer expectation on student satisfaction (4 there was effect of quality assurance in nursing higher education, there wasn’t any affect of quality assurance in nursing higher education on student satisfaction, there was effect of perceived value in nursing student on student satisfaction, there was effect of student satisfaction on student loyalty. Discussion: Overall result of this research were, student loyalty in nursing higher education developed by student satisfaction. Student satisfaction formed by perceived value. Perceived value developed from two aspects quality assurance, and student expectation, quality assurance of higher education wasn’t directly effect to student sasfaction. However, indirectly effect through student perceived value. Student satisfaction in nursing higher education was stronger effect than any other variable in this loyalty model. Loyalty model in this research can be use for improvement student loyalty on health education that focused on improvement student satisfaction without deny the other aspect. Further research is needed to analyze word of

  14. Using the Big Ideas in Cosmology to Teach College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLin, K. M.; Coble, K.; Metevier, A. J.; Bailey, J. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the Universe have revolutionized our view of its structure, composition and evolution. However, these new ideas have not necessarily been used to improve the teaching of introductory astronomy students. In this project, we have conducted research into student understanding of cosmological ideas so as to develop effective web-based tools to teach basic concepts important to modern cosmology. The tools are intended for use at the introductory college level. Our research uses several instruments, including open-ended and multiple choice surveys conducted at multiple institutions, as well as interviews and course artifacts at one institution, to ascertain what students know regarding modern cosmological ideas, what common misunderstandings and misconceptions they entertain, and what sorts of materials can most effectively overcome students' difficulty in learning this material. These data are being used to create a suite of interactive, web-based tutorials that address the major ideas in cosmology. One common misconception that students in our introductory courses possess is that scientific explanations are “made up,” and not supported by observational data. Having students engage with real data is a powerful means to help students overcome this misconception. For this reason, the tutorials we are developing include authentic student interaction with actual data where possible. Students master the scientific concepts and reasoning processes that lead to our current understanding of the Universe through interactive tasks, prediction, reflection, experimentation, and model building. This workshop will demonstrate the use of some of the modules we have created and will allow participants to test the modules for themselves.

  15. Pattern of students' conceptual change on magnetic field based on students' mental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rimba; Widodo, Ari; Sopandi, Wahyu

    2017-05-01

    Students understanding about natural phenomena can be identified by analyzing their mental model. Changes in students' mental model are good indicator of students' conceptual change. This research aims at identifying students' conceptual change by analyzing changes in students' mental model. Participants of the study were twenty five elementary school students. Data were collected through throughout the lessons (prior to the lessons, during the lessons and after the lessons) based on students' written responses and individual interviews. Lessons were designed to facilitate students' conceptual change by allowing students to work in groups of students who have the similar ideas. Therefore, lessons were students-directed. Changes of students' ideas in every stage of the lessons were identified and analyzed. The results showed that there are three patterns of students' mental models, namely type of scientific (44%), analogous to everyday life (52%), and intuitive (4%). Further analyses of the pattern of their conceptual change identifies four different patterns, i.e. consistently correct (20%), consistently incomplete (16%), changing from incorrect to incomplete (8%), changing from incomplete to complete (32%), changing from complete to incorrect (4%), and changing from incorrect to complete (4%). This study suggest that the process of learning science does not move in a linear and progressive ways, rather they move in random and may move backward and forward.

  16. Common misconceptions about 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier P Gisbert; María Chaparro; Fernando Gomollón

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions are common in the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this paper, we state the most commonly found misconceptions in clinical practice and deal with the use of 5-aminosalicylates and thiopurines, to review the related scientific evidence, and make appropriate recommendations. Prevention of errors needs knowledge to avoid making such errors through ignorance. However, the amount of knowledge is increasing so quickly that one new danger is an overabundance of information. IBD is a model of a very complex disease and our goal with this review is to summarize the key evidence for the most common daily clinical problems. With regard to the use of 5-aminosalicylates, the best practice may to be consider abandoning the use of these drugs in patients with small bowel Crohn' s disease. The combined approach with oral plus topical 5-aminosalicylates should be the first-line therapy in patients with active ulcerative colitis; once-daily treatment should be offered as a first choice regimen due to its better compliance and higher efficacy. With regard to thiopurines, they seem to be as effective in ulcerative colitis as in Crohn' s disease. Underdosing of thiopurines is a form of undertreatment. Thiopurines should probably be continued indefinitely because their withdrawal is associated with a high risk of relapse. Mercaptopurine is a safe alternative in patients with digestive intolerance or hepatotoxicity due to azathioprine. Finally, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) screening cannot substitute for regular monitoring because the majority of cases of myelotoxicity are not TPMT-related.

  17. Exploring prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretation of student thinking through analysing students' work in modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Makbule Gozde; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Researchers point out the importance of teachers' knowledge of student thinking and the role of examining student work in various contexts to develop a knowledge base regarding students' ways of thinking. This study investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers' interpretations of students' thinking as manifested in students' work that embodied solutions of mathematical modelling tasks. The data were collected from 25 prospective mathematics teachers enrolled in an undergraduate course through four 2-week-long cycles. Analysis of data revealed that the prospective teachers interpreted students' thinking in four ways: describing, questioning, explaining, and comparing. Moreover, whereas some of the prospective teachers showed a tendency to increase their attention to the meaning of students' ways of thinking more while they engaged in students' work in depth over time and experience, some of them continued to focus on only judging the accuracy of students' thinking. The implications of the findings for understanding and developing prospective teachers' ways of interpreting students' thinking are discussed.

  18. MISCONCEPTIONS (AND CORRECTIONS IN THE APPLICATIONS OF j-OPERATOR IN ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. T. Itaketo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of j-operator (in electrical/electronics engineering are recapitulated. Misconceptions on its applications, as presented by certain authors are high-lighted. These misconceptions are corrected and compared with similar (correct presentations in other texts of electrical and electronics engineering. A call is made for corrections to be effected in texts with these misconceptions, and those similar to them.

  19. Teaching students to apply multiple physical modeling methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.; Verlinden, J.C.; Vergeest, J.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Design students should be able to explore a variety of shapes before elaborating one particular shape. Current modelling courses don’t address this issue. We developed the course Rapid Modelling, which teaches students to explore multiple shape models in a short time, applying different methods and

  20. Teaching students to apply multiple physical modeling methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.; Verlinden, J.C.; Vergeest, J.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Design students should be able to explore a variety of shapes before elaborating one particular shape. Current modelling courses don’t address this issue. We developed the course Rapid Modelling, which teaches students to explore multiple shape models in a short time, applying different methods and

  1. Studies about Misconceptions in Mathematics Education in Turkey: A Thematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TÜRKDOĞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the articles which entreated misconceptions in mathematics education from 1999 to 2013 in Turkey in a thematic frame. In order to reach this aim, survey method which is one of the descriptive research methods was adopted for this study. Within the scope of the study, 45 articles published between stated years in Turkish language and accessed through the relevant databases consisted the sample of the study. The articles accessed were analyzed by using categorical analysis technique in the context of sample/study group, topic, education level, publication year, misconception determination technique. Findings revealed that although there is an observable increase in the number of studies related to the misconceptions recently, those studies are mostly about determining the misconceptions and the number of the studies about removing the misconceptions is limited. According to the results of the present study, it can be suggested that studies should be carried out using different and multiple techniques to remove the misconceptions along with the studies determining them. Furthermore, in addition to the multiple choice questions which have been used quite often in order to determine the misconceptions in mathematics education, the techniques such as concept map, semantic analysis chart, prediction-observation-explanation, etc. are considered to be helpful for in-depth examination of the misconceptions.Keywords: Mathematics education, misconception studies, thematic review.

  2. Implications of the Hospitalist Model for Medical Students' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E.; Wachter, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a research agenda to investigate the educational impact for medical students of the hospitalist model, suggests strategies to mitigate the limitations in students' exposures to subspecialty faculty, and recommends professional development in teaching for hospitalists to ensure that student education thrives in this new environment of…

  3. Honors and Non-Honors Student Engagement: A Model of Student, Curricular, and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Ellen; Shores, Melanie; Sloane, Michael; Dantzler, John; Shields, Catherine; Shader, Karen; Newcomer, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply several measures of learning and engagement to a comparable cohort of honors and non-honors students in order to generate a preliminary model of student engagement. Specific purposes were the following: (1) to determine the feasibility for use of several measures of student characteristics that may affect…

  4. Brain Inflammation and Microglia: Facts and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Ji, Kyungmin; Min, Kyungjin

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation that accompanies acute injury has dual functions: bactericidal action and repair. Bactericidal functions protect damaged tissue from infection, and repair functions are initiated to aid in the recovery of damaged tissue. Brain injury is somewhat different from injuries in other tissues in two respects. First, many cases of brain injury are not accompanied by infection: there is no chance of pathogens to enter in ischemia or even in traumatic injury if the skull is intact. Second, neurons are rarely regenerated once damaged. This raises the question of whether bactericidal inflammation really occurs in the injured brain; if so, how is this type of inflammation controlled? Many brain inflammation studies have been conducted using cultured microglia (brain macrophages). Even where animal models have been used, the behavior of microglia and neurons has typically been analyzed at or after the time of neuronal death, a time window that excludes the inflammatory response, which begins immediately after the injury. Therefore, to understand the patterns and roles of brain inflammation in the injured brain, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of all cell types in the injured brain immediately after the onset of injury. Based on our experience with both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of brain inflammation, we concluded that not only microglia, but also astrocytes, blood inflammatory cells, and even neurons participate and/or regulate brain inflammation in the injured brain. Furthermore, brain inflammation played by these cells protects neurons and repairs damaged microenvironment but not induces neuronal damage. PMID:23833554

