WorldWideScience

Sample records for model rule-emission limitations

  1. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  2. Limits with modeling data and modeling data with limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionello Pogliani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the solubility of amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases with a set of sixteen molecular descriptors has been thoroughly analyzed to detect and understand the reasons for anomalies in the description of this property for these two classes of compounds. Unsatisfactory modeling can be ascribed to incomplete collateral data, i.e, to the fact that there is insufficient data known about the behavior of these compounds in solution. This is usually because intermolecular forces cannot be modeled. The anomalous modeling can be detected from the rather large values of the standard deviation of the estimates of the whole set of compounds, and from the unsatisfactory modeling of some of the subsets of these compounds. Thus the detected abnormalities can be used (i to get an idea about weak intermolecular interactions such as hydration, self-association, the hydrogen-bond phenomena in solution, and (ii to reshape the molecular descriptors with the introduction of parameters that allow better modeling. This last procedure should be used with care, bearing in mind that the solubility phenomena is rather complex.

  3. Limited dependent variable models for panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Many economic phenomena require limited variable models for an appropriate treatment. In addition, panel data models allow the inclusion of unobserved individual-specific effects. These models are combined in this thesis. Distributional assumptions in the limited dependent variable models are

  4. Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance-accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic-controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic-controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

  5. Matrix model calculations beyond the spherical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambjoern, J. (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Chekhov, L. (L.P.T.H.E., Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Kristjansen, C.F. (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Makeenko, Yu. (Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-08-30

    We propose an improved iterative scheme for calculating higher genus contributions to the multi-loop (or multi-point) correlators and the partition function of the hermitian one matrix model. We present explicit results up to genus two. We develop a version which gives directly the result in the double scaling limit and present explicit results up to genus four. Using the latter version we prove that the hermitian and the complex matrix model are equivalent in the double scaling limit and that in this limit they are both equivalent to the Kontsevich model. We discuss how our results away from the double scaling limit are related to the structure of moduli space. (orig.)

  6. Animal models of preeclampsia; uses and limitations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, F P

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has an unknown etiology. The limited progress made regarding new treatments to reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia has been attributed to the difficulties faced in the development of suitable animal models for the mechanistic research of this disease. In addition, animal models need hypotheses on which to be based and the slow development of testable hypotheses has also contributed to this poor progress. The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of preeclampsia and the development of viable reproducible animal models has contributed significantly to these advances. Although many of these models have features of preeclampsia, they are still poor overall models of the human disease and limited due to lack of reproducibility and because they do not include the complete spectrum of pathophysiological changes associated with preeclampsia. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of current animal models of preeclampsia, their uses and limitations with particular attention paid to the best validated and most comprehensive models, in addition to those models which have been utilized to investigate potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia.

  7. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  8. Optimal Control Design with Limited Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the family of limited model information control design methods, which construct controllers by accessing the plant's model in a constrained way, according to a given design graph. We investigate the achievable closed-loop performance of discrete-time linear time-invariant plants under a separable quadratic cost performance measure with structured static state-feedback controllers. We find the optimal control design strategy (in terms of the competitive ratio and domination metrics) when the control designer has access to the local model information and the global interconnection structure of the plant-to-be-controlled. At last, we study the trade-off between the amount of model information exploited by a control design method and the best closed-loop performance (in terms of the competitive ratio) of controllers it can produce.

  9. Limitations of modeling snow in ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Robert; Abegg, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The body of literature on snow modeling in a ski area operations context has been growing over the last decades in an accelerating speed. The majority of snow model applications for ski areas can be found in the climate change impacts literature. These studies differ in many aspects: the type of model used; the meteorological variables used in the models; the spatial and temporal resolution of the meteorological variables; the method how the climate change signal is derived and applied in the model concept; the number of climate models and emission scenarios used and consequently the handling of uncertainties; the indicators used to interpret the impacts for the skiing tourism industry; the incorporation of adaptation measures (e.g. snowmaking); and the geographical scale of analysis. In this contribution we will present a review of approaches used for modeling snow conditions in a ski area context. The major limitations both from a scientific as well as from a users' perspective will be discussed and solutions for shortcomings of existing approaches will be presented.

  10. Animal models of epilepsy: use and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandratavicius L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ludmyla Kandratavicius,1 Priscila Alves Balista,1 Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar,1 Rafael Naime Ruggiero,1 Eduardo Henrique Umeoka,2 Norberto Garcia-Cairasco,2 Lezio Soares Bueno-Junior,1 Joao Pereira Leite11Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, 2Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, BrazilAbstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses and limitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research.Keywords: epilepsy, animal model, pilocarpine, kindling, neurodevelopment

  11. A limit model for thermoelectric equations

    CERN Document Server

    Consiglieri, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic behavior corresponding to the arbitrary high conductivity of the heat in the thermoelectric devices. This work deals with a steady-state multidimensional thermistor problem, considering the Joule effect and both spatial and temperature dependent transport coefficients under some real boundary conditions in accordance with the Seebeck-Peltier-Thomson cross-effects. Our first purpose is that the existence of a weak solution holds true under minimal assumptions on the data, as in particular convex domains with Lipschitz boundary. The proof is based on a fixed point argument, compactness methods, and existence and regularity theory for elliptic scalar equations. In this process, we prove W^{1,p}-regularity for Neumann problem to an elliptic second order equation in divergence form with discontinuous coefficient by using the potential theory. The second one is to show the existence of a limit model illustrating the asymptotic situation.

  12. Model unspecific search in CMS. Model unspecific limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutzen, Simon; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The standard model of particle physics is increasingly challenged by recent discoveries and also by long known phenomena, representing a strong motivation to develop extensions of the standard model. The amount of theories describing possible extensions is large and steadily growing. In this presentation a new approach is introduced, verifying if a given theory beyond the standard model is consistent with data collected by the CMS detector without the need to perform a dedicated search. To achieve this, model unspecific limits on the number of additional events above the standard model expectation are calculated in every event class produced by the MUSiC algorithm. Furthermore, a tool is provided to translate these results into limits on the signal cross section of any theory. In addition to the general procedure, first results and examples are shown using the proton-proton collision data taken at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV.

  13. Assimilating host model information into a limited area model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Gustafsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to add an extra source of information to the data-assimilation of the regional HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM model, constraining larger scales to the host model providing the lateral boundary conditions. An extra term, Jk, measuring the distance to the large-scale vorticity of the host model, is added to the cost-function of the variational data-assimilation. Vorticity is chosen because it is a good representative of the large-scale flow and because vorticity is a basic control variable of the HIRLAM variational data-assimilation. Furthermore, by choosing only vorticity, the remaining model variables, divergence, temperature, surface pressure and specific humidity will be allowed to adapt to the modified vorticity field in accordance with the internal balance constraints of the regional model. The error characteristics of the Jk term are described by the horizontal spectral densities and the vertical eigenmodes (eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the host model vorticity forecast error fields, expressed in the regional model geometry. The vorticity field, provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF operational model, was assimilated into the HIRLAM model during an experiment period of 33 d in winter with positive impact on forecast verification statistics for upper air variables and mean sea level pressure.The review process was handled by Editor-in-Cheif Harald Lejenäs

  14. Extremely Correlated Limit of the Hubbard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Perepelitsky, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe the simplifications to the Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid Theory (ECFL) \\cite{ECFL, Monster} which occur in the limit of infinite spatial dimensions. In particular, we show that the single-particle electron Green's function G(k) can be written in terms of two momentum-independent self-energies. Moreover, we elucidate the nature of the ECFL \\lambda expansion in the limit of infinite dimensions and carry out this expansion explicitly to O(\\lambda^2). Additionally, w...

  15. Advantages and Limitations of Different SDLC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika D Amlani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering is the area which is constantly growing. It is very interesting subject to learn as all the software development industry based on this specified area. Now a days, there are lots of software development life cycle models available. According to the requirements, software industry people are using it as per their requirements. As there are lots of SDLC models, they are used according to their requirements. So, it is needed to know the requirements in which the SDLC models is used. This paper is about the pros and cons of some models. So, user can take the advantage of this paper to find the model best suitable for their need.

  16. Animal models of osteoporosis - necessity and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner A. Simon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need to further characterise the available animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis, for the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, investigation of new therapies (e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs and evaluation of prosthetic devices in osteoporotic bone. Animal models that have been used in the past include non-human primates, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and minipigs, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Sheep are a promising model for various reasons: they are docile, easy to handle and house, relatively inexpensive, available in large numbers, spontaneously ovulate, and the sheep's bones are large enough to evaluate orthopaedic implants. Most animal models have used females and osteoporosis in the male has been largely ignored. Recently, interest in development of appropriate prosthetic devices which would stimulate osseointegration into osteoporotic, appendicular, axial and mandibular bone has intensified. Augmentation of osteopenic lumbar vertebrae with bioactive ceramics (vertebroplasty is another area that will require testing in the appropriate animal model. Using experimental animal models for the study of these different facets of osteoporosis minimizes some of the difficulties associated with studying the disease in humans, namely time and behavioral variability among test subjects. New experimental drug therapies and orthopaedic implants can potentially be tested on large numbers of animals subjected to a level of experimental control impossible in human clinical research.

  17. Quasineutral limit of a standard drift diffusion model for semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The limit of vanishing Debye length (charge neutral limit ) in a nonlinear bipolar drift-diffusion model for semiconductors without pn-junction (i.e. without a bipolar background charge ) is studied. The quasineutral limit (zero-Debye-length limit) is performed rigorously by using the weak compactness argument and the so-called entropy functional which yields appropriate uniform estimates.

  18. RELAXATION TIME LIMITS PROBLEM FOR HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS IN SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, two relaxation time limits, namely, the momentum relaxation time limit and the energy relaxation time limit are considered. By the compactness argument, it is obtained that the smooth solutions of the multidimensional nonisentropic Euler-Poisson problem converge to the solutions of an energy transport model or a drift diffusion model, respectively, with respect to different time scales.

  19. Overcoming some limitations of imprecise reliability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The application of imprecise reliability models is often hindered by the rapid growth in imprecision that occurs when many components constitute a system and by the fact that time to failure is bounded from above. The latter results in the necessity to explicitly introduce an upper bound on time...... to failure which is in reality a rather arbitrary value. The practical meaning of the models of this kind is brought to question. We suggest an approach that overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure and makes the calculated lower and upper reliability measures more precise....... The main assumption consists in that failure rate is bounded. Langrage method is used to solve the non-linear program. Finally, an example is provided....

  20. Limiting assumptions in molecular modeling: electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Garland R

    2013-02-01

    Molecular mechanics attempts to represent intermolecular interactions in terms of classical physics. Initial efforts assumed a point charge located at the atom center and coulombic interactions. It is been recognized over multiple decades that simply representing electrostatics with a charge on each atom failed to reproduce the electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule as estimated by quantum mechanics. Molecular orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, an implicit assumption of monopole electrostatics. This perspective reviews recent evidence that requires use of multipole electrostatics and polarizability in molecular modeling.

  1. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning TB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  2. Limiting Shapes for Deterministic Centrally Seeded Growth Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey-den Boer, Anne; Redig, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We study the rotor router model and two deterministic sandpile models. For the rotor router model in ℤ d , Levine and Peres proved that the limiting shape of the growth cluster is a sphere. For the other two models, only bounds in dimension 2 are known. A unified approach for these models with a

  3. Limiting Shapes for Deterministic Centrally Seeded Growth Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey-den Boer, Anne; Redig, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We study the rotor router model and two deterministic sandpile models. For the rotor router model in ℤ d , Levine and Peres proved that the limiting shape of the growth cluster is a sphere. For the other two models, only bounds in dimension 2 are known. A unified approach for these models with a

  4. Fixed transaction costs and modelling limited dependent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    As an alternative to the Tobit model, for vectors of limited dependent variables, I suggest a model, which follows from explicitly using fixed costs, if appropriate of course, in the utility function of the decision-maker.

  5. The Semiclassical Limit in the Quantum Drift-Diffusion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Chang JU

    2009-01-01

    Semiclassical limit to the solution of isentropic quantum drift-diffusion model in semicon-ductor simulation is discussed. It is proved that the semiclassical limit of this solution satisfies the classical drift-diffusion model. In addition, we also proved the global existence of weak solutions.

  6. SEMICLASSICAL LIMIT FOR BIPOLAR QUANTUM DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qiangchang; Chen Li

    2009-01-01

    Semiclassical limit to the solution of transient bipolar quantum drift-diffusion model in semiconductor simulation is discussed. It is proved that the semiclassical limit ofthis solution satisfies the classical bipolar drift-diffusion model. In addition, the authors also prove the existence of weak solution.

  7. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  8. The Elastic Continuum Limit of the Tight Binding Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weinan E; Jianfeng LU

    2007-01-01

    The authors consider the simplest quantum mechanics model of solids, the tight binding model, and prove that in the continuum limit, the energy of tight binding model converges to that of the continuum elasticity model obtained using Cauchy-Born rule. Thet echnique in this paper is based mainly on spectral perturbation theory for large matrices.

  9. Contraction limits of the proton-neutron symplectic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The algebraic approach to nuclear structure physics allows a certain microscopic collective motion algebra to be also interpreted on macroscopic level which is achieved in the limit of large representation quantum numbers. Such limits are referred to as macroscopic or hydrodynamic limits and show how a given microscopic discrete system starts to behave like a continuous fluid. In the present paper, two contraction limits of the recently introduced fully microscopic proton-neutron symplectic model (PNSM) with the Sp(12; R) dynamical symmetry algebra are considered. As a result, two simplified macroscopic models of nuclear collective motion are obtained in simple geometrical terms. The first one is the U(6)-phonon model with the semi-direct product structure [HW(21)]U(6), which is shown to be actually an alternative formulation of the original proton-neutron symplectic model in the familiar IBM-terms. The second model which appears in double contraction limit is the two-rotor model with the ROTp(3) ⊗ ROTn(3) ⊃ ROT(3) algebraic structure. The latter, in contrast to the original two-rotor model, is not restricted to the case of two coupled axial rotors. In this way, the second contraction limit of the PNSM, provides the phenomenological two-rotor model with a simple microscopic foundation.

  10. Contraction limits of the proton-neutron symplectic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganev H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic approach to nuclear structure physics allows a certain microscopic collective motion algebra to be also interpreted on macroscopic level which is achieved in the limit of large representation quantum numbers. Such limits are referred to as macroscopic or hydrodynamic limits and show how a given microscopic discrete system starts to behave like a continuous fluid. In the present paper, two contraction limits of the recently introduced fully microscopic proton-neutron symplectic model (PNSM with the Sp(12; R dynamical symmetry algebra are considered. As a result, two simplified macroscopic models of nuclear collective motion are obtained in simple geometrical terms. The first one is the U(6-phonon model with the semi-direct product structure [HW(21]U(6, which is shown to be actually an alternative formulation of the original proton-neutron symplectic model in the familiar IBM-terms. The second model which appears in double contraction limit is the two-rotor model with the ROTp(3 ⊗ ROTn(3 ⊃ ROT(3 algebraic structure. The latter, in contrast to the original two-rotor model, is not restricted to the case of two coupled axial rotors. In this way, the second contraction limit of the PNSM, provides the phenomenological two-rotor model with a simple microscopic foundation.

  11. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, L. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)

  12. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, Louis [EURATOM-IPP Association, Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)

  13. The infinite volume limit of Ford's alpha model

    CERN Document Server

    Stefansson, Sigurdur Orn

    2009-01-01

    We prove the existence of a limit of the finite volume probability measures generated by tree growth rules in Ford's alpha model of phylogenetic trees. The limiting measure is shown to be concentrated on the set of trees consisting of exactly one infinite spine with finite, identically and independently distributed outgrowths.

  14. Generalized linear models for categorical and continuous limited dependent variables

    CERN Document Server

    Smithson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and OverviewThe Nature of Limited Dependent VariablesOverview of GLMsEstimation Methods and Model EvaluationOrganization of This BookDiscrete VariablesBinary VariablesLogistic RegressionThe Binomial GLMEstimation Methods and IssuesAnalyses in R and StataExercisesNominal Polytomous VariablesMultinomial Logit ModelConditional Logit and Choice ModelsMultinomial Processing Tree ModelsEstimation Methods and Model EvaluationAnalyses in R and StataExercisesOrdinal Categorical VariablesModeling Ordinal Variables: Common Practice versus Best PracticeOrdinal Model AlternativesCumulative Mod

  15. A unified model of density limit in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zanca, P; Escande, D F; Pucella, G; Tudisco, O

    2016-01-01

    A limit for the edge density, ruled by radiation losses from light impurities, is established by a minimal cylindrical magneto-thermal equilibrium model. For ohmic tokamak and reversed field pinch the limit scales linearly with the plasma current, as the empirical Greenwald limit. The auxiliary heating adds a further dependence, scaling with the 0.4 power, in agreement with L-mode tokamak experiments. For a purely externally heated configuration the limit takes on a Sudo-like form, depending mainly on the input power, and is compatible with recent Stellarator scalings.

  16. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  17. Overcoming limitations of model-based diagnostic reasoning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzblatt, Lester J.; Marcotte, Richard A.; Piazza, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a model-based diagnostic system to overcome the limitations of model-based reasoning systems is discussed. It is noted that model-based reasoning techniques can be used to analyze the failure behavior and diagnosability of system and circuit designs as part of the system process itself. One goal of current research is the development of a diagnostic algorithm which can reason efficiently about large numbers of diagnostic suspects and can handle both combinational and sequential circuits. A second goal is to address the model-creation problem by developing an approach for using design models to construct the GMODS model in an automated fashion.

  18. Time-Limited Psychotherapy: An Interactional Stage Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J.

    One model of successful time-limited psychotherapy characterizes the therapy as a movement through three interactional stages: the early rapport attainment stage, the middle conflict stage, and the final resolution stage. According to this model, these stages are indicated by the relative presence of communicational harmony. To examine the…

  19. Theoretical model for forming limit diagram predictions without initial inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologanu, Mihai; Comsa, Dan Sorin; Banabic, Dorel

    2013-05-01

    We report on our attempts to build a theoretical model for determining forming limit diagrams (FLD) based on limit analysis that, contrary to the well-known Marciniak and Kuczynski (M-K) model, does not assume the initial existence of a region with material or geometrical inhomogeneity. We first give a new interpretation based on limit analysis for the onset of necking in the M-K model. Considering the initial thickness defect along a narrow band as postulated by the M-K model, we show that incipient necking is a transition in the plastic mechanism from one of plastic flow in both the sheet and the band to another one where the sheet becomes rigid and all plastic deformation is localized in the band. We then draw on some analogies between the onset of necking in a sheet and the onset of coalescence in a porous bulk body. In fact, the main advance in coalescence modeling has been based on a similar limit analysis with an important new ingredient: the evolution of the spatial distribution of voids, due to the plastic deformation, creating weaker regions with higher porosity surrounded by sound regions with no voids. The onset of coalescence is precisely the transition from a mechanism of plastic deformation in both regions to another one, where the sound regions are rigid. We apply this new ingredient to a necking model based on limit analysis, for the first quadrant of the FLD and a porous sheet. We use Gurson's model with some recent extensions to model the porous material. We follow both the evolution of a homogeneous sheet and the evolution of the distribution of voids. At each moment we test for a potential change of plastic mechanism, by comparing the stresses in the uniform region to those in a virtual band with a larger porosity. The main difference with the coalescence of voids in a bulk solid is that the plastic mechanism for a sheet admits a supplementary degree of freedom, namely the change in the thickness of the virtual band. For strain ratios close to

  20. Weak diffusion limits of dynamic conditional correlation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Christian M.; Laurent, Sebastien; Violante, Francesco

    The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized by a dif......The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized...... by a diffusion matrix of reduced rank. The degeneracy is due to perfect collinearity between the innovations of the volatility and correlation dynamics. For the special case of constant conditional correlations, a non-degenerate diffusion limit can be obtained. Alternative sets of conditions are considered...... for the rate of convergence of the parameters, obtaining time-varying but deterministic variances and/or correlations. A Monte Carlo experiment confirms that the quasi approximate maximum likelihood (QAML) method to estimate the diffusion parameters is inconsistent for any fixed frequency, but that it may...

  1. Modelling Limit Order Execution Times from Market Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Adlar; Farmer, Doyne; Lo, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Although the term ``liquidity'' is widely used in finance literatures, its meaning is very loosely defined and there is no quantitative measure for it. Generally, ``liquidity'' means an ability to quickly trade stocks without causing a significant impact on the stock price. From this definition, we identified two facets of liquidity -- 1.execution time of limit orders, and 2.price impact of market orders. The limit order is an order to transact a prespecified number of shares at a prespecified price, which will not cause an immediate execution. On the other hand, the market order is an order to transact a prespecified number of shares at a market price, which will cause an immediate execution, but are subject to price impact. Therefore, when the stock is liquid, market participants will experience quick limit order executions and small market order impacts. As a first step to understand market liquidity, we studied the facet of liquidity related to limit order executions -- execution times. In this talk, we propose a novel approach of modeling limit order execution times and show how they are affected by size and price of orders. We used q-Weibull distribution, which is a generalized form of Weibull distribution that can control the fatness of tail to model limit order execution times.

  2. One-dimensional XY model: Ergodic properties and hydrodynamic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhov, A. G.; Suhov, Yu. M.

    1986-11-01

    We prove theorems on convergence to a stationary state in the course of time for the one-dimensional XY model and its generalizations. The key point is the well-known Jordan-Wigner transformation, which maps the XY dynamics onto a group of Bogoliubov transformations on the CAR C *-algebra over Z 1. The role of stationary states for Bogoliubov transformations is played by quasifree states and for the XY model by their inverse images with respect to the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The hydrodynamic limit for the one-dimensional XY model is also considered. By using the Jordan-Wigner transformation one reduces the problem to that of constructing the hydrodynamic limit for the group of Bogoliubov transformations. As a result, we obtain an independent motion of "normal modes," which is described by a hyperbolic linear differential equation of second order. For the XX model this equation reduces to a first-order transfer equation.

  3. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  4. Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production.

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Experimental limits from ATLAS on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-600 GeV. The solid curve reflects the observed experimental limits for the production of a Higgs of each possible mass value (horizontal axis). The region for which the solid curve dips below the horizontal line at the value of 1 is excluded with a 95% confidence level (CL). The dashed curve shows the expected limit in the absence of the Higgs boson, based on simulations. The green and yellow bands correspond (respectively) to 68%, and 95% confidence level regions from the expected limits. Higgs masses in the narrow range 123-130 GeV are the only masses not excluded at 95% CL

  5. Limited Area Forecasting and Statistical Modelling for Wind Energy Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin Haubjerg

    forecast accuracy for operational wind power scheduling. Numerical weather prediction history and scales of atmospheric motion are summarised, followed by a literature review of limited area wind speed forecasting. Hereafter, the original contribution to research on the topic is outlined. The quality...... control of wind farm data used as forecast reference is described in detail, and a preliminary limited area forecasting study illustrates the aggravation of issues related to numerical orography representation and accurate reference coordinates at ne weather model resolutions. For the o shore and coastal...... sites studied limited area forecasting is found to deteriorate wind speed prediction accuracy, while inland results exhibit a steady forecast performance increase with weather model resolution. Temporal smoothing of wind speed forecasts is shown to improve wind power forecast performance by up to almost...

  6. Optimal vaccination policies for an SIR model with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinggao; Yang, Kuan; Zhou, Kai; Liang, Yiting

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the paper is to use analytical method and optimization tool to suggest a vaccination program intensity for a basic SIR epidemic model with limited resources for vaccination. We show that there are two different scenarios for optimal vaccination strategies, and obtain analytical solutions for the optimal control problem that minimizes the total cost of disease under the assumption of daily vaccine supply being limited. These solutions and their corresponding optimal control policies are derived explicitly in terms of initial conditions, model parameters and resources for vaccination. With sufficient resources, the optimal control strategy is the normal Bang-Bang control. However, with limited resources, the optimal control strategy requires to switch to time-variant vaccination.

  7. NONSMOOTH MODEL FOR PLASTIC LIMIT ANALYSIS AND ITS SMOOTHING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yu; PAN Shao-hua; LI Xing-si

    2006-01-01

    By means of Lagrange duality theory of the convex program, a dual problem of Hill's maximum plastic work principle under Mises' yield condition has been derived and whereby a non-differentiable convex optimization model for the limit analysis is developed. With this model, it is not necessary to linearize the yield condition and its discrete form becomes a minimization problem of the sum of Euclidean norms subject to linear constraints. Aimed at resolving the non-differentiability of Euclidean norms, a smoothing algorithm for the limit analysis of perfect-plastic continuum media is proposed.Its efficiency is demonstrated by computing the limit load factor and the collapse state for some plane stress and plain strain problems.

  8. Usefulness and limitations of global flood risk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip; Jongman, Brenden; Salamon, Peter; Simpson, Alanna; Bates, Paul; De Groeve, Tom; Muis, Sanne; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Rudari, Roberto; Mark, Trigg; Winsemius, Hessel

    2016-04-01

    Global flood risk models are now a reality. Initially, their development was driven by a demand from users for first-order global assessments to identify risk hotspots. Relentless upward trends in flood damage over the last decade have enhanced interest in such assessments. The adoption of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts have made these efforts even more essential. As a result, global flood risk models are being used more and more in practice, by an increasingly large number of practitioners and decision-makers. However, they clearly have their limits compared to local models. To address these issues, a team of scientists and practitioners recently came together at the Global Flood Partnership meeting to critically assess the question 'What can('t) we do with global flood risk models?'. The results of this dialogue (Ward et al., 2013) will be presented, opening a discussion on similar broader initiatives at the science-policy interface in other natural hazards. In this contribution, examples are provided of successful applications of global flood risk models in practice (for example together with the World Bank, Red Cross, and UNISDR), and limitations and gaps between user 'wish-lists' and model capabilities are discussed. Finally, a research agenda is presented for addressing these limitations and reducing the gaps. Ward et al., 2015. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate2742

  9. A multi agent model for the limit order book dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartolozzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we introduce a novel multi-agent model with the aim to reproduce the dynamics of a double auction market at microscopic time scale through a faithful simulation of the matching mechanics in the limit order book.aEuro (c) The agents follow a noise decision making process where the

  10. Singular limit analysis of a model for earthquake faulting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Brøns, Morten; Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider the one dimensional spring-block model describing earthquake faulting. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and the blow-up method we provide a detailed description of the periodicity of the earthquake episodes. In particular, the limit cycles arise from...

  11. Totally Asymmetric Limit for Models of Heat Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-08-01

    We consider one dimensional weakly asymmetric boundary driven models of heat conduction. In the cases of a constant diffusion coefficient and of a quadratic mobility we compute the quasi-potential that is a non local functional obtained by the solution of a variational problem. This is done using the dynamic variational approach of the macroscopic fluctuation theory (Bertini et al. in Rev Mod Phys 87:593, 2015). The case of a concave mobility corresponds essentially to the exclusion model that has been discussed in Bertini et al. (J Stat Mech L11001, 2010; Pure Appl Math 64(5):649-696, 2011; Commun Math Phys 289(1):311-334, 2009) and Enaud and Derrida (J Stat Phys 114:537-562, 2004). We consider here the convex case that includes for example the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model and its dual (KMPd) (Kipnis et al. in J Stat Phys 27:6574, 1982). This extends to the weakly asymmetric regime the computations in Bertini et al. (J Stat Phys 121(5/6):843-885, 2005). We consider then, both microscopically and macroscopically, the limit of large externalfields. Microscopically we discuss some possible totally asymmetric limits of the KMP model. In one case the totally asymmetric dynamics has a product invariant measure. Another possible limit dynamics has instead a non trivial invariant measure for which we give a duality representation. Macroscopically we show that the quasi-potentials of KMP and KMPd, which are non local for any value of the external field, become local in the limit. Moreover the dependence on one of the external reservoirs disappears. For models having strictly positive quadratic mobilities we obtain instead in the limit a non local functional having a structure similar to the one of the boundary driven asymmetric exclusion process.

  12. Incorporating the Hayflick Limit into a model of Telomere Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cyrenne, Benoit M

    2013-01-01

    A model of telomere dynamics is proposed and examined. Our model, which extends a previously introduced two-compartment model that incorporates stem cells as progenitors of new cells, imposes the Hayflick Limit, the maximum number of cell divisions that are possible. This new model leads to cell populations for which the average telomere length is not necessarily a monotonically decreasing function of time, in contrast to previously published models. We provide a phase diagram indicating where such results would be expected. In addition, qualitatively different results are obtained for the evolution of the total cell population. Last, in comparison to available leukocyte baboon data, this new model is shown to provide a better fit to biological data.

  13. Modelling across bioreactor scales: methods, challenges and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    Scale-up and scale-down of bioreactors are very important in industrial biotechnology, especially with the currently available knowledge on the occurrence of gradients in industrial-scale bioreactors. Moreover, it becomes increasingly appealing to model such industrial scale systems, considering...... that it is challenging and expensive to acquire experimental data of good quality that can be used for characterizing gradients occurring inside a large industrial scale bioreactor. But which model building methods are available? And how can one ensure that the parameters in such a model are properly estimated? And what...... are the limitations of different types of mod - els? This paper will provide examples of models that have been published in the literature for use across bioreactor scales, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance models. Furthermore, the importance of good modeling practice...

  14. New limit on logotropic unified dark energy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.C. Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A unification of dark matter and dark energy in terms of a logotropic perfect dark fluid has recently been proposed, where deviations with respect to the standard ΛCDM model are dependent on a single parameter B. In this paper we show that the requirement that the linear growth of cosmic structures on comoving scales larger than 8h−1Mpc is not significantly affected with respect to the standard ΛCDM result provides the strongest limit to date on the model (B<6×10−7, an improvement of more than three orders of magnitude over previous upper limits on the value of B. We further show that this limit rules out the logotropic Unified Dark Energy model as a possible solution to the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model, including the cusp problem of Dark Matter halos or the missing satellite problem, as well as the original version of the model where the Planck energy density was taken as one of the two parameters characterizing the logotropic dark fluid.

  15. Snowmelt runoff modeling: Limitations and potential for mitigating water disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, Jonathan; Choi, Woonsup; Keuser, Anke

    2012-04-01

    SummaryConceptual snowmelt runoff models have proven useful for estimating discharge from remote mountain basins including those spanning the various ranges of the Himalaya. Such models can provide water resource managers with fairly accurate predictions of water availability for operational purposes (e.g. irrigation and hydropower). However, these models have limited ability to address characteristic components of water disputes such as diversions, storage and withholding. Contemporary disputes between India and Pakistan surrounding the snowmelt-derived water resources of the Upper Indus Basin highlight the need for improved water balance accounting methods. We present a research agenda focused on providing refined hydrological contributions to water dispute mitigation efforts.

  16. Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease: advances, limits, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleau, Sylvina; Tricoire, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) are the two key players involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles respectively, two key hallmarks of the disease. Besides vertebrate models, Drosophila models have been widely used to understand the complex events leading to AD in relation to aging. Drosophila benefits from the low redundancy of the genome which greatly simplifies the analysis of single gene disruption, sophisticated molecular genetic tools, and reduced cost compared to mammals. The aim of this review is to describe the recent advances in modeling AD using fly and to emphasize some limits of these models. Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed some key aspects of the normal function of Appl and Tau, the fly homologues of AβPP and MAPT that may be disrupted during AD. Drosophila models have also been useful to uncover or validate several pathological pathways or susceptibility genes, and have been readily implemented in drug screening pipelines. We discuss some limitations of the current models that may arise from differences in structure of Appl and Tau compared to their human counterparts or from missing AβPP or MAPT protein interactors in flies. The advent of new genome modification technologies should allow the development of more realistic fly models and to better understand the relationship between AD and aging, taking advantage of the fly's short lifespan.

  17. Abilities and limitations in the use of regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzov, Morten Andreas Oedegaard

    2012-11-01

    In order to say something about the effect of climate change at the regional level, one takes in use regional climate models. In these models the thesis introduce regional features, which are not included in the global climate models (which are basically in climate research). Regional models can provide good and useful climate projections that add more value than the global climate models, but also introduces an uncertainty in the calculations. How should this uncertainty affect the use of regional climate models?The most common methodology for calculating potential future climate developments are based on different scenarios of possible emissions of greenhouse gases. These scenarios operates as global climate models using physical laws and calculate possible future developments. This is considered mathematical complexed and processes with limited supercomputing capacity calculates the global models for the larger scale of the climate system. To study the effects of climate change are regional details required and the regional models used therefore in a limited area of the climate system. These regional models are driven by data from the global models and refines and improves these data. Impact studies can then use the data from the regional models or data which are further processed to provide more local details using geo-statistical methods. In the preparation of the climate projections is there a minimum of 4 sources of uncertainty. This uncertainty is related to the provision of emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, uncertainties related to the use of global climate models, uncertainty related to the use of regional climate models and the uncertainty of internal variability in the climate system. This thesis discusses the use of regional climate models, and illustrates how the regional climate model adds value to climate projections, and at the same time introduce uncertainty in the calculations. It discusses in particular the importance of the choice of

  18. Probabilistic models of population evolution scaling limits, genealogies and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pardoux, Étienne

    2016-01-01

    This expository book presents the mathematical description of evolutionary models of populations subject to interactions (e.g. competition) within the population. The author includes both models of finite populations, and limiting models as the size of the population tends to infinity. The size of the population is described as a random function of time and of the initial population (the ancestors at time 0). The genealogical tree of such a population is given. Most models imply that the population is bound to go extinct in finite time. It is explained when the interaction is strong enough so that the extinction time remains finite, when the ancestral population at time 0 goes to infinity. The material could be used for teaching stochastic processes, together with their applications. Étienne Pardoux is Professor at Aix-Marseille University, working in the field of Stochastic Analysis, stochastic partial differential equations, and probabilistic models in evolutionary biology and population genetics. He obtai...

  19. Microcavity-array superhydrophobic surfaces: Limits of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Oliveira, M. R. S.; Spirin, R.; Teixeira, F. S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

    2013-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces formed of microcavities can be designed with specific desired advancing and receding contact angles using a new model described by us in prior work. Here, we discuss the limits of validity of the model, and explore the application of the model to surfaces fabricated with small cavities of radius 250 nm and with large cavities of radius 40 μm. The Wenzel model is discussed and used to calculate the advancing and receding contact angles for samples for which our model cannot be applied. We also consider the case of immersion of a sample containing microcavities in pressurized water. A consideration that then arises is that the air inside the cavities can be dissolved in the water, leading to complete water invasion into the cavities and compromising the superhydrophobic character of the surface. Here, we show that this effect does not destroy the surface hydrophobia when the surface is subsequently removed from the water.

  20. A continuum limit for the Kronig-Penney model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Ndreca, Sokol; Procacci, Aldo

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of a quantum one-dimensional periodic system of fixed length L, with N barriers of constant height V and width λ and N wells of width δ. In particular, we study the behaviour of the transmission coefficient in the limit N → ∞, with L fixed. This is achieved by letting δ and λ both scale as 1/N, in such a way that their ratio γ = λ/δ is a fixed parameter characterizing the model. In this continuum limit, the multi-barrier system behaves as it were constituted by a unique barrier of constant height Eo = (γV)/(1 + γ). The analysis of the dispersion relation of the model shows the presence of forbidden energy bands at any finite N.