  5. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  6. University Students and AIDS: Some Findings from Three Surveys--1989, 1990 and 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ineke; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents three surveys conducted at the University of Puerto Rico concerning college students' AIDS knowledge and their sexual and preventive behaviors. Findings show students had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, but they also harbored misconceptions about ways the disease can spread. These misconceptions coupled with the machismo attitude…

  7. University Students and AIDS: Some Findings from Three Surveys--1989, 1990 and 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ineke; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents three surveys conducted at the University of Puerto Rico concerning college students' AIDS knowledge and their sexual and preventive behaviors. Findings show students had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, but they also harbored misconceptions about ways the disease can spread. These misconceptions coupled with the machismo attitude…

  8. A Model for Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith A.; Rose, Nancy L.; Lutz, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine random student drug testing in one school district relevant to: (a) the perceptions of students participating in competitive extracurricular activities regarding drug use and abuse; (b) the attitudes and perceptions of parents, school staff, and community members regarding student drug involvement; (c)…

  9. From biology to mathematical models and back: teaching modeling to biology students, and biology to math and engineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiel, Hillel J; McManus, Jeffrey M; Shaw, Kendrick M

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a course to teach modeling and mathematical analysis skills to students of biology and to teach biology to students with strong backgrounds in mathematics, physics, or engineering. The two groups of students have different ways of learning material and often have strong negative feelings toward the area of knowledge that they find difficult. To give students a sense of mastery in each area, several complementary approaches are used in the course: 1) a "live" textbook that allows students to explore models and mathematical processes interactively; 2) benchmark problems providing key skills on which students make continuous progress; 3) assignment of students to teams of two throughout the semester; 4) regular one-on-one interactions with instructors throughout the semester; and 5) a term project in which students reconstruct, analyze, extend, and then write in detail about a recently published biological model. Based on student evaluations and comments, an attitude survey, and the quality of the students' term papers, the course has significantly increased the ability and willingness of biology students to use mathematical concepts and modeling tools to understand biological systems, and it has significantly enhanced engineering students' appreciation of biology.

  10. From Biology to Mathematical Models and Back: Teaching Modeling to Biology Students, and Biology to Math and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M.; Shaw, Kendrick M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a course to teach modeling and mathematical analysis skills to students of biology and to teach biology to students with strong backgrounds in mathematics, physics, or engineering. The two groups of students have different ways of learning material and often have strong negative feelings toward the area of knowledge that they find difficult. To give students a sense of mastery in each area, several complementary approaches are used in the course: 1) a “live” textbook that allows students to explore models and mathematical processes interactively; 2) benchmark problems providing key skills on which students make continuous progress; 3) assignment of students to teams of two throughout the semester; 4) regular one-on-one interactions with instructors throughout the semester; and 5) a term project in which students reconstruct, analyze, extend, and then write in detail about a recently published biological model. Based on student evaluations and comments, an attitude survey, and the quality of the students' term papers, the course has significantly increased the ability and willingness of biology students to use mathematical concepts and modeling tools to understand biological systems, and it has significantly enhanced engineering students' appreciation of biology. PMID:20810957

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Students' Views of Scientific Models and Their Development of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Lin, Jang-Long

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature of models and engaging in modeling practice have been emphasized in science education. However, few studies discuss the relationships between students' views of scientific models and their ability to develop those models. Hence, this study explores the relationship between students' views of scientific models and their self-generated models, and also whether views of models and modeling practice may be influenced by other factors, such as science learning performance and interest. The participants were 402 ninth-grade students in Taiwan. Data were collected using the Students' Understanding of Models in Science (SUMS) survey and students' self-evaluations of their own science learning interests and performance on a Likert-scale. The students' self-developed models explaining why three different magnetic phenomena occur were also evaluated on a schema of five levels, from lower (observational and fragmented models) to higher (microscopic and coherent models).The results reveal that most students' models remained only at the level of description of observable magnetic phenomena. A small number of the students were able to visualize unseen mechanisms, but these models were fragmented. However, several students with better science learning performance were able to develop coherent microscopic models to explain the three magnetic phenomena. The analyses indicated that most sub-factors of the SUMS survey were positively correlated with students' self-developed models, science learning performance and science learning interest. This study provides implications for teaching the nature of models and modeling practice.

  12. LMS learning algorithms: misconceptions and new results on converence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Q; Manry, M T; Schiano, J L

    2000-01-01

    The Widrow-Hoff delta rule is one of the most popular rules used in training neural networks. It was originally proposed for the ADALINE, but has been successfully applied to a few nonlinear neural networks as well. Despite its popularity, there exist a few misconceptions on its convergence properties. In this paper we consider repetitive learning (i.e., a fixed set of samples are used for training) and provide an in-depth analysis in the least mean square (LMS) framework. Our main result is that contrary to common belief, the nonbatch Widrow-Hoff rule does not converge in general. It converges only to a limit cycle.

  13. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  14. Middle School Teacher Misconceptions and Anxieties Concerning Space Science Disciplinary Core Ideas in NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI) of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are grouped into the broad disciplinary areas of Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences, and Engineering, Technology and Application of Science, and feature learning progressions based on endpoint targets for each grade band. Since the Middle School DCIs build on the expected learning achievements to be reached by the end of Fifth Grade, and High School DCI similarly build on the expected learning achievements expected for the end of Eighth Grade, the Middle School grade band is of particular importance as the bridge between the Elementary and High School curriculum. In states where there is not a special Middle School Certification many of these science classes are taught by teachers prepared to teach at the Elementary level (and who may have limited content background). As a result, some pre-service and in-service teachers have expressed reduced self-confidence in both their own science content knowledge and their ability to apply it in the NGSS-based classroom, while decades of research has demonstrated the pervasiveness of science misconceptions among teachers. Thus the adoption of NGSS has the potential to drive talented teachers out of the profession who feel that they are ill-prepared for this sweeping transition. The key is providing rigorous education in both content and pedagogy for pre-service teachers and quality targeted professional development for in-service teachers. This report focuses on the Middle School Space Sciences grade band DCIs and presents research on specific difficulties, misconceptions and uncertainties with the material demonstrated by pre-service education students over the past four years in a required university science content course, as well as two year-long granted workshop series for current Middle School teachers. This information is relevant to the development of both new content courses aligned with NGSS for pre

  15. Models of the Sociocultural Strategies of Today's College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, G. D.; Maslova, T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Survey data suggest that there are several models of sociocultural strategy used by Russian students, each with a specific hierarchy of values. A typical model is the traditionalist strategy, although the achievement-oriented strategy is also quite widespread.

  16. A Probabilistic Model of Student Nurses' Knowledge of Normal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, David Lynn

    1983-01-01

    Vocational and technical education researchers need to be aware of the uses and limits of various statistical models. The author reviews the Rasch Model and applies it to results from a nutrition test given to student nurses. (Author)

  17. A Path Model for Students' Attitudes to Writing a Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, John

    2002-01-01

    Using responses of 90 undergraduate and graduate students, developed a model in which action-control belief variables have only an indirect effect on students' attitudes to writing a thesis mediated through two academic orientation variables. The model accounted for a large proportion of the repeatable variance in the two academic orientation…

  18. Motivation and Academic Resilience: Developing a Model for Student Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Explores a model of student motivation and introduces the concept of academic resilience. Draws together seminal motivation theory, posits constructs that represent these theories, and then repackages them into a model that can be used by educators and understood by students. Discusses strategies for enhancing motivation and academic resilience.…

  19. The HAWK Highway: A Vertical Model for Student IEP Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Monica; Lyman, Jennifer; Crumlish, Jamie; Hines, Sally; Williams, Lynn; Pleet-Odle, Amy; Eisenman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special educators at an inclusive career-technical high school created a model to support annually increasing expectations for self-determination and levels of student participation in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning and implementation. The grade-specific components of the model and supporting context are described. Students were…

  20. The HAWK Highway: A Vertical Model for Student IEP Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Monica; Lyman, Jennifer; Crumlish, Jamie; Hines, Sally; Williams, Lynn; Pleet-Odle, Amy; Eisenman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special educators at an inclusive career-technical high school created a model to support annually increasing expectations for self-determination and levels of student participation in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning and implementation. The grade-specific components of the model and supporting context are described. Students were…

  1. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  2. A Path Model for Students' Attitudes to Writing a Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, John

    2002-01-01

    Using responses of 90 undergraduate and graduate students, developed a model in which action-control belief variables have only an indirect effect on students' attitudes to writing a thesis mediated through two academic orientation variables. The model accounted for a large proportion of the repeatable variance in the two academic orientation…

  3. Classification/Categorization Model of Instruction for Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    Learning-disabled students deficient in classification and categorization require specific instruction in these skills. Use of a classification/categorization instructional model improved the questioning strategies of 60 learning-disabled students, aged 10 to 12. The use of similar models is discussed as a basis for instruction in science, social…

  4. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  5. Supporting Students in Learning with Multiple Representation to Improve Student Mental Models on Atomic Structure Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyono; Yuanita, L.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is identify the effectiveness of a multiple representation-based learning model, which builds a mental model within the concept of atomic structure. The research sample of 108 students in 3 classes is obtained randomly from among students of Mathematics and Science Education Studies using a stratified random sampling…

  6. Peer Assessment with Online Tools to Improve Student Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie J.

    2012-11-01

    Introductory physics courses often require students to develop precise models of phenomena and represent these with diagrams, including free-body diagrams, light-ray diagrams, and maps of field lines. Instructors expect that students will adopt a certain rigor and precision when constructing these diagrams, but we want that rigor and precision to be an aid to sense-making rather than meeting seemingly arbitrary requirements set by the instructor. By giving students the authority to develop their own models and establish requirements for their diagrams, the sense that these are arbitrary requirements diminishes and students are more likely to see modeling as a sense-making activity. The practice of peer assessment can help students take ownership; however, it can be difficult for instructors to manage. Furthermore, it is not without risk: students can be reluctant to critique their peers, they may view this as the job of the instructor, and there is no guarantee that students will employ greater rigor and precision as a result of peer assessment. In this article, we describe one approach for peer assessment that can establish norms for diagrams in a way that is student driven, where students retain agency and authority in assessing and improving their work. We show that such an approach does indeed improve students' diagrams and abilities to assess their own work, without sacrificing students' authority and agency.