  1. Exposure-Based Cat Modeling, Available data, Advantages, & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Hosoe, Taro; Schrah, Mike; Saito, Keiko

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of exposure data for cat-modeling and considers concepts of scale as well as the completeness of data and data scoring using field/model examples. Catastrophe modeling based on exposure data has been considered the panacea for insurance-related cat modeling since the late 1980's. Reasons for this include: • The ability to extend risk modeling to consider data beyond historical losses, • Usability across many relevant scales, • Flexibility in addressing complex structures and policy conditions, and • Ability to assess dependence of risk results on exposure-attributes and exposure-modifiers, such as lines of business, occupancy types, and mitigation features, at any given scale. In order to calculate related risk, monetary exposure is correlated to vulnerabilities that have been calibrated with historical results, plausibility concepts, and/or physical modeling. While exposure based modeling is widely adopted, we also need to be aware of its limitations which include: • Boundaries in our understanding of the distribution of exposure, • Spatial interdependence of exposure patterns and the time-dependence of exposure, • Incomplete availability of loss information to calibrate relevant exposure attributes/structure with related vulnerabilities and losses, • The scale-dependence of vulnerability, • Potential for missing or incomplete communication of assumptions made during model calibration, • Inefficiencies in the aggregation or disaggregation of vulnerabilities, and • Factors which can influence losses other than exposure, vulnerability, and hazard. Although we might assume that the higher the resolution the better, regional model calibration is often limited to lower than street level resolution with higher resolution being achieved by disaggregating results using topographic/roughness features with often loosely constrained and/or varying effects on losses. This suggests that higher accuracy

  2. Central limit theorem of linear regression model under right censorship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shuyuan(何书元); HUANG; Xiang(Heung; Wong)(黄香)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the estimation of joint distribution F(y,z) of (Y, Z) and the estimation in thelinear regression model Y = b′Z + ε for complete data are extended to that of the right censored data. Theregression parameter estimates of b and the variance of ε are weighted least square estimates with randomweights. The central limit theorems of the estimators are obtained under very weak conditions and the derivedasymptotic variance has a very simple form.

  3. Quasineutral limit of a standard drift diffusion model for semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Ling

    2002-01-01

    [1]Brenier, Y., Grenier, E., Limite singuliere de Vlasov-Poisson dans le regime de quasi neutralite: le cas independent du temps, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 1994, 318: 121-124.[2]Cordier, S., Grenier, E., Quasineutral limit of Euler-Poisson system arising from plasma physics, Commun. in P. D. E., 2000, 23: 1099-1113.[3]Jüungel, A., Qualitative behavior of solutions of a degenerate nonlinear drift-diffusion model for semiconductors, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci., 1995, 5: 497-518.[4]Chen, F., Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 1, New York: Plenum Press, 1984.[5]Ringhofer, C., An asymptotic analysis of a transient p-n-junction model, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1987, 47: 624-642.[6]Cordier, S., Degond, P., Markowich, P. A. et al., Traveling waves analysis and jump relations for the Euler-Poisson model in the quasineutral limit, Asymptotic Anal., 1995, 11: 209-224.[7]Brézis, H., Golse, F., Sentis, R., Analyse asymptotique de l'équation de Poisson couplée  la relation de Boltzmann, Quasi-neutralité des plasmas, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 1995, 321: 953-959.[8]Simon, J., Compact set in the space Lp(0, T; B), Anal. Math. Pure Appl., 1987, 166: 65-96.[9]Lions, J. L., Quelques méthodes des Résolution des Problémes aux Limites non Linéaires, Paris: Dunod-Gauthier-Villard, 1969.

  4. Rodent models of diabetic nephropathy: their utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Munehiro; Ogura, Yoshio; Koya, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, novel therapies for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy must be developed. Rodent models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases and testing novel therapies, and many type 1 and type 2 diabetic rodent models have been established for the study of diabetes and diabetic complications. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals are widely used as a model of type 1 diabetes. Akita diabetic mice that have an Ins2+/C96Y mutation and OVE26 mice that overexpress calmodulin in pancreatic β-cells serve as a genetic model of type 1 diabetes. In addition, db/db mice, KK-Ay mice, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, Wistar fatty rats, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats serve as rodent models of type 2 diabetes. An animal model of diabetic nephropathy should exhibit progressive albuminuria and a decrease in renal function, as well as the characteristic histological changes in the glomeruli and the tubulointerstitial lesions that are observed in cases of human diabetic nephropathy. A rodent model that strongly exhibits all these features of human diabetic nephropathy has not yet been developed. However, the currently available rodent models of diabetes can be useful in the study of diabetic nephropathy by increasing our understanding of the features of each diabetic rodent model. Furthermore, the genetic background and strain of each mouse model result in differences in susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria and the development of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions. Therefore, the validation of an animal model reproducing human diabetic nephropathy will significantly facilitate our understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we focus on rodent models of diabetes and discuss the utility and limitations of these models for the study of diabetic

  5. Local resolution-limit-free Potts model for community detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronhovde, Peter; Nussinov, Zohar

    2010-04-01

    We report on an exceptionally accurate spin-glass-type Potts model for community detection. With a simple algorithm, we find that our approach is at least as accurate as the best currently available algorithms and robust to the effects of noise. It is also competitive with the best currently available algorithms in terms of speed and size of solvable systems. We find that the computational demand often exhibits superlinear scaling O(L1.3) where L is the number of edges in the system, and we have applied the algorithm to synthetic systems as large as 40 x 10(6) nodes and over 1 x 10(9) edges. A previous stumbling block encountered by popular community detection methods is the so-called "resolution limit." Being a "local" measure of community structure, our Potts model is free from this resolution-limit effect, and it further remains a local measure on weighted and directed graphs. We also address the mitigation of resolution-limit effects for two other popular Potts models.

  6. Effective action and semiclassical limit of spin foam models

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, A

    2011-01-01

    We define an effective action for spin foam models of quantum gravity by adapting the background field method from quantum field theory. We show that the Regge action is the leading term in the semi-classical expansion of the spin foam effective action if the vertex amplitude has the large-spin asymptotics which is proportional to an exponential function of the vertex Regge action. In the case of the known three-dimensional and four-dimensional spin foam models this amounts to modifying the vertex amplitude such that the exponential asymptotics is obtained. In particular, we show that the ELPR/FK model vertex amplitude can be modified such that the new model is finite and has the Einstein-Hilbert action as its classical limit. We also calculate the first-order and some of the second-order quantum corrections in the semi-classical expansion of the effective action.

  7. The decoupling limit in the Georgi-Machacek model

    CERN Document Server

    Hartling, Katy; Logan, Heather E

    2014-01-01

    We study the most general scalar potential of the Georgi-Machacek model, which adds isospin-triplet scalars to the Standard Model (SM) in a way that preserves custodial SU(2) symmetry. We show that this model possesses a decoupling limit, in which the predominantly-triplet states become heavy and degenerate while the couplings of the remaining light neutral scalar approach those of the SM Higgs boson. We find that the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to fermion pairs and gauge boson pairs can deviate from their SM values by corrections as large as $\\mathcal{O}(v^2/M_{\\rm new}^2)$, where $v$ is the SM Higgs vacuum expectation value and $M_{\\rm new}$ is the mass scale of the predominantly-triplet states. In particular, the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to $W$ and $Z$ boson pairs can decouple much more slowly than in two Higgs doublet models, in which they deviate from their SM values like $\\mathcal{O}(v^4/M_{\\rm new}^4)$. Furthermore, near the decoupling limit the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to $W$ and $Z$ pairs...

  8. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation for photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Fisher, R. A.; Travis, B. J.; Wilson, C. J.; McDowell, N. G.

    2011-12-01

    The nitrogen limitation is an important regulator for vegetation growth and global carbon cycle. Most current ecosystem process models simulate nitrogen effects on photosynthesis based on a prescribed relationship between leaf nitrogen and photosynthesis; however, there is a large amount of variability in this relationship with different light, temperature, nitrogen availability and CO2 conditions, which can affect the reliability of photosynthesis prediction under future climate conditions. To account for the variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationship under different environmental conditions, in this study, we developed a mechanistic model of nitrogen limitation for photosynthesis based on nitrogen trade-offs among light absorption, electron transport, carboxylization and carbon sink. Our model shows that strategies of nitrogen storage allocation as determined by tradeoff among growth and persistence is a key factor contributing to the variability in relationship between leaf nitrogen and photosynthesis. Nitrogen fertilization substantially increases the proportion of nitrogen in storage for coniferous trees but much less for deciduous trees, suggesting that coniferous trees allocate more nitrogen toward persistence compared to deciduous trees. The CO2 fertilization will cause lower nitrogen allocation for carboxylization but higher nitrogen allocation for storage, which leads to a weaker relationship between leaf nitrogen and maximum photosynthesis rate. Lower radiation will cause higher nitrogen allocation for light absorption and electron transport but less nitrogen allocation for carboxylyzation and storage, which also leads to weaker relationship between leaf nitrogen and maximum photosynthesis rate. At the same time, lower growing temperature will cause higher nitrogen allocation for carboxylyzation but lower allocation for light absorption, electron transport and storage, which leads to a stronger relationship between leaf nitrogen and maximum

  9. Rodent models of diabetic nephropathy: their utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitada M

    2016-11-01

    significantly facilitate our understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we focus on rodent models of diabetes and discuss the utility and limitations of these models for the study of diabetic nephropathy. Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, rodent model, albuminuria, mesangial matrix expansion, tubulointerstitial fibrosis

  10. Nonautonomous Food-Limited Fishery Model With Adaptive Harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Idels, L V

    2010-01-01

    We will introduce the biological motivation of the $\\gamma$- food-limited model with variable parameters. New criteria are established for the existence and global stability of positive periodic solutions. To prove the existence of steady-state solutions, we used the upper-lower solution method where the existence of at least one positive periodic solution is obtained by constructing a pair of upper and lower solutions and application of the Friedreichs Theorem. Numerical simulations illustrate effects of periodic variation in the values of the basic biological and environmental parameters and how the adaptive harvesting strategies affect fishing stocks.

  11. Animal models of obsessive–compulsive disorder: utility and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Pino; López-Solà, Clara; Real, Eva; Segalàs, Cinto; Menchón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling and common neuropsychiatric condition of poorly known etiology. Many attempts have been made in the last few years to develop animal models of OCD with the aim of clarifying the genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical basis of the disorder, as well as of developing novel pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments that may help to improve the prognosis of the illness. The latter goal is particularly important given that around 40% of patients with OCD do not respond to currently available therapies. This article summarizes strengths and limitations of the leading animal models of OCD including genetic, pharmacologically induced, behavioral manipulation-based, and neurodevelopmental models according to their face, construct, and predictive validity. On the basis of this evaluation, we discuss that currently labeled “animal models of OCD” should be regarded not as models of OCD but, rather, as animal models of different psychopathological processes, such as compulsivity, stereotypy, or perseverance, that are present not only in OCD but also in other psychiatric or neurological disorders. Animal models might constitute a challenging approach to study the neural and genetic mechanism of these phenomena from a trans-diagnostic perspective. Animal models are also of particular interest as tools for developing new therapeutic options for OCD, with the greatest convergence focusing on the glutamatergic system, the role of ovarian and related hormones, and the exploration of new potential targets for deep brain stimulation. Finally, future research on neurocognitive deficits associated with OCD through the use of analogous animal tasks could also provide a genuine opportunity to disentangle the complex etiology of the disorder. PMID:26346234

  12. The limitations of mathematical modeling in high school physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjan, Matej

    The theme of the doctoral dissertation falls within the scope of didactics of physics. Theoretical analysis of the key constraints that occur in the transmission of mathematical modeling of dynamical systems into field of physics education in secondary schools is presented. In an effort to explore the extent to which current physics education promotes understanding of models and modeling, we analyze the curriculum and the three most commonly used textbooks for high school physics. We focus primarily on the representation of the various stages of modeling in the solved tasks in textbooks and on the presentation of certain simplifications and idealizations, which are in high school physics frequently used. We show that one of the textbooks in most cases fairly and reasonably presents the simplifications, while the other two half of the analyzed simplifications do not explain. It also turns out that the vast majority of solved tasks in all the textbooks do not explicitly represent model assumptions based on what we can conclude that in high school physics the students do not develop sufficiently a sense of simplification and idealizations, which is a key part of the conceptual phase of modeling. For the introduction of modeling of dynamical systems the knowledge of students is also important, therefore we performed an empirical study on the extent to which high school students are able to understand the time evolution of some dynamical systems in the field of physics. The research results show the students have a very weak understanding of the dynamics of systems in which the feedbacks are present. This is independent of the year or final grade in physics and mathematics. When modeling dynamical systems in high school physics we also encounter the limitations which result from the lack of mathematical knowledge of students, because they don't know how analytically solve the differential equations. We show that when dealing with one-dimensional dynamical systems

  13. Continuous time limits of the Utterance Selection Model

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive new continuous time limits of the Utterance Selection Model (USM) for language change (Baxter et al., Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 73}, 046118, 2006). This is motivated by the fact that the Fokker-Planck continuous time limit derived in the original version of the USM is only valid for a small range range of parameters. We investigate the consequences of relaxing these constraints on parameters. Using the normal approximation of the multinomial approximation, we derive a new continuous time limit of the USM in the form of a weak-noise stochastic differential equation. We argue that this weak noise, not captured by the Kramers-Moyal expansion, can not be neglected. We then propose a coarse-graining procedure, which takes the form of a stochastic version of the \\emph{heterogeneous mean field} approximation. This approximation groups the behaviour of nodes of same degree, reducing the complexity of the problem. With the help of this approximation, we study in detail two simple families of networks:...

  14. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  15. A multi agent model for the limit order book dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, M.

    2010-11-01

    In the present work we introduce a novel multi-agent model with the aim to reproduce the dynamics of a double auction market at microscopic time scale through a faithful simulation of the matching mechanics in the limit order book. The agents follow a noise decision making process where their actions are related to a stochastic variable, the market sentiment, which we define as a mixture of public and private information. The model, despite making just few basic assumptions over the trading strategies of the agents, is able to reproduce several empirical features of the high-frequency dynamics of the market microstructure not only related to the price movements but also to the deposition of the orders in the book.

  16. Modeling multiple resource limitation in tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Zarakas, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are characterized by a long dry season when little rain falls. At the same time, many neotropical soils are highly weathered and relatively nutrient poor. Because TDFs are often subject to both water and nutrient constraints, the question of how they will respond to environmental perturbations is both complex and highly interesting. Models, our basic tools for projecting ecosystem responses to global change, can be used to address this question. However, few models have been specifically parameterized for TDFs. Here, we present a new version of the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model that includes a new parameterization of TDFs. In particular, we focus on the model's framework for representing limitation by multiple resources (carbon, water, nitrogen, and phosphorus). Plant functional types are represented in terms of a dichotomy between "acquisitive" and "conservative" resource acquisition strategies. Depending on their resource acquisition strategy and basic stoichiometry, plants can dynamically adjust their allocation to organs (leaves, stem, roots), symbionts (e.g. N2-fixing bacteria), and mycorrhizal fungi. Several case studies are used to investigate how resource acquisition strategies affect ecosystem responses to environmental perturbations. Results are described in terms of the basic setting (e.g., rich vs. poor soils; longer vs. shorter dry season), and well as the type and magnitude of environmental perturbation (e.g., changes in precipitation or temperature; changes in nitrogen deposition). Implications for ecosystem structure and functioning are discussed.

  17. European Continental Scale Hydrological Model, Limitations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, E.; Abbaspour, K.

    2014-12-01

    The pressures on water resources due to increasing levels of societal demand, increasing conflict of interest and uncertainties with regard to freshwater availability create challenges for water managers and policymakers in many parts of Europe. At the same time, climate change adds a new level of pressure and uncertainty with regard to freshwater supplies. On the other hand, the small-scale sectoral structure of water management is now reaching its limits. The integrated management of water in basins requires a new level of consideration where water bodies are to be viewed in the context of the whole river system and managed as a unit within their basins. In this research we present the limitations and challenges of modelling the hydrology of the continent Europe. The challenges include: data availability at continental scale and the use of globally available data, streamgauge data quality and their misleading impacts on model calibration, calibration of large-scale distributed model, uncertainty quantification, and computation time. We describe how to avoid over parameterization in calibration process and introduce a parallel processing scheme to overcome high computation time. We used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) program as an integrated hydrology and crop growth simulator to model water resources of the Europe continent. Different components of water resources are simulated and crop yield and water quality are considered at the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) level. The water resources are quantified at subbasin level with monthly time intervals for the period of 1970-2006. The use of a large-scale, high-resolution water resources models enables consistent and comprehensive examination of integrated system behavior through physically-based, data-driven simulation and provides the overall picture of water resources temporal and spatial distribution across the continent. The calibrated model and results provide information support to the European Water

  18. Technical Note: A generic law-of-the-minimum flux limiter for simulating substrate limitation in biogeochemical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a generic flux limiter to account for mass limitations from an arbitrary number of substrates in a biogeochemical reaction network. The flux limiter is based on the observation that substrate (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus limitation in biogeochemical models can be represented as to ensure mass conservative and non-negative numerical solutions to the governing ordinary differential equations. Application of the flux limiter includes two steps: (1 formulate the biogeochemical processes with a matrix of stoichiometric coefficients and (2 apply Liebig's law of the minimum using the dynamic stoichiometric relationship of the reactants. This approach contrasts with the ad hoc down-regulation approaches that are implemented in many existing models (such as CLM4.5 and the ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy Land Model (ALM of carbon and nutrient interactions, which are error prone when adding new processes, even for experienced modelers. Through an example implementation with a Century-like decomposition model that includes carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, we show that our approach (1 produced almost identical results to that from the ad hoc down-regulation approaches under non-limiting nutrient conditions; and (2 properly resolved the negative solutions under substrate-limited conditions where the simple clipping approach failed; and (3 successfully avoided the potential conceptual ambiguities that are implied by those ad hoc down-regulation approaches. We expect our approach will make future biogeochemical models easier to improve and more robust.

  19. Modeling Speed Limit Offenders in Mauritius Using Symmetric and Asymmetric GARCH Models: From Financial Modeling to Traffic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranarain Ramlall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have adopted important policies in view of curbing the number of injuries/fatal road accidents with the most important being speed limit enforcement. In that respect, Mauritius has recently embarked on a strategy of using cameras in view of detecting violations to speed limits. However, the empirical literature on speed limit offenders is still very poor in terms of modeling. In essence, this paper constitutes the very first study that provides sound econometric modeling for speed limit offenders. Findings suggest that vanilla GARCH can be used to model the number of speed limit offenders. Above all, leverage effects are also noted, clearly showing the importance of the type of traffic flow of speed limit offenders which underpins the non-compliance/breach to speed limits. Furthermore, results show the presence of strong weekend effects as confirmed by the dummy variable. The research is expected to provide a momentum in the use of GARCH models for traffic modeling not only for Mauritius but also for other countries in the world.

  20. Continuous time limits of the utterance selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jérôme

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we derive alternative continuous time limits of the utterance selection model (USM) for language change [G. J. Baxter et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 046118 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevE.73.046118]. This is motivated by the fact that the Fokker-Planck continuous time limit derived in the original version of the USM is only valid for a small range of parameters. We investigate the consequences of relaxing these constraints on parameters. Using the normal approximation of the multinomial approximation, we derive a continuous time limit of the USM in the form of a weak-noise stochastic differential equation. We argue that this weak noise, not captured by the Kramers-Moyal expansion, cannot be neglected. We then propose a coarse-graining procedure, which takes the form of a stochastic version of the heterogeneous mean field approximation. This approximation groups the behavior of nodes of the same degree, reducing the complexity of the problem. With the help of this approximation, we study in detail two simple families of networks: the regular networks and the star-shaped networks. The analysis reveals and quantifies a finite-size effect of the dynamics. If we increase the size of the network by keeping all the other parameters constant, we transition from a state where conventions emerge to a state where no convention emerges. Furthermore, we show that the degree of a node acts as a time scale. For heterogeneous networks such as star-shaped networks, the time scale difference can become very large, leading to a noisier behavior of highly connected nodes.

  1. A mathematical model to detect inspiratory flow limitation during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Khaled F; Rowley, James A; Meshenish, A A; Shkoukani, Mahdi A; Badr, M Safwan

    2002-09-01

    The physiological significance of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) has recently been recognized, but methods of detecting IFL can be subjective. We sought to develop a mathematical model of the upper airway pressure-flow relationship that would objectively detect flow limitation. We present a theoretical discussion that predicts that a polynomial function [F(P) = AP(3) + BP(2) + CP + D, where F(P) is flow and P is supraglottic pressure] best characterizes the pressure-flow relationship and allows for the objective detection of IFL. In protocol 1, step 1, we performed curve-fitting of the pressure-flow relationship of 20 breaths to 5 mathematical functions and found that highest correlation coefficients (R(2)) for quadratic (0.88 +/- 0.10) and polynomial (0.91 +/- 0.05; P polynomial functions and found that the error fit was lowest for the polynomial function (3.3 +/- 0.06 vs. 21.1 +/- 19.0%; P 99% for each). We conclude that a polynomial function can be used to predict the relationship between pressure and flow in the upper airway and objectively determine the presence of IFL.

  2. HEAVY TRAFFIC LIMIT THEOREMS IN FLUID BUFFER MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Gang; ZHANG Hanqin

    2004-01-01

    A fluid buffer model with Markov modulated input-output rates is considered.When traffic intensity is near its critical value, the system is known as in heavy traffic.It is shown that a suitably scaled sequence of the equilibrium buffer contents has a weakor distributional limit under heavy traffic conditionsThis weak limit is a functional of adiffusion process determined by the Markov chain modulating the input and output rates.The first passage time of the reflected process is examinedIt is shown that the mean firstpassage time can be obtained via a solution of a Dirichlet problemThen the transitiondensity of the reflected process is derived by solving the Kolmogorov forward equation witha Neumann boundary conditionFurthermore, when the fast changing part of the generatorof the Markov chain is a constant matrix, the representation of the probability distributionof the reflected process is derivedUpper and lower bounds of the probability distributionare also obtained by means of asymptotic expansions of standard normal distribution.

  3. Prediction Model of Mechanical Extending Limits in Horizontal Drilling and Design Methods of Tubular Strings to Improve Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.

  4. Applications and limitations of in silico models in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacan, Ahmet; Ekins, Sean; Kortagere, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Drug discovery in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century has witnessed a myriad of changes that were adopted to predict whether a compound is likely to be successful, or conversely enable identification of molecules with liabilities as early as possible. These changes include integration of in silico strategies for lead design and optimization that perform complementary roles to that of the traditional in vitro and in vivo approaches. The in silico models are facilitated by the availability of large datasets associated with high-throughput screening, bioinformatics algorithms to mine and annotate the data from a target perspective, and chemoinformatics methods to integrate chemistry methods into lead design process. This chapter highlights the applications of some of these methods and their limitations. We hope this serves as an introduction to in silico drug discovery.

  5. Animal models of β-hemoglobinopathies: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McColl B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bradley McColl, Jim Vadolas Cell and Gene Therapy Laboratory, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: The structural and functional conservation of hemoglobin throughout mammals has made the laboratory mouse an exceptionally useful organism in which to study both the protein and the individual globin genes. Early researchers looked to the globin genes as an excellent model in which to examine gene regulation – bountifully expressed and displaying a remarkably consistent pattern of developmental activation and silencing. In parallel with the growth of research into expression of the globin genes, mutations within the β-globin gene were identified as the cause of the β-hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. These lines of enquiry stimulated the development of transgenic mouse models, first carrying individual human globin genes and then substantial human genomic fragments incorporating the multigenic human β-globin locus and regulatory elements. Finally, mice were devised carrying mutant human β-globin loci on genetic backgrounds deficient in the native mouse globins, resulting in phenotypes of sickle cell disease or β-thalassemia. These years of work have generated a group of model animals that display many features of the β-hemoglobinopathies and provided enormous insight into the mechanisms of gene regulation. Substantive differences in the expression of human and mouse globins during development have also come to light, revealing the limitations of the mouse model, but also providing opportunities to further explore the mechanisms of globin gene regulation. In addition, animal models of β-hemoglobinopathies have demonstrated the feasibility of gene therapy for these conditions, now showing success in human clinical trials. Such models remain in use to dissect the molecular events of globin gene regulation and to identify novel treatments based

  6. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  7. Analytical examples, measurement models, and classical limit of quantum backflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, J. M.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hartshorn, R.; Whitby, A.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the backflow effect in elementary quantum mechanics—the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta may have negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. We compute the current and flux for states consisting of superpositions of Gaussian wave packets. These are experimentally realizable but the amount of backflow is small. Inspired by the numerical results of Penz [Penz, Grübl, Kreidl, and Wagner, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/39/2/012 39, 423 (2006)], we find two nontrivial wave functions whose current at any time may be computed analytically and which have periods of significant backflow, in one case with a backward flux equal to about 70% of the maximum possible backflow, a dimensionless number cbm≈0.04, discovered by Bracken and Melloy [Bracken and Melloy, J. Phys. AJPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/27/6/040 27, 2197 (1994)]. This number has the unusual property of being independent of ℏ (and also of all other parameters of the model), despite corresponding to an obviously quantum-mechanical effect, and we shed some light on this surprising property by considering the classical limit of backflow. We discuss some specific measurement models in which backflow may be identified in certain measurable probabilities.

  8. Low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Divotgey, Florian; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H

    2016-01-01

    The extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM) is an effective hadronic model based on the linear realization of chiral symmetry $SU(N_f)_L \\times SU(N_f)_R$, with (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons as degrees of freedom. In this paper, we study the low-energy limit of the eLSM for $N_f=2$ flavors by integrating out all fields except for the pions, the (pseudo-)Nambu--Goldstone bosons of chiral symmetry breaking. We only keep terms entering at tree level and up to fourth order in powers of derivatives of the pion fields. Up to this order, there are four low-energy coupling constants in the resulting low-energy effective action. We show that the latter is formally identical to Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT), after choosing a representative for the coset space generated by chiral symmetry breaking and expanding up to fourth order in powers of derivatives of the pion fields. Two of the low-energy coupling constants of the eLSM are uniquely determined by a fit to hadron masses and decay widths. We find that thei...

  9. Analytic Models of Brown Dwarfs and The Substellar Mass Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Auddy, Sayantan; Valluri, S R

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main sequence stars. In the spirit of a simplified analytic theory we also introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for non-zero values of the degeneracy parameter ($\\psi = \\frac{kT}{\\mu_{F}}$, where $\\mu_{F}$ is the Fermi energy). We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially-ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range $0.064M_\\odot...

  10. A unified model of density limit in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, P.; Sattin, F.; Escande, D. F.; Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we identify by analytical and numerical means the conditions for the existence of a magnetic and thermal equilibrium of a cylindrical plasma, in the presence of Ohmic and/or additional power sources, heat conduction and radiation losses by light impurities. The boundary defining the solutions’ space having realistic temperature profile with small edge value takes mathematically the form of a density limit (DL). Compared to previous similar analyses the present work benefits from dealing with a more accurate set of equations. This refinement is elementary, but decisive, since it discloses a tenuous dependence of the DL on the thermal transport for configurations with an applied electric field. Thanks to this property, the DL scaling law is recovered almost identical for two largely different devices such as the ohmic tokamak and the reversed field pinch. In particular, they have in common a Greenwald scaling, linearly depending on the plasma current, quantitatively consistent with experimental results. In the tokamak case the DL dependence on any additional heating approximately follows a 0.5 power law, which is compatible with L-mode experiments. For a purely externally heated configuration, taken as a cylindrical approximation of the stellarator, the DL dependence on transport is found stronger. By adopting suitable transport models, DL takes on a Sudo-like form, in fair agreement with LHD experiments. Overall, the model provides a good zeroth-order quantitative description of the DL, applicable to widely different configurations.

  11. Bayesian inference for partially identified models exploring the limits of limited data

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Identification What Is against Us? What Is for Us? Some Simple Examples of Partially Identified ModelsThe Road Ahead The Structure of Inference in Partially Identified Models Bayesian Inference The Structure of Posterior Distributions in PIMs Computational Strategies Strength of Bayesian Updating, Revisited Posterior MomentsCredible Intervals Evaluating the Worth of Inference Partial Identification versus Model Misspecification The Siren Call of Identification Comp

  12. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  13. Large-N Limit as a Classical Limit: Baryon in Two-Dimensional QCD and Multi-Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaswami, G S

    2004-01-01

    This thesis concerns the large-N limit, a classical limit where fluctuations in gauge-invariant variables vanish. The large dimension limit for rotation-invariant variables in atoms is given as an example of a classical limit other than hbar vanishing. Part I concerns the baryon in Rajeev's reformulation of 2d QCD in the large-N limit: a non-linear classical theory of color-singlet quark bilinears. 't Hooft's meson equation is the linearization around the vacuum on the curved grassmannian phase space. The baryon is a topological soliton. Its form factor is found variationally on a succession of increasing rank submanifolds of the phase space. These reduced systems are interacting parton models: a derivation of parton model from the soliton picture. A rank-1 ansatz leads to a Hartree approximation: a relativistic 2d realization of Witten's proposal. The baryon form factor is used to model x_B dependence of deep inelastic structure functions. In Part II, euclidean large-N multi-matrix models are reformulated as...

  14. The Lee-Friedrichs Model: Continuous Limit and Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Roberto; Castagnino, Mario

    2007-09-01

    We analyze the thermodynamic limit of the Hamiltonian, states and observables, of a system containing an oscillator interacting with a thermal bath We use the results to a compare environment and self induced decoherence.

  15. MODERATE DEVIATIONS FROM HYDRODYNAMIC LIMIT OF A GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The authors consider the moderate deviations of hydrodynamic limit for Ginzburg-Landau models. The moderate deviation principle of hydrodynamic limit for a specific Ginzburg-Landau model is obtained and an explicit formula of the rate function is derived.

  16. Modelling space-charge limited transport in discotic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, L.; Bushby, R. J.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2006-05-01

    Using a self-consistent Monte Carlo/Poisson algorithm, we investigate space-charge limited conduction in discotic liquid crystal time of flight (TOF) experiments. The charge transport mechanism is via a semi-delocalised banding process, and two mechanisms of photo-generation of charge carriers are considered: excitons generated by the laser pulse, which quench at the anode, and processes, such as the Onsager mechanism, that lead to direct generation of free electron/hole pairs within the bulk. The nature of the space-charge limited TOF transient is investigated as a function of quantum yield of charge carriers and as a function of applied potential.

  17. Stochastic Modeling and Deterministic Limit of Catalytic Surface Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Reichert, Christian; Eiswirth, Markus;

    2007-01-01

    of stochastic origin can be observed in experiments. The models include a new approach to the platinum phase transition, which allows for a unification of existing models for Pt(100) and Pt(110). The rich nonlinear dynamical behavior of the macroscopic reaction kinetics is investigated and shows good agreement......Three levels of modeling, microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic are discussed for the CO oxidation on low-index platinum single crystal surfaces. The introduced models on the microscopic and mesoscopic level are stochastic while the model on the macroscopic level is deterministic. It can...... with low pressure experiments. Furthermore, for intermediate pressures, noise-induced pattern formation, which has not been captured by earlier models, can be reproduced in stochastic simulations with the mesoscopic model....

  18. Geometrical Modeling of Woven Fabrics Weavability-Limit New Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The weavability limit and tightness for 2D and 3D woven fabrics is an important factor and depends on many geometric parameters. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on textile fabric construction and property, and related research on fabric geometry, a study of the weavability limit and tightness relationships of 2D and 3D woven fabrics was undertaken. Experiments were conducted on a representative number of polyester and cotton woven fabrics which have been woven in our workshop, using three machines endowed with different insertion systems (rapier, projectiles and air jet. Afterwards, these woven fabrics have been analyzed in the laboratory to determine their physical and mechanical characteristics using air permeability-meter and KES-F KAWABATA Evaluation System for Fabrics. In this study, the current Booten’s weavability limit and tightness relationships based on Ashenhurst’s, Peirce’s, Love’s, Russell’s, Galuszynskl’s theory and maximum-weavability is reviewed and modified as new relationships to expand their use to general cases (2D and 3D woven fabrics, all fiber materiel, all yarns etc…. The theoretical relationships were examined and found to agree with experimental results. It was concluded that the weavability limit and tightness relationships are useful tools for weavers in predicting whether a proposed fabric construction was weavable and also in predicting and explaining their physical and mechanical properties.

  19. The growth limits of the low cost carrier model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today, many low cost carriers (LCCs) continue to enjoy rapid growth and still have a fair number of new aircraft on order. There are signs however that the market for LCCs is limited, owing to increasing route density problems, primarily in Europe but seemingly also in North America: the fact that a

  20. Introduction to thermodynamics of spin models in the Hamiltonian limit

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, B; Berche, Bertrand; Lopez, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    A didactic description of the thermodynamic properties of classical spin systems is given in terms of their quantum counterpart in the Hamiltonian limit. Emphasis is on the construction of the relevant Hamiltonian, and the calculation of thermal averages is explicitly done in the case of small systems described, in Hamiltonian field theory, by small matrices.

  1. Modelling of Microbiological Influenced Corrosion – Limitations and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Taylor, Christopher; Eckert, Rickard

    2017-01-01

    . Models can provide numerous benefits, e.g., guidance on MIC mitigation selection and prioritization, identification of data gaps, a scientific basis for risk-based inspections, and technical justification for asset design and life-extension. This paper describes trends in MIC modelling; different types......Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) research in the oil and gas industry has seen a revolution over the past decade with the increased application of molecular microbiological methods (MMM) and new industry standards; however, MIC modelling is an area that has not been fully developed...... of models, future needs, and the utility of MIC models from an end-user perspective. Microorganisms can initiate and promote corrosion different ways, e.g., affecting both charge and mass transfer in corrosion reactions. No mechanistic models currently exist that consider the influence of multiple...

  2. Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain: validity and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain in healthy subjects are used to study symptoms, signs, and the hypothesized underlying mechanisms. Although different models are available, different spontaneous and evoked symptoms and signs are inducible; 2 key questions need to be answered: are human surrogate models conceptually valid, ie, do they share the sensory phenotype of neuropathic pain states, and are they sufficiently reliable to allow consistent translational research?

  3. Boolean network models of cellular regulation: prospects and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, Stefan

    2008-08-06

    Computer models are valuable tools towards an understanding of the cell's biochemical regulatory machinery. Possible levels of description of such models range from modelling the underlying biochemical details to top-down approaches, using tools from the theory of complex networks. The latter, coarse-grained approach is taken where regulatory circuits are classified in graph-theoretical terms, with the elements of the regulatory networks being reduced to simply nodes and links, in order to obtain architectural information about the network. Further, considering dynamics on networks at such an abstract level seems rather unlikely to match dynamical regulatory activity of biological cells. Therefore, it came as a surprise when recently examples of discrete dynamical network models based on very simplistic dynamical elements emerged which in fact do match sequences of regulatory patterns of their biological counterparts. Here I will review such discrete dynamical network models, or Boolean networks, of biological regulatory networks. Further, we will take a look at such models extended with stochastic noise, which allow studying the role of network topology in providing robustness against noise. In the end, we will discuss the interesting question of why at all such simple models can describe aspects of biology despite their simplicity. Finally, prospects of Boolean models in exploratory dynamical models for biological circuits and their mutants will be discussed.

  4. Parametrized Post-Newtonian Limit of Teleparallel Dark Energy Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jung-Tsung; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We study the post-Newtonian limit in the teleparallel equivalent of General Relativity with a scalar field which non-minimally couples to gravity. The metric perturbation is obtained from the vierbein field expansion with respect to the Minkowski background. Due to the structure of the teleparallel gravity Lagrangian, the potential of the scalar field shows no effect to the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters, and compatible results with Solar System observations are found.

  5. Model-experiment interaction to improve representation of phosphorus limitation in land models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R. J.; Yang, X.; Cabugao, K. G. M.; Childs, J.; Gu, L.; Haworth, I.; Mayes, M. A.; Porter, W. S.; Walker, A. P.; Weston, D. J.; Wright, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-nutrient interactions play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon cycle responses to atmospheric and climatic change. None of the CMIP5 models has included routines to represent the phosphorus (P) cycle, although P is commonly considered to be the most limiting nutrient in highly productive, lowland tropical forests. Model simulations with the Community Land Model (CLM-CNP) show that inclusion of P coupling leads to a smaller CO2 fertilization effect and warming-induced CO2 release from tropical ecosystems, but there are important uncertainties in the P model, and improvements are limited by a dearth of data. Sensitivity analysis identifies the relative importance of P cycle parameters in determining P availability and P limitation, and thereby helps to define the critical measurements to make in field campaigns and manipulative experiments. To improve estimates of P supply, parameters that describe maximum amount of labile P in soil and sorption-desorption processes are necessary for modeling the amount of P available for plant uptake. Biochemical mineralization is poorly constrained in the model and will be improved through field observations that link root traits to mycorrhizal activity, phosphatase activity, and root depth distribution. Model representation of P demand by vegetation, which currently is set by fixed stoichiometry and allometric constants, requires a different set of data. Accurate carbon cycle modeling requires accurate parameterization of the photosynthetic machinery: Vc,max and Jmax. Relationships between the photosynthesis parameters and foliar nutrient (N and P) content are being developed, and by including analysis of covariation with other plant traits (e.g., specific leaf area, wood density), we can provide a basis for more dynamic, trait-enabled modeling. With this strong guidance from model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, field studies are underway in Puerto Rico and Panama to collect model-relevant data on P

  6. LIMIT THEOREMS AND OPTIMAL DESIGN WITH ADAPTIVE URN MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guijing; ZHU Chunhua; WANG Yao-hung

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study urn model, using some available estimates of successes probabilities, and adding particle parameter, we establish adaptive models. We obtain some strong convergence theorems, rates of convergence, asymptotic normality of components in the urn, and estimates. With these asymptotical results, we show that the adaptive designs given in this paper are asymptotically optimal designs.

  7. Scaling limit of a discrete prion dynamics model

    CERN Document Server

    Doumic, Marie; Lepoutre, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the connection between discrete and continuous models describing prion proliferation. The scaling parameters are interpreted on biological grounds and we establish rigorous convergence statements. We also discuss, based on the asymptotic analysis, relevant boundary conditions that can be used to complete the continuous model.

  8. ASYMPTOTIC LIMITS OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS FOR PLASMAS AND SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the zero-electron-mass limit, the quasi-neutral limit and the zerorelaxation-time limit in one-dimensional hydrodynamic models of Euler-Poisson system for plasmas and semiconductors. For each limit in the steady-state models, the author proves the strong convergence of the sequence of solutions and gives the corresponding convergence rate. In the time-dependent models, the author shows some useful estimates for the quasi-neutral limit and the zero-electron-mass limit. This study completes the analysis made in [11,12,13,14,19].

  9. CheckMATE 2: From the model to the limit

    CERN Document Server

    Dercks, Daniel; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We present the latest developments to the CheckMATE program that allows models of new physics to be easily tested against the recent LHC data. To achieve this goal, the core of CheckMATE now contains over 60 LHC analyses of which 12 are from the 13 TeV run. The main new feature is that CheckMATE 2 now integrates the Monte Carlo event generation via Madgraph and Pythia 8. This allows users to go directly from a SLHA file or UFO model to the result of whether a model is allowed or not. In addition, the integration of the event generation leads to a significant increase in the speed of the program. Many other improvements have also been made, including the possibility to now combine signal regions to give a total likelihood for a model.

  10. Dynamical Widom-Rowlinson Model and Its Mesoscopic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelshtein, Dmitri; Kondratiev, Yuri; Kutoviy, Oleksandr; Oliveira, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    We consider the non-equilibrium dynamics for the Widom-Rowlinson model (without hard-core) in the continuum. The Lebowitz-Penrose-type scaling of the dynamics is studied and the system of the corresponding kinetic equations is derived. In the space-homogeneous case, the equilibrium points of this system are described. Their structure corresponds to the dynamical phase transition in the model. The bifurcation of the system is shown.

  11. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Escobar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches can fail to generate robust study designs, generating incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables, identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks.

  12. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Craft, Meggan E

    2016-01-01

    Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables), identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks.

  13. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Craft, Meggan E.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables), identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks. PMID:27547199

  14. Interaction of tide and salinity barrier: Limitation of numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai1

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of interaction of the tide and the salinity barrier in an estuarine area is usually accomplished vianumerical modeling, due to the speed and convenience of modern computers. However, numerical models provide littleinsight with respect to the fundamental physical mechanisms involved. In this study, it is found that all existing numericalmodels work satisfactorily when the barrier is located at some distance far from upstream and downstream boundary conditions.Results are considerably underestimate reality when the barrier is located near the downstream boundary, usually theriver mouth. Meanwhile, this analytical model provides satisfactory output for all scenarios. The main problem of thenumerical model is that the effects of barrier construction in creation of reflected tide are neglected when specifying thedownstream boundary conditions; the use of the boundary condition before construction of the barrier which are significantlydifferent from those after the barrier construction would result in an error outputs. Future numerical models shouldattempt to account for this deficiency; otherwise, using this analytical model is another choice.

  15. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  16. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonggang Xu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO(2 concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO(2 concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V(c,max (maximum carboxylation rate and J(max (maximum electron transport rate. A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO(2 concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the

  17. Potential and limitations of 1D modelling of urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Ole; Weesakul, Sutat; Apirumanekul, Chusit; Aroonnet, Surajate Boonya; Djordjević, Slobodan

    2004-12-01

    Urban flooding is an inevitable problem for many cities around the world. In the present paper, modelling approaches and principles for analyses of urban flooding are outlined. The paper shows how urban flooding can be simulated by one-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling incorporating the interaction between (i) the buried pipe system, (ii) the streets (with open channel flow) and (iii) the areas flooded with stagnant water. The modelling approach is generic in the sense that it handles both urban flooding with and without flood water entry into houses. In order to visualize flood extent and impact, the modelling results are presented in the form of flood inundation maps produced in GIS. In this paper, only flooding from local rainfall is considered together with the impact in terms of flood extent, flood depth and flood duration. Finally, the paper discusses the data requirement for verification of urban flood models together with an outline of a simple cost function for estimation of the cost of the flood damages.

  18. The smallest matrix black hole model in the classical limit

    CERN Document Server

    Berenstein, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the smallest non-trivial matrix model that can be considered to be a (toy) model of a black hole. The model consists of a pair of $2\\times 2$ traceless hermitian matrices with a commutator squared potential and an $SU(2)$ gauge symmetry, plus an $SO(2)$ rotation symmetry. We show that using the symmetries of the system, all but two of the variables can be separated. The two variables that remain display chaos and a transition from chaos to integrability when a parameter related to an $SO(2)$ angular momentum is tuned to a critical value. We compute the Lyapunov exponents near this transition and study the critical exponent of the Lyapunov exponents near the critical point. We compare this transition to extremal rotating black holes.

  19. Evidence, models, conservation programs and limits to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Walsh et al. (2012) emphasized the importance of obtaining evidence to assess the effects of management actions on state variables relevant to objectives of conservation programs. They focused on malleefowl Leipoa ocellata, ground-dwelling Australian megapodes listed as vulnerable. They noted that although fox Vulpes vulpes baiting is the main management action used in malleefowl conservation throughout southern Australia, evidence of the effectiveness of this action is limited and currently debated. Walsh et al. (2012) then used data from 64 sites monitored for malleefowl and foxes over 23 years to assess key functional relationships relevant to fox control as a conservation action for malleefowl. In one set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) focused on two relationships: fox baiting investment versus fox presence, and fox presence versus malleefowl population size and rate of population change. Results led to the counterintuitive conclusion that increases in investments in fox control produced slight decreases in malleefowl population size and growth. In a second set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) directly assessed the relationship between investment in fox baiting and malleefowl population size and rate of population change. This set of analyses showed no significant relationship between investment in fox population control and malleefowl population growth. Both sets of analyses benefited from the incorporation of key environmental covariates hypothesized to influence these management relationships. Walsh et al. (2012) concluded that "in most situations, malleefowl conservation did not effectively benefit from fox baiting at current levels of investment." In this commentary, I discuss the work of Walsh et al. (2012) using the conceptual framework of structured decision making (SDM). In doing so, I accept their analytic results and associated conclusions as accurate and discuss basic ideas about evidence, conservation and limits to management.

  20. Limitations of multimedia models for use in environmental decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, C C; Obenshain, K R; Regens, J L; Whipple, C G

    2001-09-01

    The United States currently is engaged in a complex, multi-billion dollar effort to cleanup a legacy of both privately- and federally-owned hazardous waste sites. Decisions regarding the best approach for remediation of these sites often are based on the analysis of potential risks to human health and the environment. A cornerstone of such analysis is the frequent use of computerized multimedia environmental transport models, to evaluate the large quantities of information necessary to understand the present and future implications of contamination at a site. One barrier to wide-spread use of this analytical procedure is the view that results obtained using computer models are highly dependent on user input, and therefore, subject to manipulation. It is widely recognized that for decisions to be both credible and implementable, the public must have confidence in both the scientific basis for judgments involved and the decision processes employed (NRC, 1983). Our purpose in this article is to overview the difficulties associated with application of multimedia models to real world problems and the contribution these models can make to technically sound estimates of exposure and risk.

  1. Model-Independent Simplified Limits on Resonances at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    In the earliest stages of evaluating new collider data, especially if a small excess may be present, it would be useful to have a method for comparing the data with entire classes of models, to get an immediate sense of which classes could conceivably be relevant. In this paper, we propose a method that applies when the new physics invoked to explain the excess corresponds to the production and decay of a single, relatively narrow, $s$-channel resonance. A simplifed model of the resonance allows us to convert an estimated signal cross section into model-independent bounds on the product of the branching ratios corresponding to production and decay. This quickly reveals whether a given class of models could possibly produce a signal of the required size at the LHC. Our work sets up a general framework, outlines how it operates for resonances with different numbers of production and decay modes, and analyzes cases of current experimental interest, including resonances decaying to dibosons, diphotons, dileptons,...

  2. Applicative limitations of sediment transport on predictive modeling in geomorphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIXiang; LIZhanbin

    2004-01-01

    Sources of uncertainty or error that arise in attempting to scale up the results of laboratory-scale sediment transport studies for predictive modeling of geomorphic systems include: (i) model imperfection, (ii) omission of important processes, (iii) lack of knowledge of initial conditions, (iv) sensitivity to initial conditions, (v) unresolved heterogeneity, (vi) occurrence of external forcing, and (vii) inapplicability of the factor of safety concept. Sources of uncertainty that are unimportant or that can be controlled at small scales and over short time scales become important in large-scale applications and over long time scales. Control and repeatability, hallmarks of laboratory-scale experiments, are usually lacking at the large scales characteristic of geomorphology. Heterogeneity is an important concomitant of size, and tends to make large systems unique. Uniqueness implies that prediction cannot be based upon first-principles quantitative modeling alone, but must be a function of system history as well. Periodic data collection, feedback, and model updating are essential where site-specific prediction is required.

  3. Limit Laws in Transaction-Level Asset Price Models

    CERN Document Server

    Aue, Alexander; Hurvich, Clifford M; Soulier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We consider pure-jump transaction-level models for asset prices in continuous time, driven by point processes. In a bivariate model that admits cointegration, we allow for time deformations to account for such effects as intraday seasonal patterns in volatility, and non-trading periods that may be different for the two assets. We also allow for asymmetries (leverage effects). We obtain the asymptotic distribution of the log-price process. We also obtain the asymptotic distribution of the ordinary least-squares estimator of the cointegrating parameter based on data sampled from an equally-spaced discretization of calendar time, in the case of weak fractional cointegration. For this same case, we obtain the asymptotic distribution for a tapered estimator under more

  4. The Limit Deposit Velocity model, a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedema Sape A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In slurry transport of settling slurries in Newtonian fluids, it is often stated that one should apply a line speed above a critical velocity, because blow this critical velocity there is the danger of plugging the line. There are many definitions and names for this critical velocity. It is referred to as the velocity where a bed starts sliding or the velocity above which there is no stationary bed or sliding bed. Others use the velocity where the hydraulic gradient is at a minimum, because of the minimum energy consumption. Most models from literature are one term one equation models, based on the idea that the critical velocity can be explained that way.

  5. Rodent models of diabetic nephropathy: their utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Kitada M; Ogura Y; Koya D

    2016-01-01

    Munehiro Kitada,1,2 Yoshio Ogura,2 Daisuke Koya1,2 1Division of Anticipatory Molecular Food Science and Technology, Medical Research Institute, 2Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, novel therapies for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy must be developed. Rodent models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases and test...

  6. MODEL CAR TRAFFIC ON SECTIONS OF ROADS WITH LIMITED VISIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Existing theoretical calculations speeds in areas of horizontal and vertical curves designed for the needs of construction and calculation of cars and can not be used for valuation. When calculating the value of the coefficient of friction velocity determined at full wheel lock that does not correspond to the actual conditions of braking stability conditions of the car within its lane. The article proposes to calculate the permissible vehicle speed for the sites of horizontal and vertical curves on forest roads from the requirement car stop within the zone of visibility without buckling considering assumptions: during braking movement remains manageable, the driver keeps the car in the outside lane; magnitude of the angular velocity of the steering wheel is small; fully utilized inhibitory properties least loaded wheel; cornering power coefficient of resistance of tires depends little on the change of loads on the bus; low rolling resistance. Studied are normal reactions to the vehicle wheels when braking, namely found that if the friction coefficient on the road for less than the calculated optimal braking, the restriction on the braking occurs danger of losing control of the car skidding due to the front wheels. If the coefficient of friction on the road more than the calculated optimal braking, the braking force limitation occurs for blocking the rear axle. When comparing full stopping distance with the existing area of visibility is determined permissible speed.

  7. Gene duplication models for directed networks with limits on growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Jakob; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-11-01

    Background: Duplication of genes is important for evolution of molecular networks. Many authors have therefore considered gene duplication as a driving force in shaping the topology of molecular networks. In particular it has been noted that growth via duplication would act as an implicit means of preferential attachment, and thereby provide the observed broad degree distributions of molecular networks. Results: We extend current models of gene duplication and rewiring by including directions and the fact that molecular networks are not a result of unidirectional growth. We introduce upstream sites and downstream shapes to quantify potential links during duplication and rewiring. We find that this in itself generates the observed scaling of transcription factors for genome sites in prokaryotes. The dynamical model can generate a scale-free degree distribution, p(k)\\propto 1/k^{\\gamma } , with exponent γ = 1 in the non-growing case, and with γ>1 when the network is growing. Conclusions: We find that duplication of genes followed by substantial recombination of upstream regions could generate features of genetic regulatory networks. Our steady state degree distribution is however too broad to be consistent with data, thereby suggesting that selective pruning acts as a main additional constraint on duplicated genes. Our analysis shows that gene duplication can only be a main cause for the observed broad degree distributions if there are also substantial recombinations between upstream regions of genes.

  8. Dental Care Coverage and Use: Modeling Limitations and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined why older US adults without dental care coverage and use would have lower use rates if offered coverage than do those who currently have coverage. Methods. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to estimate a multinomial logistic model to analyze the influence of personal characteristics in the grouping of older US adults into those with and those without dental care coverage and dental care use. Results. Compared with persons with no coverage and no dental care use, users of dental care with coverage were more likely to be younger, female, wealthier, college graduates, married, in excellent or very good health, and not missing all their permanent teeth. Conclusions. Providing dental care coverage to uninsured older US adults without use will not necessarily result in use rates similar to those with prior coverage and use. We have offered a model using modifiable factors that may help policy planners facilitate programs to increase dental care coverage uptake and use. PMID:24328635

  9. COUNTERCURRENT FLOW LIMITATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING FOR IMPROVED REACTOR SAFETY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen

    2008-09-26

    This project is investigating countercurrent flow and “flooding” phenomena in light water reactor systems to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. To better understand the occurrence of flooding in the surge line geometry of a PWR, two experimental programs were performed. In the first, a test facility with an acrylic test section provided visual data on flooding for air-water systems in large diameter tubes. This test section also allowed for development of techniques to form an annular liquid film along the inner surface of the “surge line” and other techniques which would be difficult to verify in an opaque test section. Based on experiences in the air-water testing and the improved understanding of flooding phenomena, two series of tests were conducted in a large-diameter, stainless steel test section. Air-water test results and steam-water test results were directly compared to note the effect of condensation. Results indicate that, as for smaller diameter tubes, the flooding phenomena is predominantly driven by the hydrodynamics. Tests with the test sections inclined were attempted but the annular film was easily disrupted. A theoretical model for steam venting from inclined tubes is proposed herein and validated against air-water data. Empirical correlations were proposed for air-water and steam-water data. Methods for developing analytical models of the air-water and steam-water systems are discussed, as is the applicability of the current data to the surge line conditions. This report documents the project results from July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008.

  10. Feedbacks, climate sensitivity, and the limits of linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugenstein, M.; Knutti, R.

    2015-12-01

    The term "feedback" is used ubiquitously in climate research, but implies varied meanings in different contexts. From a specific process that locally affects a quantity, to a formal framework that attempts to determine a global response to a forcing, researchers use this term to separate, simplify, and quantify parts of the complex Earth system. We combine large (>120 member) ensemble GCM and EMIC step forcing simulations over a broad range of forcing levels with a historical and educational perspective to organize existing ideas around feedbacks and linear forcing-feedback models. With a new method overcoming internal variability and initial condition problems we quantify the non-constancy of the climate feedback parameter. Our results suggest a strong state- and forcing-dependency of feedbacks, which is not considered appropriately in many studies. A non-constant feedback factor likely explains some of the differences in estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity from different methods and types of data. We discuss implications for the definition of the forcing term and its various adjustments. Clarifying the value and applicability of the linear forcing feedback framework and a better quantification of feedbacks on various timescales and spatial scales remains a high priority in order to better understand past and predict future changes in the climate system.

  11. Scaling limits of a model for selection at two scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shishi; Mattingly, Jonathan C.

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of a population undergoing selection is a central topic in evolutionary biology. This question is particularly intriguing in the case where selective forces act in opposing directions at two population scales. For example, a fast-replicating virus strain outcompetes slower-replicating strains at the within-host scale. However, if the fast-replicating strain causes host morbidity and is less frequently transmitted, it can be outcompeted by slower-replicating strains at the between-host scale. Here we consider a stochastic ball-and-urn process which models this type of phenomenon. We prove the weak convergence of this process under two natural scalings. The first scaling leads to a deterministic nonlinear integro-partial differential equation on the interval [0,1] with dependence on a single parameter, λ. We show that the fixed points of this differential equation are Beta distributions and that their stability depends on λ and the behavior of the initial data around 1. The second scaling leads to a measure-valued Fleming–Viot process, an infinite dimensional stochastic process that is frequently associated with a population genetics.

  12. Network model of human aging: Frailty limits and information measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Spencer G.; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of damage throughout a persons life. Individual health can be assessed by the Frailty Index (FI). The FI is calculated simply as the proportion f of accumulated age-related deficits relative to the total, leading to a theoretical maximum of f ≤1 . Observational studies have generally reported a much more stringent bound, with f ≤fmaxcomputationally accelerated network model that also allows us to tune the scale-free network exponent α . The network exponent α significantly affects the growth of mortality rates with age. However, we are only able to recover fmax by also introducing a deficit sensitivity parameter 1 -q , which is equivalent to a false-negative rate q . Our value of q =0.3 is comparable to finite sensitivities of age-related deficits with respect to mortality that are often reported in the literature. In light of nonzero q , we use mutual information I to provide a nonparametric measure of the predictive value of the FI with respect to individual mortality. We find that I is only modestly degraded by q topology of aging populations.

  13. Inverse limits and statistical properties for chaotic implicitly defined economic models

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailescu, Eugen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics and ergodic theory of certain economic models which are implicitly defined. We consider 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional overlapping generations models, a cash-in-advance model, heterogeneous markets and a cobweb model with adaptive adjustment. We consider the inverse limit spaces of certain chaotic invariant fractal sets and their metric, ergodic and stability properties. The inverse limits give the set of intertemporal perfect foresight equilibria for the economic problem considered. First we show that the inverse limits of these models are stable under perturbations. We prove that the inverse limits are expansive and have specification property. We then employ utility functions on inverse limits in our case. We give two ways to rank such utility functions. First, when perturbing certain dynamical systems, we rank utility functions in terms of their \\textit{average values} with respect to invariant probability measures on inverse limits, especially with respect to measures...

  14. Study of the N=∞ limit of quantized chiral models in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogielski, A. T.

    1982-05-01

    A systematic analysis of the N=∞ limit of quantized one-dimensional chiral models on the sphere SN and on the unitary group U(N) is presented. The theory of projective limits of probability spaces is used to investigate the N=∞ limit of Hilbert spaces, Hamiltonians, energy eigenstates, and correlation functions for both models. The results are as follows: Quantum mechanics of the SN model in the limit is isomorphic to that of a harmonic oscillator in infinite-dimensional Euclidean space. Although all N2 degrees of freedom are nontrivially involved in the matrix U(N) model and the situation is more complex here, its limit is essentially equivalent to the tensor product of an infinite-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the U(1) model. A separate analysis is devoted to the central sector of the U(N) model. In the case of the SU(N) group the U(1) factor is absent.

  15. Use of partition coefficients in flow-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D; Beard, Daniel A; Wu, Fan

    2012-08-01

    Permeability-limited two-subcompartment and flow-limited, well-stirred tank tissue compartment models are routinely used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling. Here, the permeability-limited two-subcompartment model is used to derive a general flow-limited case of a two-subcompartment model with the well-stirred tank being a specific case where tissue fractional blood volume approaches zero. The general flow-limited two-subcompartment model provides a clear distinction between two partition coefficients typically used in PBPK: a biophysical partition coefficient and a well-stirred partition coefficient. Case studies using diazepam and cotinine demonstrate that, when the well-stirred tank is used with a priori predicted biophysical partition coefficients, simulations overestimate or underestimate total organ drug concentration relative to flow-limited two-subcompartment model behavior in tissues with higher fractional blood volumes. However, whole-body simulations show predicted drug concentrations in plasma and lower fractional blood volume tissues are relatively unaffected. These findings point to the importance of accurately determining tissue fractional blood volume for flow-limited PBPK modeling. Simulations using biophysical and well-stirred partition coefficients optimized with flow-limited two-subcompartment and well-stirred models, respectively, lead to nearly identical fits to tissue drug distribution data. Therefore, results of whole-body PBPK modeling with diazepam and cotinine indicate both flow-limited models are appropriate PBPK tissue models as long as the correct partition coefficient is used: the biophysical partition coefficient is for use with two-subcompartment models and the well-stirred partition coefficient is for use with the well-stirred tank model.

  16. Calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling of fuel mixture lower flammability limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuman; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-02-15

    Heat loss can affect experimental flammability limits, and it becomes indispensable to quantify flammability limits when apparatus quenching effect becomes significant. In this research, the lower flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures are predicted using calculated flame temperature (CFT) modeling, which is based on the principle of energy conservation. Specifically, the hydrocarbon mixture lower flammability limit is quantitatively correlated to its final flame temperature at non-adiabatic conditions. The modeling predictions are compared with experimental observations to verify the validity of CFT modeling, and the minor deviations between them indicated that CFT modeling can represent experimental measurements very well. Moreover, the CFT modeling results and Le Chatelier's Law predictions are also compared, and the agreement between them indicates that CFT modeling provides a theoretical justification for the Le Chatelier's Law.

  17. The Hintermann-Merlini-Baxter-Wu and the infinite-coupling-limit Ashkin-Teller models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yuan, E-mail: huangy22@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Deng Youjin, E-mail: yjdeng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke, E-mail: jacobsen@lpt.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Salas, Jesus, E-mail: jsalas@math.uc3m.es [Grupo de Modelizacion, Simulacion Numerica y Matematica Industrial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Grupo de Teorias de Campos y Fisica Estadistica, Instituto Gregorio Millan, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Unidad asociada al IEM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-03-11

    We show how the Hintermann-Merlini-Baxter-Wu model (which is a generalization of the well-known Baxter-Wu model to a general Eulerian triangulation) can be mapped onto a particular infinite-coupling-limit of the Ashkin-Teller model. We work out some mappings among these models, also including the standard and mixed Ashkin-Teller models. Finally, we compute the phase diagram of the infinite-coupling-limit Ashkin-Teller model on the square, triangular, hexagonal, and kagome lattices.

  18. The Cu d-d excitation model: Studies of the insulating limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W. (Inst. f. Physik, Univ. Dortmund (Germany, F.R.) Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP (Germany, F.R.)); Shelankov, A.L. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP (Germany, F.R.) A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., Leningrad (USSR)); Zotos, X. (Inst. f. Theorie d. Kond. Materie, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-12-01

    In the Cu d-d excitation model the Jahn-Teller levels of Cu{sup ++} act as excitonic centers for the pairing of oxygen p holes. In this paper we survey studies of the model which have focussed first on superconductivity. In view of recent neutron data, the insulating limit is of specific interest. In this limit, the model describes cooperative Jahn-Teller systems as coupled systems of spin and orbital (pseudo-spin) degrees of freedom. (orig.).

  19. Psychosocial Predictors of Compliance with Speed Limits and Alcohol Limits by Spanish Drivers: Modeling Compliance of Traffic Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Bautista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To prevent dangerous driving behaviors, the Spanish government has implemented public policies focused primarily on increasing the harshness of sanctions for violations of traffic laws. However, empirical evidence has demonstrated that other factors, such as social norms and one’s own value system, have an impact on people’s motivation to obey the law. A telephone survey was administered to a random sample of 570 Spanish drivers in order to determine the role played by each of these factors in compliance with two of the most flouted traffic rules. Logistic regression of the data allowed for the construction of models and arrive at the following conclusions: (1 social influence exerted by the reference group is a determining factor in compliance with both traffic laws; (2 legitimacy factors play an important role in complying with alcohol limits; and (3 variables from the deterrence approach only influenced compliance with speed limits, and then only moderately. The results of the present study suggest a need for a review of current public policy approaches for the prevention of dangerous driving behaviors.

  20. Analytical models for well-mixed populations of cooperators and defectors under limiting resources

    CERN Document Server

    Requejo, Rubén J; 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.066112

    2012-01-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, agent-based models have pointed out that resource limitation may modify the original structure of the interactions and allow for the survival of unconditional cooperators in well-mixed populations. Here, we present analytical simplified versions of two types of agent-based models recently published: one in which the limiting resource constrains the ability of reproduction of individuals but not their survival, and a second one where the limiting resource is necessary for both reproduction and survival. One finds that the analytical models display, with a few differences, the same qualitative behavior of the more complex agent-based models. In addition, the analytical models allow us to expand the study and identify the dimensionless parameters governing the final fate of the system, such as coexistence of cooperators and defectors, or dominance of defectors or of ...

  1. Exact solution of a delay difference equation modeling traffic flow and their ultra-discrete limit

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuya, Keisuke; Kanai, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We consider a car-following model described by a delay difference equation and give its exact solutions that present propagation of a traffic jam. This model is a discrete-time version of the delayed optimal-velocity model; in the continuum limit, we recover the delay differential equation for this model and the exact solutions as well. We then work in the ultra-discrete limit, obtaining a delay cellular-automaton model, which successfully inherits the solutions. Also the dispersion relation ...

  2. Fatigue and Serviceability Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thons, S.; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the models for the structural performance of the loading and probabilistic characterization for the fatigue and the serviceability limit states for the support structure of offshore wind energy converters. These models and a sensitivity study are part of a risk based assessment...... al. ("Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Con-verters," ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.), the model basis for the assessment is completed. The process of establishing and analyzing such a model basis contributes to a detailed understanding of the deterministic...

  3. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, S.; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the model basis regarding the ultimate limit state consisting of structural, loading, and probabilistic models of the support structure of offshore wind energy converters together with a sensitivity study. The model basis is part of a risk based assessment and monitoring...

  4. THE MATHEMATIC MODEL OF POTENTIAL RELAXATION IN COULOSTATIC CONDITIONS FOR LIMITING DIFFUSION CURRENT CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Kapitonov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of coulostatic relaxation of the potential for solid metallic electrode was presented. The solution in the case of limiting diffusion current was obtained. On the basis of this model the technique of concentration measurements for heavy metal ions in diluted solutions was suggested. The model adequacy was proved by experimental data.

  5. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  6. Periodicity in a "Food-limited" Population Model with Toxicants and Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Fan; Ke Wang

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a continuation theorem based on Gaines and Mawhin's coincidence degree, we study the global existence of positive periodic solutions of a "food-limited" population model with toxicants and time delays. Some new results are obtained.

  7. Randall-Sundrum limit of f(R) brane-world models

    CERN Document Server

    Balcerzak, Adam

    2011-01-01

    By setting some special boundary conditions in the variational principle we obtain junction conditions for the five-dimensional $f(R)$ gravity which in the Einstein limit $f(R)\\rightarrow R$ transform into the standard Randall-Sundrum junction conditions. We apply these junction conditions to a particular model of a Friedmann universe on the brane and show explicitly that the limit gives the standard Randall-Sundrum model Friedmann equation.

  8. The scaling limit of the energy correlations in non integrable Ising models

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Mastropietro, Vieri

    2012-01-01

    We obtain an explicit expression for the multipoint energy correlations of a non solvable two-dimensional Ising models with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic interactions plus a weak finite range interaction of strength $\\lambda$, in a scaling limit in which we send the lattice spacing to zero and the temperature to the critical one. Our analysis is based on an exact mapping of the model into an interacting lattice fermionic theory, which generalizes the one originally used by Schultz, Mattis and Lieb for the nearest neighbor Ising model. The interacting model is then analyzed by a multiscale method first proposed by Pinson and Spencer. If the lattice spacing is finite, then the correlations cannot be computed in closed form: rather, they are expressed in terms of infinite, convergent, power series in $\\lambda$. In the scaling limit, these infinite expansions radically simplify and reduce to the limiting energy correlations of the integrable Ising model, up to a finite renormalization of the parameters. Explicit...

  9. Non relativistic limit of integrable QFT and Lieb-Liniger models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianello, Alvise; De Luca, Andrea; Mussardo, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study a suitable limit of integrable QFT with the aim to identify continuous non-relativistic integrable models with local interactions. This limit amounts to sending to infinity the speed of light c but simultaneously adjusting the coupling constant g of the quantum field theories in such a way to keep finite the energies of the various excitations. The QFT considered here are Toda field theories and the O(N) non-linear sigma model. In both cases the resulting non-relativistic integrable models consist only of Lieb-Liniger models, which are fully decoupled for the Toda theories while symmetrically coupled for the O(N) model. These examples provide explicit evidence of the universality and ubiquity of the Lieb-Liniger models and, at the same time, suggest that these models may exhaust the list of possible non-relativistic integrable theories of bosonic particles with local interactions.

  10. Strong Coupling Limits and Quantum Isomorphisms of the Gauged Thirring Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, R.; Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.

    We have studied the quantum equivalence in the respective strong coupling limits of the bidimensional gauged Thirring model with both Schwinger and Thirring models. It is achieved following a nonperturbative quantization of the gauged Thirring model into the path-integral approach. First, we have established the constraint structure via the Dirac's formalism for constrained systems and defined the correct vacuum-vacuum transition amplitude by using the Faddeev-Senjanovic method. Next, we have computed exactly the relevant Green's functions and shown the Ward-Takahashi identities. Afterwards, we have established the quantum isomorphisms between gauged Thirring model and both Schwinger and Thirring models by analyzing the respective Green's functions in the strong coupling limits, respectively. A special attention is necessary to establish the quantum isomorphism between the gauged Thirring model and the Thirring model.

  11. Non Relativistic Limit of Integrable QFT and Lieb-Liniger Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianello, Alvise; Mussardo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study a suitable limit of integrable QFT with the aim to identify non-relativistic integrable models with local interactions. This limit amounts to sending to infinity the speed of light c but simultaneously adjusting the coupling constant g of the quantum field theories in such a way to keep finite the energies of the various excitations. The QFT considered here are Toda Field Theories and the O(N) non-linear sigma model. In both cases the resulting non-relativistic integrable models consist only of Lieb-Liniger models, which are fully decoupled for the Toda theories while symmetrically coupled for the O(N) model. These examples provide explicit evidence of the universality and ubiquity of the Lieb-Liniger models and, at the same time, suggest that these models may exhaust the list of possible non-relativistic integrable theories of bosonic particles with local interactions.

  12. A Functional Central Limit Theorem for a Class of Urn Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal K Basak; Amites Dasgupta

    2005-11-01

    We construct an independent increments Gaussian process associated to a class of multicolor urn models. The construction uses random variables from the urn model which are different from the random variables for which central limit theorems are available in the two color case.

  13. A fungal growth model fitted to carbon-limited dynamics of Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeger, M.J.; Lamour, A.; Gilligan, C.A.; Otten, W.

    2008-01-01

    Here, a quasi-steady-state approximation was used to simplify a mathematical model for fungal growth in carbon-limiting systems, and this was fitted to growth dynamics of the soil-borne plant pathogen and saprotroph Rhizoctonia solani. The model identified a criterion for invasion into

  14. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Railsback; Bret Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers’ understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics...

  15. Baryons in the large N limit of the massive NJL2 model

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian; Thies, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Baryons in the massive Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1+1 dimensions (the massive chiral Gross-Neveu model) are studied in the limit of an infinite number of flavors. The baryon mass is evaluated for a wide range of bare fermion masses and filling fractions, combining analytical asymptotic expansions with a full numerical Hartree-Fock calculation.

  16. Present limitations of models for predicting chloride ingress into reinforced concrete structures Present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, L.O. [Lund Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Building Materials, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Models to predict chloride ingress are numerous but all of them have serious limitations that restrict the present use for long term predictions. An overview is given of the fundamental differences between various models, from those based on Fick's 2. with constant or time-dependent diffusion coefficients and surface chloride contents, to those based on chloride transport equations with or without a multi-species approach. The key advantages and limitations of each type of model are identified and the research needs are summarized and discussed. The three main limitations are shown to be (i) the lack of understanding the time-dependency of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficients, (ii) the lack of good long-term data, the chloride content increase with time close to the exposed surface and (iii) the difficulties in quantifying the boundary conditions for sophisticated ingress models. (author)

  17. Present limitations of models for predicting chloride ingress into reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L.-O.

    2006-11-01

    Models to predict chloride ingress are numerous but all of them have serious limitations that restrict the present use for long term predictions. An overview is given of the fundamental differences between various models, from those based on Fick's 2nd with constant or time-dependent diffusion coefficients and surface chloride contents, to those based on chloride transport equations with or without a multi-species approach. The key advantages and limitations of each type of model are identified and the research needs are summarized and discussed. The three main limitations are shown to be (i) the lack of understanding the time-dependency of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficients, (ii) the lack of good long-term data, the chloride content increase with time close to the exposed surface and (iii) the difficulties in quantifying the boundary conditions for sophisticated ingress models.

  18. Chaotic inflation limits for non-minimal models with a Starobinsky attractor

    CERN Document Server

    Mosk, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate inflationary attractor points by analyzing non-minimally coupled single field inflation models in two opposite limits; the `flat' limit in which the first derivative of the conformal factor is small and the `steep' limit, in which the first derivative of the conformal factor is large. We consider a subset of models that yield Starobinsky inflation in the steep conformal factor, strong coupling, limit and demonstrate that they result in chaotic inflation in the opposite flat, weak coupling, limit. The suppression of higher order powers of the inflaton field in the potential is shown to be related to the flatness condition on the conformal factor. We stress that the chaotic attractor behaviour in the weak coupling limit is of a different, less universal, character than the Starobinsky attractor. Agreement with the COBE normalisation cannot be obtained in both attractor limits at the same time and in the chaotic attractor limit the scale of inflation depends on the details of the conformal factor,...

  19. Point-coupling models from mesonic hyper massive limit and mean-field approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, O.; Dutra, M., E-mail: odilon@ita.br [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico da Aeronautica - CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Delfino, Antonio, E-mail: delfino@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Amaral, R.L.P.G. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-08-15

    t In this work, we show how nonlinear point coupling models, described by a Lagrangian density containing only terms up to fourth order in the fermion condensate ({Psi}-bar{Psi}), are derived from a modified meson exchange nonlinear Walecka model. We present two methods of derivation, namely the hyper massive meson limit within a functional integral approach and the mean-field approximation, in which equations of state at zero temperature of the nonlinear point-coupling models are directly obtained. (author)

  20. Continuum Limit of a Mesoscopic Model with Elasticity of Step Motion on Vicinal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    This work considers the rigorous derivation of continuum models of step motion starting from a mesoscopic Burton-Cabrera-Frank-type model following the Xiang's work (Xiang in SIAM J Appl Math 63(1):241-258, 2002). We prove that as the lattice parameter goes to zero, for a finite time interval, a modified discrete model converges to the strong solution of the limiting PDE with first-order convergence rate.

  1. On Limiting Behavior of Contaminant Transport Models in Coupled Surface and Groundwater Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Ervin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of work on models for coupling surface-water with groundwater flows which is at its core the Stokes-Darcy problem. The resulting (Stokes-Darcy fluid velocity is important because the flow transports contaminants. The analysis of models including the transport of contaminants has, however, focused on a quasi-static Stokes-Darcy model. Herein we consider the fully evolutionary system including contaminant transport and analyze its quasi-static limits.