  7. Sustainable rare diseases business and drug access: no time for misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollet, Pierrick; Lemoine, Adrien; Dunoyer, Marc

    2013-07-23

    Legislative incentives enacted in Europe through the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 to incentivize orphan drug development have over the last 12 years constituted a powerful impetus toward R&D directed at the rare diseases population. However, despite therapeutic promises contained in these projects and significant economic impact linked to burgeoning R&D expenditures, the affordability and value of OMPs has become a topic of health policy debate in Europe fueled by the perception that OMPs have high acquisition costs, and by misconceptions around pricing dynamics and rare-diseases business models. In order to maintain sustainable patient access to new and innovative therapies, it is essential to address these misconceptions, and to ensure the successful continuation of a dynamic OMPs R&D within rare-diseases public health policy. Misconceptions abound regarding the pricing of rare diseases drugs and reflect a poor appreciation of the R&D model and the affordability and value of OMPs. Simulation of potential financial returns of small medium sized rare diseases companies focusing on high priced drugs show that their economic returns are likely to be close to their cost of capital. Research in rare diseases is a challenging endeavour characterised by high fixed costs in which companies accrue substantial costs for several years before potentially generating returns from the fruits of their investments. Although heavily dependent upon R&D capabilities of each individual company or R&D organization, continuous flow of R&D financial investment should allow industry to increasingly include efficiencies in research and development in cost considerations to its customers. Industry should also pro-actively work on facilitating development of a specific value based pricing approach to help understanding what constitute value in rare diseases. Policy makers must reward innovation based upon unmet need and patient outcome. Broader understanding by clinicians, the public, and

  8. Prevalence of Misconceptions, Dogmas, and Popular Views about Giftedness and Intelligence: A Case from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas and popular views about giftedness and intelligence among Turkish lay people. A survey questionnaire consisting of 12 forced-choice items about global misconceptions, dogmatic beliefs and popular views related to giftedness and intelligence was used to collect…

  9. Can Using Human Examples Diminish the Number of Misconceptions Held Concerning Mendelian Genetics Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores high school biology and the teaching of genetics. The question is asked, Can the use of relevant, meaningful human genetics concepts diminish the number of misconceptions formed between new and existing concepts? Can the application of the Ausubelian learning theory also decrease the acquisition of misconceptions? (SAH)

  10. Errors and Misconceptions in College Level Theorem Proving. Technical Report. No. 2003-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a number of types of errors and underlying misconceptions that arise in mathematical reasoning. Other types of mathematical reasoning errors, not associated with specific misconceptions, are also discussed. We hope the characterization and cataloging of common reasoning errors will be useful in studying the teaching of…

  11. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  12. Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Misconceptions about Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Aylin; Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Sülün, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates preservice science teachers' attitudes towards chemistry; their misconceptions about chemical kinetics; and relationships between pre-service science teachers' attitudes toward chemistry and misconceptions about chemical kinetics were examined. The sample of this study consisted of 81 freshman pre-service science…

  13. A Model of Students' Combinatorial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial topics have become increasingly prevalent in K-12 and undergraduate curricula, yet research on combinatorics education indicates that students face difficulties when solving counting problems. The research community has not yet addressed students' ways of thinking at a level that facilitates deeper understanding of how students…

  14. A Model of Students' Combinatorial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial topics have become increasingly prevalent in K-12 and undergraduate curricula, yet research on combinatorics education indicates that students face difficulties when solving counting problems. The research community has not yet addressed students' ways of thinking at a level that facilitates deeper understanding of how students…

  15. THE FUZZY OVERLAY STUDENT MODEL IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the student model for use in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS designed for the evaluation of students’ competencies in different Higher Education Facilities. There are classification and examples of the various student models, the most suitable for the evaluation of competencies is selected and finalized. The dynamic overlay fuzzy student model builded on the domain model based on the concept of didactic units is described in this work. The formulas, chart and diagrams are provided.

  16. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F.

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking. PMID:28533971

  17. Model Analysis Assessing the dynamics of student learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, L; Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of modeling and analysis that permits the extraction and quantitative display of detailed information about the effects of instruction on a class's knowledge. The method relies on a congitive model that represents student thinking in terms of mental models. Students frequently fail to recognize relevant conditions that lead to appropriate uses of their models. As a result they can use multiple models inconsistently. Once the most common mental models have been determined by qualitative research, they can be mapping onto a multiple choice test. Model analysis permits the interpretation of such a situation. We illustrate the use of our method by analyzing results from the FCI.

  18. Prevenção de doenças em idosos: os equívocos dos atuais modelos Disease prevention in the elderly: misconceptions in current models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2012-10-01

    implementing a preventive logic. Scientific research has already correctly identified the risk factors for the elderly population, but this is not enough. We must use such knowledge to promote the necessary transition from a healthcare-centered model to a preventive one.

  19. An integer programming model for assigning students to elective courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Beroš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of assigning students to elective courses according to their preferences. This process of assigning students to elective courses according to their preferences often places before academic institutions numerous obstacles, the most typical being a limited number of students who can be assigned to any particular class. Furthermore, due to financial or technical reasons, the maximum number of the elective courses is determined in advance, meaning that the institution decides which courses to conduct. Therefore, the expectation that all the students will be assigned to their first choice of courses is not realistic (perfect satisfaction. This paper presents an integer programming model that maximizes the total student satisfaction in line with a number of different constraints. The measure of student satisfaction is based on a student's order of preference according to the principle: the more a choice is met the higher the satisfaction. Following the basic model, several versions of the models are generated to cover possible real-life situations, while taking into consideration the manner student satisfaction is measured, as well as the preference of academic institution within set technical and financial constraints. The main contribution of the paper is introducing the concept of the minimal student satisfaction level that reduces the number of students dissatised with the courses to which they were assigned.

  20. A student-centred feedback model for educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudland, Joy; Wilkinson, Tim; Wearn, Andy; Nicol, Pam; Tunny, Terry; Owen, Cathy; O'Keefe, Maree

    2013-04-01

    Effective feedback is instrumental to effective learning. Current feedback models tend to be educator driven rather than learner-centred, with the focus on how the supervisor should give feedback rather than on the role of the learner in requesting and responding to feedback. An alternative approach emphasising the theoretical principles of student-centred and self-regulated learning is offered, drawing upon the literature and also upon the experience of the authors. The proposed feedback model places the student in the centre of the feedback process, and stresses that the attainment of student learning outcomes is influenced by the students themselves. This model emphasises the attributes of the student, particularly responsiveness, receptiveness and reflection, whilst acknowledging the important role that the context and attributes of the supervisor have in influencing the quality of feedback. Educational institutions should consider strategies to encourage and enable students to maximise the many feedback opportunities available to them. As a minimum, educators should remind students about their central role in the feedback process, and support them to develop confidence in meeting this role. In addition, supervisors may need support to develop the skills to shift the balance of responsibility and support students in precipitating feedback moments. Research is also required to validate the proposed model and to determine how to support students to adopt self-regulatory learning, with feedback as a central platform. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  1. Investigating Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics Spontaneous Models of Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, M C; Redish, E F; Wittmann, Michael C.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Redish, Edward F.

    2002-01-01

    Students are taught several models of conductivity, both at the introductory and the advanced level. From early macroscopic models of current flow in circuits, through the discussion of microscopic particle descriptions of electrons flowing in an atomic lattice, to the development of microscopic non-localized band diagram descriptions in advanced physics courses, they need to be able to distinguish between commonly used, though sometimes contradictory, physical models. In investigations of student reasoning about models of conduction, we find that students often are unable to account for the existence of free electrons in a conductor and create models that lead to incorrect predictions and responses contradictory to expert descriptions of the physics. We have used these findings as a guide to creating curriculum materials that we show can be effective helping students to apply the different conduction models more effectively.

  2. A Model of Reading Teaching for University EFL Students: Need Analysis and Model Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Arifuddin; Syatriana, Eny

    2012-01-01

    This study designed a model of teaching reading for university EFL students based on the English curriculum at the Faculty of Languages and Literature and the concept of the team-based learning in order to improve the reading comprehension of the students. What kind of teaching model can help students to improve their reading comprehension? The…

  3. Models of Teaching: Connecting Student Learning with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Olio, Jeanine M.; Donk, Tony

    2007-01-01

    "Models of Teaching: Connecting Student Learning with Standards" features classic and contemporary models of teaching appropriate to elementary and secondary settings. Authors Jeanine M. Dell'Olio and Tony Donk use detailed case studies to discuss 10 models of teaching and demonstrate how the models can incorporate state content standards and…

  4. MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF NURSING STUDENT LOYALTY IN POLITEKNIK OF HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad Hammad; Nursalam Nursalam; Ninuk Dian Kurniawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Loyalty of nursing student is an important factor that nursing education should pay attention in order to compete with other nursing educations; involved by perceived value, expectation, and quality assurance in nursing higher education. The purpose of this study was to develop a loyalty model of nursing student in nursing higher education. Methods: This study was an explanatory research with cross sectional approach. Population were nursing student in Poltekkes Banjarmasin, wit...

  5. Student Modelling in Adaptive E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Bechter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most e-Learning systems provide web-based learning so that students can access the same online courses via the Internet without adaptation, based on each student's profile and behavior. In an e-Learning system, one size does not fit all. Therefore, it is a challenge to make e-Learning systems that are suitably “adaptive”. The aim of adaptive e-Learning is to provide the students the appropriate content at the right time, means that the system is able to determine the knowledge level, keep track of usage, and arrange content automatically for each student for the best learning result. This study presents a proposed system which includes major adaptive features based on a student model. The proposed system is able to initialize the student model for determining the knowledge level of a student when the student registers for the course. After a student starts learning the lessons and doing many activities, the system can track information of the student until he/she takes a test. The student’s knowledge level, based on the test scores, is updated into the system for use in the adaptation process, which combines the student model with the domain model in order to deliver suitable course contents to the students. In this study, the proposed adaptive e-Learning system is implemented on an “Introduction to Java Programming Language” course, using LearnSquare software. After the system was tested, the results showed positive feedback towards the proposed system, especially in its adaptive capability.

  6. Automated expert modeling for automated student evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    The 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems provides a leading international forum for the dissemination of original results in the design, implementation, and evaluation of intelligent tutoring systems and related areas. The conference draws researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines ranging from artificial intelligence and cognitive science to pedagogy and educational psychology. The conference explores intelligent tutoring systems increasing real world impact on an increasingly global scale. Improved authoring tools and learning object standards enable fielding systems and curricula in real world settings on an unprecedented scale. Researchers deploy ITS's in ever larger studies and increasingly use data from real students, tasks, and settings to guide new research. With high volumes of student interaction data, data mining, and machine learning, tutoring systems can learn from experience and improve their teaching performance. The increasing number of realistic evaluation studies also broaden researchers knowledge about the educational contexts for which ITS's are best suited. At the same time, researchers explore how to expand and improve ITS/student communications, for example, how to achieve more flexible and responsive discourse with students, help students integrate Web resources into learning, use mobile technologies and games to enhance student motivation and learning, and address multicultural perspectives.

  7. Selecting Optimal Subset of Features for Student Performance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. Harb

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational data mining (EDM is a new growing research area and the essence of data mining concepts are used in the educational field for the purpose of extracting useful information on the student behavior in the learning process. Classification methods like decision trees, rule mining, and Bayesian network, can be applied on the educational data for predicting the student behavior like performance in an examination. This prediction may help in student evaluation. As the feature selection influences the predictive accuracy of any performance model, it is essential to study elaborately the effectiveness of student performance model in connection with feature selection techniques. The main objective of this work is to achieve high predictive performance by adopting various feature selection techniques to increase the predictive accuracy with least number of features. The outcomes show a reduction in computational time and constructional cost in both training and classification phases of the student performance model.

  8. High School Students "Do" and Learn Science through Scientific Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan Smetzer; Farnsworth, Valerie

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the research project Modeling for Understanding in Science Education (MUSE) which focuses on the improvement of high school students' learning. MUSE research investigated how lower and high achieving students learned to reason, inquire, present, and critique scientific arguments in a genetics course taught during the spring…

  9. College Student-Athlete Wellness: An Integrative Outreach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, James

    2014-01-01

    College student-athletes face unique stressors that can contribute to compromised well-being. Additionally, there are a variety of barriers that prevent student-athletes from accessing mental health supports. This study used self-report questionnaires and qualitative interviews to examine the impact of an integrative outreach model that…

  10. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  11. Student Mental Models Related to Expansion and Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Emen, Ayse Yagmur

    2014-01-01

    Following up on the effects of learning environments is essential to learning. The aim of this study was to examine students' mental models related to the concepts of expansion and contraction of materials. The population of the case study consisted of 155 students in a city center in Turkey. The data was gathered using open-ended questions that…

  12. Research on Model of Student Engagement in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, online learning refers students under the guidance of teachers through the online learning platform for organized learning. Based on the analysis of related research results, considering the existing problems, the main contents of this paper include the following aspects: (1) Analyze and study the current student engagement model.…

  13. A Model Psychoeducation Group for Shy College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Virginia; Thomas, M. Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Considers the planning, organizing, and conducting of a proposed model for shy college students. Offers several recommendations for educators and counselors on early identification of shy students, the design of educational environments to enhance development, and further research to answer questions about efficacy of treatment modes. (Author/JDM)

  14. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  15. The Two-Step Student Teaching Model: Training for Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Donna

    This model of student teaching preparation was developed in collaboration with public schools to focus on systematic experience in teaching and training for accountability in the classroom. In the two-semester plan, students begin with teacher orientation and planning days, serve as teacher aides, attend various methods courses, teach several…

  16. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  17. The Networked Student Model for Construction of Personal Learning Environments: Balancing Teacher Control and Student Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Principles of networked learning, constructivism, and connectivism inform the design of a test case through which secondary students construct personal learning environments for the purpose of independent inquiry. Emerging web applications and open educational resources are integrated to support a "Networked Student Model" that promotes…

  18. The Networked Student Model for Construction of Personal Learning Environments: Balancing Teacher Control and Student Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Principles of networked learning, constructivism, and connectivism inform the design of a test case through which secondary students construct personal learning environments for the purpose of independent inquiry. Emerging web applications and open educational resources are integrated to support a "Networked Student Model" that promotes…

  19. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

  20. Belief in corrective feedback for common misconceptions: Implications for knowledge revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Patrick R; Van Loon, Mariëtte H; Dunlosky, John; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2017-03-01

    When correcting a common misconception, it seems likely that for corrective feedback to be effective, it needs to be believed. In 2 experiments, we assessed how participants' belief in the validity of corrective feedback regarding individual misconceptions influenced knowledge revision. After responding about the validity of a set of misconceptions, participants received either a refutation alone (feedback that they were correct or incorrect) or a refutation accompanied by a supporting explanation, and then rated their belief in the corrective feedback. One week later, participants once again responded about the validity of the misconceptions. Across both experiments, participants corrected their misconceptions more often when they believed the corrective feedback. In addition, participants corrected their misconceptions more often when they had earlier received a refutation with a supporting explanation than when they had received the refutation only. This benefit of supportive explanations on knowledge revision was mediated by belief in the feedback, suggesting that explanations enhance the effectiveness of a correction by increasing belief in the feedback. These findings imply that successful correction of common misconceptions is likely enhanced by techniques that increase people's belief in the validity of the corrective feedback. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Teaching leadership: the medical student society model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacob H; Morley, Gabriella L; Crossley, Eleanor; Bhanderi, Shivam

    2017-05-05

    All health care professionals in the UK are expected to have the medical leadership and management (MLM) skills necessary for improving patient care, as stipulated by the UK General Medical Council (GMC). Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills, despite all UK medical schools reporting that MLM is taught within their curriculum. A medical student society organised a series of extracurricular educational events focusing on leadership topics. The society recognised that the events needed to be useful and interesting to attract audiences. Therefore, clinical leaders in exciting fields were invited to talk about their experiences and case studies of personal leadership challenges. The emphasis on personal stories, from respected leaders, was a deliberate strategy to attract students and enhance learning. Evaluation data were collected from the audiences to improve the quality of the events and to support a business case for an intercalated degree in MLM. When leadership and management concepts are taught through personal stories, students find it interesting and are prepared to give up their leisure time to engage with the subject. Students appear to recognise the importance of MLM knowledge to their future careers, and are able to organise their own, and their peers', learning and development. Organising these events and collecting feedback can provide students with opportunities to practise leadership, management and quality improvement skills. These extracurricular events, delivered through a student society, allow for subjects to be discussed in more depth and can complement an already crowded undergraduate curriculum. Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Assessing Understanding of Biological Processes: Elucidating Students' Models of Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a meiosis reasoning problem that provides direct access to students' current models of chromosomes and meiosis. Also included in the article are tips for classroom implementation and a summary of the solution evaluation. (ZWH)

  3. A formative model for student nurse development and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. van der Merwe

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparing student nurses for the profession is a complex task for nurse educators; especially when dealing with the development of personal and interpersonal skills, qualities and values held in high esteem by the nursing profession and the community they serve. These researchers developed a model for formative evaluation of students by using the principles of inductive and deductive reasoning. This model was implemented in clinical practice situations and evaluated for its usefulness. It seems that the model enhanced the standards of nursing care because it had a positive effect on the behaviour of students and they were better motivated; the model also improved interpersonal relationships and communication between practising nurses and students.