  2. A study of Feshbach resonances and the unitary limit in a model of strongly correlated nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Mekjian, Aram Z

    2010-01-01

    A model of strongly interacting and correlated hadrons is developed. The interaction used contains a long range attraction and short range repulsive hard core. Using this interaction and various limiting situations of it, a study of the effect of bound states and Feshbach resonances is given. The limiting situations are a pure square well interaction, a delta-shell potential and a pure hard core potential. The limit of a pure hard core potential are compared with results for a spinless Bose and Fermi gas. The limit of many partial waves for a pure hard core interaction is also considered and result in expressions involving the hard core volume. This feature arises from a scaling relation similar to that for hard sphere scattering with diffractive corrections. The role of underlying isospin symmetries associated with the strong interaction of protons and neutrons in this two component model is investigated. Properties are studied with varying proton fraction. An analytic expression for the Beth Uhlenbeck conti...

  3. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  4. Central Limit Theorems for a Class of Irreducible Multicolor Urn Models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal K Basak; Amites Dasgupta

    2007-11-01

    We take a unified approach to central limit theorems for a class of irreducible multicolor urn models with constant replacement matrix. Depending on the eigenvalue, we consider appropriate linear combinations of the number of balls of different colors. Then under appropriate norming the multivariate distribution of the weak limits of these linear combinations is obtained and independence and dependence issues are investigated. Our approach consists of looking at the problem from the viewpoint of recursive equations.

  5. CONFIDENCE LOWER LIMITS FOR RESPONSE PROBABILITIES UNDER THE LOGISTIC RESPONSE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yubin; LI Guoying; YANG Jie

    2004-01-01

    The lower confidence limits for response probabilities based on binary response data under the logistic response model are considered by saddlepoint approach. The high order approximation to the conditional distribution of a statistic for an interested parameter and then the lower confidence limits of response probabilities are derived. A simulation comparing these lower confidence limits with those obtained from the asymptotic normality is conducted. The proposed approximation is applied to two real data sets. Numerical results show that the saddlepoint approximations are much more accurate than the asymptotic normality approximations, especially for the cases of small or moderate sample sizes.

  6. On the limit distribution of layer block spin variables in the mean spherical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Magdy E

    2004-01-12

    The limit distribution of the layer block spin variables of the mean spherical model under Neumann-Dirichlet boundary conditions is investigated in the presence of an inhomogeneous external field which changes sign at distance Lx (0{<=}x{<=}1) from the Neumann boundary. The behaviour of the equation of state is studied in different temperature and field regimes: high-temperature bulk limit, critical finite-size scaling regime, and low-temperature moderate-field regime. A new classes of critical behaviour for the characteristic function of the limit distributions are obtained and studied in the three different regimes.

  7. The Strengths and Limitations of Satellite Data for Evaluating Tropospheric Processes in Chemistry-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    There is now a wealth of satellite data products available with which to evaluate a model fs simulation of tropospheric composition and other model processes. All of these data products have their strengths and limitations that need to be considered for this purpose. For example, uncertainties are introduced into a data product when 1) converting a slant column to a vertical column and 2) estimating the amount of a total column of a trace gas (e.g., ozone, nitrogen dioxide) that resides in the troposphere. Oftentimes, these uncertainties are not well quantified and the satellite data products are not well evaluated against in situ observations. However, these limitations do not preclude us from using these data products to evaluate our model processes if we understand these strengths and limitations when developing diagnostics. I will show several examples of how satellite data products are being used to evaluate particular model processes with a focus on the strengths and limitations of these data products. In addition, I will introduce the goals of a newly formed team to address issues on the topic of "satellite data for improved model evaluation and process studies" that is established in support of the IGAC/SPARC Global Chemistry ]Climate Modeling and Evaluation Workshop.

  8. Modeling the performance limits of novel microcantilever heaters for volatile organic compound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Ifat; Koley, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    We present a theoretical model estimating the performance limits of novel AlGaN/GaN heterostructure based microcantilever heater sensors to perform advanced volatile organic compound (VOC) detection and mixture analysis. Operating without any specific surface functionalization or treatment; these devices utilize the strong surface polarization of AlGaN as well as the unique device geometries, to perform selective detection of analytes based on their latent heat of evaporation and molecular dipole moment over a wide concentration range. The presented model incorporates heat transfer, Joule heating, thermal expansion and evaporative heat loss mechanisms, to predict device behaviors such as temperature profiles and sensing performance limits under various steady-state and transient test conditions. In addition, the versatility of the proposed model enables us to successfully predict the capability of the device to perform mixture analysis, and provides guidelines to further optimize the device properties to achieve a limit of detection in sub-ppm concentration.

  9. Variable speed limit strategies’ analysis with cell transmission model on freeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubin; Cao, Danni

    2017-08-01

    Mainline freeway traffic flow control is one of the primary methods of traffic management, which can present the best network situation. In this paper, we integrate variable speed limit (VSL) strategy into the cell transmission model (CTM). Then the implementation of the integrated model on freeway traffic network is discussed. A novel optimal model of controlling freeway traffic flow is proposed for minimizing the total travelling time in the network. A solution algorithm is designed by using a simulation method. Considering the main purpose of the speed limit strategy is to control the mainstream flow, we compare the case where the VSL is used with the one without VSL. A simulation is implemented to show that the control strategy is efficient in describing system’s dynamic performance and the dynamic speed limit strategy significantly alleviates congestion.

  10. Execution model for limited ambiguity rules and its application to derived data update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I.M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Hull, R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McLeod, D. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A novel execution model for rule application in active databases is developed and applied to the problem of updating derived data in a database represented using a semantic, object-based database model. The execution model is based on the use of `limited ambiguity rules` (LARs), which permit disjunction in rule actions. The execution model essentially performs a breadth-first exploration of alternative extensions of a user-requested update. Given an object-based database scheme, both integrity constraints and specifications of derived classes and attributes are compiled into a family of limited ambiguity rules. A theoretical analysis shows that the approach is sound: the execution model returns all valid `completions` of a user-requested update, or terminates with an appropriate error notification. The complexity of the approach in connection with derived data update is considered. 42 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Capacity Prediction Model Based on Limited Priority Gap-Acceptance Theory at Multilane Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity is an important design parameter for roundabouts, and it is the premise of computing their delay and queue. Roundabout capacity has been studied for decades, and empirical regression model and gap-acceptance model are the two main methods to predict it. Based on gap-acceptance theory, by considering the effect of limited priority, especially the relationship between limited priority factor and critical gap, a modified model was built to predict the roundabout capacity. We then compare the results between Raff’s method and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method, and the MLE method was used to predict the critical gaps. Finally, the predicted capacities from different models were compared, with the observed capacity by field surveys, which verifies the performance of the proposed model.

  12. A Polycycle and Limit Cycles in a Non-Differentiable Predator-Prey Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Sáez; I Szántó

    2007-05-01

    For a non-differentiable predator-prey model, we establish conditions for the existence of a heteroclinic orbit which is part of one contractive polycycle and for some values of the parameters, we prove that the heteroclinic orbit is broken and generates a stable limit cycle. In addition, in the parameter space, we prove that there exists a curve such that the unique singularity in the realistic quadrant of the predator-prey model is a weak focus of order two and by Hopf bifurcations we can have at most two small amplitude limit cycles.

  13. Phase diagram and criticality of the random anisotropy model in the large-N limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhanna, Dominique; Tarjus, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    We revisit the thermodynamic behavior of the random-anisotropy O(N ) model by investigating its large-N limit. We focus on the system at zero temperature where the mean-field-like artifacts of the large-N limit are less severe. We analyze the connection between the description in terms of self-consistent Schwinger-Dyson equations and the functional renormalization group. We provide a unified description of the phase diagram and critical behavior of the model and clarify the nature of the possible "glassy" phases. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the finite-N and finite-temperature systems.

  14. Towards a double-scaling limit for tensor models: probing sub-dominant orders

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Wojciech; Ryan, James P

    2013-01-01

    The definition of a double-scaling limit represents an important goal in the development of tensor models. We take the first steps towards this goal by extracting and analysing the next-to-leading order contributions, in the 1/N expansion, for the IID tensor models. We show that the radius of convergence of the NLO series coincides with that of the leading order melonic sector. Meanwhile, the value of the susceptibility exponent at NLO is 3/2, signaling a departure from the leading order behaviour. Both pieces of information provide clues for a non-trivial double-scaling limit, for which we put forward some precise conjecture.

  15. The Peierls-Nabarro model as a limit of a Frenkel-Kontorova model

    CERN Document Server

    Fino, Ahmad; Monneau, Régis

    2010-01-01

    We study a generalization of the fully overdamped Frenkel-Kontorova model in dimension $n\\geq 1.$ This model describes the evolution of the position of each atom in a crystal, and is mathematically given by an infinite system of coupled first order ODEs. We prove that for a suitable rescaling of this model, the solution converges to the solution of a Peierls-Nabarro model, which is a coupled system of two PDEs (typically an elliptic PDE in a domain with an evolution PDE on the boundary of the domain). This passage from the discrete model to a continuous model is done in the framework of viscosity solutions.

  16. Analytical models for well-mixed populations of cooperators and defectors under limiting resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, R. J.; Camacho, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, agent-based models have pointed out that resource limitation may modify the original structure of the interactions and allow for the survival of unconditional cooperators in well-mixed populations. Here, we present analytical simplified versions of two types of agent-based models recently published: one in which the limiting resource constrains the ability of reproduction of individuals but not their survival, and a second one where the limiting resource is necessary for both reproduction and survival. One finds that the analytical models display, with a few differences, the same qualitative behavior of the more complex agent-based models. In addition, the analytical models allow us to expand the study and identify the dimensionless parameters governing the final fate of the system, such as coexistence of cooperators and defectors, or dominance of defectors or of cooperators. We provide a detailed analysis of the occurring phase transitions as these parameters are varied.

  17. The scaling limit of the energy correlations in non-integrable Ising models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Alessandro; Greenblatt, Rafael L.; Mastropietro, Vieri

    2012-09-01

    We obtain an explicit expression for the multipoint energy correlations of a non-solvable two-dimensional Ising models with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic interactions plus a weak finite range interaction of strength λ, in a scaling limit in which we send the lattice spacing to zero and the temperature to the critical one. Our analysis is based on an exact mapping of the model into an interacting lattice fermionic theory, which generalizes the one originally used by Schultz, Mattis, and Lieb for the nearest neighbor Ising model. The interacting model is then analyzed by a multiscale method first proposed by Pinson and Spencer. If the lattice spacing is finite, then the correlations cannot be computed in closed form: rather, they are expressed in terms of infinite, convergent, power series in λ. In the scaling limit, these infinite expansions radically simplify and reduce to the limiting energy correlations of the integrable Ising model, up to a finite renormalization of the parameters. Explicit bounds on the speed of convergence to the scaling limit are derived.

  18. Adiabatic limit in Abelian Higgs model with application to Seiberg-Witten equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we deal with the (2 + 1)-dimensional Higgs model governed by the Ginzburg-Landau Lagrangian. The static solutions of this model, called otherwise vortices, are described by the theorem of Taubes. This theorem gives, in particular, an explicit description of the moduli space of vortices (with respect to gauge transforms). However, much less is known about the moduli space of dynamical solutions. A description of slowly moving solutions may be given in terms of the adiabatic limit. In this limit the dynamical Ginzburg-Landau equations reduce to the adiabatic equation coinciding with the Euler equation for geodesics on the moduli space of vortices with respect to the Riemannian metric (called T-metric) determined by the kinetic energy of the model. A similar adiabatic limit procedure can be used to describe approximately solutions of the Seiberg-Witten equations on 4-dimensional symplectic manifolds. In this case the geodesics of T-metric are replaced by the pseudoholomorphic curves while the solutions of Seiberg-Witten equations reduce to the families of vortices defined in the normal planes to the limiting pseudoholomorphic curve. Such families should satisfy a nonlinear ∂-equation which can be considered as a complex analogue of the adiabatic equation. Respectively, the arising pseudoholomorphic curves may be considered as complex analogues of adiabatic geodesics in (2 + 1)-dimensional case. In this sense the Seiberg-Witten model may be treated as a (2 + 1)-dimensional analogue of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model2.

  19. Silicon solar cells reaching the efficiency limits: from simple to complex modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Piotr; Redorici, Lisa; Bozzola, Angelo; Andreani, Lucio Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Numerical modelling is pivotal in the development of high efficiency solar cells. In this contribution we present different approaches to model the solar cell performance: the diode equation, a generalization of the well-known Hovel model, and a complete device modelling. In all three approaches we implement a Lambertian light trapping, which is often considered as a benchmark for the optical design of solar cells. We quantify the range of parameters for which all three approaches give the same results, and highlight the advantages and limitations of different models. Using these methods we calculate the efficiency limits of single-junction crystalline silicon solar cells in a wide range of cell thickness. We find that silicon solar cells close to the efficiency limits operate in the high-injection (rather than in the low-injection) regime. In such a regime, surface recombination can have an unexpectedly large effect on cells with the absorber thickness lower than a few tens of microns. Finally, we calculate the limiting efficiency of tandem silicon-perovskite solar cells, and we determine the optimal thickness of the bottom silicon cell for different band gaps of the perovskite material.

  20. Limiting Approach to Generalized Gamma Bessel Model via Fractional Calculus and Its Applications in Various Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicy Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essentials of fractional calculus according to different approaches that can be useful for our applications in the theory of probability and stochastic processes are established. In addition to this, from this fractional integral, one can list out almost all of the extended densities for the pathway parameter q < 1 and q → 1. Here, we bring out the idea of thicker- or thinner-tailed models associated with a gamma-type distribution as a limiting case of the pathway operator. Applications of this extended gamma model in statistical mechanics, input-output models, solar spectral irradiance modeling, etc., are established.

  1. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    structure and the tripod structure are determined with a geometrically and materially nonlinear finite element analysis. The observed failure mechanisms are the basis for the definition of the ultimate limit state responses. A probabilistic model accounting for the uncertainties involved is derived...... on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. In combination with the developed structural and loading models, sensitivity analyses in regard to the responses are peiformed to enhance the understanding and to refine the developed models. To this end...... variables on the responses including nonlinearity the refinement of the model is performed on a quantitative basis....

  2. The limiting behavior of the estimated parameters in a misspecified random field regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Qin, Yu

    , as a consequence the random field model specification introduces non-stationarity and non-ergodicity in the misspecified model and it becomes non-trivial, relative to the existing literature, to establish the limiting behavior of the estimated parameters. The asymptotic results are obtained by applying some...... convenient new uniform convergence results that we propose. This theory may have applications beyond those presented here. Our results indicate that classical statistical inference techniques, in general, works very well for random field regression models in finite samples and that these models succesfully...

  3. Maxwell-Chern-Simons Models: Their Symmetries, Exact Solutions and Non-relativistic Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Niederle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS models in the (1 + 3-dimensional space-space are discussed and families of their exact solutions are found. In contrast to the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFE model [2] these systems are relativistically invariant and include the CFJ model as a particular sector.Using the InNonNu-Wigner contraction a Galilei-invariant non-relativistic limit of the systems is found, which makes possible to find a Galilean formulation of the CFJ model.

  4. Models of Genetic Drift as Limiting Forms of the Lotka-Volterra Competition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, George W. A.; McKane, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the Moran model and stochastic Lotka-Volterra competition (SLVC) model is explored via time scale separation arguments. For neutral systems the two are found to be equivalent at long times. For systems with selective pressure, their behavior differs. It is argued that the SLVC is preferable to the Moran model since in the SLVC population size is regulated by competition, rather than arbitrarily fixed as in the Moran model. As a consequence, ambiguities found in the Moran model associated with the introduction of more complex processes, such as selection, are avoided.

  5. Forming limits in the hole-flanging process by coupled and uncoupled damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, A.; Jégat, A.; Krichen, A.; Manach, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the limits of the hole-flanging process under different conditions. A 3D finite element model was developed to predict failure in hole-flanging process for sheet aluminium alloys. The Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) coupled damage model and the Bao-Wierzbicki (BW) uncoupled damage model were used. The parameters of both coupled and uncoupled models were identified by inverse analysis based on uniaxial tensile test. Experiments were conducted to analyse the types of failure that appear during the process. Numerical results were compared with experimental datas to check the validity of both models in predicting failure during the hole-flanging process. The comparative study showed that the GTN model predicts more accurately almost all types of failure while fracture occurrence can be only predicted by the BW model.

  6. User Guide for GoldSim Model to Calculate PA/CA Doses and Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-31

    A model to calculate doses for solid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and corresponding disposal limits has been developed using the GoldSim commercial software. The model implements the dose calculations documented in SRNL-STI-2015-00056, Rev. 0 “Dose Calculation Methodology and Data for Solid Waste Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) at the Savannah River Site”.

  7. Towards microbiological quality assurance in radiation sterilization processing: a limiting case model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, P.T. (Becton Dickinson and Co., Parasmus, NJ (USA)); Dwyer, J.; Fitch, F.R. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology); Dwyer, V.M. (York Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Halls, N.A. (Becton Dickinson and Co., Dun Laoghaire (Ireland)); Tallentire, A. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Pharmacy)

    1985-03-01

    A Limiting Case Model has been developed which describes the dependence on radiation dose of the proportion of items, in a population of items subjected to irradiation, which are contaminated by one or more organisms. This model is independent of the initial distribution of numbers of micro-organisms on items and represents a conservative approach to estimation of the proportions of non-sterile items in an irradiated population of items.

  8. Oxygen and/or glucose limitation in a chemostat culture of Candida utilis. Mathematical model identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwippel, J. [Inst. of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Votruba, J. [Inst. of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-08-01

    The glucose and/or dissolved oxygen limited continuous culture of yeast Candida utilis was studied. Six different mathematical models were designed to describe and analyze the experiments. The model considering the production of surface active compounds at autoanaerobic conditions and dissolved oxygen consumption for nongrowth associated exogeneous respiration yields the best fit. The results may be applied for aerobic waste water treatment plants, process analysis and simulation. (orig.)

  9. Existence of limit cycles in the Solow model with delayed-logistic population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carlo; Guerrini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the existence and stability analysis of limit cycles in a delayed mathematical model for the economy growth. Specifically the Solow model is further improved by inserting the time delay into the logistic population growth rate. Moreover, by choosing the time delay as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that the system loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs when time delay passes through critical values. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out for supporting the analytical results.

  10. The scaling limit of the energy correlations in non integrable Ising models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We obtain an explicit expression for the multipoint energy correlations of a non solvable two-dimensional Ising models with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic interactions plus a weak finite range interaction of strength $\\lambda$, in a scaling limit in which we send the lattice spacing to zero and the temperature to the critical one. Our analysis is based on an exact mapping of the model into an interacting lattice fermionic theory, which generalizes the one originally used by Schultz, Mattis an...

  11. The stability and gravitational Newtonian limit of a modified Randall-Sundrum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvizi, Shahrokh; Shahbazi, Mojtaba [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    For a modified Randall-Sundrum model (Jones et al. in Phys. Rev. D 88:025048, 2013), the graviton equations are derived and the mass spectrum found. The latter includes a massless graviton and a continuum mass with a gap. There is no negative mass-squared in the spectrum, so the model is stable. The gravitational Newtonian limit is obtained with an exponentially suppressed modification from the extra dimension. (orig.)

  12. Limits on the oscillation plus decay model using published MINOS neutrino and antineutrino data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Abner Leonel Gadelha; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Peres, Orlando Goulart [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The neutrino oscillation model is the theoretical model that explains the so called anomalous neutrino phenomena. Models such as neutrino decay and decoherence failed to explain the neutrino experimental results. Nevertheless, it was proposed that the oscillation model could be the dominant model with the possibility to add alternative models to it and determine limits for the parameters of the additional models. In this phenomenological work we considered the neutrino oscillation plus decay model and used the published data from the MINOS experiment. MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino experiment with two magnetized detectors (the Near Detector at Fermilab, 1 km from the target and depth of 225 meters of water equivalent (mwe), and the Far Detector at Soudan, MN, 735 km from the target and depth of 2100 mwe) exposed to the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam. We used recent results from neutrino and antineutrino configurations of the NuMI beam and fitted by a 2-flavor oscillation model - transition from ν{sub μ} (ν{sub -}bar{sub μ}) to ν{sub τ} (ν{sub -}bar{sub τ}). We show the best fit and allowed region found for neutrino and antineutrino data, reproducing the published results. We then combined the data and under the oscillation plus decay framework calculated 1D and 2D allowed regions to determine limits for the decay parameter. (author)

  13. Limitations of empirical sediment transport formulas for shallow water and their consequences for swash zone modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Pähtz, Thomas; He, Zhiguo; Cao, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric sediment concentrations computed by phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models are shown to exceed unity minus porosity (i.e. the maximal physically possible concentration value) by up to factor of $10^5$ when using standard expressions to compute the sediment transport rate. An ad hoc limit of sediment concentration is introduced as a means to evaluate consequences of exceeding physically realistic concentration by standard expressions. We find that implementation of this ad hoc limit strongly changes the quantitative and qualitative predictions of phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models, suggesting that existing swash predictions are unreliable. This is because standard expressions inappropriately consider or ignore the fact that the shallow swash water depth limits the storage capacity of transported sediment.

  14. Systematic model researches on the stability limits of the DVL series of float designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottorf, W.

    1949-01-01

    To determine the trim range in which a seaplane can take off without porpoising, stability tests were made of a Plexiglas model, composed of float, wing, and tailplane, which corresponded to a full-size research airplane. The model and full-size stability limits are in good agreement. After all structural parts pertaining to the air frame were removed gradually, the aerodynamic forces replaced by weight forces, and the moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity changed, no marked change of limits of the stable zone was noticeable. The latter, therefore, is for practical purposes affected only by hydrodynamic phenomena. The stability limits of the DVL family of floats were determined by a systematic investigation independent of any particular sea-plane design, thus a seaplane may be designed to give a run free from porpoising.

  15. Prediction of phenanthrene uptake by plants with a partition-limited model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lizhong; Gao, Yanzheng

    2004-10-01

    The performance of a partition-limited model on prediction of phenanthrene uptake by a wide variety of plant species was evaluated using a greenhouse study. The model predictions of root or shoot concentrations for tested plant species were all within an order of magnitude of the observed values. Modeled root concentrations appeared to be more accurate than modeled shoot concentrations. The differences of simulated and experimented concentrations of phenanthrene in roots and shoots of three representative plant species, including ryegrass, flowering Chinese cabbage, and three-colored amaranth, were less than 81% for roots and 103% for shoots. Results are promising in that the {alpha}{sub pt} values of the partition-limited model for root uptake of phenanthrene correlate well with root lipid contents. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation is also observed between root concentration factors (RCFs, defined as the ratio of contaminant concentrations in root and in soil on a dry weight basis) of phenanthrene and root lipid contents. Results from this study suggest that the partition-limited model may have potential applications for predicting the plant PAH concentration in contaminated sites.

  16. Determination of statistically based design limits associated with engineering models. (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, H.

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a usable reference of methods and procedures for the construction of both one-sided and two-sided ..gamma../P statistical tolerance limits for design application to both linear and nonlinear models in any number of variables.

  17. Decay constants in the heavy quark limit in models à la Bakamjian and Thomas

    CERN Document Server

    Morénas, V; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1998-01-01

    In quark models à la Bakamjian and Thomas, that yield covariance and Isgur-Wise scaling of form factors in the heavy quark limit, we compute the decay constants $f^{(n)}$ and $f^{(n)}_{1/2}$ of S-wave and P-wave mesons composed of heavy and light quarks. Heavy quark limit scaling $\\sqrt{M} f = Cst$ is obtained, and it is shown that this class of models satisfies the sum rules involving decay constants and Isgur-Wise functions recently formulated by us in the heavy quark limit of QCD. Moreover, the model also satisfies the selection rules of the type $f^{(n)}_{3/2} = 0$ that must hold in this limit. We discuss different Ansätze for the dynamics of the mass operator at rest. For non-relativistic kinetic energies ${p^2 \\over 2m}$ the decay constants are finite even if the potential $V(r)$ has a Coulomb part. For the relativistic form $\\sqrt{p^2 + m^2}$, the S-wave decay constants diverge if there is a Coulomb singularity. Using phenomenological models of the spectrum with relativistic kinetic energy and regula...

  18. Modeling of contact mechanics and friction limit surfaces for soft fingers in robotics, with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydas, N.; Kao, I.

    1999-09-01

    A new theory in contact mechanics for modeling of soft fingers is proposed to define the relationship between the normal force and the radius of contact for soft fingers by considering general soft-finger materials, including linearly and nonlinearly elastic materials. The results show that the radius of contact is proportional to the normal force raised to the power of {gamma}, which ranges from 0 to 1/3. This new theory subsumes the Hertzian contact model for linear elastic materials, where {gamma} = 1/3. Experiments are conducted to validate the theory using artificial soft fingers made of various materials such as rubber and silicone. Results for human fingers are also compared. This theory provides a basis for numerically constructing friction limit surfaces. The numerical friction limit surface can be approximated by an ellipse, with the major and minor axes as the maximum friction force and the maximum moment with respect to the normal axis of contact, respectively. Combining the results of the contact-mechanics model with the contact-pressure distribution, the normalized friction limit surface can be derived for anthropomorphic soft fingers. The results of the contact-mechanics model and the pressure distribution for soft fingers facilitate the construction of numerical friction limit surfaces, and will enable us to analyze and simulate contact behaviors of grasping and manipulation in robotics.

  19. 75 FR 8467 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (Operations) Limited Model ATP Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... (Operations) Limited Model ATP Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... tasks were introduced by Service Bulletin (SB) ATP-51-002 * * *. As it was determined that these... environmental inspections for the fuselage. These additional tasks were introduced by Service Bulletin (SB)...

  20. Supersymmetry and large-N limit in a zero-dimensional two-matrix model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, J.; Retamal, J.C.

    1989-05-25

    We study the zero-dimensional two-hermitean-matrix model, by using a new method to obtain the large-N limit of a quantum field-theory. This mehtod predicts a closed system of integral equations that gives the solution in a closed form.

  1. Pulses in the Zero-Spacing Limit of the GOY Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Jensen, M.H.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    (-constant sigma") when n --> infinity, where a is the golden mean. For finite momentum shell spacing, we argue that the pulses should accelerate, moving to infinity in a finite time. Finally, we show that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the GOY model approaches zero in this limit. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B...

  2. Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Robotic Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    partitions. SIAM Review, January 2010. Submitted Francesco Bullo (UCSB) Dynamic Vehicle Routing 16apr10 @ ARL 31 / 34 Gossip partitioning policy: sample...Control Conference, Hollywood, CA, October 2009 Francesco Bullo (UCSB) Dynamic Vehicle Routing 16apr10 @ ARL 32 / 34 Gossip partitioning policy: analysis...Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Robotic Networks: Models, Fundamental Limitations and Algorithms Francesco Bullo Center for Control, Dynamical Systems

  3. Effective Lagrangian of C PN -1 models in the large N limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The effective low energy Lagrangian of C PN -1 models in d <4 dimensions can be constructed in the large N limit by solving the saddle point equations in the presence of a constant field strength. The two-dimensional case is explicitly worked out, and possible applications are briefly discussed.

  4. Outlier treatment for improving parameter estimation of group contribution based models for upper flammability limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Flammability data is needed to assess the risk of fire and explosions. This study presents a new group contribution (GC) model to predict the upper flammability limit UFL oforganic chemicals. Furthermore, it provides a systematic method for outlier treatment inorder to improve the parameter...

  5. Driving the Model to Its Limit: Profile Likelihood Based Model Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Tim; Hass, Helge; Steiert, Bernhard; Vanlier, Joep; Engesser, Raphael; Raue, Andreas; Kipkeew, Friederike; Bock, Hans H; Kaschek, Daniel; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In systems biology, one of the major tasks is to tailor model complexity to information content of the data. A useful model should describe the data and produce well-determined parameter estimates and predictions. Too small of a model will not be able to describe the data whereas a model which is too large tends to overfit measurement errors and does not provide precise predictions. Typically, the model is modified and tuned to fit the data, which often results in an oversized model. To restore the balance between model complexity and available measurements, either new data has to be gathered or the model has to be reduced. In this manuscript, we present a data-based method for reducing non-linear models. The profile likelihood is utilised to assess parameter identifiability and designate likely candidates for reduction. Parameter dependencies are analysed along profiles, providing context-dependent suggestions for the type of reduction. We discriminate four distinct scenarios, each associated with a specific model reduction strategy. Iterating the presented procedure eventually results in an identifiable model, which is capable of generating precise and testable predictions. Source code for all toy examples is provided within the freely available, open-source modelling environment Data2Dynamics based on MATLAB available at http://www.data2dynamics.org/, as well as the R packages dMod/cOde available at https://github.com/dkaschek/. Moreover, the concept is generally applicable and can readily be used with any software capable of calculating the profile likelihood.

  6. A composite state method for ensemble data assimilation with multiple limited-area models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kretschmer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited-area models (LAMs allow high-resolution forecasts to be made for geographic regions of interest when resources are limited. Typically, boundary conditions for these models are provided through one-way boundary coupling from a coarser resolution global model. Here, data assimilation is considered in a situation in which a global model supplies boundary conditions to multiple LAMs. The data assimilation method presented combines information from all of the models to construct a single ‘composite state’, on which data assimilation is subsequently performed. The analysis composite state is then used to form the initial conditions of the global model and all of the LAMs for the next forecast cycle. The method is tested by using numerical experiments with simple, chaotic models. The results of the experiments show that there is a clear forecast benefit to allowing LAM states to influence one another during the analysis. In addition, adding LAM information at analysis time has a strong positive impact on global model forecast performance, even at points not covered by the LAMs.

  7. An experimental comparison of modelling techniques for speaker recognition under limited data condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayanna; S R Mahadeva Prasanna

    2009-10-01

    Most of the existing modelling techniques for the speaker recognition task make an implicit assumption of sufficient data for speaker modelling and hence may lead to poor modelling under limited data condition. The present work gives an experimental evaluation of the modelling techniques like Crisp Vector Quantization (CVQ), Fuzzy Vector Quantization (FVQ), Self-Organizing Map (SOM), Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) classifiers. An experimental evaluation of the most widely used Gaussian Mixture Model–Universal Background Model (GMM–UBM) is also made. The experimental knowledge is then used to select a subset of classifiers for obtaining the combined classifiers. It is proposed that the combined LVQ and GMM–UBM classifier provides relatively better performance compared to all the individual as well as combined classifiers.

  8. Prediction of monsoon rainfall with a nested grid mesoscale limited area model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Roy Bhowmik

    2003-12-01

    At the India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi, a 12-level limited area model with 100km horizontal resolution has been in use for weather forecasting. The present study uses this model together with a higher horizontal resolution (50 km) and vertical resolution (16-levels) model to examine the impact of increased resolution to simulate mesoscale features of rainfall during monsoon disturbances. The model was run for 22 days in the month of August 1997 and one week in September 1997 during three monsoon depressions and one cyclonic storm in the Bay of Bengal. The model results are compared with observations. The study shows that the model can capture mesoscale convective organization associated with monsoon depression.

  9. An Optimal Model Identification For Oscillatory Dynamics With a Stable Limit Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Protas, Bartosz; Morzynski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general parameter-free model identification technique for a broad class of problems characterized by oscillatory dynamics with a stable limit cycle using measurement data. The model is cast in the form of an autonomous descriptor system with an evolution equation for the dominant oscillation and with manifolds for the low- and high-frequency components. The descriptor system comprises the Landau equation, the mean-field model for a Hopf bifurcation, and more general Galerkin {models} of fluid flow as special cases. We {develop} and validate a variational data assimilation approach which allows us to identify the system by making assumptions only on the smoothness of the propagator. The proposed model identification technique is illustrated using transient vortex shedding in a wake flow as an example problem. It is demonstrated that this approach can be used to systematically refine existing models, so that they describe more accurately available data. The article is written for practitioners work...

  10. Limits of performance for the model reduction problem of hidden Markov models

    KAUST Repository

    Kotsalis, Georgios

    2015-12-15

    We introduce system theoretic notions of a Hankel operator, and Hankel norm for hidden Markov models. We show how the related Hankel singular values provide lower bounds on the norm of the difference between a hidden Markov model of order n and any lower order approximant of order n̂ < n.

  11. Limitations in paleomagnetic data and modelling techniques and their impact on Holocene geomagnetic field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panovska, S.; Korte, M.; Finlay, Chris;

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of geomagnetic field behaviour on timescales of centuries to millennia is necessary to understand the mechanisms that sustain the geodynamo and drive its evolution. As Holocene paleomagnetic and archeomagnetic data have become more abundant, strategies for regularized inversion...... of modern field data have been adapted to produce numerous timevarying global field models. We evaluate the effectiveness of several approaches to inversion and data handling, by assessing both global and regional properties of the resulting models. Global Holocene field models cannot resolve Southern...... hemisphere regional field variations without the use of sediments. A standard data set is used to construct multiple models using two different strategies for relative paleointensity calibration and declination orientation and a selection of starting models in the inversion procedure. When data uncertainties...

  12. Limiting statistics of the largest and smallest eigenvalues in the correlated Wishart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Tim; Kieburg, Mario; Guhr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The correlated Wishart model provides a standard tool for the analysis of correlations in a rich variety of systems. Although much is known for complex correlation matrices, the empirically much more important real case still poses substantial challenges. We put forward a new approach, which maps arbitrary statistical quantities, depending on invariants only, to invariant Hermitian matrix models. For completeness we also include the quaternion case and deal with all three cases in a unified way. As an important application, we study the statistics of the largest eigenvalue and its limiting distributions in the correlated Wishart model, because they help to estimate the behavior of large complex systems. We show that even for fully correlated Wishart ensembles, the Tracy-Widom distribution can be the limiting distribution of the largest as well as the smallest eigenvalue, provided that a certain scaling of the empirical eigenvalues holds.

  13. Stochastic models for structured populations scaling limits and long time behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Meleard, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, several probabilistic tools to study population dynamics are developed. The focus is on scaling limits of qualitatively different stochastic individual based models and the long time behavior of some classes of limiting processes. Structured population dynamics are modeled by measure-valued processes describing the individual behaviors and taking into account the demographic and mutational parameters, and possible interactions between individuals. Many quantitative parameters appear in these models and several relevant normalizations are considered, leading  to infinite-dimensional deterministic or stochastic large-population approximations. Biologically relevant questions are considered, such as extinction criteria, the effect of large birth events, the impact of  environmental catastrophes, the mutation-selection trade-off, recovery criteria in parasite infections, genealogical properties of a sample of individuals. These notes originated from a lecture series on Structured P...

  14. Effect of cross-section models on the validity of sterile neutrino mixing limits

    CERN Document Server

    Stowell, Patrick; Cartwright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic (CCQE) neutrino scattering is the signal channel for sterile neutrino oscillation experiments. Recent cross-section measurements have made it clear that the current understanding of this channel in the few-GeV region is incomplete, and several sophisticated theoretical models have been proposed to tackle this issue, although it is not clear which model best describes the global dataset. In this paper we argue that the current uncertainty surrounding CCQE cross-sections is a serious problem for experiments seeking to produce sterile neutrino limits. We perform a sterile neutrino analysis with published MINERvA data as an illustrative example. We highlight the need for caution in interpreting sterile neutrino limits given the context of incomplete cross-section model information.

  15. GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF INFINITE-U ASYMMETRIC HUBBARD MODEL: FALICOV-KIMBALL LIMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V.Stasyuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric Hubbard model is used in investigating the lattice gas of the moving particles of two types. The model is considered within the dynamical mean-field method. The effective single-site problem is formulated in terms of the auxiliary Fermi-field. To solve the problem an approximate analytical method based on the irreducible Green's function technique is used. This approach is tested on the Falicov-Kimball limit (when the mobility of ions of either type is infinitesimally small of the infinite-U case of the model considered. The dependence of chemical potentials on concentration is calculated using the one-particle Green's functions, and different approximations are compared with the exact results obtained thermodynamically. The densities of states of localized particles are obtained for different temperatures and particle concentrations. The phase transitions are investigated for the case of the Falicov-Kimball limit in different thermodynamic regimes.

  16. Inertia-less convectively-driven dynamo models in the limit of low Rossby number

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Tobias, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Compositional convection is thought to be an important energy source for magnetic field generation within planetary interiors. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, characterizing compositional convection is significantly larger than unity, suggesting that the inertial force may not be important on the small scales of convection. We develop asymptotic dynamo models for the case of small Rossby number and large Prandtl number in which inertia is absent on the convective scale. The relevant diffusivity parameter for this limit is the compositional Roberts number, $q = D/\\eta$, which is the ratio of compositional and magnetic diffusivities. Dynamo models are developed for both order one $q$ and the more geophysically relevant low $q$ limit. For both cases the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy densities, $M$, is asymptotically large and reflects the fact that Alfv\\'en waves have been filtered from the dynamics. Taken together with previous investigations of asymptotic dynamo models for $Pr=O(1)$, our results show that the ...

  17. Covariant quark model of form factors in the heavy mass limit

    OpenAIRE

    Yaouanc, A. Le; Oliver, L; Pène, O.; Raynal, J. -C.

    1995-01-01

    We show that quark models of current matrix-elements based on the Bakamjian-Thomas construction of relativistic states with a fixed number of particles, plus the additivity assumption, are covariant in the heavy-quark limit and satisfy the full set of heavy-quark symmetry relations discovered by Isgur and Wise. We find the lower bound of $\\rho^2$ in such models to be $3/4$ for ground state mesons, independently of any parameter. Another welcome property of these models is that in the infinite...

  18. A new group contribution-based model for estimation of lower flammability limit of pure compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad

    2009-10-30

    In the present study, a new method is presented for estimation of lower flammability limit (LFL) of pure compounds. This method is based on a combination of a group contribution method and neural networks. The parameters of the model are the occurrences of a new collection of 105 functional groups. Basing on these 105 functional groups, a feed forward neural network is presented to estimate the LFL of pure compounds. The average absolute deviation error obtained over 1057 pure compounds is 4.62%. Therefore, the model is an accurate model and can be used to predict the LFL of a wide range of pure compounds.

  19. Nonrelativistic limit of the abelianized ABJM model and the ADS/CMT correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arcos, Cristhiam; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu

    2016-05-01

    We consider the nonrelativistic limit of the abelian reduction of the massive ABJM model proposed in [1], obtaining a supersymmetric version of the Jackiw-Pi model. The system exhibits an mathcal{N}=2 Super-Schrödinger symmetry with the Jackiw-Pi vortices emerging as BPS solutions. We find that this (2 + 1)-dimensional abelian field theory is dual to a certain (3+1)-dimensional gravity theory that differs somewhat from previously considered abelian condensed matter stand-ins for the ABJM model. We close by commenting on progress in the top-down realization of the AdS/CMT correspondence in a critical string theory.

  20. Spread and Quote-Update Frequency of the Limit-Order Driven Sergei Maslov Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Tian; CHEN Guang

    2007-01-01

    @@ We perform numerical simulations of the limit-order driven Sergei Maslov (SM) model and investigate the probability distribution and autocorrelation function of the bid-ask spread S and the quote-update frequency U.For the probability distribution, the model successfully reproduces the power law decay of the spread and the exponential decay of the quote-update frequency. For the autocorrelation function, both the spread and the quote-update frequency of the model decay by a power law, which is consistent with the empirical study. We obtain the power law exponent 0.54 for the spread, which is in good agreement with the real financial market.

  1. Do the inaccuracies of climate models limit the possibility of a human control of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosetti, Renzo A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the conceptual framework for the regulation of rising global temperature is posed in terms of control systems theory. It is shown here that, for an optimal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, a closed-loop feedback control system based on climate models is necessary. Furthermore, the concept of the Internal Model Principle (IMP) is crucial in attaining the proposed limits of the temperature increase. This is due to the presence of inaccuracies in the existing climate models, and to a lack of knowledge.

  2. A model inter-comparison study to examine limiting factors in modelling Australian tropical savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Whitley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are one of the most dominant and complex terrestrial biomes that derives from a distinct vegetative surface comprised of co-dominant tree and grass populations. While these two vegetation types co-exist functionally, demographically they are not static, but are dynamically changing in response to environmental forces such as annual fire events and rainfall variability. Modelling savanna environments with the current generation of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs has presented many problems, particularly describing fire frequency and intensity, phenology, leaf biochemistry of C3 and C4 photosynthesis vegetation, and root water uptake. In order to better understand why TBMs perform so poorly in savannas, we conducted a model inter-comparison of 6 TBMs and assessed their performance at simulating latent energy (LE and gross primary productivity (GPP for five savanna sites along a rainfall gradient in northern Australia. Performance in predicting LE and GPP was measured using an empirical benchmarking system, which ranks models by their ability to utilise meteorological driving information to predict the fluxes. On average, the TBMs performed as well as a multi-linear regression of the fluxes against solar radiation, temperature and vapour pressure deficit, but were outperformed by a more complicated nonlinear response model that also included the leaf area index (LAI. This identified that the TBMs are not fully utilising their input information effectively in determining savanna LE and GPP, and highlights that savanna dynamics cannot be calibrated into models and that there are problems in underlying model processes. We identified key weaknesses in a model's ability to simulate savanna fluxes and their seasonal variation, related to the representation of vegetation by the models and root water uptake. We underline these weaknesses in terms of three critical areas for development. First, prescribed tree-rooting depths must be

  3. A model inter-comparison study to examine limiting factors in modelling Australian tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rhys; Beringer, Jason; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Abramowitz, Gab; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Duursma, Remko; Evans, Bradley; Haverd, Vanessa; Li, Longhui; Ryu, Youngryel; Smith, Benjamin; Wang, Ying-Ping; Williams, Mathew; Yu, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The savanna ecosystem is one of the most dominant and complex terrestrial biomes, deriving from a distinct vegetative surface comprised of co-dominant tree and grass populations. While these two vegetation types co-exist functionally, demographically they are not static but are dynamically changing in response to environmental forces such as annual fire events and rainfall variability. Modelling savanna environments with the current generation of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) has presented many problems, particularly describing fire frequency and intensity, phenology, leaf biochemistry of C3 and C4 photosynthesis vegetation, and root-water uptake. In order to better understand why TBMs perform so poorly in savannas, we conducted a model inter-comparison of six TBMs and assessed their performance at simulating latent energy (LE) and gross primary productivity (GPP) for five savanna sites along a rainfall gradient in northern Australia. Performance in predicting LE and GPP was measured using an empirical benchmarking system, which ranks models by their ability to utilise meteorological driving information to predict the fluxes. On average, the TBMs performed as well as a multi-linear regression of the fluxes against solar radiation, temperature and vapour pressure deficit but were outperformed by a more complicated nonlinear response model that also included the leaf area index (LAI). This identified that the TBMs are not fully utilising their input information effectively in determining savanna LE and GPP and highlights that savanna dynamics cannot be calibrated into models and that there are problems in underlying model processes. We identified key weaknesses in a model's ability to simulate savanna fluxes and their seasonal variation, related to the representation of vegetation by the models and root-water uptake. We underline these weaknesses in terms of three critical areas for development. First, prescribed tree-rooting depths must be deep enough

  4. Modeling the Non Linear Behavior of a Magnetic Fault Current Limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Wilson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fault Current Limiters are used in a wide array of applications from small circuit protection at low power levels to large scale high power applications which require superconductors and complex control circuitry. One advantage of  passive fault current limiters (FCL is the automatic behavior that is dependent on the intrinsic properties of the circuit elements rather than on a complex feedback control scheme making this approach attractive for low cost applications and also where reliability is critical. This paper describes the behavioral modeling of a passive Magnetic FCL and its potential application in practical circuits.

  5. A reduced-form model for level-1 limit order books

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    One popular approach to model the limit order books dynamics of the best bid and ask at level-1 is to use the reduced-form diffusion approximations. It is well known that the biggest contributing factor to the price movement is the imbalance of the best bid and ask. We investigate the data of the level-1 limit order books of a basket of stocks and study the numerical evidence of drift, correlation, volatility and their dependence on the imbalance. Based on the numerical discoveries, we develo...

  6. Precise limits from lepton flavour violating processes on the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity

    CERN Document Server

    del Águila, F; Jenkins, M D

    2009-01-01

    We recalculate the leading one-loop contributions to mu -> e gamma and mu -> eee in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. When all the Goldstone interactions are taken into account the result is ultraviolet finite. The present experimental limits on these processes require a somewhat heavy effective scale ~2.5 TeV, or the flavour alignment of the Yukawa couplings of light and heavy leptons at the ~10% level, or the splitting of heavy lepton masses to a similar precision. Present limits on tau decays set no bounds on the corresponding parameters involving the tau lepton.

  7. Stability of limit cycles in a pluripotent stem cell dynamics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adimy, Mostafa [Laboratoire de Mathematiques Appliquees UMR 5142, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' universite, 64000 Pau (France)] e-mail: mostafa.adimy@univ-pau.fr; Crauste, Fabien [Laboratoire de Mathematiques Appliquees UMR 5142, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' universite, 64000 Pau (France)] e-mail: fabien.crauste@univ-pau.fr; Halanay, Andrei [Department of Mathematics 1, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, RO-060042, Bucharest (Romania)] e-mail: halanay@vectron.mathem.pub.ro; Neamtu, Mihaela [Faculty of Economics, I.N. Pestalozzi 16, West University of Timisoara, RO-300115, Timisoara (Romania)] e-mail: mihaela.neamtu@fse.uvt.ro; Opris, Dumitru [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics, Bd. V. Parvan 4, West University of Timisoara, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania)] e-mail: opris@math.uvt.ro

    2006-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the stability of limit cycles of a nonlinear delay differential equation with a distributed delay. The equation arises from a model of population dynamics describing the evolution of a pluripotent stem cells population. We study the local asymptotic stability of the unique nontrivial equilibrium of the delay equation and we show that its stability can be lost through a Hopf bifurcation. We then investigate the stability of the limit cycles yielded by the bifurcation using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. We illustrate our results with some numerics.

  8. What numerical models can and cannot tell us: Limitations on inferences in computational geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Wiel, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Computer simulations and numerical experiments have become an increasingly important part of geomorphological investigation in the last decades. Process-based numerical models attempt to simulate real-world processes in a virtual environment which can be easily manipulated and studied. Conceptually, the experimental design of these simulation studies broadly falls in one of three categories: predictive modelling, explanatory modelling, and exploratory modelling. However, the epistemologies of these three modes of modelling are as of yet incomplete and not fully understood. Not only do the three modes of modelling have different underlying assumptions, they also have different criteria to establish validity and different limitations on the interpretations and inferences that can be made. These differences are usually only implicitly recognized, if at all, in computational geomorphology studies. This presentation provides an explicit, though not necessarily exhaustive, overview of the epistemological differences between the three modes of computational modelling, and of the limitations this imposes on what can and cannot be learned from simulation experiments.

  9. Continuous limit of a crowd motion and herding model: Analysis and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we study the continuum limit of a cellular automaton model used for simulating human crowds with herding behaviour. We derive a system of non-linear partial differential equations resembling the Keller-Segel model for chemotaxis, however with a non-monotone interaction. The latter has interesting consequences on the behaviour of the model\\'s solutions, which we highlight in its analysis. In particular we study the possibility of stationary states, the formation of clusters and explore their connection to congestion. We also introduce an efficient numerical simulation approach based on an appropriate hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method, which in particular allows flexible treatment of complicated geometries. Extensive numerical studies also provide a better understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of the herding model, in particular we examine trapping effects of crowds behind nonconvex obstacles. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  10. The limiting behavior of the estimated parameters in a misspecified random field regression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Qin, Yu

    convenient new uniform convergence results that we propose. This theory may have applications beyond those presented here. Our results indicate that classical statistical inference techniques, in general, works very well for random field regression models in finite samples and that these models succesfully......This paper examines the limiting properties of the estimated parameters in the random field regression model recently proposed by Hamilton (Econometrica, 2001). Though the model is parametric, it enjoys the flexibility of the nonparametric approach since it can approximate a large collection...... of nonlinear functions and it has the added advantage that there is no "curse of dimensionality."Contrary to existing literature on the asymptotic properties of the estimated parameters in random field models our results do not require that the explanatory variables are sampled on a grid. However...

  11. On the micro-to-macro limit for first-order traffic flow models on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Connections between microscopic follow-the-leader and macroscopic fluid-dynamics traffic flow models are already well understood in the case of vehicles moving on a single road. Analogous connections in the case of road networks are instead lacking. This is probably due to the fact that macroscopic traffic models on networks are in general ill-posed, since the conservation of the mass is not sufficient alone to characterize a unique solution at junctions. This ambiguity makes more difficult to find the right limit of the microscopic model, which, in turn, can be defined in different ways near the junctions. In this paper we show that a natural extension of the first-order follow-the-leader model on networks corresponds, as the number of vehicles tends to infinity, to the LWR-based multi-path model introduced in [Bretti et al., Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. S, 7 (2014)] and [Briani and Cristiani, Netw. Heterog. Media, 9 (2014)].

  12. Calculation of Forming Limits for Sheet Metal using an Enhanced Continuous Damage Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Trung; Kim, Dae-Young; Kim, Heon Young

    2011-08-01

    An enhanced continuous damage fracture model was introduced in this paper to calculate forming limits of sheet metal. The fracture model is a combination of a fracture criterion and a continuum damage constitutive law. A modified McClintock void growth fracture criterion was incorporated with a coupled damage-plasticity Gurson-type constitutive law. Also, by introducing a Lode angle dependent parameter to define the loading asymmetry condition, the shear effect was phenomenologically taken into account. The proposed fracture model was implemented using user-subroutines in commercial finite element software. The model was calibrated and correlated by the uniaxial tension, shear and notched specimens tests. Application of the fracture model for the LDH tests was discussed and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data.

  13. STOCHASTIC DISCRETE MODEL OF TWO-STAGE ISOLATION SYSTEM WITH RIGID LIMITERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hua; FENG Qi; SHEN Rong-ying; WANG Yu

    2006-01-01

    The possible intermittent impacts of a two-stage isolation system with rigid limiters have been investigated. The isolation system is under periodic external excitation disturbed by small stationary Gaussian white noise after shock. The maximal impact Then in the period after shock, the zero order approximate stochastic discrete model and the first order approximate stochastic model are developed. The real isolation system of an MTU diesel engine is used to evaluate the established model. After calculating of the numerical example, the effects of noise excitation on the isolation system are discussed.The results show that the property of the system is complicated due to intermittent impact. The difference between zero order model and the first order model may be great.The effect of small noise is obvious. The results may be expected useful to the naval designers.

  14. Modeling the viscosity of polydisperse suspensions: Improvements in prediction of limiting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwasame, Paul M.; Wagner, Norman J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2016-06-01

    The present study develops a fully consistent extension of the approach pioneered by Farris ["Prediction of the viscosity of multimodal suspensions from unimodal viscosity data," Trans. Soc. Rheol. 12, 281-301 (1968)] to describe the viscosity of polydisperse suspensions significantly improving upon our previous model [P. M. Mwasame, N. J. Wagner, and A. N. Beris, "Modeling the effects of polydispersity on the viscosity of noncolloidal hard sphere suspensions," J. Rheol. 60, 225-240 (2016)]. The new model captures the Farris limit of large size differences between consecutive particle size classes in a suspension. Moreover, the new model includes a further generalization that enables its application to real, complex suspensions that deviate from ideal non-colloidal suspension behavior. The capability of the new model to predict the viscosity of complex suspensions is illustrated by comparison against experimental data.

  15. A PREDICTING MODEL OF THE LIMITING FLUX FOR THE CHARGED SOLUTE IN ULTRAFILTRATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-liang; GUO Yan; PU Chun-sheng; LU Feng-ji

    2004-01-01

    In the process of ultrafiltration , the occur-rence of the limiting flux is elucidated with the formation of a cake(gel) layer on the membrane surface. Before cake formation, the pressure drop on the concentration polarization layer, as well as the permeate flux, increases with the applied pressure. The pressure drop on the concentration polarization layer, however, will no longer change with the applied pressure after the formation of the cake layer. The limiting flux will be obtained if the hydrodynamic conditions in the filtration channel are not affected by the cake layer. A mathematics model for predicting the limiting flux for the charged solute in ultrafiltration is developed. In this model, a repulsive electric force is taken into account in addition to convection and diffusion when the solute is carrying the same charge as the membrane material. A procedure to correlate the model with experimental ultrafiltration data is also present. The results show that a model in this paper is developed on a more realistic perception of the ultrafiltration system and the predicting data agrees well with experimental data.

  16. Surrogate POD models for building forming limit diagrams of parameterized sheet metal forming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M.; Le Quilliec, Guénhaël; Breitkopf, Piotr; Villon, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a surrogate POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) approach for building forming limit diagrams at minimum cost for parameterized sheet metal formed work-pieces. First, a Latin Hypercube Sampling is performed on the design parameter space. Then, at each design site, displacement fields are computed using the popular open-source finite element software Code_Aster. Then, the method of snapshots is used for POD mode determination. POD coefficients are interpolated using kriging. Furthermore, an error analysis of the surrogate POD model is performed on a validation set. It is shown that on the considered use case the accuracy of the surrogate POD model is excellent for the representation of finite element displacement fields. The validated surrogate POD model is then used to build forming limit diagrams (FLD) for any design parameter to assess the quality of stamped metal sheets. Using the surrogate POD model, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor is derived, then major and minor principal deformations are determined at Gauss points for each mesh element. Furthermore, a signed distance between the forming limit curve in rupture and the obtained cloud of points in the plane (ɛ2, ɛ1) is computed to assess the quality of the formed workpiece. The minimization of this signed distance allows determining the safest design for the chosen use case.

  17. Limit theorems in the imitative monomer-dimer mean-field model via Stein's method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2016-08-01

    We consider the imitative monomer-dimer model on the complete graph introduced in the work of Alberici et al. [J. Math. Phys. 55, 063301-1-063301-27 (2014)]. It was shown that this model is described by the monomer density and has a phase transition along certain coexistence curve, where the monomer and dimer phases coexist. More recently, it was understood [D. Alberici et al., Commun. Math. Phys. (published online, 2016)] that the monomer density exhibits the central limit theorem away from the coexistence curve and enjoys a non-normal limit theorem at criticality with normalized exponent 3/4. By reverting the model to a weighted Curie-Weiss model with hard core interaction, we establish the complete description of the fluctuation properties of the monomer density on the full parameter space via Stein's method of exchangeable pairs. Our approach recovers what were established in the work of Alberici et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. (published online, 2016)] and furthermore allows to obtain the conditional central limit theorems along the coexistence curve. In all these results, the Berry-Esseen inequalities for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance are given.

  18. Cellular replication limits in the Luria-Delbrück mutation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A.; Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L.

    2016-08-01

    Originally developed to elucidate the mechanisms of natural selection in bacteria, the Luria-Delbrück model assumed that cells are intrinsically capable of dividing an unlimited number of times. This assumption however, is not true for human somatic cells which undergo replicative senescence. Replicative senescence is thought to act as a mechanism to protect against cancer and the escape from it is a rate-limiting step in cancer progression. Here we introduce a Luria-Delbrück model that explicitly takes into account cellular replication limits in the wild type cell population and models the emergence of mutants that escape replicative senescence. We present results on the mean, variance, distribution, and asymptotic behavior of the mutant population in terms of three classical formulations of the problem. More broadly the paper introduces the concept of incorporating replicative limits as part of the Luria-Delbrück mutational framework. Guidelines to extend the theory to include other types of mutations and possible applications to the modeling of telomere crisis and fluctuation analysis are also discussed.

  19. Effects of Rate-Limited Mass Transfer on Modeling Vapor Intrusion with Aerobic Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Hou, Deyi; Lu, Chunhui; Spain, Jim C; Luo, Jian

    2016-09-06

    Most of the models for simulating vapor intrusion accept the local equilibrium assumption for multiphase concentration distributions, that is, concentrations in solid, liquid and vapor phases are in equilibrium. For simulating vapor transport with aerobic biodegradation controlled by counter-diffusion processes, the local equilibrium assumption combined with dual-Monod kinetics and biomass decay may yield near-instantaneous behavior at steady state. The present research investigates how predicted concentration profiles and fluxes change as interphase mass transfer resistances are increased for vapor intrusion with aerobic biodegradation. Our modeling results indicate that the attenuation coefficients for cases with and without mass transfer limitations can be significantly different by orders of magnitude. Rate-limited mass transfer may lead to larger overlaps of contaminant vapor and oxygen concentrations, which cannot be simulated by instantaneous reaction models with local equilibrium mass transfer. In addition, the contaminant flux with rate-limited mass transfer is much smaller than that with local equilibrium mass transfer, indicating that local equilibrium mass transfer assumption may significantly overestimate the biodegradation rate and capacity for mitigating vapor intrusion through the unsaturated zone. Our results indicate a strong research need for field tests to examine the validity of local equilibrium mass transfer, a widely accepted assumption in modeling vapor intrusion.

  20. A fully-online Neuro-Fuzzy model for flow forecasting in basins with limited data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mohammad; Chua, Lloyd Hock Chye; Quek, Chai; Qin, Xiaosheng

    2017-02-01

    Current state-of-the-art online neuro fuzzy models (NFMs) such as DENFIS (Dynamic Evolving Neural-Fuzzy Inference System) have been used for runoff forecasting. Online NFMs adopt a local learning approach and are able to adapt to changes continuously. The DENFIS model however requires upper/lower bound for normalization and also the number of rules increases monotonically. This requirement makes the model unsuitable for use in basins with limited data, since a priori data is required. In order to address this and other drawbacks of current online models, the Generic Self-Evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (GSETSK) is adopted in this study for forecast applications in basins with limited data. GSETSK is a fully-online NFM which updates its structure and parameters based on the most recent data. The model does not require the need for historical data and adopts clustering and rule pruning techniques to generate a compact and up-to-date rule-base. GSETSK was used in two forecast applications, rainfall-runoff (a catchment in Sweden) and river routing (Lower Mekong River) forecasts. Each of these two applications was studied under two scenarios: (i) there is no prior data, and (ii) only limited data is available (1 year for the Swedish catchment and 1 season for the Mekong River). For the Swedish Basin, GSETSK model results were compared to available results from a calibrated HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) model. For the Mekong River, GSETSK results were compared against the URBS (Unified River Basin Simulator) model. Both comparisons showed that results from GSETSK are comparable with the physically based models, which were calibrated with historical data. Thus, even though GSETSK was trained with a very limited dataset in comparison with HBV or URBS, similar results were achieved. Similarly, further comparisons between GSETSK with DENFIS and the RBF (Radial Basis Function) models highlighted further advantages of GSETSK as having a rule-base (compared to

  1. Improved limits on Standard Model Extension parameters and applications to axion dark matter searches

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Y V

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear many-body effects create new possibilities in tests of the fundamental symmetries of nature and searches for axion dark matter. We calculate the proton and neutron spin contributions for a wide range of nuclei of experimental interest. We reconsider experiments, which search for evidence of CPT- and Lorentz invariance-violating couplings, using a $^{3}$He/$^{129}$Xe comagnetometer and show that the $^{3}$He/$^{129}$Xe system is in fact particularly sensitive to proton interaction parameters. From existing data, we derive a limit on the Standard Model Extension (SME) parameter $|\\tilde{b}_{\\perp}^p| < 1.6 \\times 10^{-33}$ GeV, which improves on the world's previously most stringent limit by a factor of 35. We also extend previous analysis of nuclear anapole moment data for Cs to obtain new limits on several other SME parameters.

  2. Modelling Management Practices in Viticulture while Considering Resource Limitations: The Dhivine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Clouaire, Roger; Rellier, Jean-Pierre; Paré, Nakié; Voltz, Marc; Biarnès, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Many farming-system studies have investigated the design and evaluation of crop-management practices with respect to economic performance and reduction in environmental impacts. In contrast, little research has been devoted to analysing these practices in terms of matching the recurrent context-dependent demand for resources (labour in particular) with those available on the farm. This paper presents Dhivine, a simulation model of operational management of grape production at the vineyard scale. Particular attention focuses on representing a flexible plan, which organises activities temporally, the resources available to the vineyard manager and the process of scheduling and executing the activities. The model relies on a generic production-system ontology used in several agricultural production domains. The types of investigations that the model supports are briefly illustrated. The enhanced realism of the production-management situations simulated makes it possible to examine and understand properties of resource-constrained work-organisation strategies and possibilities for improving them.

  3. SITE-94. CAMEO: A model of mass-transport limited general corrosion of copper canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worgan, K.J.; Apted, M.J. [QuantiSci Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the technical basis for the CAMEO code, which models the general, uniform corrosion of a copper canister either by transport of corrodants to the canister, or by transport of corrosion products away from the canister. According to the current Swedish concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuels, extremely long containment times are achieved by thick (60-100 mm) copper canisters. Each canister is surrounded by a compacted bentonite buffer, located in a saturated, crystalline rock at a depth of around 500 m below ground level. Three diffusive transport-limited cases are identified for general, uniform corrosion of copper: General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of sulphide to the canister surface under reducing conditions; General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of oxygen to the canister surface under mildly oxidizing conditions; General corrosion rate-limited by diffusive mass-transport of copper chloride away from the canister surface under highly oxidizing conditions. The CAMEO code includes general corrosion models for each of the above three processes. CAMEO is based on the well-tested CALIBRE code previously developed as a finite-difference, mass-transfer analysis code for the SKI to evaluate long-term radionuclide release and transport in the near-field. A series of scoping calculations for the general, uniform corrosion of a reference copper canister are presented. 28 refs, 5 tabs, 6 figs.

  4. Stochastic Heat Equation Limit of a (2 + 1)d Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2017-03-01

    We determine a {q to 1} limit of the two-dimensional q-Whittaker driven particle system on the torus studied previously in Corwin and Toninelli (Electron. Commun. Probab. 21(44):1-12, 2016). This has an interpretation as a (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic interface growth model, which is believed to belong to the so-called anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. This limit falls into a general class of two-dimensional systems of driven linear SDEs which have stationary measures on gradients. Taking the number of particles to infinity we demonstrate Gaussian free field type fluctuations for the stationary measure. Considering the temporal evolution of the stationary measure, we determine that along characteristics, correlations are asymptotically given by those of the (2 + 1)-dimensional additive stochastic heat equation. This confirms (for this model) the prediction that the non-linearity for the anisotropic KPZ equation in (2 + 1)-dimension is irrelevant.

  5. Graviton propagator asymptotics and the classical limit of ELPR/FK spin foam models

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    We study the classical limit of ELPR/FK spin foam models by computing the large-distance asymptotics of the spin foam graviton propagator. This is done by analyzing the large-spin asymptotics of the boundary spin-network wavefunction which corresponds to a flat space. By using the stationary phase method we determine the wavefunction asymptotics, which then determines the large-distance asymptotics of the corresponding graviton propagator. We show that the graviton propagator behaves for large distances as the inverse distance to the fourth power, which implies that general relativity is not the classical limit of the ELPR/FK spin foam models. Our result is a direct consequence of the large-spin asymptotics of the ELPR/FK spin-foam vertex amplitude and we show that the vertex amplitude can be modified such that the new amplitude has the desired asymptotics.

  6. Growth dependence of conjugation explains limited plasmid invasion in biofilms: an individual‐based modelling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkey, Brian; Lardon, Laurent; Seoane, Jose Miguel;

    2011-01-01

    . By extending an individual‐based model of microbial growth and interactions to include the dynamics of plasmid carriage and transfer by individual cells, we were able to conduct in silico tests of this and other hypotheses on the dynamics of conjugal plasmid transfer in biofilms. For a generic model plasmid...... and scan speed) and spatial reach (EPS yield, conjugal pilus length) are more important for successful plasmid invasion than the recipients' growth rate or the probability of segregational loss. While this study identifies one factor that can limit plasmid invasion in biofilms, the new individual......Plasmid invasion in biofilms is often surprisingly limited in spite of the close contact of cells in a biofilm. We hypothesized that this poor plasmid spread into deeper biofilm layers is caused by a dependence of conjugation on the growth rate (relative to the maximum growth rate) of the donor...

  7. Stochastic Heat Equation Limit of a (2 + 1)d Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2016-07-01

    We determine a {q to 1} limit of the two-dimensional q-Whittaker driven particle system on the torus studied previously in Corwin and Toninelli (Electron. Commun. Probab. 21(44):1-12, 2016). This has an interpretation as a (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic interface growth model, which is believed to belong to the so-called anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. This limit falls into a general class of two-dimensional systems of driven linear SDEs which have stationary measures on gradients. Taking the number of particles to infinity we demonstrate Gaussian free field type fluctuations for the stationary measure. Considering the temporal evolution of the stationary measure, we determine that along characteristics, correlations are asymptotically given by those of the (2 + 1)-dimensional additive stochastic heat equation. This confirms (for this model) the prediction that the non-linearity for the anisotropic KPZ equation in (2 + 1)-dimension is irrelevant.

  8. Constraint algebra of general relativity from a formal continuum limit of canonical tensor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakura, Naoki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sato, Yuki [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics andMandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Wits 2050 (South Africa)

    2015-10-16

    Canonical tensor model (CTM for short below) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system in the canonical formalism. In the classical case, the constraints form a first-class constraint Poisson algebra with structures similar to that of the ADM formalism of general relativity, qualifying CTM as a possible discrete formalism for quantum gravity. In this paper, we show that, in a formal continuum limit, the constraint Poisson algebra of CTM with no cosmological constant exactly reproduces that of the ADM formalism. To this end, we obtain the expression of the metric tensor field in general relativity in terms of one of the dynamical rank-three tensors in CTM, and determine the correspondence between the constraints of CTM and those of the ADM formalism. On the other hand, the cosmological constant term of CTM seems to induce non-local dynamics, and is inconsistent with an assumption about locality of the continuum limit.

  9. Relaxation limit of a compressible gas-liquid model with well-reservoir interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Susanne; Evje, Steinar

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the relaxation limit of a two-phase compressible gas-liquid model which contains a pressure-dependent well-reservoir interaction term of the form q (P_r - P) where q>0 is the rate of the pressure-dependent influx/efflux of gas, P is the (unknown) wellbore pressure, and P_r is the (known) surrounding reservoir pressure. The model can be used to study gas-kick flow scenarios relevant for various wellbore operations. One extreme case is when the wellbore pressure P is largely dictated by the surrounding reservoir pressure P_r. Formally, this model is obtained by deriving the limiting system as the relaxation parameter q in the full model tends to infinity. The main purpose of this work is to understand to what extent this case can be represented by a well-defined mathematical model for a fixed global time T>0. Well-posedness of the full model has been obtained in Evje (SIAM J Math Anal 45(2):518-546, 2013). However, as the estimates for the full model are dependent on the relaxation parameter q, new estimates must be obtained for the equilibrium model to ensure existence of solutions. By means of appropriate a priori assumptions and some restrictions on the model parameters, necessary estimates (low order and higher order) are obtained. These estimates that depend on the global time T together with smallness assumptions on the initial data are then used to obtain existence of solutions in suitable Sobolev spaces.

  10. Weathering Pathways and Limitations in Biogeochemical Models: Application to Earth System Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Current biogeochemical box models for Phanerozoic climate are reviewed and reduced to a robust, modular system, allowing application to the Precambrian. It is shown that stabilisation of climate following a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth should take more than 10(7) years, due to long-term geological limitation of global weathering rates. The timescale matches the observed gaps between extreme glaciations at this time, suggesting that the late Neoproterozoic system was oscillating around a s...

  11. The limitations of the reverse-engineering approach to cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckl, Jay G

    2012-10-01

    Frost's critique reveals the limitations of the reverse-engineering approach to cognitive modeling--the style of psychological explanation in which a stipulated internal organization (in the form of a computational mechanism) explains a relatively narrow set of phenomena. An alternative is to view organization as both the explanation for some phenomena and a phenomenon to be explained. This move poses new and interesting theoretical challenges for theories of word reading.

  12. Matrix Model of Chern-Simons Matter Theories Beyond The Spherical Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    A general class of matrix models which arises as partition function in U(N) Chern-Simons matter theories on three sphere is investigated. Employing the standard technique of the 1/N expansion we solve the system beyond the planar limit. We confirm that the subleading correction in the free energy correctly reproduces the one obtained by expanding the past exact result in the case of pure Chern-Simons theory.

  13. Scaling Properties and Asymptotic Spectra of Finite Models of Phase Transitions as They Approach Macroscopic Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. J.; Turner, P. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    2004-11-01

    The asymptotic spectra and scaling properties of a mixed-symmetry Hamiltonian, which exhibits a second-order phase transition in its macroscopic limit, are examined for a system of N interacting bosons. A second interacting boson-model Hamiltonian, which exhibits a first-order phase transition, is also considered. The latter shows many parallel characteristics and some notable differences, leaving it open to question as to the nature of its asymptotic critical-point properties.

  14. Hopf Bifurcation of a Delayed Epidemic Model with Information Variable and Limited Medical Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijuan Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider SIR epidemic model in which population growth is subject to logistic growth in absence of disease. We get the condition for Hopf bifurcation of a delayed epidemic model with information variable and limited medical resources. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of an endemic equilibrium and a disease-free equilibrium is discussed. If the basic reproduction ratio ℛ01, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the endemic equilibrium E* of system is locally asymptotically stable. And we also have discussed the stability and direction of Hopf bifurcations. Numerical simulations are carried out to explain the mathematical conclusions.

  15. Important limitations in the modeling of activated sludge : biased calibration of the hydrolysis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insel, G.; Gul, Ö.K.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    ), provides the majority of the required experimental database. However, currently used procedures still involve a number of basic and practical problems. Model evaluation of the OUR data may generate a distorted image of the processes involved. Hydrolysis is the most important, yet the most vulnerable...... process as far as the experimental assessment of accurate kinetic parameters is concerned. This study intends to provide an overview of major experimental limitations in the modeling of activated sludge, with emphasis on the appropriate experimental design for the assessment of the hydrolysis rate....

  16. Numerical Modeling of Limiting Oxygen Index Apparatus for Film Type Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed three-dimensional numerical model is used to compute the flow pattern and the flame behavior of thin solid fuels in a rectangular column that resembles a standard Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI device. The model includes full Navier-Stokes equations for mixed buoyant-forced flow and finite rate combustion and pyrolysis reactions so that the sample LOI can be computed to study the effect of feeding flow rate, sample width and gravity levels. In addition to the above parameters, the sample location in the column and the column cross-sectional area are also investigated on their effect on the ambient air entrainment from the top.

  17. Mean Field Limit and Propagation of Chaos for a Pedestrian Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Göttlich, Simone; Yin, Qitao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a rigorous proof of the mean field limit for a pedestrian flow model in two dimensions is given by using a probabilistic method. The model under investigation is an interacting particle system coupled to the eikonal equation on the microscopic scale. For stochastic initial data, it is proved that the solution of the N-particle pedestrian flow system with properly chosen cut-off converges in the probability sense to the solution of the characteristics of the non-cut-off Vlasov equation. Furthermore, the result on propagation of chaos is also deduced in terms of bounded Lipschitz distance.

  18. Cold aqueous planetary geochemistry with FREZCHEM from modeling to the search for life at the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Giles M

    2007-01-01

    This book explicitly investigates issues of astrobiological relevance in the context of cold aqueous planetary geochemistry. At the core of the technical chapters is the FREZCHEM model, initially developed over many years by one of the authors to quantify aqueous electrolyte properties and chemical thermodynamics at subzero temperatures. FREZCHEM, of general relevance to biogeochemists and geochemical modelers, cold planetary scientists, physicochemists and chemical engineers, is subsequently applied to the exploration of biogeochemical applications to solar systems bodies in general, and to speculations about the limits for life in cold environments in particular.

  19. Kinetic exchange opinion model: solution in the single parameter map limit

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Krishanu Roy; Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2011-01-01

    We study a recently proposed kinetic exchange opinion model (Lallouache et. al., Phys. Rev E 82, 056112 (2010)) in the limit of a single parameter map. Although it does not include the essentially complex behavior of the multiagent version, it provides us with the insight regarding the choice of order parameter for the system as well as some of its other dynamical properties. We also study the generalized two-parameter version of the model, and provide the exact phase diagram. The universal behavior along this phase boundary in terms of the suitably defined order parameter is seen.