  4. Assessing Understanding of Biological Processes: Elucidating Students' Models of Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a meiosis reasoning problem that provides direct access to students' current models of chromosomes and meiosis. Also included in the article are tips for classroom implementation and a summary of the solution evaluation. (ZWH)

  5. Addressing student models of energy loss in quantum tunnelling

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, M C; Bao, L; Wittmann, Micael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Bao, Lei

    2005-01-01

    We report on a multi-year, multi-institution study to investigate student reasoning about energy in the context of quantum tunnelling. We use ungraded surveys, graded examination questions, individual clinical interviews, and multiple-choice exams to build a picture of the types of responses that students typically give. We find that two descriptions of tunnelling through a square barrier are particularly common. Students often state that tunnelling particles lose energy while tunnelling. When sketching wave functions, students also show a shift in the axis of oscillation, as if the height of the axis of oscillation indicated the energy of the particle. We find inconsistencies between students' conceptual, mathematical, and graphical models of quantum tunnelling. As part of a curriculum in quantum physics, we have developed instructional materials to help students develop a more robust and less inconsistent picture of tunnelling, and present data suggesting that we have succeeded in doing so.

  6. Furthering College Students'English Writing Skills:Model Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yao-huan

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at proffering a solution for college English who experience a dilemma that they cannot tap their poten-tial fully to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of writing in English. The author recommends model thinking which entails habitual application of models and thus formulating a kind of efficient thinking in composing and arranging the existent linguis-tic and disciplinary resources established in the students'mind as an approach for those students to further their English writing skills.

  7. A Better Model for Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Teresa Washut; Bacharach, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional student teaching experience, the teacher candidate might observe the "real" teacher and conduct small parts of a few lessons, but not get enough opportunities to practice and develop professional skills. At the other extreme, some teacher candidates find themselves suddenly given full responsibility for instruction…

  8. A Better Model for Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Teresa Washut; Bacharach, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional student teaching experience, the teacher candidate might observe the "real" teacher and conduct small parts of a few lessons, but not get enough opportunities to practice and develop professional skills. At the other extreme, some teacher candidates find themselves suddenly given full responsibility for instruction…

  9. Engaging Students with Multiple Models of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A.; Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of unit fractions, and especially of one-half, one-third, and one-fourth, is crucially important for elementary school children's development of number sense (CCSSI 2010). We describe multimodal activities designed to assist elementary school students in gaining a rich understanding of unit fractions. Research has shown (Zhang,…

  10. Engaging Students In Modeling Instruction for Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Teaching introductory physics is arguably one of the most important things that a physics department does. It is the primary way that students from other science disciplines engage with physics and it is the introduction to physics for majors. Modeling instruction is an active learning strategy for introductory physics built on the premise that science proceeds through the iterative process of model construction, development, deployment, and revision. We describe the role that participating in authentic modeling has in learning and then explore how students engage in this process in the classroom. In this presentation, we provide a theoretical background on models and modeling and describe how these theoretical elements are enacted in the introductory university physics classroom. We provide both quantitative and video data to link the development of a conceptual model to the design of the learning environment and to student outcomes. This work is supported in part by DUE #1140706.

  11. Changes in University Students' Explanation Models of DC Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi; Mäntylä, Terhi

    2017-04-01

    One well-known learning obstacle is that students rarely use the concepts in the way that scientists use them. Rather, students mix up closely related concepts and are inclined towards matter-based conceptualisations. Furthermore, some researchers have argued that certain difficulties are rooted in the student's limited repertoire of causal schemes. These two aspects are conveniently represented in the recent proposal of the systemic view of concept learning. We applied this framework in our analyses of university students' explanations of DC circuits and their use of concepts such as voltage, current and resistance. Our data consist of transcribed group interviews, which we analysed with content analysis. The results of our analysis are represented with directed graphs. Our results show that students had a rather refined ontological knowledge of the concepts. However, students relied on rather simple explanation models, but few students were able to modify their explanations during the interview. Based on the analysis, we identified three processes of change: model switch, model refinement and model elaboration. This emphasises the importance of relevant relational knowledge at a later stage of learning. This demonstrates how concept individuation and learning of relational structures occurs (and in which order) and sets forth interesting research questions for future research.

  12. A Framework for Understanding Physics Students' Computational Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon Robert

    With the growing push to include computational modeling in the physics classroom, we are faced with the need to better understand students' computational modeling practices. While existing research on programming comprehension explores how novices and experts generate programming algorithms, little of this discusses how domain content knowledge, and physics knowledge in particular, can influence students' programming practices. In an effort to better understand this issue, I have developed a framework for modeling these practices based on a resource stance towards student knowledge. A resource framework models knowledge as the activation of vast networks of elements called "resources." Much like neurons in the brain, resources that become active can trigger cascading events of activation throughout the broader network. This model emphasizes the connectivity between knowledge elements and provides a description of students' knowledge base. Together with resources resources, the concepts of "epistemic games" and "frames" provide a means for addressing the interaction between content knowledge and practices. Although this framework has generally been limited to describing conceptual and mathematical understanding, it also provides a means for addressing students' programming practices. In this dissertation, I will demonstrate this facet of a resource framework as well as fill in an important missing piece: a set of epistemic games that can describe students' computational modeling strategies. The development of this theoretical framework emerged from the analysis of video data of students generating computational models during the laboratory component of a Matter & Interactions: Modern Mechanics course. Student participants across two semesters were recorded as they worked in groups to fix pre-written computational models that were initially missing key lines of code. Analysis of this video data showed that the students' programming practices were highly influenced by

  13. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  14. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  15. Sexual-Reproductive Health Belief Model of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Simbar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in

  16. Enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    Inquiry learning as an educational method is gaining increasing support among elementary and middle school educators. In inquiry activities at the middle school level, students are typically asked to conduct investigations and infer causal relationships about multivariable causal systems. In these activities, students usually demonstrate significant strategic weaknesses and insufficient metastrategic understanding of task demands. Present work suggests that these weaknesses arise from students' deficient mental models of multivariable causality, in which effects of individual features are neither additive, nor constant. This study is an attempt to develop an intervention aimed at enhancing scientific reasoning by refining students' models of multivariable causality. Three groups of students engaged in a scientific investigation activity over seven weekly sessions. By creating unique combinations of five features potentially involved in earthquake mechanism and observing associated risk meter readings, students had to find out which of the features were causal, and to learn to predict earthquake risk. Additionally, students in the instructional and practice groups engaged in self-directed practice in making scientific predictions. The instructional group also participated in weekly instructional sessions on making predictions based on multivariable causality. Students in the practice and instructional conditions showed small to moderate improvement in their attention to the evidence and in their metastrategic ability to recognize effective investigative strategies in the work of other students. They also demonstrated a trend towards making a greater number of valid inferences than the control group students. Additionally, students in the instructional condition showed significant improvement in their ability to draw inferences based on multiple records. They also developed more accurate knowledge about non-causal features of the system. These gains were maintained

  17. Challenges and Opportunities in Analysing Students Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Anaya, Paloma; Justi, Rosária; Díaz de Bustamante, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Modelling-based teaching activities have been designed and analysed from distinct theoretical perspectives. In this paper, we use one of them--the model of modelling diagram (MMD)--as an analytical tool in a regular classroom context. This paper examines the challenges that arise when the MMD is used as an analytical tool to characterise the…

  18. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  19. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  20. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R

    2015-03-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become an important law-enforcement tool. Controversial questions are often raised during discussion of some incidents in which the devices have been used. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some misconceptions about CEWs that have been published in the scientific/medical and other literature. This is a narrative review, using a multidisciplinary approach of analyzing reports from scientific/medical and other literature sources. In previous reports, durations of incapacitating effects and possible associations of CEWs with deaths-in-custody have often been overstated or exaggerated. Comparisons of CEW effects with "electrocution" are misleading. Clarification of these misconceptions may be important during policymaker decisions, practitioner operations, expert witness testimonies, and court proceedings. Despite misconceptions in the literature, CEWs can still be a valuable tool for law enforcement activities. Scientists, medical professionals, legal advisors, and investigators of police tactics should be aware of these misconceptions.

  1. Elements of style: consent form language and the therapeutic misconception in phase 1 gene transfer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan; Levenstadt, Aaron

    2005-04-01

    The therapeutic misconception arises wherever human subjects misinterpret the primary purpose of a clinical trial as therapeutic. Such misconceptions are particularly prevalent in trials involving severely ill subjects or novel and well-publicized investigational agents. In order to identify possible sources of the therapeutic misconception in gene transfer trials, 286 phase 1 human gene transfer consent documents were analyzed for their description of purpose, alternatives, and their use of the term gene transfer. We report that 20% of trials fail to explain their purpose as safety and dosage, only 41% of oncology trials identify comfort care as an alternative to participation, and that the term gene therapy is used with twice the frequency of the term gene transfer. Trends and coherence in consent form language were analyzed as well. Our results indicate that consent forms used in gene transfer phase 1 trials often contain language that promotes, or does little to deter, therapeutic misconceptions.

  2. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  3. Mingle Model for Teaching English Speaking Skill for College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmayenti darmayenti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of a research and development project conducted in a speaking skill for the first-year students of State Institute for Islamic Studies Imam Bonjol Padang, academic year 2012/2013. Mingle as a technique in teaching speaking proposed by Pollard and Hess in 1997 was developed into a new model. Using ADDIE model as proposed by Dick and Carey in 1996, we collected the intended data through observation, questionnaire, and test. The result of the research showed that the implementation of model gave a significant difference in term of the students-learning outcome between the students who are taught through Mingle model and by traditional one or without Mingle model. The development of Mingle model included preparation, warming up, set the rule, act Mingle model, presentation, review and discussion. It is concluded that Mingle model is more effective to improve students on all components of speaking skill. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang. Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  4. Diagnosing Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Sarah; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Students' understanding of models in science has been subject to a number of investigations. The instruments the researchers used are suitable for educational research but, due to their complexity, cannot be employed directly by teachers. This article presents forced choice (FC) tasks, which, assembled as a diagnostic instrument, are supposed to measure students' understanding of the nature of models efficiently, while being sensitive enough to detect differences between individuals. In order to evaluate if the diagnostic instrument is suitable for its intended use, we propose an approach that complies with the demand to integrate students' responses to the tasks into the validation process. Evidence for validity was gathered based on relations to other variables and on students' response processes. Students' understanding of the nature of models was assessed using three methods: FC tasks, open-ended tasks and interviews (N = 448). Furthermore, concurrent think-aloud protocols (N = 30) were performed. The results suggest that the method and the age of the students have an effect on their understanding of the nature of models. A good understanding of the FC tasks as well as a convergence in the findings across the three methods was documented for grades eleven and twelve. This indicates that teachers can use the diagnostic instrument for an efficient and, at the same time, valid diagnosis for this group. Finally, the findings of this article may provide a possible explanation for alternative findings from previous studies as a result of specific methods that were used.

  5. Diagnosing Students' Understanding of the Nature of Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Sarah; Krüger, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Students' understanding of models in science has been subject to a number of investigations. The instruments the researchers used are suitable for educational research but, due to their complexity, cannot be employed directly by teachers. This article presents forced choice (FC) tasks, which, assembled as a diagnostic instrument, are supposed to measure students' understanding of the nature of models efficiently, while being sensitive enough to detect differences between individuals. In order to evaluate if the diagnostic instrument is suitable for its intended use, we propose an approach that complies with the demand to integrate students' responses to the tasks into the validation process. Evidence for validity was gathered based on relations to other variables and on students' response processes. Students' understanding of the nature of models was assessed using three methods: FC tasks, open-ended tasks and interviews ( N = 448). Furthermore, concurrent think-aloud protocols ( N = 30) were performed. The results suggest that the method and the age of the students have an effect on their understanding of the nature of models. A good understanding of the FC tasks as well as a convergence in the findings across the three methods was documented for grades eleven and twelve. This indicates that teachers can use the diagnostic instrument for an efficient and, at the same time, valid diagnosis for this group. Finally, the findings of this article may provide a possible explanation for alternative findings from previous studies as a result of specific methods that were used.

  6. Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

    2003-04-01

    The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and

  7. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  8. DEVELOPING A MODEL OF TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION FOR EFL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifuddin Hamra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing a model of teaching reading comprehension based on the objectives of teaching reading at the senior high school and the teachers’ understanding of the school curriculum and to describe the implementation of the model. The subject consisted of 24 teachers, 167 students of five SMAs (senior high schools in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This developmental study had five steps: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The result indicates that the model significantly increases the reading comprehension of EFL students (M = -14.43114, t (166 = -16.155, p

  9. Dealing with Disruptive and Emotional College Students: A Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Thomas J.; Fister, Deborah L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a systemic model for handling disruptive behaviors among college students. The model, in which college counselors have a leading role, uses faculty liaisons, a faculty and staff handbook, faculty and staff training, and policy development to address the problem. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/GCP)

  10. Mental Models about Seismic Effects: Students' Profile Based Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Sara; Moura, Rui; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, meaningful learning takes a central role in science education and is based in mental models that allow the representation of the real world by individuals. Thus, it is essential to analyse the student's mental models by promoting an easier reconstruction of scientific knowledge, by allowing them to become consistent with the curricular…

  11. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  12. Based Instructional Model on Students' Conceptual Change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    instructional model-Generative Learning Model (GLM) on students' conceptual change ... today's work force requires people who could think and have acquired the ... education is one of the most powerful instrument for enabling all members of ... psychology and education such as developmental psychology, cognitive and.

  13. Using a Student-Centered Model for Assessing Preservice Teachers' Use of Technology in Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David; Stevenson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a student-centered assessment model used at a large university to encourage preservice teachers' use of technology in the K-12 classroom. This model allows preservice teachers to have discretion over the content, form, and time period in which they complete technology proficiencies. More specifically, this article describes…

  14. Improving student success using predictive models and data visualisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Ayad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to educate a competitive workforce is a global problem. In the US, for example, despite billions of dollars spent to improve the educational system, approximately 35% of students never finish high school. The drop rate among some demographic groups is as high as 50–60%. At the college level in the US only 30% of students graduate from 2-year colleges in 3 years or less and approximately 50% graduate from 4-year colleges in 5 years or less. A basic challenge in delivering global education, therefore, is improving student success. By student success we mean improving retention, completion and graduation rates. In this paper we describe a Student Success System (S3 that provides a holistic, analytical view of student academic progress.1 The core of S3 is a flexible predictive modelling engine that uses machine intelligence and statistical techniques to identify at-risk students pre-emptively. S3 also provides a set of advanced data visualisations for reaching diagnostic insights and a case management tool for managing interventions. S3's open modular architecture will also allow integration and plug-ins with both open and proprietary software. Powered by learning analytics, S3 is intended as an end-to-end solution for identifying at-risk students, understanding why they are at risk, designing interventions to mitigate that risk and finally closing the feedback look by tracking the efficacy of the applied intervention.

  15. A Model for Forecasting Enlisted Student IA Billet Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    were promised and had at least one course failure . Training times Student execution depends on TTT. TTT includes under-instruction (UI) time and...Cleared for Public Release A Model for Forecasting Enlisted Student IA Billet Requirements Steven W. Belcher with David L. Reese...and Kletus S. Lawler March 2016 Copyright © 2016 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of issue. It does

  16. A PHYSICS LESSON DESIGNED II …… CONTINUED Volume: 11 Number: 1 THE EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION DESIGNED ACCORDING TO 7E MODEL OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ON PHYSICS STUDENT TEACHERS’ ACHIEVEMENT, CONCEPT LEARNING SELF-EFFICACY PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KOCAKAYA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Computer-Assisted Instruction designed according to 7E model of constructivist learning(CAI7E related to ‘‘electrostatic’’ topic on physics student teachers’ cognitive development, misconceptions, self-efficacy perceptions and attitudes. The study was conducted in 2006–2007 academic year and was carried out in three different classes taught by the same teacher, in which there were 79 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade university students, in central city of Diyarbakır in Turkey. An experimental research design including the electrostatic achievement test (EAT, the electrostatic concept test (ECT, physics attitude scale (PAS and self-efficacy perception scale (SEPS was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research as pre-test and post-test. After the treatment, general achievement in EAT increased (P0.05.

  17. IS CHC student surface learner A cross-cultural perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩绮

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, the "CH"(Confucian Heritage Culture)learner phenomenon had aroused the interest of sociologists, educators and psychologists. Examination orientation, achievement orientation, use of repetitive learning, synthesis of memorization and understanding, and the use of recitation to bring about sharp focus for better understanding were some of the themes of these researches. This paper will explain what the general paradox of CHC learners is and how cultural difference can affect students' motivation for learning according to Chen and Stevenson's model of cultural influence, and discuss the major misconception of CHC learners' study approach.

  18. Analyzing Students' Understanding of Models and Modeling Referring to the Disciplines Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, secondary school students' (N?=?617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and…

  19. Data Modelling with First-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for a renewed focus on statistical reasoning in the beginning school years, with opportunities for children to engage in data modelling. Results are reported from the first year of a 3-year longitudinal study in which three classes of first-grade children (6-year-olds) and their teachers engaged in data modelling activities. The…

  20. Developing a Model of Teaching English to Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarsih Madya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the auspices of the Centre for Curriculum Decelopment, a three-cycle action research study was carried out in three primary schools in Yogyakarta with the aim of developing a model of teaching English to primary school students. The model consists of five parts: Opening, Content Focus, Language Focus, Communication Focus, and Closing. The model, requiring that learning tasks involve active participation of students, both physically and mentally, supported by the use of media suitable for young learners, was developmentally fully implemented. The results showed that efforts were mostly made to establish teacher-student rapport in the first cycle, in which success in classroom management was gradually reached. This led to the easier second cycle, which was characterized by increasing teacher talk (classroom English, the use of interesting media, and more active students' participation in the tasks involving various games which successfully elicited students' English. All of this was solidified in the third cycle. The conclusion is that with the three aspects being focused successively, teacher-student good rapport being established, various media being used, and competing and cooperative tasks being assigned in balance, joyful and effective learning is likely to occur.