  20. Modelling Management Practices in Viticulture while Considering Resource Limitations: The Dhivine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Martin-Clouaire

    Full Text Available Many farming-system studies have investigated the design and evaluation of crop-management practices with respect to economic performance and reduction in environmental impacts. In contrast, little research has been devoted to analysing these practices in terms of matching the recurrent context-dependent demand for resources (labour in particular with those available on the farm. This paper presents Dhivine, a simulation model of operational management of grape production at the vineyard scale. Particular attention focuses on representing a flexible plan, which organises activities temporally, the resources available to the vineyard manager and the process of scheduling and executing the activities. The model relies on a generic production-system ontology used in several agricultural production domains. The types of investigations that the model supports are briefly illustrated. The enhanced realism of the production-management situations simulated makes it possible to examine and understand properties of resource-constrained work-organisation strategies and possibilities for improving them.

  1. Epithelial Cell Coculture Models for Studying Infectious Diseases: Benefits and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Duell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Countless in vitro cell culture models based on the use of epithelial cell types of single lineages have been characterized and have provided insight into the mechanisms of infection for various microbial pathogens. Diverse culture models based on disease-relevant mucosal epithelial cell types derived from gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and pulmonary organ systems have delineated many key host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral, parasitic, and bacterial disease pathogenesis. An alternative to single lineage epithelial cell monoculture, which offers more flexibility and can overcome some of the limitations of epithelial cell culture models based on only single cell types, is coculture of epithelial cells with other host cell types. Various coculture models have been described, which incorporate epithelial cell types in culture combination with a wide range of other cell types including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. This paper will summarize current models of epithelial cell coculture and will discuss the benefits and limitations of epithelial cell coculture for studying host-pathogen dynamics in infectious diseases.

  2. Forming limit prediction of powder forging process by the energy-based elastoplastic damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yang; Cheng, Jung-Ho; Huang, Cheng-Chao

    2004-06-01

    An energy-based elastoplastic damage model is developed and then applied to predict the deformation and fracture initiation in powder forging processes. The fracture mechanism is investigated by the newly proposed damage model, which is based on the plastic energy dissipation. The developed formulations are implemented into finite element program ABAQUS in order to simulate the complex loading conditions. The forming limits of sintered porous metals under various operational conditions are explored by comparing the relevant experiments with the finite element analyses. The sintered iron-powder preforms of various initial relative densities (RDs) and aspect ratios are compressed until crack initiates. The deformation level of the bulged billets at fracture stroke obtained from compressive fracture tests is utilized to validate the finite element model and then the forming limit diagrams are constructed with the validated model. This model is further verified by the gear blank forging. The fracture site and corresponding deformation level are predicted by the finite element simulations. Meanwhile, the gear forging experiment is performed on the sintered preforms. The predicted results agree well with the experimental observations.

  3. Bayesian inference on multiscale models for poisson intensity estimation: applications to photon-limited image denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Maragos, Petros; Papandreou, George

    2009-08-01

    We present an improved statistical model for analyzing Poisson processes, with applications to photon-limited imaging. We build on previous work, adopting a multiscale representation of the Poisson process in which the ratios of the underlying Poisson intensities (rates) in adjacent scales are modeled as mixtures of conjugate parametric distributions. Our main contributions include: 1) a rigorous and robust regularized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum-likelihood estimation of the rate-ratio density parameters directly from the noisy observed Poisson data (counts); 2) extension of the method to work under a multiscale hidden Markov tree model (HMT) which couples the mixture label assignments in consecutive scales, thus modeling interscale coefficient dependencies in the vicinity of image edges; 3) exploration of a 2-D recursive quad-tree image representation, involving Dirichlet-mixture rate-ratio densities, instead of the conventional separable binary-tree image representation involving beta-mixture rate-ratio densities; and 4) a novel multiscale image representation, which we term Poisson-Haar decomposition, that better models the image edge structure, thus yielding improved performance. Experimental results on standard images with artificially simulated Poisson noise and on real photon-limited images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  4. A Rigorous Sharp Interface Limit of a Diffuse Interface Model Related to Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Elisabetta; Scala, Riccardo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we study the rigorous sharp interface limit of a diffuse interface model related to the dynamics of tumor growth, when a parameter ɛ, representing the interface thickness between the tumorous and non-tumorous cells, tends to zero. More in particular, we analyze here a gradient-flow-type model arising from a modification of the recently introduced model for tumor growth dynamics in Hawkins-Daruud et al. (Int J Numer Math Biomed Eng 28:3-24, 2011) (cf. also Hilhorst et al. Math Models Methods Appl Sci 25:1011-1043, 2015). Exploiting the techniques related to both gradient flows and gamma convergence, we recover a condition on the interface Γ relating the chemical and double-well potentials, the mean curvature, and the normal velocity.

  5. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  6. Canard explosion of limit cycles in templator models of self-replication mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Templators are differential equation models for self-replicating chemical systems. Beutel and Peacock-López [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 125104 (2007)]10.1063/1.2716396 have numerically analyzed a model for a cross-catalytic self-replicating system and found two cases of canard explosion, that is......, a substantial change of amplitude of a limit cycle over a very short parameter interval. We show how the model can be reduced to a two-dimensional system and how canard theory for slow-fast equations can be applied to yield analytic information about the canard explosion. In particular, simple expressions...... for the parameter value where the canard explosion occurs are obtained. The connection to mixed-mode oscillations also observed in the model is briefly discussed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  7. The model of localized business community economic development under limited financial resources: computer model and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes now affect and are affected by most of organizations, different type resources, and the natural environment. One of the main restrictions initiated by these processes is the financial one: money turnover in global markets leads to its concentration in the certain financial centers, and local business communities suffer from the money lack. This work discusses the advantages of complementary currency introduction into a local economics. By the computer simulation with the engineered program model and the real economic experiment it was proved that the complementary currency does not compete with the traditional currency, furthermore, it acts in compliance with it, providing conditions for the sustainable business community development.

  8. Scrutinizing the alignment limit in two-Higgs-doublet models: mh=125 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Gunion, John F.; Haber, Howard E.; Jiang, Yun; Kraml, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    In the alignment limit of a multidoublet Higgs sector, one of the Higgs mass eigenstates aligns with the direction of the scalar field vacuum expectation values, and its couplings approach those of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson. We consider C P -conserving two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDMs) of Type I and Type II near the alignment limit in which the lighter of the two C P -even Higgs bosons, h , is the SM-like state observed at 125 GeV. In particular, we focus on the 2HDM parameter regime where the coupling of h to gauge bosons approaches that of the SM. We review the theoretical structure and analyze the phenomenological implications of the regime of the alignment limit without decoupling, in which the other Higgs scalar masses are not significantly larger than mh and thus do not decouple from the effective theory at the electroweak scale. For the numerical analysis, we perform scans of the 2HDM parameter space employing the software packages 2hdmc and lilith, taking into account all relevant pre-LHC constraints, the latest constraints from the measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs signal at the LHC, as well as the most recent limits coming from searches for heavy Higgs-like states. We contrast these results with the alignment limit achieved via the decoupling of heavier scalar states, where h is the only light Higgs scalar. Implications for Run 2 at the LHC, including expectations for observing the other scalar states, are also discussed.

  9. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2002-02-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  10. Using machine learning tools to model complex toxic interactions with limited sampling regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Matthew J; Moeller, Peter; Guillette, Louis J; Chapman, Robert W

    2013-03-19

    A major impediment to understanding the impact of environmental stress, including toxins and other pollutants, on organisms, is that organisms are rarely challenged by one or a few stressors in natural systems. Thus, linking laboratory experiments that are limited by practical considerations to a few stressors and a few levels of these stressors to real world conditions is constrained. In addition, while the existence of complex interactions among stressors can be identified by current statistical methods, these methods do not provide a means to construct mathematical models of these interactions. In this paper, we offer a two-step process by which complex interactions of stressors on biological systems can be modeled in an experimental design that is within the limits of practicality. We begin with the notion that environment conditions circumscribe an n-dimensional hyperspace within which biological processes or end points are embedded. We then randomly sample this hyperspace to establish experimental conditions that span the range of the relevant parameters and conduct the experiment(s) based upon these selected conditions. Models of the complex interactions of the parameters are then extracted using machine learning tools, specifically artificial neural networks. This approach can rapidly generate highly accurate models of biological responses to complex interactions among environmentally relevant toxins, identify critical subspaces where nonlinear responses exist, and provide an expedient means of designing traditional experiments to test the impact of complex mixtures on biological responses. Further, this can be accomplished with an astonishingly small sample size.

  11. Limited sampling strategy models for estimating the AUC of gliclazide in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Han; Wang, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Hui; He, Ying-Chun; Li, Lu-Jin; Sheng, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Juan; Zheng, Qing-Shan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to reduce the cost of required sampling for the estimation of the area under the gliclazide plasma concentration versus time curve within 60 h (AUC0-60t ). The limited sampling strategy (LSS) models were established and validated by the multiple regression model within 4 or fewer gliclazide concentration values. Absolute prediction error (APE), root of mean square error (RMSE) and visual prediction check were used as criterion. The results of Jack-Knife validation showed that 10 (25.0 %) of the 40 LSS based on the regression analysis were not within an APE of 15 % using one concentration-time point. 90.2, 91.5 and 92.4 % of the 40 LSS models were capable of prediction using 2, 3 and 4 points, respectively. Limited sampling strategies were developed and validated for estimating AUC0-60t of gliclazide. This study indicates that the implementation of an 80 mg dosage regimen enabled accurate predictions of AUC0-60t by the LSS model. This study shows that 12, 6, 4, 2 h after administration are the key sampling times. The combination of (12, 2 h), (12, 8, 2 h) or (12, 8, 4, 2 h) can be chosen as sampling hours for predicting AUC0-60t in practical application according to requirement.

  12. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  13. Modelling binaural processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking: limitations of current models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Masked thresholds were measured for a single test reflection, masked by the direct sound, as a function of the reflection delay. This was done for diotic as well as for dichotic stimulus presentations and all stimuli were presented via headphones. The input signal was a 200-ms long broadband noise....... The dichotic threshold decreased with increasing reflection delay indicating an increase in binaural detection performance with increasing reflection delay. Comparing the dichotic threshold to the corresponding diotic threshold, for delays below 7-10 ms, the dichotic threshold was found to be higher than...... the diotic threshold while it was lower than the diotic threshold for larger delays. Hence, the binaural system seems to deteriorate auditory detection performance for very early reflections and to enhance auditory detection performance for later reflections. Existing binaural (detection) models...

  14. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Rathore, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients.

  15. History, ethics, advantages and limitations of experimental models for hepatic ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Seok Ling; Gravante, Gianpiero; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Dennison, Ashley R

    2013-01-14

    Numerous techniques developed in medicine require careful evaluation to determine their indications, limitations and potential side effects prior to their clinical use. At present this generally involves the use of animal models which is undesirable from an ethical standpoint, requires complex and time-consuming authorization, and is very expensive. This process is exemplified in the development of hepatic ablation techniques, starting experiments on explanted livers and progressing to safety and efficacy studies in living animals prior to clinical studies. The two main approaches used are ex vivo isolated non-perfused liver models and in vivo animal models. Ex vivo non perfused models are less expensive, easier to obtain but not suitable to study the heat sink effect or experiments requiring several hours. In vivo animal models closely resemble clinical subjects but often are expensive and have small sample sizes due to ethical guidelines. Isolated perfused ex vivo liver models have been used to study drug toxicity, liver failure, organ transplantation and hepatic ablation and combine advantages of both previous models.

  16. Modelling of carbon erosion and re-deposition for the EAST movable limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hai; Ding, Rui; Chen, Junling; Sun, Jizhong

    2017-04-01

    The movable limiter at the mid-plane of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with carbon coatings on the surface was exposed to edge plasma to study the material erosion and re-deposition. After the experiments, the carbon erosion and re-deposition is modelled using the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO. The geometry of the movable limiter, 3D configuration of the plasma parameters and electromagnetic fields under both limiter and divertor configurations have been implemented into the code. In the simulations, the main uncertain parameters such as carbon concentration ρ c in the background plasma and cross-field transport coefficient D ⊥ in the vicinity of surface according to the ‘funneling model’, have been studied in comparison with experiments. The parameter ρ c mainly influences the net erosion and deposition profiles of the two sides of the movable limiter, while D ⊥ mostly changes the profiles on the top surface. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB107004 and 2013GB105003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11375010, 11675218 and 11005125), and the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion under contract No GZ769.

  17. Modelling of carbon erosion and re-deposition for the EAST movable limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, XIE; Rui, DING; Junling, CHEN; Jizhong, SUN

    2017-04-01

    The movable limiter at the mid-plane of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with carbon coatings on the surface was exposed to edge plasma to study the material erosion and re-deposition. After the experiments, the carbon erosion and re-deposition is modelled using the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO. The geometry of the movable limiter, 3D configuration of the plasma parameters and electromagnetic fields under both limiter and divertor configurations have been implemented into the code. In the simulations, the main uncertain parameters such as carbon concentration ρ c in the background plasma and cross-field transport coefficient D ⊥ in the vicinity of surface according to the ‘funneling model’, have been studied in comparison with experiments. The parameter ρ c mainly influences the net erosion and deposition profiles of the two sides of the movable limiter, while D ⊥ mostly changes the profiles on the top surface. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB107004 and 2013GB105003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11375010, 11675218 and 11005125), and the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion under contract No GZ769.

  18. Constraints on Short Gamma-Ray Burst Models with Optical Limits of GRB 050509b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, Jens; Sollerman, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Granot, J.; Klose, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Melinder, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Starling, R.; Thomsen, B.; Andersen, M.I.; Fynbo,; Jensen, B.L.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Castro-Ceron, J.M.; Jakobsson, P.; Levan, A.; Pedersen, K.; Rhoads, J.E.; Tanvir, N.R.; Watson, D.; /Bohr Inst. /Stockholm U. /IAA, Granada

    2005-06-15

    We have obtained deep optical images with the Very Large Telescope at ESO of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst, GRB 050509b. We observed in the V and R bands at epochs starting at {approx}2 days after the GRB trigger and lasting up to three weeks. We detect no variable objects inside the small Swift/XRT X-ray error circle down to 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes of V = 26.5 and R = 25.2. The X-ray error circle includes a giant elliptical galaxy at z = 0.225, which has been proposed as the likely host of this GRB. Our limits indicate that if the GRB originated at z = 0.225, any supernova-like event accompanying the GRB would have to be over 100 times fainter than normal Type Ia SNe or Type Ic hypernovae, 5 times fainter than the faintest known Ia or Ic SNe, and fainter than the faintest known Type II SNe. Moreover, we use the optical limits to constrain the energetics of the GRB outflow, and conclude that there was very little radioactive material produced during the GRB explosion. These limits strongly constrain progenitor models for this short GRB.

  19. Determining host metabolic limitations on viral replication via integrated modeling and experimental perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa W Birch

    Full Text Available Viral replication relies on host metabolic machinery and precursors to produce large numbers of progeny - often very rapidly. A fundamental example is the infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T7. The resource draw imposed by viral replication represents a significant and complex perturbation to the extensive and interconnected network of host metabolic pathways. To better understand this system, we have integrated a set of structured ordinary differential equations quantifying T7 replication and an E. coli flux balance analysis metabolic model. Further, we present here an integrated simulation algorithm enforcing mutual constraint by the models across the entire duration of phage replication. This method enables quantitative dynamic prediction of virion production given only specification of host nutritional environment, and predictions compare favorably to experimental measurements of phage replication in multiple environments. The level of detail of our computational predictions facilitates exploration of the dynamic changes in host metabolic fluxes that result from viral resource consumption, as well as analysis of the limiting processes dictating maximum viral progeny production. For example, although it is commonly assumed that viral infection dynamics are predominantly limited by the amount of protein synthesis machinery in the host, our results suggest that in many cases metabolic limitation is at least as strict. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of considering viral infections in the context of host metabolism.

  20. Applying Computerized-Scoring Models of Written Biological Explanations across Courses and Colleges: Prospects and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the prospects and limitations of using machine-learning software to score introductory biology students’ written explanations of evolutionary change. We investigated three research questions: 1) Do scoring models built using student responses at one university function effectively at another university? 2) How many human-scored student responses are needed to build scoring models suitable for cross-institutional application? 3) What factors limit computer-scoring efficacy, and how can these factors be mitigated? To answer these questions, two biology experts scored a corpus of 2556 short-answer explanations (from biology majors and nonmajors) at two universities for the presence or absence of five key concepts of evolution. Human- and computer-generated scores were compared using kappa agreement statistics. We found that machine-learning software was capable in most cases of accurately evaluating the degree of scientific sophistication in undergraduate majors’ and nonmajors’ written explanations of evolutionary change. In cases in which the software did not perform at the benchmark of “near-perfect” agreement (kappa > 0.80), we located the causes of poor performance and identified a series of strategies for their mitigation. Machine-learning software holds promise as an assessment tool for use in undergraduate biology education, but like most assessment tools, it is also characterized by limitations. PMID:22135372

  1. The limits of splitting: a framework to test model spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobligeois, F.; Andréassian, V.; Perrin, C.; Loumagne, C.

    2012-04-01

    When it comes to deciding of the necessary spatial representation of a catchment, hydrologists need to choose between spatially lumped and spatially distributed approaches. This decision is not trivial: on the one hand, lumped models have proved both efficient and robust over the years (moreover their relatively low number of parameters limits the numerical problems such as secondary optima, parameter interaction, poor sensitivity); on the other hand many hydrologists believe that distributed models could potentially have a greater ability to take into account the spatial heterogeneity of both rainfall and land surface. Few attempts have been made to test rigorously alternative distributed schemes (see the discussion of semi-lumped and semi-distributed alternatives in Andréassian et al. (2004)). The purpose of our work was to identify whether an optimum level of spatialisation exists: to investigate "the limits of splitting" (Beven, 1996). We propose a framework to evaluate the effect of the distribution over a large set of 181 French catchments, using a newly available high resolution rainfall product of Météo France, combining radar data and raingage measurements. Five grid sizes are studied, as catchments are splitted into 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 sub-catchments and streamflow simulation results are analysed in validation mode. For each type of basin, we study the trend of model efficiency with the number of sub-catchments. We find paradoxical results: while some catchments clearly benefit from the distribution, others show opposite trends. The large variability between basins underlines the necessity to have enough case studies to reach a robust conclusion. Andréassian, V. et al., 2004. Impact of spatial aggregation of inputs and parameters on the efficiency of rainfall-runoff models: a theoretical study using chimera watersheds. Water Resour. Res., 40(5): W05209, doi: 10.1029/2003WR002854. Beven, K., 1996. The limits of splitting: hydrology. The Science of the

  2. Application of Gauss's law space-charge limited emission model in iterative particle tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altsybeyev, V. V.; Ponomarev, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The particle tracking method with a so-called gun iteration for modeling the space charge is discussed in the following paper. We suggest to apply the emission model based on the Gauss's law for the calculation of the space charge limited current density distribution using considered method. Based on the presented emission model we have developed a numerical algorithm for this calculations. This approach allows us to perform accurate and low time consumpting numerical simulations for different vacuum sources with the curved emitting surfaces and also in the presence of additional physical effects such as bipolar flows and backscattered electrons. The results of the simulations of the cylindrical diode and diode with elliptical emitter with the use of axysimmetric coordinates are presented. The high efficiency and accuracy of the suggested approach are confirmed by the obtained results and comparisons with the analytical solutions.

  3. The implementation of a toroidal limiter model into the gyrokinetic code ELMFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leerink, S.; Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Nora, M. [Euratom-Tekes Association, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [Euratom-Tekes Association, VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Ogando, F. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    The ELMFIRE full nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation code has been developed for calculations of plasma evolution and dynamics of turbulence in tokamak geometry. The code is applicable for calculations of strong perturbations in particle distribution function, rapid transients and steep gradients in plasma. Benchmarking against experimental reflectometry data from the FT2 tokamak is being discussed and in this paper a model for comparison and studying poloidal velocity is presented. To make the ELMFIRE code suitable for scrape-off layer simulations a simplified toroidal limiter model has been implemented. The model is be discussed and first results are presented. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Final Progress Report on Model-Based Diagnosis of Soil Limitations to Forest Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    2004-08-30

    This project was undertaken in support of the forest industry to link modeling of nutrients and productivity with field research to identify methods for enhancing soil quality and forest productivity and for alleviating soil limitations to sustainable forest productivity. The project consisted of a series of related tasks, including (1) simulation of changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization, (2) development of spreadsheet modeling tools for soil nutrient availability and tree nutrient requirements, (3) additional modeling studies, and (4) evaluation of factors involved in the establishment and productivity of southern pine plantations in seasonally wet soils. This report also describes the two Web sites that were developed from the research to assist forest managers with nutrient management of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine plantations.

  5. Detecting gravitational decoherence with clocks: Limits on temporal resolution from a classical channel model of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Khosla, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    The notion of time is given a different footing in Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity, treated as a parameter in the former and being an observer dependent property in the later. From a operational point of view time is simply the correlation between a system and a clock, where an idealized clock can be modelled as a two level systems. We investigate the dynamics of clocks interacting gravitationally by treating the gravitational interaction as a classical information channel. In particular, we focus on the decoherence rates and temporal resolution of arrays of $N$ clocks showing how the minimum dephasing rate scales with $N$, and the spatial configuration. Furthermore, we consider the gravitational redshift between a clock and massive particle and show that a classical channel model of gravity predicts a finite dephasing rate from the non-local interaction. In our model we obtain a fundamental limitation in time accuracy that is intrinsic to each clock.

  6. Nonrelativistic limit of the abelianized ABJM model and the ADS/CMT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Arcos, Cristhiam; Nastase, Horatiu

    2015-01-01

    We consider the nonrelativistic limit of the abelian reduction of the massive ABJM model proposed in \\cite{Mohammed:2012gi}, obtaining a supersymmetric version of the Jackiw-Pi model. The system exhibits an ${\\cal N}=2$ Super-Schr\\"odinger symmetry with the Jackiw-Pi vortices emerging as BPS solutions. We find that this $(2+1)$-dimensional abelian field theory is dual to a certain (3+1)-dimensional gravity theory that differs somewhat from previously considered abelian condensed matter stand-ins for the ABJM model. We close by commenting on progress in the top-down realization of the AdS/CMT correspondence in a critical string theory.

  7. ABC of SV: Limited Information Likelihood Inference in Stochastic Volatility Jump-Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creel, Michael; Kristensen, Dennis

    We develop novel methods for estimation and filtering of continuous-time models with stochastic volatility and jumps using so-called Approximate Bayesian Computation which build likelihoods based on limited information. The proposed estimators and filters are computationally attractive relative...... to standard likelihood-based versions since they rely on low-dimensional auxiliary statistics and so avoid computation of high-dimensional integrals. Despite their computational simplicity, we find that estimators and filters perform well in practice and lead to precise estimates of model parameters...... stochastic volatility model for the dynamics of the S&P 500 equity index. We find evidence of the presence of a dynamic jump rate and in favor of a structural break in parameters at the time of the recent financial crisis. We find evidence that possible measurement error in log price is small and has little...

  8. Conditional Solvation Thermodynamics of Isoleucine in Model Peptides and the Limitations of the Group-Transfer Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Weber, Valéry; Pettitt, B. Montgomery; Asthagiri, D.

    2014-01-01

    The hydration thermodynamics of the amino acid X relative to the reference G (glycine) or the hydration thermodynamics of a small-molecule analog of the side chain of X is often used to model the contribution of X to protein stability and solution thermodynamics. We consider the reasons for successes and limitations of this approach by calculating and comparing the conditional excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of hydration of the isoleucine side chain in zwitterionic isoleucine, in ex...

  9. Climate mode simulation of North Atlantic polar lows in a limited area model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Matthias; von Storch, Hans; Bakan, Stephan

    2008-08-01

    Polar lows are not properly resolved in global re-analyses. In order to describe the year-to-year variability and decadal trends in the formation of such mesoscale storms, atmospheric limited area models, which post-process re-analysis data, may be an appropriate tool. In this study we demonstrate the merits and potential of this approach. A series of 3-week long ensemble simulations of weather situations over the NE Atlantic with a limited area model/regional climate model (CLM) are examined. The model was driven with NCEP-NCAR re-analyses at the lateral and lower boundaries. Additionally, the spectral nudging technique was used to enforce the large-scale circulation, as given by the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, on the simulation. The ensemble members differ by initial conditions taken from several consecutive days. In most of the cases, a polar low developed after a simulated time of about 2 weeks, that is, long after the initialization of the model calculations. The spectrally nudged version of the model is very insensitive to initial conditions. The observed polar lows were reproduced in all ensemble members. A reasonable correlation between the simulated polar low features and those derived from a satellite product (HOAPS-III) and operational high-resolution weather analyses (DWD) is found. The polar lows are considerably deepened compared to the driving NCEP-NCAR analysis, but the comparison with weather maps indicates some differences in detail. When CLM is run without the large-scale constraint of spectral nudging, considerable variability emerges across the different ensemble members and the observed polar low often does not emerge.

  10. Failure of intravenous metoprolol to limit acute myocardial infarct size in a nonreperfused porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K B; Hilwig, R W; Warner, A; Basnight, M; Ewy, G A

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness of intravenous beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in limiting infarct size when neither reperfusion nor collateral flow occurs is unknown. The effect of intravenous metoprolol on limiting myocardial infarct size was therefore examined in a nonreperfused porcine model. Closed-chest techniques were used to occlude the left anterior descending coronary artery, after which animals were randomized at 20 minutes to receive intravenous metoprolol, 0.75 mg/kg, or placebo. Infarct size examined at 5 hours with Evans blue and triphenyltetrazolium staining techniques was expressed as a percentage of total ventricular myocardium at ischemic risk. This percentage was not significantly different between the groups (84% +/- 5% with metoprolol vs 90% +/- 4% with placebo; p = 0.4). Myocardial infarct size was not significantly decreased at 5 hours by early administration of intravenous metoprolol when the infarct artery remained occluded and collateral flow was minimal.

  11. Critical behavior of supersymmetric O(N) models in the large-N limit

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Synatschke-Czerwonka, Franziska; Wipf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We derive a supersymmetric renormalization group (RG) equation for the scale-dependent superpotential of the supersymmetric O(N) model in three dimensions. For a supersymmetric optimized regulator function we solve the RG equation for the superpotential exactly in the large-N limit. The fixed-point solutions are classified by an exactly marginal coupling. In the weakly coupled regime there exists a unique fixed point solution, for intermediate couplings we find two separate fixed point solutions and in the strong coupling regime no globally defined fixed-point potentials exist. We determine the exact critical exponents both for the superpotential and the associated scalar potential. Finally we relate the high-temperature limit of the four-dimensional theory to the Wilson-Fisher fixed point of the purely scalar theory.

  12. Central Limit Theorems for Cavity and Local Fields of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    One of the remarkable applications of the cavity method is to prove the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) system of equations in the high temperature analysis of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model. This naturally leads us to the important study of the limit laws for cavity and local fields. The first quantitative results for both fields based on Stein's method were studied by Chatterjee. Although Stein's method provides us an efficient search for the limiting distributions, the nature of this method in some way restricts the exploration for optimal and general results. In this paper, our study based on Gaussian interpolation obtains the CLT for cavity fields. With the help of this result, we conclude the CLT for local fields. In both cases, better quantitative results are given.

  13. Increasingly, Data Availability Limits Model Predictive Capacity: the Western Lake Erie Basin, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, K. D.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Norfleet, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent algal blooms in Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) have renewed scientific community's interest in developing process based models to better understand and predict the drivers of eutrophic conditions in the lake. At the same time, in order to prevent future blooms, farmers, local communities and policy makers are interested in developing spatially explicit nutrient and sediment management plans at various scales, from field to watershed. These interests have fueled several modeling exercises intended to locate "hotspots" in the basin where targeted adoption of additional agricultural conservation practices could provide the most benefit to water quality. The models have also been used to simulate various scenarios representing potential agricultural solutions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and its sister model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX), have been used to simulate hydrology of interacting land uses in thousands of scientific studies around the world. High performance computing allows SWAT and APEX users to continue to improve and refine the model specificity to make predictions at small-spatial scales. Consequently, data inputs and calibration/validation data are now becoming the limiting factor to model performance. Water quality data for the tributaries and rivers that flow through WLEB is spatially and temporally limited. Land management data, including conservation practice and nutrient management data, are not publicly available at fine spatial and temporal scales. Here we show the data uncertainties associated with modeling WLEB croplands at a relatively large spatial scale (HUC-4) using site management data from over 1,000 farms collected by the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The error associated with downscaling this data to the HUC-8 and HUC-12 scale is shown. Simulations of spatially explicit dynamics can be very informative, but care must be taken when policy decisions are made based on models

  14. Limit of hanger linearity in suspension footbridge dynamics: A new section model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Luca; Venuti, Fiammetta; Scotti, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The mechanical behaviour of suspension bridges is characterised by nonlinearities due to the main cables geometric effects and to the inability of the hangers to sustain compressive loads. The nonlinear effects due to hanger slackening are expected to increase in suspension footbridges due to lightweight decks, that is, low dead to live load ratio, and to shallow plate-girder decks with very low flexural and torsional stiffness. In this paper a new section model is proposed to study the limit of hanger linearity in lightweight suspension footbridges. The model is inspired to a four degrees-of-freedom model already proposed in the literature, but is expressed with a new formalism that allows some interesting properties to be outlined. Specifically, the expression of a particular frequency, herein called relative antiresonance frequency, as a function of the model generalised properties is derived: if the system is loaded with a harmonic force having that frequency, the linear behaviour of the hangers is assured for every value of the force amplitude. The proposed section model is applied to a footbridge benchmark subject to the pedestrian harmonic load and results are compared with those obtained through a nonlinear dynamic analysis on a 3D Finite Element model of the bridge.

  15. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekanova M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets

  16. Study of the critical behavior of the driven lattice gas model with limited nonequilibrium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Gustavo P.; Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Bab, Marisa A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the nonequilibrium critical behavior is investigated using a variant of the well-known two-dimensional driven lattice gas (DLG) model, called modified driven lattice gas (MDLG). In this model, the application of the external field is regulated by a parameter p ɛ [ 0 , 1 ] in such a way that if p = 0, the field is not applied, and it becomes the Ising model, while if p = 1, the DLG model is recovered. The behavior of the model is investigated for several values of p by studying the dynamic evolution of the system within the short-time regime in the neighborhood of a phase transition. It is found that the system experiences second-order phase transitions in all the interval of p for the density of particles ρ = 0.5. The determined critical temperatures Tc(p) are greater than the critical temperature of the Ising model TcI, and increase with p up to the critical temperature of the DLG model in the limit of infinite driving fields. The dependence of Tc(p) on p is compatible with a power-law behavior whose exponent is ψ = 0.27(3) . Furthermore, the complete set of the critical and the anisotropic exponents is estimated. For the smallest value of p, the ​dynamics and β exponents are close to that calculated for the Ising model, and the anisotropic exponent Δ is near zero. As p is increased, the exponents and Δ change, meaning that the anisotropy effects increase. For the largest value investigated, the set of exponents approaches to that reported by the most recent theoretical framework developed for the DLG model.

  17. Analysis of enamel development using murine model systems: approaches and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Megan K.; Gibson, Carolyn W.

    2014-01-01

    A primary goal of enamel research is to understand and potentially treat or prevent enamel defects related to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Rodents are ideal models to assist our understanding of how enamel is formed because they are easily genetically modified, and their continuously erupting incisors display all stages of enamel development and mineralization. While numerous methods have been developed to generate and analyze genetically modified rodent enamel, it is crucial to understand the limitations and challenges associated with these methods in order to draw appropriate conclusions that can be applied translationally, to AI patient care. We have highlighted methods involved in generating and analyzing rodent enamel and potential approaches to overcoming limitations of these methods: (1) generating transgenic, knockout, and knockin mouse models, and (2) analyzing rodent enamel mineral density and functional properties (structure and mechanics) of mature enamel. There is a need for a standardized workflow to analyze enamel phenotypes in rodent models so that investigators can compare data from different studies. These methods include analyses of gene and protein expression, developing enamel histology, enamel pigment, degree of mineralization, enamel structure, and mechanical properties. Standardization of these methods with regard to stage of enamel development and sample preparation is crucial, and ideally investigators can use correlative and complementary techniques with the understanding that developing mouse enamel is dynamic and complex. PMID:25278900

  18. New Limits on an Intermediate Mass Black Hole in Omega Centauri: II. Dynamical Models

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Roeland P

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed dynamical analysis of the projected density and kinematical data available for the globular cluster Omega Cen. We solve the spherical anisotropic Jeans equation to predict the projected profiles of the RMS velocity in each of the three orthogonal coordinate directions (line of sight, proper motion radial, and proper motion tangential). We fit the models to new HST star count and proper motion data near the cluster center presented in Paper I, combined with existing ground-based measurements. We also derive and model the Gauss-Hermite moments of the observed proper motion distributions. The projected density profile is consistent with being flat near the center, with an upper limit gamma=0.07 on the central logarithmic slope. The RMS proper motion profile is also consistent with being flat near the center, and there are no unusually fast-moving stars. The models provide a good fit and yield a 1-sigma upper limit MBH < 1.2E4 solar masses on the mass of a possible intermediate-mass black...

  19. Analysis of enamel development using murine model systems: approaches and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K Pugach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of enamel research is to understand and potentially treat or prevent enamel defects related to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI. Rodents are ideal models to assist our understanding of how enamel is formed because they are easily genetically modified, and their continuously erupting incisors display all stages of enamel development and mineralization. While numerous methods have been developed to generate and analyze genetically modified rodent enamel, it is crucial to understand the limitations and challenges associated with these methods in order to draw appropriate conclusions that can be applied translationally, to AI patient care. We have highlighted methods involved in generating and analyzing rodent enamel and potential approaches to overcoming limitations of these methods: 1 generating transgenic, knockout and knockin mouse models, and 2 analyzing rodent enamel mineral density and functional properties (structure, mechanics of mature enamel. There is a need for a standardized workflow to analyze enamel phenotypes in rodent models so that investigators can compare data from different studies. These methods include analyses of gene and protein expression, developing enamel histology, enamel pigment, degree of mineralization, enamel structure and mechanical properties. Standardization of these methods with regard to stage of enamel development and sample preparation is crucial, and ideally investigators can use correlative and complementary techniques with the understanding that developing mouse enamel is dynamic and complex.

  20. Limited-are a modelling of stratocumulus over South-Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andrejczuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to limited-area modeling of atmospheric processes over the subtropical south-eastern Pacific, with the emphasis on the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The simulations cover a domain from the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx field project conducted in the subtropical south-eastern Pacific in October and November 2008. We focus on a day where the UK's BAe-146 research aircraft encountered Pockets of Open Cells (POCs at the very western edge of its flight track, rather than on the entire campaign as investigated in previous limited-area modeling studies. Model results are compared to aircraft observations with the main conclusion that the simulated stratocumulus-topped boundary layer is significantly too shallow. This appears to be a combination of an already too shallow boundary layer in the dataset used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions, and the inability of the WRF model to increase the boundary-layer height. Several sensitivity simulations, applying different subgrid-scale parameterizations available in the model, a larger computational domain and longer simulations, as well as a different dataset providing initial and lateral boundary conditions were all tried to improve the simulation. These changes appeared to have a rather small effect on the results. The model does simulate the formation of mesoscale cloud-free regions that one might consider similar to Pockets of Open Cells observed in nature. However, formation of these regions does not seem to be related to drizzle-induced transition from open- to closed-cell circulations as simulated by LES models. Instead, the cloud-free regions appear to result from mesoscale variations of the lower-tropspheric vertical velocity. Areas of negative vertical velocity with minima (a few cm s−1 near the

  1. Linearized gravity, Newtonian limit and light deflection in RS1 model

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, M N; Smolyakov, Mikhail N.; Volobuev, Igor P.