  1. Representations used by mathematics student teachers in mathematical modeling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytuğ Özaltun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine representations used by mathematics student teachers in steps of mathematical modeling process based on their solutions of problems formed in the context of different classification of modeling. The study was conducted with fifteen secondary mathematics student teachers given a Mathematical Modeling course. The participants were separated into five collaboration groups of three students. Data were collected with the detailed written papers given by the groups for the problems and GeoGebra solution files. The groups benefited from verbal, algebraic, figural, tabular and dynamic representations while they were solving the problems. Considering all steps of the process, groups at most used verbal and algebraic representations. While they used only verbal representation in analyzing the problem, they benefited from at most verbal representation and then figural representation in establishing the systematic structure. The most used is algebraic and then verbal representations in the steps of mathematization, meta-mathematization, and mathematical analysis. In the steps of interpretation/evaluation and the model verification, the groups mainly benefited from verbal and then algebraic representations. Further researches towards why representations are preferred in the specific steps of the mathematical modeling process are suggested.Key Words: Mathematical modeling, modeling problems, mathematics student teachers, representations.

  2. A dirty dozen: twelve p-value misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven

    2008-07-01

    The P value is a measure of statistical evidence that appears in virtually all medical research papers. Its interpretation is made extraordinarily difficult because it is not part of any formal system of statistical inference. As a result, the P value's inferential meaning is widely and often wildly misconstrued, a fact that has been pointed out in innumerable papers and books appearing since at least the 1940s. This commentary reviews a dozen of these common misinterpretations and explains why each is wrong. It also reviews the possible consequences of these improper understandings or representations of its meaning. Finally, it contrasts the P value with its Bayesian counterpart, the Bayes' factor, which has virtually all of the desirable properties of an evidential measure that the P value lacks, most notably interpretability. The most serious consequence of this array of P-value misconceptions is the false belief that the probability of a conclusion being in error can be calculated from the data in a single experiment without reference to external evidence or the plausibility of the underlying mechanism.

  3. Acknowledging popular misconceptions about vitiligo in western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad I. Fatani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is the most common depigmentary disorder of the skin and hair. Our aim is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and misconceptions about vitiligo among adults attending shopping centres. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was implemented. It included a representative sample of adults in Jeddah and Makkah who presented in shopping centres every weekend during March, 2014. Results: The study included 423 subjects aged between 18 and 65 years with a mean of 29.9 ± 9.7 years. Females represent 70% of them. Only 6.9% of the participants heard well about vitiligo, with social media (32.2% the most commonly reported source of information. Overall, vitiligo knowledge was sufficient in 41.8% of the participants. Females had a significantly higher knowledge score compared with males, and older subjects (31–50 and >50 years had a higher knowledge score compared with younger subjects (18–30 years, which proved statistically significant. Attitudes towards vitiligo were positive in 57.4% of participants. Conclusion: Knowledge of vitiligo in adults is suboptimal, yet attitude towards the disease is generally acceptable. Educating the public about vitiligo could lead to increased self-confidence, better social integration, and psychological well-being for vitiligo patients.

  4. Education for Disabled Children in Bangladesh: Perceptions, Misconceptions and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Neaz Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite having specific policy, laws and services, disabled children in Bangladesh are facing troubles in obtaining education. Poverty, limited institutional services, lack of trained teachers, weak academic support, etc. are the most common visual causes behind their physically challenged conditions but the root causes remains hidden in our social system. The paper describes as to how people view the concept, educational need and importance of the disabled children while considering existing social, cultural and religious misconceptions and stigmas. Besides, opinion of the respondent are also described here. Based on quantitative research method, the data was collected from disabled children, their parents and their teachers through interviews and observation of the researchers. The findings reveal that majority of the population considered in the study are still maintaining different attitudes. Moreover, religious and cultural trends are not in favour of the disabled children. Families are found more attentive and sensitive but external supports are not appropriate to ensure their educational rights with harmony. Even disabled children often fail to receive proper cooperation and mental support from their institutions, society and from their parents. However, changes are visible but at a slower pace, and this trend should be speeded up. The paper also probes for the opinions and suggestions of the parents and teachers to overcome those barriers and limitations. The study was conducted in the Sylhet city of Bangladesh covering general and specialised schools where disabled children attend.

  5. Misconceptions about family planning of women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Demirgöz Bal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84 of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945 of them used an effective method and 23.4% (n=312 used a traditional method. The 40.2% of women have believed in that the oral contraceptive method caused weight gain, infertility, bleeding disorders, hirsutism, cancer, irritability, malformed baby and premature menopause.  The 24,2% of women have thought of that the intrauterine devices caused bleeding disorder, moving in the body, cancer, decreased sexual desire, genital infection and  infertility.Conclusions: There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception, and they can sometimes prevent a woman from making an informed choice.

  6. Empowering Mong Students: Home and School Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Yer J.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated how home and school factors affected the education of Mong students. Data from interviews with elementary students, teachers, and parents indicated that Mong families had high expectations for their children. Students' negative schooling experiences were exacerbated by the mismatch between home and school cultures, misconceptions and…

  7. Grade 3 Students' Mathematization through Modeling: Situation Models and Solution Models with Mutli-Digit Subtraction Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Aki; Kattubadi, Sailaja

    2012-01-01

    In considering mathematics problem solving as a model-eliciting activity (Lesh & Doerr, 2003; Lesh & Harel, 2003; Lesh & Zawojewski, 2008), it is important to know "what" students are modeling for the problems: situations or solutions. This study investigated Grade 3 students' mathematization process by examining how they modeled different…

  8. Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegle, Erin

    Evolution education is a critical yet challenging component of teaching and learning biology. There is frequently an emphasis on natural selection when teaching about evolution and conducting educational research. A full understanding of evolution, however, integrates evolutionary processes, such as natural selection, with the resulting evolutionary patterns, such as species divergence. Phylogenetic trees are models of evolutionary patterns. The perspective gained from understanding biology through phylogenetic analyses is referred to as tree thinking. Due to the increasing prevalence of tree thinking in biology, understanding how to read phylogenetic trees is an important skill for students to learn. Interpreting graphics is not an intuitive process, as graphical representations are semiotic objects. This is certainly true concerning phylogenetic tree interpretation. Previous research and anecdotal evidence report that students struggle to correctly interpret trees. The objective of this research was to describe and investigate the rationale underpinning the prior knowledge of introductory biology students' tree thinking Understanding prior knowledge is valuable as prior knowledge influences future learning. In Chapter 1, qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews were used to explore patterns of student rationale in regard to tree thinking. Seven common tree thinking misconceptions are described: (1) Equating the degree of trait similarity with the extent of relatedness, (2) Environmental change is a necessary prerequisite to evolution, (3) Essentialism of species, (4) Evolution is inherently progressive, (5) Evolution is a linear process, (6) Not all species are related, and (7) Trees portray evolution through the hybridization of species. These misconceptions are based in students' incomplete or incorrect understanding of evolution. These misconceptions are often reinforced by the misapplication of cultural conventions to make sense of trees

  9. STUDENT-DEFINED QUALITY BY KANO MODEL: A CASE STUDY OF ENGINEERING STUDENTS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Wilson Taifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineering Students in India like elsewhere worldwide need well designed classrooms furniture which can enable them to attend lectures without negative impact in the long run. Engineering students from India have not yet been involved in suggesting their requirements for improving the mostly out-dated furniture at their colleges. Among the available improvement techniques, Kano Model is one of the most effective improvement approaches. The main objective of the study was to identify and categorise all the main attributes regarding the classrooms furniture for the purpose of increasing student satisfaction in the long run. Kano Model has been well applied to make an exhaustive list of requirements for redesigning classroom furniture. Cronbach Alpha was computed with the help of SPSS 16.0 for validation purpose and it ranged between 0.8 and 0.9 which is a good internal consistency. Further research can be done by integrating Kano Model with Quality Function Deployment.

  10. Developing a Model to Support Students in Solving Subtraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Mareta Murdiyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the differentstrategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a directsubtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference betweentwo numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Manyprior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students.

  11. Student perspectives of assessment by TEMM model in physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Upadhya, Subramanya; Torke, Sharmila; Ramnarayan, K

    2005-06-01

    Assessment is the process by which the teacher and the student gain knowledge about student progress. Assessment systems should aim at evaluating the desired learning outcomes. In Melaka Manipal Medical College, (Manipal Campus), Manipal, India, the TEMM model (consisting of 4 assessment methods: Triple Jump Test, essay incorporating critical thinking questions, Multistation Integrated Practical Examination, and multiple choice questions) was introduced to 30 refresher students in the fourth block of the academic year. At the end of the block, a questionnaire was distributed to ask the students to rank the different assessments in the order of their preference with respect to seven items. Analysis of the results showed that not a single type of assessment was ranked highest for all the seven items, proving the earlier observation that a single assessment does not fulfill all aspects of assessment and that there is a need for an evaluating system with multiple ways of assessment.

  12. An innovative model of supportive clinical teaching and learning for undergraduate nursing students: the cluster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Sharon; Drayton, Nicola; Brown, Ann-Marie

    2011-03-01

    Students look forward to their clinical practicum to learn within the context of reality nursing. As educators we need to actively develop models of clinical practicum whereby students are supported to engage and learn in the clinical learning environment. The aim of this paper is to describe an innovative model of supportive clinical teaching and learning for undergraduate nursing students as implemented in a large teaching hospital in New South Wales, Australia. The model of supportive clinical teaching and learning situates eight students at a time, across a shift, on one ward, with an experienced registered nurse from the ward specialty, who is employed as the clinical teacher to support nursing students during their one to two week block practicum. Results from written evaluation statements inform the discussion component of the paper for a model that has proved to be successful in this large healthcare facility.