    2002-01-01

    We solve exactly the equations of motion for linearized gravity in the Randall-Sundrum model with matter on the branes and calculate the Newtonian limit in it. The result contains contributions of the radion and of the massive modes, which change considerably Newton's law at small distances. The effects of "shadow" matter, which lives on the other brane, are considered and compared with those of ordinary matter for both positive and negative tension branes. We also calculate light deflection and Newton's law in the zero mode approximation and explicitly distinguish the contribution of the radion field.

  2. Quasi-coherent fluctuations limiting the pedestal growth on Alcator C-Mod: Experiment and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hughes, J. W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baek, S. -G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); LaBombard, Brian [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Terry, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cziegler, I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Davis, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Walk, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Reinke, M. L. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Theiler, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Churchhill, R. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Edlund, E. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Canik, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snyder, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Greenwald, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); White, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Performance predictions for future fusion devices rely on an accurate model of the pedestal structure. The candidate for predictive pedestal structure is EPED, and it is imperative to test the underlying hypotheses to further gain confidence for ITER projections. Here, we present experimental work testing one of the EPED hypotheses, namely the existence of a soft limit set by microinstabilities such as the kinetic ballooning mode. Furthermore, this work extends recent work on Alactor C-Mod (Diallo et al 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 115001), to include detailed measurements of the edge fluctuations and comparisons of edge simulation codes and experimental observations.

  3. Pion Form Factor in Chiral Limit of Hard-Wall AdS/QCD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin; Hovhannes Grigoryan

    2007-12-01

    We develop a formalism to calculate form factor and charge density distribution of pion in the chiral limit using the holographic dual model of QCD with hard-wall cutoff. We introduce two conjugate pion wave functions and present analytic expressions for these functions and for the pion form factor. They allow to relate such observables as the pion decay constant and the pion charge electric radius to the values of chiral condensate and hard-wall cutoff scale. The evolution of the pion form factor to large values of the momentum transfer is discussed, and results are compared to existing experimental data.

  4. Three Balls Problem Revisited - On the Limitations of Event-Driven Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Patric

    2010-01-01

    If a tennis ball is held above a basket ball with their centers vertically aligned, and the balls are released to collide with the floor, the tennis ball may rebound at a surprisingly high speed. We show in this article that the simple textbook explanation of this effect is an oversimplification, even for the limit of perfectly elastic particles. Instead, there may occur a rather complex scenario including multiple collisions which may lead to a very different final velocity as compared with the velocity resulting from the oversimplified model.

  5. On the singular sector of the Hermitian random matrix model in the large N limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopelchenko, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento and Sezione INFN, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Martinez Alonso, L. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Medina, E., E-mail: elena.medina@uca.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    The one-cut case of the Hermitian random matrix model in the large N limit is considered. Its singular sector in the space of coupling constants is analyzed from the point of view of the hodograph equations of the underlying dispersionless Toda hierarchy. A deep connection with the singular sector of the hodograph equations of the 1-layer Benney (classical long wave equation) hierarchy is stablished. This property is a consequence of the fact that the hodograph equations for both hierarchies describe the critical points of solutions of Euler-Poisson-Darboux equations.

  6. Low Mach and Peclet number limit for a model of stellar tachocline and upper radiative zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Donatelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a hydrodynamical model describing the motion of internal stellar layers based on compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system. We suppose that the medium is electrically charged, we include energy exchanges through radiative transfer and we assume that the system is rotating. We analyze the singular limit of this system when the Mach number, the Alfven number, the Peclet number and the Froude number approache zero in a certain way and prove convergence to a 3D incompressible MHD system with a stationary linear transport equation for transport of radiation intensity. Finally, we show that the energy equation reduces to a steady equation for the temperature corrector.

  7. Determining threat status for data-limited fisheries based on catch-only stock assessment models

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, Lauren Hadfield

    2017-01-01

    Catch-only stock assessment methods have been developed to manage data-limited fisheries where only catch data is available. This research evaluated the ability of four catch-only stock assessment methods to correctly classify a stock of concern based on population trends. To accomplish this, true trends from simulated stocks and the trends produced by the models were used to classify stocks into threat categories based on percent change. ROC curves and PR curves were then used to test the ef...

  8. Optimized phenomenological renormalization group for geometrical models: Applications to diffusion-limited aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, J. Lee; Family, Fereydoon; Vicsek, Tamas; Nakanishi, Hisao

    1985-10-01

    We propose a new phenomenological rule for the weight function in the position-space renormalization-group approach for the calculation of the fractal dimension in models of geometrical disorder in order to avoid strong corrections to scaling due to surface effects. In our scheme the radius of gyration is used as a characteristic measure of the spatial extent of the clusters. In addition, an optimization parameter is introduced. Application to diffusion-limited aggregation in two dimensions shows that our method gives good estimates even when relatively small cells are used.

  9. Mass Limit for the standard model Higgs boson with the full LEP I ALEPH data sample

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    background from the electroweak process e+e- --> l+ l- q qbar. This search results in a 95% C.L. lower limit on the Higgs boson mass of $63.9$~\\Gcs. The reaction e+e- --> HZ* is used to search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H nu nubar and the H l+ l- channels. The data sample corresponds to about 4.5 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP from 1989 to 1995 at centre-of-mass energies at and around the Z peak. Three candidate events are found in the H mu+ mu- channel, in agreement with the expected

  10. Results and limits in the 1-D analytical modeling for the asymmetric DG SOI MOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    O. Cobianu; M. Glesner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results and the limits of 1-D analytical modeling of electrostatic potential in the low-doped p type silicon body of the asymmetric n-channel DG SOI MOSFET, where the contribution to the asymmetry comes only from p- and n-type doping of polysilicon used as the gate electrodes. Solving Poisson's equation with boundary conditions based on the continuity of normal electrical displacement at interfaces and the presence of a minimum electrostatic potential by using the...

  11. Laparoscopic surgical box model training for surgical trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Nagendran, Myura; Toon, Clare D; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a box model physical simulator is an option to supplement standard training. However, the value of this modality on trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience is unknown. To compare the benefits and harms of box model training for surgical trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience versus standard surgical training or supplementary animal model training. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to May 2013. We planned to include all randomised clinical trials comparing box model trainers versus other forms of training including standard laparoscopic training and supplementary animal model training in surgical trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of box model training. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5. For each outcome, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis whenever possible. We identified eight trials that met the inclusion criteria. One trial including 17 surgical trainees did not contribute to the meta-analysis. We included seven trials (249 surgical trainees belonging to various postgraduate years ranging from year one to four) in which the participants were randomised to supplementary box model training (122 trainees) versus standard training (127 trainees). Only one trial (50 trainees) was at low risk of bias. The box trainers used in all the seven trials were video trainers. Six trials were

  12. Continuum modeling and limit equilibrium analysis of slope movement due to rainfall infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ronaldo; White, Joshua; Wu, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Hydrologically-driven landslides and debris flows are highly destructive events that threaten lives and critical infrastructure worldwide. Despite decades of extensive slope stability model development, the fundamental controls connecting the hydrologic and geotechnical processes that trigger slope failure are not well quantified. We use a fully coupled, physics-based finite element model to address this shortcoming. We develop and test a 3D continuum slope-deformation model that couples solid-deformation with fluid-flow processes in variably saturated soils, and assess the capability of the coupled model to predict stresses and deformation necessary to trigger slope failure. We then compare the continuum model with traditional limit equilibrium solutions based on the modified Bishop method of slices to assess the stability of the slope as a function of rainfall infiltration using a scalar stability indicator called factor of safety. For this assessment, we use extensive measurements from a densely instrumented mountain slope (The Coos Bay Experimental Catchment) where a large, rainfall-triggered slope failure occurred. The use of sophisticated, fully coupled numerical simulations combined with comprehensive field-measurements provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance the state of understanding of landslide failure processes and effective mitigation measures.

  13. A mesoscopic stochastic model for the specific consumption rate in substrate-limited microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The specific consumption rate of substrate, as well as the associated specific growth rate, is an essential parameter in the mathematical description of substrate-limited microbial growth. In this paper we develop a completely new kinetic model of substrate transport, based on recent knowledge on the structural biology of transport proteins, which correctly describes very accurate experimental results at near-zero substrate concentration values found in the literature, where the widespread Michaelis-Menten model fails. Additionally, our model converges asymptotically to Michaelis-Menten predictions as substrate concentration increases. Instead of the single active site enzymatic reaction of Michaelis-Menten type, the proposed model assumes a multi-site kinetics, simplified as an apparent all-or-none mechanism for the transport, which is controlled by means of the local substrate concentration in the close vicinity of the transport protein. Besides, the model also assumes that this local concentration is not equal to the mean substrate concentration experimentally determined in the culture medium. Instead, we propose that it fluctuates with a mostly exponential distribution of Weibull type. PMID:28187189

  14. An improved model for nucleation-limited ice formation in living cells during freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Yi

    Full Text Available Ice formation in living cells is a lethal event during freezing and its characterization is important to the development of optimal protocols for not only cryopreservation but also cryotherapy applications. Although the model for probability of ice formation (PIF in cells developed by Toner et al. has been widely used to predict nucleation-limited intracellular ice formation (IIF, our data of freezing Hela cells suggest that this model could give misleading prediction of PIF when the maximum PIF in cells during freezing is less than 1 (PIF ranges from 0 to 1. We introduce a new model to overcome this problem by incorporating a critical cell volume to modify the Toner's original model. We further reveal that this critical cell volume is dependent on the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing, i.e., surface-catalyzed nucleation (SCN and volume-catalyzed nucleation (VCN. Taken together, the improved PIF model may be valuable for better understanding of the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing and more accurate prediction of PIF for cryopreservation and cryotherapy applications.

  15. High-Fidelity Modelling Methodology of Light-Limited Photosynthetic Production in Microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernardi

    Full Text Available Reliable quantitative description of light-limited growth in microalgae is key to improving the design and operation of industrial production systems. This article shows how the capability to predict photosynthetic processes can benefit from a synergy between mathematical modelling and lab-scale experiments using systematic design of experiment techniques. A model of chlorophyll fluorescence developed by the authors [Nikolaou et al., J Biotechnol 194:91-99, 2015] is used as starting point, whereby the representation of non-photochemical-quenching (NPQ process is refined for biological consistency. This model spans multiple time scales ranging from milliseconds to hours, thus calling for a combination of various experimental techniques in order to arrive at a sufficiently rich data set and determine statistically meaningful estimates for the model parameters. The methodology is demonstrated for the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana by combining pulse amplitude modulation (PAM fluorescence, photosynthesis rate and antenna size measurements. The results show that the calibrated model is capable of accurate quantitative predictions under a wide range of transient light conditions. Moreover, this work provides an experimental validation of the link between fluorescence and photosynthesis-irradiance (PI curves which had been theoricized.

  16. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  17. Measuring and overcoming limits of the Saffman-Delbrück model for soap film viscosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We observe tracer particles diffusing in soap films to measure the two-dimensional (2D) viscous properties of the films. Saffman-Delbrück type models relate the single-particle diffusivity to parameters of the film (such as thickness h) for thin films, but the relation breaks down for thicker films. Notably, the diffusivity is faster than expected for thicker films, with the crossover at h/d = 5.2 ± 0.9 using the tracer particle diameter d. This indicates a crossover from purely 2D diffusion to diffusion that is more three-dimensional. We demonstrate that measuring the correlations of particle pairs as a function of their separation overcomes the limitations of the Saffman-Delbrück model and allows one to measure the viscosity of a soap film for any thickness.

  18. Limited fetch revisited: comparison of wind input terms in surface waves modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Andrei, Pushkarev

    2015-01-01

    The results of numerical solution of the Hasselmann kinetic equation ($HE$) for wind driven sea spectra in the fetch limited geometry are presented. Five versions of the source functions, including recently introduced ZRP model, have been studied for the exact expression of Snl and high-frequency implicit dissipation due to wave-breaking. Four out of five experiments were done in the absence of spectral peak dissipation for various Sin terms. They demonstrated the dominance of quadruplet wave-wave interaction in the energy balance and the formation of self-similar regimes of unlimited wave energy growth along the fetch. Between them was ZRP model, which showed especially good agreement with the dozen of field observations performed in the seas and lakes since 1971. The fifth, WAM3 wind input term experiment, used additional spectral peak dissipation and reproduced the results of previous similar numerical simulation, but was in a good agreement with the field experiments only for moderate fetches, demonstrati...

  19. Limits on the mass of the lightest Higgs in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Masip, M; Pomarol, A

    1998-01-01

    In supersymmetric models extended with a gauge singlet the mass of the lightest Higgs boson has contributions proportional to the adimensional coupling $\\lambda$. In minimal scenarios, the requirement that this coupling remains perturbative up to the unification scale constrains $\\lambda$ to be smaller than $\\approx 0.7$. We study the maximum value of $\\lambda$ consistent with a perturbative unification of the gauge couplings in models containing nonstandard fields at intermediate scales. These fields appear in scenarios with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. We find that the presence of extra fields can raise the maximum value of $\\lambda$ up to a 19%, increasing the limits on the mass of the lightest Higgs from 135 GeV to 155 GeV.

  20. Analysis of an Arctic sea ice loss model in the limit of a discontinuous albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Kaitlin; Silber, Mary

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic sea ice extent decreases with increasing greenhouse gases, there is a growing interest in whether there could be a bifurcation associated with its loss, and whether there is significant hysteresis associated with that bifurcation. A challenge in answering this question is that the bifurcation behavior of certain Arctic energy balance models have been shown to be sensitive to how ice-albedo feedback is parameterized. We analyze an Arctic energy balance model in the limit as a smoothing parameter associated with ice-albedo feedback tends to zero, which makes the system piecewise-smooth. Our analysis provides a case study where we use the piecewise-smooth system to explore bifurcation behavior of the smooth system. In this case study, we demonstrate that certain qualitative bifurcation behaviors of the smooth system can have nonsmooth counterparts. We use this perspective to systematically search parameter space. For example, we uncover parameter sets for which the largest transition, with increasing g...

  1. Attack Detection and Identification in Cyber-Physical Systems -- Part I: Models and Fundamental Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bullo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, communication, and physical capabilities to interact with the physical world and humans. Besides failures of components, cyber-physical systems are prone to malignant attacks, and specific analysis tools as well as monitoring mechanisms need to be developed to enforce system security and reliability. This paper proposes a unified framework to analyze the resilience of cyber-physical systems against attacks cast by an omniscient adversary. We model cyber-physical systems as linear descriptor systems, and attacks as exogenous unknown inputs. Despite its simplicity, our model captures various real-world cyber-physical systems, and it includes and generalizes many prototypical attacks, including stealth, (dynamic) false-data injection and replay attacks. First, we characterize fundamental limitations of static, dynamic, and active monitors for attack detection and identification. Second, we provide constructive algebraic conditions to cast undetectable and unidentifia...

  2. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-150 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in in the low mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  3. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 100-600 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in the entire mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  4. An approach for modeling sediment budgets in supply-limited rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    was to develop an approach complex enough to capture the processes related to sediment supply limitation but simple enough to allow for rapid calculations of multi-year sediment budgets. The approach relies on empirical relations between suspended sediment concentration and discharge but on a particle size specific basis and also tracks and incorporates the particle size distribution of the bed sediment. We have applied this approach to the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam (GCD), a reach that is particularly suited to such an approach because it is substantially sediment supply limited such that transport rates are strongly dependent on both water discharge and sediment supply. The results confirm the ability of the approach to simulate the effects of supply limitation, including periods of accumulation and bed fining as well as erosion and bed coarsening, using a very simple formulation. Although more empirical in nature than standard one-dimensional morphodynamic models, this alternative approach is attractive because its simplicity allows for rapid evaluation of multi-year sediment budgets under a range of flow regimes and sediment supply conditions, and also because it requires substantially less data for model setup and use.

  5. An approach for modeling sediment budgets in supply-limited rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-10-01

    was to develop an approach complex enough to capture the processes related to sediment supply limitation but simple enough to allow for rapid calculations of multi-year sediment budgets. The approach relies on empirical relations between suspended sediment concentration and discharge but on a particle size specific basis and also tracks and incorporates the particle size distribution of the bed sediment. We have applied this approach to the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam (GCD), a reach that is particularly suited to such an approach because it is substantially sediment supply limited such that transport rates are strongly dependent on both water discharge and sediment supply. The results confirm the ability of the approach to simulate the effects of supply limitation, including periods of accumulation and bed fining as well as erosion and bed coarsening, using a very simple formulation. Although more empirical in nature than standard one-dimensional morphodynamic models, this alternative approach is attractive because its simplicity allows for rapid evaluation of multi-year sediment budgets under a range of flow regimes and sediment supply conditions, and also because it requires substantially less data for model setup and use.

  6. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Tree Heights: Part 3. Model Optimization and Testing over Continental China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of our multi-article series is to demonstrate the Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitation (ASRL approach for mapping tree heights and biomass. This third article tests the feasibility of the optimized ASRL model over China at both site (14 meteorological stations and continental scales. Tree heights from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS waveform data are used for the model optimizations. Three selected ASRL parameters (area of single leaf, α; exponent for canopy radius, η; and root absorption efficiency, γ are iteratively adjusted to minimize differences between the references and predicted tree heights. Key climatic variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation are needed for the model simulations. We also exploit the independent GLAS and in situ tree heights to examine the model performance. The predicted tree heights at the site scale are evaluated against the GLAS tree heights using a two-fold cross validation (RMSE = 1.72 m; R2 = 0.97 and bootstrapping (RMSE = 4.39 m; R2 = 0.81. The modeled tree heights at the continental scale (1 km spatial resolution are compared to both GLAS (RMSE = 6.63 m; R2 = 0.63 and in situ (RMSE = 6.70 m; R2 = 0.52 measurements. Further, inter-comparisons against the existing satellite-based forest height maps have resulted in a moderate degree of agreements. Our results show that the optimized ASRL model is capable of satisfactorily retrieving tree heights over continental China at both scales. Subsequent studies will focus on the estimation of woody biomass after alleviating the discussed limitations.

  7. Diagnosing phosphorus limitations in natural terrestrial ecosystems in carbon cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Peng, Shushi; Goll, Daniel S.; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Hinsinger, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Peñuelas, Josep; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Violette, Aurélie; Yang, Xiaojuan; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Most of the Earth System Models (ESMs) project increases in net primary productivity (NPP) and terrestrial carbon (C) storage during the 21st century. Despite empirical evidence that limited availability of phosphorus (P) may limit the response of NPP to increasing atmospheric CO2, none of the ESMs used in the previous Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment accounted for P limitation. We diagnosed from ESM simulations the amount of P need to support increases in carbon uptake by natural ecosystems using two approaches: the demand derived from (1) changes in C stocks and (2) changes in NPP. The C stock-based additional P demand was estimated to range between -31 and 193 Tg P and between -89 and 262 Tg P for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively, with negative values indicating a P surplus. The NPP-based demand, which takes ecosystem P recycling into account, results in a significantly higher P demand of 648-1606 Tg P for RCP2.6 and 924-2110 Tg P for RCP8.5. We found that the P demand is sensitive to the turnover of P in decomposing plant material, explaining the large differences between the NPP-based demand and C stock-based demand. The discrepancy between diagnosed P demand and actual P availability (potential P deficit) depends mainly on the assumptions about availability of the different soil P forms. Overall, future P limitation strongly depends on both soil P availability and P recycling on ecosystem scale.

  8. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  9. Combined upper limit on Standard Model Higgs boson production at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Adrian, Buzatu

    2012-01-01

    The Higgs boson is the only elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model (SM) that has neither been confirmed nor refuted. The CDF collaboration has performed SM Higgs searches in many channels using $p\\pbar$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=1.96\\tev$. We present the latest combined Higgs boson search at CDF. Since the previous year's combination, the sensitivity is increased through the addition of new channels, the improvement of existing channels and the addition of new data samples. We also use the latest parton distribution functions and $gg \\rightarrow H$ theoretical cross sections when modelling the signal event yields. Using integrated luminosities of up to 8.2 $\\invfb$, we observe a good agreement between data and the background prediction. Since we do not see a Higgs boson excess, we set 95% CL upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section in the range between 100 and 200 $\\gevcc$, with 5 $\\gevcc$ increments. The observed (expected) limits for a 115 and a 165 $\\gevcc$ Higgs bos...

  10. Introducing a price variation limiter mechanism into a behavioral financial market model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, we consider a nonlinear financial market model in which, in order to decrease the complexity of the dynamics and to achieve price stabilization, we introduce a price variation limiter mechanism, which in each period bounds the price variation so that the current price is forced to belong to a certain interval determined by the price realization in the previous period. More precisely, we introduce such mechanism into a financial market model in which the price dynamics are described by a sigmoidal price adjustment mechanism characterized by the presence of two asymptotes that bound the price variation and thus the dynamics. We show that the presence of our asymptotes prevents divergence and negativity issues. Moreover, we prove that the basins of attraction are complicated only under suitable conditions on the parameters and that chaos arises just when the price limiters are loose enough. On the other hand, for some suitable parameter configurations, we detect multistability phenomena characterized by the presence of up to three coexisting attractors.

  11. Limited fetch revisited: Comparison of wind input terms, in surface wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, Andrei; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Results pertaining to numerical solutions of the Hasselmann kinetic equation (HE), for wind driven sea spectra, in the fetch limited geometry, are presented. Five versions of source functions, including the recently introduced ZRP model (Zakharov et al., 2012), have been studied, for the exact expression of Snl and high-frequency implicit dissipation, due to wave-breaking. Four of the five experiments were done in the absence of spectral peak dissipation for various Sin terms. They demonstrated the dominance of quadruplet wave-wave interaction, in the energy balance, and the formation of self-similar regimes, of unlimited wave energy growth, along the fetch. Between them was the ZRP model, which strongly agreed with dozens of field observations performed in the seas and lakes, since 1947. The fifth, the WAM3 wind input term experiment, used additional spectral peak dissipation and reproduced the results of a previous, similar, numerical simulation described in Komen et al. (1994), but only supported the field experiments for moderate fetches, demonstrating a total energy saturation at half of that of the Pierson-Moscowits limit. The alternative framework for HE numerical simulation is proposed, along with a set of tests, allowing one to select physically-justified source terms.

  12. Compensation technique for Q-limit enforcements in a constant complex Jacobian power flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, V.B.; Bijwe, P.R.; Nanda, J. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (IN))

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and efficient compensation technique to deal with but-type switchings associated with Q-limit enforcement at voltage controlled (PV) buses in a constant Jacobian power flow model. The Jacobian is expressed in the complex variable form resulting in reduced storage requirements as compared to real form of representation of the Jacobian. The structure of the Jacobian is preserved irrespective of bus-type switchings while Q-limit enforcements are performed at the PV buses. This feature permits implementation of optimal ordering of buses in an efficient way while factorizing the Jacobian matrix. The Jacobian is held constant throughout the load flow solution process. Incremental secondary injections (ISIs) are provided at the respective PV buses to maintain the specified voltages. The required injections are computed from the proposed compensation model. Results indicate that the proposed technique is quite efficient as the number of iterations for solution to converge, irrespective of bus-type switchings remains same as that in unadjusted solution case.

  13. A Fluid Limit for an Overloaded X Model Via an Averaging Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We prove a many-server heavy-traffic fluid limit for an overloaded Markovian queueing system having two customer classes and two service pools, known in the call-center literature as the X model. The system uses the fixed-queue-ratio-with-thresholds (FQR-T) control, which we proposed in a recent paper as a way for one service system to help another in face of an unexpected overload. Under FQR-T, customers are served by their own service pool until a threshold is exceeded. Then, one-way sharing is activated with customers from one class allowed to be served in both pools. After the control is activated, it aims to keep the two queues at a pre-specified fixed ratio. For large systems that fixed ratio is achieved approximately. For the fluid limit, or FWLLN, we consider a sequence of properly scaled X models in overload operating under FQR-T. Our proof of the FWLLN follows the compactness approach, i.e., we show that the sequence of scaled processes is tight, and then show that all converging subsequences have t...

  14. Limited impairments of associative learning in a mouse model of accelerated senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wu, Guang-yan; Li, Xuan; Huang, He; Hu, Bo; Yao, Juan; Wu, Bing; Sui, Jian-feng

    2013-11-15

    Research concerning impairment of associative learning during aging remains limited. The senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) prone/8 (P8) has been proposed as a useful model for the study of aging, and SAM resistant/1(SAMR1) is its control as a normal aging strain. Classical eyeblink conditioning has long been served as a model of associative learning. In order to explore the effects of aging on associative learning in SAM, the present study successively tested three paradigms of eyeblink conditioning in SAMP8 and SAMR1: classical single cue trace eyeblink conditioning (TEC), discriminative trace eyeblink conditioning and reversal learning of TEC. Behavioral performance indicated that SAMP8 could acquire limited single-cue trace eyeblink conditioning task and two-tone discrimination trace eyeblink conditioning with a relative lower acquisition rate compared to SAMR1. Both SAMP8 and SAMR1 failed to acquire reversal learning of discriminative TEC, and SAMP8' startle reflex to tone CS was lower than SAMR1. These results indicated that the impairments of aging on associative learning were incomplete in SAMP8.

  15. Modeling of an aerobic biofilm reactor with double-limiting substrate kinetics: bifurcational and dynamical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Marzocchella, Antonio; Salatino, Piero

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of an aerobic biofilm reactor is presented to investigate the bifurcational patterns and the dynamical behavior of the reactor as a function of different key operating parameters. Suspended cells and biofilm are assumed to grow according to double limiting kinetics with phenol inhibition (carbon source) and oxygen limitation. The model presented by Russo et al. is extended to embody key features of the phenomenology of the granular-supported biofilm: biofilm growth and detachment, gas-liquid oxygen transport, phenol, and oxygen uptake by both suspended and immobilized cells, and substrate diffusion into the biofilm. Steady-state conditions and stability, and local dynamic behavior have been characterized. The multiplicity of steady states and their stability depend on key operating parameter values (dilution rate, gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient, biofilm detachment rate, and inlet substrate concentration). Small changes in the operating conditions may be coupled with a drastic change of the steady-state scenario with transcritical and saddle-node bifurcations. The relevance of concentration profiles establishing within the biofilm is also addressed. When the oxygen level in the liquid phase is <10% of the saturation level, the biofilm undergoes oxygen starvation and the active biofilm fraction becomes independent of the dilution rate. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2011.

  16. Verification of precipitation forecasts by the DWD limited area model LME over Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Savvidou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made between the precipitation forecasts by the non-hydrostatic limited area model LME of the German Weather Service (DWD and observations from a network of rain gauges in Cyprus. This is a first attempt to carry out a preliminary verification and evaluation of the LME precipitation forecasts over the area of Cyprus. For the verification, model forecasts and observations were used covering an eleven month period, from 1/2/2005 till 31/12/2005. The observations were made by three Automatic Weather Observing Systems (AWOS located at Larnaka and Paphos airports and at Athalassa synoptic station, as well as at 6, 6 and 8 rain gauges within a radius of about 30 km around these stations, respectively. The observations were compared with the model outputs, separately for each of the three forecast days. The "probability of detection" (POD of a precipitation event and the "false alarm rate" (FAR were calculated. From the selected cases of the forecast precipitation events, the average forecast precipitation amounts in the area around the three stations were compared with the measured ones. An attempt was also made to evaluate the model's skill in predicting the spatial distribution of precipitation and, in this respect, the geographical position of the maximum forecast precipitation amount was contrasted to the position of the corresponding observed maximum. Maps with monthly precipitation totals observed by a local network of 150 rain gauges were compared with the corresponding forecast precipitation maps.

  17. Relevance and limitations of crowding, fractal, and polymer models to describe nuclear architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Sébastien; Lavelle, Christophe; Ranchon, Hubert; Carrivain, Pascal; Victor, Jean-Marc; Bancaud, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome architecture plays an essential role for all nuclear functions, and its physical description has attracted considerable interest over the last few years among the biophysics community. These researches at the frontiers of physics and biology have been stimulated by the demand for quantitative analysis of molecular biology experiments, which provide comprehensive data on chromosome folding, or of live cell imaging experiments that enable researchers to visualize selected chromosome loci in living or fixed cells. In this review our goal is to survey several nonmutually exclusive models that have emerged to describe the folding of DNA in the nucleus, the dynamics of proteins in the nucleoplasm, or the movements of chromosome loci. We focus on three classes of models, namely molecular crowding, fractal, and polymer models, draw comparisons, and discuss their merits and limitations in the context of chromosome structure and dynamics, or nuclear protein navigation in the nucleoplasm. Finally, we identify future challenges in the roadmap to a unified model of the nuclear environment.

  18. Finite-size analysis of the detectability limit of the stochastic block model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Desrosiers, Patrick; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Laurence, Edward; Dubé, Louis J.

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown in recent years that the stochastic block model is sometimes undetectable in the sparse limit, i.e., that no algorithm can identify a partition correlated with the partition used to generate an instance, if the instance is sparse enough and infinitely large. In this contribution, we treat the finite case explicitly, using arguments drawn from information theory and statistics. We give a necessary condition for finite-size detectability in the general SBM. We then distinguish the concept of average detectability from the concept of instance-by-instance detectability and give explicit formulas for both definitions. Using these formulas, we prove that there exist large equivalence classes of parameters, where widely different network ensembles are equally detectable with respect to our definitions of detectability. In an extensive case study, we investigate the finite-size detectability of a simplified variant of the SBM, which encompasses a number of important models as special cases. These models include the symmetric SBM, the planted coloring model, and more exotic SBMs not previously studied. We conclude with three appendices, where we study the interplay of noise and detectability, establish a connection between our information-theoretic approach and random matrix theory, and provide proofs of some of the more technical results.

  19. Monte Carlo homogenized limit analysis model for randomly assembled blocks in-plane loaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gabriele; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-11-01

    A simple rigid-plastic homogenization model for the limit analysis of masonry walls in-plane loaded and constituted by the random assemblage of blocks with variable dimensions is proposed. In the model, blocks constituting a masonry wall are supposed infinitely resistant with a Gaussian distribution of height and length, whereas joints are reduced to interfaces with frictional behavior and limited tensile and compressive strength. Block by block, a representative element of volume (REV) is considered, constituted by a central block interconnected with its neighbors by means of rigid-plastic interfaces. The model is characterized by a few material parameters, is numerically inexpensive and very stable. A sub-class of elementary deformation modes is a-priori chosen in the REV, mimicking typical failures due to joints cracking and crushing. Masonry strength domains are obtained equating the power dissipated in the heterogeneous model with the power dissipated by a fictitious homogeneous macroscopic plate. Due to the inexpensiveness of the approach proposed, Monte Carlo simulations can be repeated on the REV in order to have a stochastic estimation of in-plane masonry strength at different orientations of the bed joints with respect to external loads accounting for the geometrical statistical variability of blocks dimensions. Two cases are discussed, the former consisting on full stochastic REV assemblages (obtained considering a random variability of both blocks height an length) and the latter assuming the presence of a horizontal alignment along bed joints, i.e. allowing blocks height variability only row by row. The case of deterministic blocks height (quasi-periodic texture) can be obtained as a subclass of this latter case. Masonry homogenized failure surfaces are finally implemented in an upper bound FE limit analysis code for the analysis at collapse of entire walls in-plane loaded. Two cases of engineering practice, consisting on the prediction of the failure

  20. Conditional solvation thermodynamics of isoleucine in model peptides and the limitations of the group-transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Weber, Valéry; Pettitt, B Montgomery; Asthagiri, D

    2014-04-17

    The hydration thermodynamics of the amino acid X relative to the reference G (glycine) or the hydration thermodynamics of a small-molecule analog of the side chain of X is often used to model the contribution of X to protein stability and solution thermodynamics. We consider the reasons for successes and limitations of this approach by calculating and comparing the conditional excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of hydration of the isoleucine side chain in zwitterionic isoleucine, in extended penta-peptides, and in helical deca-peptides. Butane in gauche conformation serves as a small-molecule analog for the isoleucine side chain. Parsing the hydrophobic and hydrophilic contributions to hydration for the side chain shows that both of these aspects of hydration are context-sensitive. Furthermore, analyzing the solute-solvent interaction contribution to the conditional excess enthalpy of the side chain shows that what is nominally considered a property of the side chain includes entirely nonobvious contributions of the background. The context-sensitivity of hydrophobic and hydrophilic hydration and the conflation of background contributions with energetics attributed to the side chain limit the ability of a single scaling factor, such as the fractional solvent exposure of the group in the protein, to map the component energetic contributions of the model-compound data to their value in the protein. But ignoring the origin of cancellations in the underlying components the group-transfer model may appear to provide a reasonable estimate of the free energy for a given error tolerance.

  1. Indications and limitations of three-dimensional models in cranio-maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santler, G; Kärcher, H; Ruda, C

    1998-02-01

    Anatomical, life-like, three-dimensional (3D) models have a definite place in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Our experience with 541 computer tomography (CT)-based 3D models employed in aiding corrective surgery of tumours, dysgnathia, traumatology, alveolar atrophy, congenital malformation and asymmetrical malformations in our department is discussed. From July 1988 to February 1997, 3D models of 346 patients were used. Most of these were produced at our clinic. The indications, advantages and limitations of 3D-models were analysed retrospectively. In the case of congenital malformations (n = 60), models facilitated precise diagnosis of the skeletal deformity. Simulation surgery allowed prediction and solution of intraoperative problems prior to the actual patient operation. Size, shape and localization of defects caused by trauma (n = 64), osteoradionecrosis (n = 17) or osteomyelitis (n = 2) determined the choice of transplant donor site. In patients suffering from dysgnathia (n = 144), 3D models enabled exact positioning of the jaws. Precise planning could only be accomplished with the help of 3D models, especially for asymmetrical malformations (n = 12). In cases of severe atrophy of the alveolar crest (n = 45), exact measurement of the bone was possible and facilitated the decision as to whether dental implants, bone transplants or a combination of these were indicated. The positioning of transplants and implants was carried out in the ideal relation to the opposite jaw. In tumour patients (n = 186), it is not always possible to identify the tumour borders precisely on the CT scan or 3D model. Therefore, the defect was assumed to be bigger, a longer bridging plate constructed and this measurement corrected according to the intraoperative situation. The advantage of the 3D models consisted of an accurate representation of anatomical structures, bone or soft tissue. This allows precise preoperative diagnosis, operation planning and model operations. Due to this

  2. Advantages and limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling for cultural heritage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Developments in collection and digitisation of geoarchaeological data now allow geoscientists to develop meaningful 3D spatial models of the subsurface. Geological models of the subsurface have been constructed for regional (urban) areas to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning on a regional scale. Risk assessment at the smaller scale of archaeological sites, for example for in-situ preservation, not only requires delimitation of cultural deposits with respect to natural geological formations, but also systematic collection, interpretation and visualisation of intra-formational geoarchaeological information. The Norwegian Standard for archaeological monitoring of cultural deposits (2009) provides the framework for systematic data collection, interpretation and monitoring over time. It enables an objective evaluation of variations between e.g. preservation state and environmental preservation conditions, a.o. based on soil moisture content, groundwater level and quality variations, and temperature variations within cultural deposits. The standard allows comparison of conditions both within and between archaeological sites. The inclusion of this monitoring data within a geological model of the site results in an integrated geoarchaeological model that can be used for both ground prediction and risk assessment with respect to for example in-situ preservation. However, archaeological sites and their surroundings, particularly in urban areas, are often characterised by large heterogeneities and a complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic deposits. At a certain level of complexity and spatial scale, modelling efforts will go beyond the advantages that can be gained. This presentation examines the advantages and the limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling at small scale urban archaeological sites for cultural heritage management.