  13. Mathematical modeling courses for Media technology students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timcenko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses curriculum development for Mathematical Modeling course at Medialogy education. Medialogy as a study line was established in 2002 at Faculty for Engineering and Natural Sciences at Aalborg University, and mathematics curriculum has already been revised three times, Mathematic...

  14. Student Model Tools Code Release and Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew; Bull, Susan; Masci, Drew

    This document contains a wealth of information about the design and implementation of the Next-TELL open learner model. Information is included about the final specification (Section 3), the interfaces and features (Section 4), its implementation and technical design (Section 5) and also a summary...

  15. An Analysis of Student Model Portability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Aguirre, Benjamín; Ramírez Uresti, Jorge A.; du Boulay, Benedict

    2016-01-01

    Sharing user information between systems is an area of interest for every field involving personalization. Recommender Systems are more advanced in this aspect than Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs). A reason for this is that the user models of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Intelligent Learning…

  16. Modeling Students' Mathematics Using Steffe's Fraction Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson H.; McCloskey, Andrea V.

    2008-01-01

    Each year, more teachers learn about the successful intervention program known as Math Recovery (USMRC 2008; Wright 2003). The program uses Steffe's whole-number schemes to model, understand, and support children's development of whole-number reasoning. Readers are probably less familiar with Steffe's fraction schemes, which have proven similarly…

  17. Institutionalization: A Model of Retention Through Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.; Strand, D.

    2005-12-01

    Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers. Several initiatives - a Scholarship program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safenet Program, Research Emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted and enrolled incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center - provides the nurturing and mentoring focus, and opportunities that have resulted in a retention rate of approximately 80%, a 40% increase in the graduation rate, and an 85% increase in the number of students interested/entering graduate school. Successes that have documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the retention model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will provide the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as has the MIE Initiative.

  18. Examining the Relationship between Physical Models and Students' Science Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison Riley

    Scientists engage with practices like model development and use, data analysis and interpretation, explanation construction, and argumentation in order to expand the frontiers of science, so it can be inferred that students' engagement with science practices may help them deepen their own science understanding. As one of three dimensions on which the Next Generation Science Standards is built, science practices are recognized as an important component of science instruction. However, the contexts in which these practices happen are under-researched. Furthermore, research on science practices among students tends to focus on one or two practices in isolation when, in reality, students and scientists tend to engage with multiple overlapping practices. This study focused on identifying and characterizing multiple science practices as eighth and ninth-grade Earth Science students participated in a small group collaborative problem solving activity both with and without the use of a physical model. This study found a range of sophistication in the observed science practices as well as a relationship between the frequency of those practices and the accuracy of the groups' outcomes. Based on this relationship, groups were assigned to one of three categories. Further analysis revealed that model use varied among the three categories of groups. Comparisons across these three group categories suggest that there may be a bootstrapping relationship between students' engagement with science practices and the development of their content understanding. This metaphor of bootstrapping is used to represent how students may develop deeper science content understanding through engagement with science practices and concurrently develop greater facility with science practices as they learn science content. Implications are presented for curriculum designers, teachers and teacher educators. These include recommendations for curriculum design that encourage structured opportunities for

  19. Enhancing Teaching and Learning through Dialogue: A Student and Staff Partnership Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kathrine; Bennett, Liz

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores a model for developing student and staff partnerships to enhance the quality of teaching and learning and situates the model in literature on student engagement. The model enables staff and students to step outside their normal roles and the traditional student-teacher relationship into a less pre-defined mode of interaction…

  20. DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

    2003-02-27

    Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on

  1. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those

  2. Neuromyths in education: Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne eDekker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The OECD’s Brain and Learning project (2002 emphasized that many misconceptions about the brain exist among professionals in the field of education. Though these so-called ‘neuromyths’ are loosely based on scientific facts, they may have adverse effects on educational practice. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. A large observational survey design was used to assess general knowledge of the brain and neuromyths. The sample comprised 242 primary and secondary school teachers who were interested in the neuroscience of learning. It would be of concern if neuromyths were found in this sample, as these teachers may want to use these incorrect interpretations of neuroscience findings in their teaching practice. Participants completed an online survey containing 32 statements about the brain and its influence on learning, of which 15 were neuromyths. Additional data was collected regarding background variables (e.g., age, sex, school type. Results showed that on average, teachers believed 49% of the neuromyths, particularly myths related to commercialized educational programmes. Around 70% of the general knowledge statements were answered correctly. Teachers who read popular science magazines achieved higher scores on general knowledge questions. More general knowledge also predicted an increased belief in neuromyths. These findings suggest that teachers who are enthusiastic about the possible application of neuroscience findings in the classroom find it difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from scientific facts. Possessing greater general knowledge about the brain does not appear to protect teachers from believing in neuromyths. This demonstrates the need for enhanced interdisciplinary communication to reduce such misunderstandings in the future and establish a successful collaboration between neuroscience and education.

  3. Asymptote Misconception on Graphing Functions: Does Graphing Software Resolve It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öçal, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Graphing function is an important issue in mathematics education due to its use in various areas of mathematics and its potential roles for students to enhance learning mathematics. The use of some graphing software assists students' learning during graphing functions. However, the display of graphs of functions that students sketched by hand may…

  4. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  5. An Emerging Model for Student Feedback: Electronic Distributed Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunk-Chavez, Beth; Arrigucci, Annette

    2012-01-01

    In this article we address several issues and challenges that the evaluation of writing presents individual instructors and composition programs as a whole. We present electronic distributed evaluation, or EDE, as an emerging model for feedback on student writing and describe how it was integrated into our program's course redesign. Because the…

  6. Exploring Student Reflective Practice during a Mathematical Modelling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Trevor; Sheehy, Joanne; Brown, Raymond; Kanasa, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to compare the reflective writings of two cohorts of students (Year 4/5 and Year 8/9) participating in mathematical modelling challenges. Whilst the reflections of the younger cohort were results oriented, the older cohort's reflections spoke more to the affective domain, group processes, the use of technology and the acquisition…

  7. New CTE Model Is a Plus for Schools and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrov, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    The Academy of Information Technology and Robotics (AITR) in the Volusia County (Florida) Schools district is leading students to stronger academic gains and better preparation for college and career. AITR is a beefed-up version of the career academy model that began in Philadelphia in 1969. The strengths of AITR exemplify the features of career…

  8. Attitudes of International Students toward the Western News Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbor, Kingsley O.

    A study employed Q-methodology to determine the attitudinal structure of international (Third World) students in regard to the western news model (defined as the criteria for news evaluation and selection adopted by the western democracies). Thirty-two respondents were purposively selected, eight each from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the…

  9. Student Migration to Online Education: An Economic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of distance education has increasingly led universities to consider expanding their online offerings. Remarkably few financial models have been presented for online courses, however, and fewer still have investigated the economic consequences of the migration, or cross-over, of students from traditional classes within the…

  10. A New Conceptual Model for Understanding International Students' College Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfattal, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the theory and practice of international marketing in higher education with the purpose of exploring a conceptual model for understanding international students' needs in the context of a four-year college in the United States. A transcendental phenomenological design was employed to investigate the essence of international…

  11. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  12. Harnessing Agency: Towards a Learning Model for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pym, June; Kapp, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a successful academic development programme in a Commerce faculty at a relatively elite, historically white university in South Africa. The writers argue that the programme has managed to achieve good results in recent years by moving away from deficit models of academic development for students from disadvantaged…

  13. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  14. Interactive Training Model: Enhancing Beginning Counseling Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Derrick A.; Minton, Casey A. Barrio; Kern, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose the Interactive Training Model (ITM), a full classroom role play experience, as a method for helping student counselors develop essential interviewing and counseling skills and self-awareness as required by the 2009 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs "Standards." This pre-post,…

  15. Bayesian Student Modeling and the Problem of Parameter Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Eva; Agosta, John Mark; Perez de la Cruz, Jose Luis

    2001-01-01

    Discusses intelligent tutoring systems and the application of Bayesian networks to student modeling. Considers reasons for not using Bayesian networks, including the computational complexity of the algorithms and the difficulty of knowledge acquisition, and proposes an approach to simplify knowledge acquisition that applies causal independence to…

  16. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Treffinger Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaddad, Idrus; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sabandar, Jozua; Dahlan, Jarnawi A.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate, compare, and describe the achievement and enhancement of students' mathematical communication skills (MCS). It based on the prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, medium and low) by using Treffinger models (TM) and conventional learning (CL). This research is an experimental study with the population…

  17. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  18. Student Success in College Composition through the Puente Project Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Barbara

    Much can be learned from California's Puente Project Model that would help students' success in classrooms as well as in college in general, and in their daily lives. Puente, which means "bridge" in Spanish, began in 1982 at Chabot College in northern California and is now in 38 colleges and 19 high schools statewide. Originally designed…

  19. Modesto Junior College's Student Success Plan: A Model for Student Success/PFE Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKuin, Kathleen

    This is a report on the student success model designed by Modesto Junior College (MJC) (California) in conjunction with the state-established Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program goals. The PFE program addresses goals of the community college's mission along with more direct emphasis on transfer programs, degrees and certificates awarded,…

  20. Modesto Junior College's Student Success Plan: A Model for Student Success/PFE Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKuin, Kathleen

    This is a report on the student success model designed by Modesto Junior College (MJC) (California) in conjunction with the state-established Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program goals. The PFE program addresses goals of the community college's mission along with more direct emphasis on transfer programs, degrees and certificates awarded,…