  3. Modeling wave effects on limits of woody vegetation in Catahoula Lake, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. L.; Curcic, M.; Keim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to water waves in lakes is an important control on the structure and distribution of both submerged and shoreline vegetative communities. Wave exposure incident on the shoreline limits the distribution of shrubs on both lake and coastal margins by preventing establishment of seedlings via bed disturbance and uprooting. The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between bed stress due to wave action and the spatial distribution of woody seedling establishment in Catahoula Lake, Louisiana, USA. The lake bed consists of a broad, seasonally inundated flat bordered by a band of woody shrubs. Annual summer de-watering of the lake allows the lake bed to support a moist-soil herbaceous vegetation community, but recent encroachment by woody shrubs over the past ~70 years threatens ecosystem conversion. We use the University of Miami Wave Model (UMWM) to simulate surface wave evolution and bed shear stress for a range of dominant wind conditions and water levels. UMWM is a 3rdgeneration ocean wave model that solves the wave energy balance equation given wind forcing input. While the model has been previously validated in deep water and coastal ocean applications, this study validates the model in very shallow water where bed-induced wave dissipation is a significant process. Model results show that waves of sufficient energy to prevent establishment or to uproot seedlings are common in areas of the lake that are experiencing the least woody encroachment. Areas of the lake bed that are experiencing encroachment are often sheltered from the strongest waves due to the lakes orientation with respect to dominant winds and prior establishment of woody growth, which dissipates wave energy significantly. Results are consistent with some otherwise-unexplained conditions at the lake such as spatially inconsistent relationships between elevation and vegetation communities. We use model results to investigate feedbacks between woody encoachment (both new and

  4. Low potency and limited efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in the mouse 6 Hz corneal kindling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, K; Matagne, A; Kaminski, R M

    2014-05-01

    Corneal kindling is a useful alternative to electrically induced amygdala or hippocampal kindling, which requires advanced surgical and EEG techniques that may not be easily available in many laboratories. Therefore the first aim of this study was to evaluate whether repeated 6 Hz corneal stimulation in mice would lead to an increased and persistent seizure response as described for higher frequency (50/60 Hz) corneal kindling. Male NMRI mice stimulated twice daily (except weekends) for 3 s with 6 Hz electrical current at 44 mA displayed robust kindling development, i.e., a progressive increase in seizure severity. The majority of the animals (about 90%) developed a fully kindled state, defined as at least 10 consecutive stage 3-5 seizures within 5 weeks of corneal stimulation. Afterwards, the fully kindled state was maintained for at least 8 weeks with only two days of stimulations per week. Next, the protective efficacy of four mechanistically different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs; clonazepam, valproate, carbamazepine and levetiracetam) was assessed and compared between 6 Hz and 50 Hz fully kindled mice. All tested AEDs showed a relatively lower potency in the 6 Hz kindling model and a limited efficacy against partial seizures was observed with carbamazepine and levetiracetam. We can conclude that 6 Hz kindling may be more advantageous than the previously described 50/60 Hz corneal kindling models due to its robustness and persistence of the fully kindled state. Furthermore, the observed low potency and limited efficacy of AEDs in 6 Hz fully kindled mice suggest that this model could be a useful tool in the discovery of novel AEDs targeting treatment resistant epilepsy.

  5. Parameter identification of the SWAT model on the BANI catchment (West Africa) under limited data condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibou Begou, Jamilatou; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Benabdallah, Sihem; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Due to the climate change, drier conditions have prevailed in West Africa, since the seventies, and the consequences are important on water resources. In order to identify and implement management strategies of adaptation to climate change in the sector of water, it is crucial to improve our physical understanding of water resources evolution in the region. To this end, hydrologic modelling is an appropriate tool for flow predictions under changing climate and land use conditions. In this study, the applicability and performance of the recent version of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) model were tested on the Bani catchment in West Africa under limited data condition. Model parameters identification was also tested using one site and multisite calibration approaches. The Bani is located in the upper part of the Niger River and drains an area of about 101, 000 km2 at the outlet of Douna. The climate is tropical, humid to semi-arid from the South to the North with an average annual rainfall of 1050 mm (period 1981-2000). Global datasets were used for the model setup such as: USGS hydrosheds DEM, USGS LCI GlobCov2009 and the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World. Daily measured rainfall from nine rain gauges and maximum and minimum temperature from five weather stations covering the period 1981-1997 were used for model setup. Sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation are performed within SWATCUP using GLUE procedure at Douna station first (one site calibration), then at three additional internal stations, Bougouni, Pankourou and Kouoro1 (multi-site calibration). Model parameters were calibrated at daily time step for the period 1983-1992, then validated for the period 1993-1997. A period of two years (1981-1982) was used for model warming up. Results of one-site calibration showed that the model performance is evaluated by 0.76 and 0.79 for Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) and correlation coefficient (R2), respectively. While for the validation period the performance

  6. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  7. Modeling analysis of ground water recharge potential on alluvial fans using limited data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munévar, A; Mariño, M A

    1999-01-01

    A modeling approach is developed to evaluate the potential for artificial recharge on alluvial fans in the Salinas Valley, California, using limited data of soil texture, soil hydraulic properties, and interwell stratigraphy. Promising areas for surface recharge are identified and mapped on a broad-scale using soil surveys, geologic investigations, permeability tests, and seasonal ground water response to rainfall and runoff. Two-dimensional representations of the vadose zone at selected sites are then constructed from drillers'logs and soil material types are estimated. Next, hydraulic properties are assigned to each soil material type by comparing them to laboratory-tested cores of similar soils taken from one site. Finally, water flow through the vadose zone is modeled in two dimensions at seven sites using a transient, finite-difference, variably saturated flow model. Average infiltration rates range from 0.84 to 1.54 cm/hr and recharge efficiency, the percentage of infiltrated water that reaches the water table, varies from 51% to 79%. Infiltration rates and recharge efficiency are found to be relatively insensitive to recharge basin ponding depth due to the thickness of the vadose zones modeled (31 to 84 m). The impact of artificial recharge on the Salinas Valley ground water basin is investigated by simulating the regional ground water response to surface spreading and streamflow augmentation with a recently calibrated, finite-element, ground water-surface water model for the basin. It was determined that a combined approach of surface recharge and streamflow augmentation significantly reduces the state of ground water overdraft and, to a lesser extent, reduces the rate of sea water intrusion.

  8. Limits to biodiversity cycles from a unified model of mass-extinction events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Georg

    2011-04-01

    Episodes of species mass extinction dramatically affected the evolution of life on Earth, but their causes remain a source of debate. Even more controversy surrounds the hypothesis of periodicity in the fossil record, with conflicting views still being published in the scientific literature, often even based on the same state-of-the-art datasets. From an empirical point of view, limitations of the currently available data on extinctions and possible causes remain an important issue. From a theoretical point of view, it is likely that a focus on single extinction causes and strong periodic forcings has strongly contributed to this controversy. Here I show that if there is a periodic extinction signal at all, it is much more likely to result from a combination of a comparatively weak periodic cause and various random factors. Tests of this unified model of mass extinctions on the available data show that the model is formally better than a model with random extinction causes only. However, the contribution of the periodic component is small compared to factors such as impacts or volcanic eruptions.

  9. One-dimensional modelling of limit-cycle oscillation and H-mode power scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingquan; Xu, Guosheng; Wan, Baonian; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2015-05-01

    To understand the connection between the dynamics of microscopic turbulence and the macroscale power scaling in the L-I-H transition in magnetically confined plasmas, a new time-dependent, one-dimensional (in radius) model has been developed. The model investigates the radial force balance equation at the edge region of the plasma and applies the quenching effect of turbulence via the E × B flow shear rate exceeding the shear suppression threshold. By slightly ramping up the heating power, the spatio-temporal evolution of turbulence intensity, density and pressure profiles, poloidal flow and E × B flow self-consistently displays the L-H transition with an intermediate phase (I-phase) characterized by limit-cycle oscillations. Since the poloidal flow is partially damped to the neoclassical flow in the edge region, the numerical results reveal two different oscillation relationships between the E × B flow and the turbulence intensity depending on which oscillation of the diamagnetic flow or poloidal flow is dominant. Specifically, by including the effects of boundary conditions of density and temperature, the model results in a linear dependence of the H-mode access power on the density and magnetic field. These results imply that the microscopic turbulence dynamics and the macroscale power scaling for the L-H transition are strongly connected.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Size Effects on Countercurrent Flow Limitation in PWR Hot Leg Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kinoshita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously done numerical simulations using the two-fluid model implemented in the CFD software FLUENT6.3.26 to investigate effects of shape of a flow channel and its size on CCFL (countercurrent flow limitation characteristics in PWR hot leg models. We confirmed that CCFL characteristics in the hot leg could be well correlated with the Wallis parameters in the diameter range of 0.05 m≤D≤0.75 m. In the present study, we did numerical simulations using the two-fluid model for the air-water tests with D=0.0254 m to determine why CCFL characteristics for D=0.0254 m were severer compared with those in the range, 0.05 m≤D≤0.75 m. The predicted CCFL characteristics agreed with the data for D=0.0254 m and indicated that the CCFL difference between D=0.0254 m and 0.05 mm≤D≤0.75 mm was caused by the size effect and not by other factors.

  11. The Poisson model limits in NBA basketball: Complexity in team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.

  12. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE MODEL FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV PROMOTION IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  13. Limited by sensing - A minimal stochastic model of the lag-phase during diauxic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dominique

    2017-02-07

    Many microbes when grown on a mixture of two carbon sources utilise first and exclusively the preferred sugar, before switching to the less preferred carbon source. This results in two distinct exponential growth phases, often interrupted by a lag-phase of reduced growth termed the lag-phase. While the lag-phase appears to be an evolved feature, it is not clear what drives its evolution, as it comes with a substantial up-front fitness penalty due to lost growth. In this article a minimal mathematical model based on a master-equation approach is proposed. This model can explain many empirically observed phenomena. It suggests that the lag-phase can be understood as a manifestation of the trade-off between switching speed and switching efficiency. Moreover, the model predicts heterogeneity of the population during the lag-phase. Finally, it is shown that the switch from one carbon source to another one is a sensing problem and the lag-phase is a manifestation of known fundamental limitations of biological sensors.

  14. Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attena, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine: maturity and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered an incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore, through appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may be widened. This article presents possible models of integration of Western medicine with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical system was classified into three levels through which it is possible to distinguish between different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based on the characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a reference paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in the sense that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their emplacement. Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true paradigm shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.

  15. Limited Activity of Miltefosine in Murine Models of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis and Disseminated Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Sorrell, Tania C.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Miltefosine is an alkyl phosphocholine with good oral bioavailability and in vitro activity against Cryptococcus species that has gained interest as an additional agent for cryptococcal infections. Our objective was to further evaluate the in vivo efficacy of miltefosine in experimental in vivo models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and disseminated cryptococcosis. Mice were infected intracranially or intravenously with either C. neoformans USC1597 or H99. Miltefosine treatment (1.8 to 45 mg/kg of body weight orally once daily) began at either 1 h or 1 day postinoculation. Fluconazole (10 mg/kg orally twice daily) or amphotericin B deoxycholate (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily) served as positive controls. In our standard models, miltefosine did not result in significant improvements in survival or reductions in fungal burden against either C. neoformans isolate. There was a trend toward improved survival with miltefosine at 7.2 mg/kg against disseminated cryptococcosis with the H99 strain but only at a low infecting inoculum. In contrast, both fluconazole and amphotericin B significantly improved survival in mice with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and disseminated cryptococcosis due to USC1597. Amphotericin B also improved survival against both cryptococcal infections caused by H99. Combination therapy with miltefosine demonstrated neither synergy nor antagonism in both models. These results demonstrate limited efficacy of miltefosine and suggest caution with the potential use of this agent for the treatment of C. neoformans infections. PMID:23165465

  16. Limitations of mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of industrial and laboratory high-pressure processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    High pressures up to several hundreds of MPa are utilised in a wide range of applications in chemical engineering, bioengineering, and food engineering, aiming at selective control of (bio-)chemical reactions. Non-uniformity of process conditions may threaten the safety and quality of the resulting products as the process conditions such as pressure, temperature, and treatment history are crucial for the course of (bio-)chemical reactions. Therefore, thermofluid dynamical phenomena during the high-pressure process have to be examined, and tools to predict process uniformity and to optimise the processes have to be developed. Recently, mathematical models and numerical simulations of laboratory and industrial scale high-pressure processes have been set up and validated by experimental results. This contribution deals with the assumption of the modelling that relevant (bio-)chemical compounds are ideally dissolved or diluted particles in a continuum flow. By considering the definition of the continuum hypothesis regarding the minimum particle population in a distinct volume, limitations of this modelling and simulation are addressed.

  17. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Tree Heights: Part 1. Model Optimization and Testing over Continental USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R. Nemani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology to generate spatially continuous fields of tree heights with an optimized Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL model is reported in this first of a multi-part series of articles. Model optimization is performed with the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS waveform data. This methodology is demonstrated by mapping tree heights over forested lands in the continental USA (CONUS at 1 km spatial resolution. The study area is divided into 841 eco-climatic zones based on three forest types, annual total precipitation classes (30 mm intervals and annual average temperature classes (2 °C intervals. Three model parameters (area of single leaf, α, exponent for canopy radius, η, and root absorption efficiency, γ were selected for optimization, that is, to minimize the difference between actual and potential tree heights in each of the eco-climatic zones over the CONUS. Tree heights predicted by the optimized model were evaluated against GLAS heights using a two-fold cross validation approach (R2 = 0.59; RMSE = 3.31 m. Comparison at the pixel level between GLAS heights (mean = 30.6 m; standard deviation = 10.7 and model predictions (mean = 30.8 m; std. = 8.4 were also performed. Further, the model predictions were compared to existing satellite-based forest height maps. The optimized ASRL model satisfactorily reproduced the pattern of tree heights over the CONUS. Subsequent articles in this series will document further improvements with the ultimate goal of mapping tree heights and forest biomass globally.

  18. Phase transitions of boron carbide: Pair interaction model of high carbon limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sanxi; Huhn, W. P.; Widom, M.

    2015-09-01

    Boron Carbide exhibits a broad composition range, implying a degree of intrinsic substitutional disorder. While the observed phase has rhombohedral symmetry (space group R 3 bar m), the enthalpy minimizing structure has lower, monoclinic, symmetry (space group Cm). The crystallographic primitive cell consists of a 12-atom icosahedron placed at the vertex of a rhombohedral lattice, together with a 3-atom chain along the 3-fold axis. In the limit of high carbon content, approaching 20% carbon, the icosahedra are usually of type B11 Cp, where the p indicates the carbon resides on a polar site, while the chains are of type C-B-C. We establish an atomic interaction model for this composition limit, fit to density functional theory total energies, that allows us to investigate the substitutional disorder using Monte Carlo simulations augmented by multiple histogram analysis. We find that the low temperature monoclinic Cm structure disorders through a pair of phase transitions, first via a 3-state Potts-like transition to space group R3m, then via an Ising-like transition to the experimentally observed R 3 bar m symmetry. The R3m and Cm phases are electrically polarized, while the high temperature R 3 bar m phase is nonpolar.

  19. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-25

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  20. Limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Howes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas are explored using quantitative comparisons to Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic theory over a wide range of parameter space. The validity of Hall MHD in the cold ion limit is shown, but spurious undamped wave modes exist in Hall MHD when the ion temperature is finite. It is argued that turbulence in the dissipation range of the solar wind must be one, or a mixture, of three electromagnetic wave modes: the parallel whistler, oblique whistler, or kinetic Alfvén waves. These modes are generally well described by Hall MHD. Determining the applicability of linear kinetic damping rates in turbulent plasmas requires a suite of fluid and kinetic nonlinear numerical simulations. Contrasting fluid and kinetic simulations will also shed light on whether the presence of spurious wave modes alters the nonlinear couplings inherent in turbulence and will illuminate the turbulent dynamics and energy transfer in the regime of the characteristic ion kinetic scales.

  1. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  2. A new spectral method using legendre wavelets for shallow water model in limited-area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fukang; Song, Junqiang; Wu, Jianping; Cao, Xiaoqun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a new spectral method using Legendre wavelets (named LWSTCM), which complete the stepping in spectral space while deal with boundary conditions in grid-point space by collocation method, for the numerical solution of shallow water model in limited-area. In order to deal with the overlapping boundaries, some proper schemes are considered for exchanging the information on the boundaries between sub-domains. 1-D advection equation is used to analysis the exponential convergence property and error characteristics of LWSTCM. Finally, we study LWSTCM on 2-D shallow water equations for a more realistic application. The numerical results are compared with existing numerical solutions found in the literature and demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented method.

  3. On Compound Poisson Processes Arising in Change-Point Type Statistical Models as Limiting Likelihood Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Dachian, Serguei

    2010-01-01

    Different change-point type models encountered in statistical inference for stochastic processes give rise to different limiting likelihood ratio processes. In a previous paper of one of the authors it was established that one of these likelihood ratios, which is an exponential functional of a two-sided Poisson process driven by some parameter, can be approximated (for sufficiently small values of the parameter) by another one, which is an exponential functional of a two-sided Brownian motion. In this paper we consider yet another likelihood ratio, which is the exponent of a two-sided compound Poisson process driven by some parameter. We establish, that similarly to the Poisson type one, the compound Poisson type likelihood ratio can be approximated by the Brownian type one for sufficiently small values of the parameter. We equally discuss the asymptotics for large values of the parameter and illustrate the results by numerical simulations.

  4. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yan, E-mail: yanpengphy@163.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China); School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shaanxi Sci-Tech University, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723000 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyunqi@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2017-02-15

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  5. Surface Vacuum Energy in Cutoff Models: Pressure Anomaly and Distributional Gravitational Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ricardo; Mera, Fernando D

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum-energy calculations with ideal reflecting boundaries are plagued by boundary divergences, which presumably correspond to real (but finite) physical effects occurring near the boundary. Our working hypothesis is that the stress tensor for idealized boundary conditions with some finite cutoff should be a reasonable ad hoc model for the true situation. The theory will have a sensible renormalized limit when the cutoff is taken away; this requires making sense of the Einstein equation with a distributional source. Calculations with the standard ultraviolet cutoff reveal an inconsistency between energy and pressure similar to the one that arises in noncovariant regularizations of cosmological vacuum energy. The problem disappears, however, if the cutoff is a spatial point separation in a "neutral" direction parallel to the boundary. Here we demonstrate these claims in detail, first for a single flat reflecting wall intersected by a test boundary, then more rigorously for a region of finite cross section sur...

  6. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Pan, Qiyuan; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-02-01

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  7. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V [E.I. Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Centre, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)

  8. Establishing the limits of efficiency of perovskite solar cells from first principles modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grånäs, Oscar; Vinichenko, Dmitry; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-11-01

    The recent surge in research on metal-halide-perovskite solar cells has led to a seven-fold increase of efficiency, from ~3% in early devices to over 22% in research prototypes. Oft-cited reasons for this increase are: (i) a carrier diffusion length reaching hundreds of microns; (ii) a low exciton binding energy; and (iii) a high optical absorption coefficient. These hybrid organic-inorganic materials span a large chemical space with the perovskite structure. Here, using first-principles calculations and thermodynamic modelling, we establish that, given the range of band-gaps of the metal-halide-perovskites, the theoretical maximum efficiency limit is in the range of ~25–27%. Our conclusions are based on the effect of level alignment between the perovskite absorber layer and carrier-transporting materials on the performance of the solar cell as a whole. Our results provide a useful framework for experimental searches toward more efficient devices.

  9. DETERMINATION OF RESOLUTION LIMITS OF ELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHY ON THE BLOCK MODEL IN A HOMOGENOUS ENVIRONMENT BY MEANS OF ELECTRICAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo Šumanovac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The block model in a homogenous environment can generally serve for presentation of some geological models: changes of facies, changes of rock compactness-fragmentation, underground cavities, bauxite deposits, etc. Therefore, on the block model of increased resistivities in a homogenous environment of low resistivity, the potentials of the electrical tomography method were tested for the purpose of their detection. Regarding potentials of block detection, resolution methods depend on: depth of block location, ratio between block resistivity and the environment in which it is located as well as applied survey geometry, i.e. electrode array. Thus the analyses carried out for the most frequently used electrode arrays in the investigations are the following: the Wenner, Wenner-Schlumberger, dipole-dipole and pole-pole arrays. For each array, maximum depths at which a block can be detected relative to the ratio between block resistivity and parent rock environment were analyzed. The results are shown in the two-dimensional graphs, where the ratio between the block resistivity and the environment is shown on the X-axis, and the resolution depth on the Y-axis, after which the curves defining the resolution limits were drawn. These graphs have a practical use, since they enable a fast, simple determination of potentials of the method application on a specific geological model.

  10. Can limited area NWP and/or RCM models improve on large scales inside their domain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina

    2017-04-01

    In a paper in press in Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics at the time this abstract is being written, Mesinger and Veljovic point out four requirements that need to be fulfilled by a limited area model (LAM), be it in NWP or RCM environment, to improve on large scales inside its domain. First, NWP/RCM model needs to be run on a relatively large domain. Note that domain size in quite inexpensive compared to resolution. Second, NWP/RCM model should not use more forcing at its boundaries than required by the mathematics of the problem. That means prescribing lateral boundary conditions only at its outside boundary, with one less prognostic variable prescribed at the outflow than at the inflow parts of the boundary. Next, nudging towards the large scales of the driver model must not be used, as it would obviously be nudging in the wrong direction if the nested model can improve on large scales inside its domain. And finally, the NWP/RCM model must have features that enable development of large scales improved compared to those of the driver model. This would typically include higher resolution, but obviously does not have to. Integrations showing improvements in large scales by LAM ensemble members are summarized in the mentioned paper in press. Ensemble members referred to are run using the Eta model, and are driven by ECMWF 32-day ensemble members, initialized 0000 UTC 4 October 2012. The Eta model used is the so-called "upgraded Eta," or "sloping steps Eta," which is free of the Gallus-Klemp problem of weak flow in the lee of the bell-shaped topography, seemed to many as suggesting the eta coordinate to be ill suited for high resolution models. The "sloping steps" in fact represent a simple version of the cut cell scheme. Accuracy of forecasting the position of jet stream winds, chosen to be those of speeds greater than 45 m/s at 250 hPa, expressed by Equitable Threat (or Gilbert) skill scores adjusted to unit bias (ETSa) was taken to show the skill at large scales

  11. A conceptual model for establishing tolerance limits for analytic bias and imprecision based on variations in population test distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, G

    1997-04-25

    A conceptual model is proposed for defining analytic bias limits utilizing the variations found in cumulative test value distributions. The model is based on the propositions that changes in analytic bias are more important than analytic imprecision in medical diagnoses and that analytic bias alters clinical specificity more than clinical sensitivity. The rationale for these propositions are presented along with a step-by-step procedure for estimating bias tolerance limits. These concepts are illustrated with an example using prostate-specific antigen. A second protocol is provided to define analytic imprecision tolerance limits, based on the quality control performance characteristics required to maintain the bias tolerance limits. This model can be applied to most chemistry, immunoassay, and hematologic quantitative assays. The relationship of this procedure to the published procedures using biologic variation for defining analytic tolerance limits is discussed.

  12. Complexity penalized hydraulic fracture localization and moment tensor estimation under limited model information

    CERN Document Server

    Ely, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel technique for micro-seismic localization using a group sparse penalization that is robust to the focal mechanism of the source and requires only a velocity model of the stratigraphy rather than a full Green's function model of the earth's response. In this technique we construct a set of perfect delta detector responses, one for each detector in the array, to a seismic event at a given location and impose a group sparsity across the array. This scheme is independent of the moment tensor and exploits the time compactness of the incident seismic signal. Furthermore we present a method for improving the inversion of the moment tensor and Green's function when the geometry of seismic array is limited. In particular we demonstrate that both Tikhonov regularization and truncated SVD can improve the recovery of the moment tensor and be robust to noise. We evaluate our algorithm on synthetic data and present error bounds for both estimation of the moment tensor as well as localization...

  13. Multiscale modeling of light absorption in tissues: limitations of classical homogenization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottin, Stephane; Panasenko, Grigory; Ganesh, S Sivaji

    2010-12-31

    In biophotonics, the light absorption in a tissue is usually modeled by the Helmholtz equation with two constant parameters, the scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient. This classic approximation of "haemoglobin diluted everywhere" (constant absorption coefficient) corresponds to the classical homogenization approach. The paper discusses the limitations of this approach. The scattering coefficient is supposed to be constant (equal to one) while the absorption coefficient is equal to zero everywhere except for a periodic set of thin parallel strips simulating the blood vessels, where it is a large parameter ω. The problem contains two other parameters which are small: ε, the ratio of the distance between the axes of vessels to the characteristic macroscopic size, and δ, the ratio of the thickness of thin vessels and the period. We construct asymptotic expansion in two cases: ε --> 0, ω --> ∞, δ --> 0, ωδ --> ∞, ε2ωδ --> 0 and ε --> 0, ω --> ∞, δ --> 0, ε2ωδ --> ∞, and and prove that in the first case the classical homogenization (averaging) of the differential equation is true while in the second case it is wrong. This result may be applied in the biomedical optics, for instance, in the modeling of the skin and cosmetics.

  14. An Interface Stretching-Diffusion Model for Mixing-Limited Reactions During Convective Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J. J.; Dentz, M.; Cabeza, Y.; Carrera, J.

    2014-12-01

    We study the behavior of mixing-limited dissolution reactions under the unstable flow conditions caused by a Rayleigh-Bénard convective instability in a two fluids system. The reactions produce a dissolution pattern that follows the ascending fluids's interface where the largest concentration gradients and maximum mixing are found. Contrary to other chemical systems, the mixing history engraved by the dissolution does not map out the fingering geometry of the unstable flow. The temporal scaling of the mixing Χ and the reaction rate r are explained by a stretching-diffusion model of the interface between the fluids. The model accurately reproduces the three observed regimes: a diffusive regime at which Χ, r ~ t-1/2; a convective regime of at which the interface contracts to the Batchelor scale resulting in a constant Χf and r independent of the Rayleigh number; and an attenuated convection regime in which Χ and r decay faster than diffusion as t-3/2 and t-1, respectevely, because of the decompression of the interface and weakened reactions caused by the accumulation of dissolved fluid below the interface.

  15. Spin Foam Models for Quantum Gravity and semi-classical limit

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Maité

    2011-01-01

    The spinfoam framework is a proposal for a regularized path integral for quantum gravity. Spinfoams define quantum space-time structures describing the evolution in time of the spin network states for quantum geometry derived from Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The construction of this covariant approach is based on the formulation of General Relativity as a topological theory plus the so-called simplicity constraints which introduce local degrees of freedom. The simplicity constraints are essential in turning the non-physical topological theory into 4d gravity. In this PhD manuscript, an original way to impose the simplicity constraints in 4d Euclidean gravity using harmonic oscillators is proposed and new coherent states, solutions of the constraints, are given. Moreover, a consistent spinfoam model for quantum gravity has to be connected to LQG and must have the right semi-classical limit. An explicit map between the spin network states of LQG and the boundary states of spinfoam models is given connecting the...

  16. Determining the prediction limits of models and classifiers with applications for disruption prediction in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Vega, J.; Gelfusa, M.; Lungaroni, M.; Gaudio, P.; Martínez, F. J.; Contributors, JET

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the many aspects of tokamak physics requires the development of quite sophisticated models. Moreover, in the operation of the devices, prediction of the future evolution of discharges can be of crucial importance, particularly in the case of the prediction of disruptions, which can cause serious damage to various parts of the machine. The determination of the limits of predictability is therefore an important issue for modelling, classifying and forecasting. In all these cases, once a certain level of performance has been reached, the question typically arises as to whether all the information available in the data has been exploited, or whether there are still margins for improvement of the tools being developed. In this paper, a theoretical information approach is proposed to address this issue. The excellent properties of the developed indicator, called the prediction factor (PF), have been proved with the help of a series of numerical tests. Its application to some typical behaviour relating to macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks has shown very positive results. The prediction factor has also been used to assess the performance of disruption predictors running in real time in the JET system, including the one systematically deployed in the feedback loop for mitigation purposes. The main conclusion is that the most advanced predictors basically exploit all the information contained in the locked mode signal on which they are based. Therefore, qualitative improvements in disruption prediction performance in JET would need the processing of additional signals, probably profiles.

  17. A holographic model for QCD in the Veneziano limit at finite temperature and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alho, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä,P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Järvinen, M. [Physics Department, University of Crete,P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kajantie, K. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kiritsis, E. [Physics Department, University of Crete,P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); APC, Université Paris 7,Bâtiment Condorcet, 75205, Paris Cedex 13 (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rosen, C. [Physics Department, University of Crete,P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tuominen, K. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-22

    A holographic model of QCD in the limit of large number of colors, N{sub c}, and massless fermion flavors, N{sub f}, but constant ratio x{sub f}=N{sub f}/N{sub c} is analyzed at finite temperature and chemical potential. The five dimensional gravity model contains three bulk fields: a scalar dilaton sourcing TrF{sup 2}, a scalar tachyon dual to q-macron q and a 4-vector dual to the baryon current q-macron γ{sup μ}q. The main result is the μ,T phase diagram of the holographic theory. A first order deconfining transition along T{sub h}(μ) and a chiral transition at T{sub χ}(μ)>T{sub h}(μ) are found. The chiral transition is of second order for small μ and becomes of first order at larger μ. The two regimes are separated by a tricritical point. The dependence of thermodynamical quantities including the speed of sound and susceptibilities on the chemical potential and temperature is computed. A new quantum critical regime is found at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. It is controlled by an AdS{sub 2}×R{sup 3} geometry and displays semi-local criticality.

  18. Limit order book and its modeling in terms of Gibbs Grand-Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicci, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    In the domain of so called Econophysics some attempts have been already made for applying the theory of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics to economics and financial markets. In this paper a similar approach is made from a different perspective, trying to model the limit order book and price formation process of a given stock by the Grand-Canonical Gibbs Ensemble for the bid and ask orders. The application of the Bose-Einstein statistics to this ensemble allows then to derive the distribution of the sell and buy orders as a function of price. As a consequence we can define in a meaningful way expressions for the temperatures of the ensembles of bid orders and of ask orders, which are a function of minimum bid, maximum ask and closure prices of the stock as well as of the exchanged volume of shares. It is demonstrated that the difference between the ask and bid orders temperatures can be related to the VAO (Volume Accumulation Oscillator), an indicator empirically defined in Technical Analysis of stock markets. Furthermore the derived distributions for aggregate bid and ask orders can be subject to well defined validations against real data, giving a falsifiable character to the model.

  19. Harnessing Intra-Host Strain Competition to Limit Antibiotic Resistance: Mathematical Model Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, Alexander B; Toth, Damon J A; Khader, Karim; Adler, Frederick R

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic overuse has promoted the spread of antibiotic resistance. To compound the issue, treating individuals dually infected with antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-vulnerable strains can make their infections completely resistant through competitive release. We formulate mathematical models of transmission dynamics accounting for dual infections and extensions accounting for lag times between infection and treatment or between cure and ending treatment. Analysis using the Next-Generation Matrix reveals how competition within hosts and the costs of resistance determine whether vulnerable and resistant strains persist, coexist, or drive each other to extinction. Invasion analysis predicts that treatment of dually infected cases will promote resistance. By varying antibiotic strength, the models suggest that physicians have two ways to achieve a particular resistance target: prescribe relatively weak antibiotics to everyone infected with an antibiotic-vulnerable strain or give more potent prescriptions to only those patients singly infected with the vulnerable strain after ruling out the possibility of them being dually infected with resistance. Through selectivity and moderation in antibiotic prescription, resistance might be limited.

  20. Hard-sphere limit of soft-sphere model for granular materials: Stiffness dependence of steady granular flow

    OpenAIRE

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2002-01-01

    Dynamical behavior of steady granular flow is investigated numerically in the inelastic hard sphere limit of the soft sphere model. We find distinctively different limiting behaviors for the two flow regimes, i.e., the collisional flow and the frictional flow. In the collisional flow, the hard sphere limit is straightforward; the number of collisions per particle per unit time converges to a finite value and the total contact time fraction with other particles goes to zero. For the frictional...

  1. Model-independent limits and constraints on extended theories of gravity from cosmic reconstruction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    The onset of dark energy domination depends on the particular gravitational theory driving the cosmic evolution. Model independent techniques are crucial to test the both the present ΛCDM cosmological paradigm and alternative theories, making the least possible number of assumptions about the Universe. In this paper we investigate whether cosmography is able to distinguish between different gravitational theories, by determining bounds on model parameters for three different extensions of General Relativity, namely quintessence, F(𝒯) and f(R) gravitational theories. We expand each class of theories in powers of redshift z around the present time, making no additional assumptions. This procedure is an extension of previous work and can be seen as the most general approach for testing extended theories of gravity through the use of cosmography. In the case of F(𝒯) and f(R) theories, we show that some assumptions on model parameters often made in previous works are superfluous or even unjustified. We use data from the Union 2.1 supernovae catalogue, baryonic acoustic oscillation data and H(z) differential age compilations, which probe cosmology on different scales of the cosmological evolution. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis using a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm with a Gelman-Rubin convergence criterion, reporting 1-σ and 2-σ confidence levels. To do so, we perform two distinct fits, assuming only data within z < 1 first and then without limitations in redshift. We obtain the corresponding numerical intervals in which coefficients span, and find that the data is compatible the ΛCDM limit of all three theories at the 1-σ level, while still compatible with quite a large portion of parameter space. We compare our results to the truncated ΛCDM paradigm, demonstrating that our bounds divert from the expectations of previous works, showing that the permitted regions of coefficients are significantly modified and in general widened with respect to

  2. Evaluation of methodologies for interpolation of data for hydrological modeling in glacierized basins with limited information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Randy; Paredes, Javier; Huggel, Christian; Drenkhan, Fabian; García, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The availability and consistency of data is a determining factor for the reliability of any hydrological model and simulated results. Unfortunately, there are many regions worldwide where data is not available in the desired quantity and quality. The Santa River basin (SRB), located within a complex topographic and climatic setting in the tropical Andes of Peru is a clear example of this challenging situation. A monitoring network of in-situ stations in the SRB recorded series of hydro-meteorological variables which finally ceased to operate in 1999. In the following years, several researchers evaluated and completed many of these series. This database was used by multiple research and policy-oriented projects in the SRB. However, hydroclimatic information remains limited, making it difficult to perform research, especially when dealing with the assessment of current and future water resources. In this context, here the evaluation of different methodologies to interpolate temperature and precipitation data at a monthly time step as well as ice volume data in glacierized basins with limited data is presented. The methodologies were evaluated for the Quillcay River, a tributary of the SRB, where the hydro-meteorological data is available from nearby monitoring stations since 1983. The study period was 1983 - 1999 with a validation period among 1993 - 1999. For temperature series the aim was to extend the observed data and interpolate it. Data from Reanalysis NCEP was used to extend the observed series: 1) using a simple correlation with multiple field stations, or 2) applying the altitudinal correction proposed in previous studies. The interpolation then was applied as a function of altitude. Both methodologies provide very close results, by parsimony simple correlation is shown as a viable choice. For precipitation series, the aim was to interpolate observed data. Two methodologies were evaluated: 1) Inverse Distance Weighting whose results underestimate the amount

  3. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A. J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Maldonado, D. G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  4. Quasi-neutral limit of the drift-diffusion model for semiconductors with general sign-changing doping profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIAO; Ling

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-neutral limit of time-dependent drift diffusion model with general sign-changing doping profile is justified rigorously in super-norm (i.e., uniformly in space). This improves the spatial square norm limit by Wang, Xin and Markowich.

  5. Equilibrium and stability properties of detonation waves in the hydrodynamic limit of a kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wilson, Jr.; Jacinta Soares, Ana; Pandolfi Bianchi, Miriam; Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2015-06-01

    A shock wave structure problem, like the one which can be formulated for the planar detonation wave, is analyzed here for a binary mixture of ideal gases undergoing the symmetric reaction {{A}1}+{{A}1}\\rightleftharpoons {{A}2}+{{A}2}. The problem is studied at the hydrodynamic Euler limit of a kinetic model of the reactive Boltzmann equation. The chemical rate law is deduced in this frame with a second-order reaction rate, in a chemical regime such that the gas flow is not far away from the chemical equilibrium. The caloric and the thermal equations of state for the specific internal energy and temperature are employed to close the system of balance laws. With respect to other approaches known in the kinetic literature for detonation problems with a reversible reaction, this paper aims to improve some aspects of the wave solution. Within the mathematical analysis of the detonation model, the equation of the equilibrium Hugoniot curve of the final states is explicitly derived for the first time and used to define the correct location of the equilibrium Chapman-Jouguet point in the Hugoniot diagram. The parametric space is widened to investigate the response of the detonation solution to the activation energy of the chemical reaction. Finally, the mathematical formulation of the linear stability problem is given for the wave detonation structure via a normal-mode approach, when bidimensional disturbances perturb the steady solution. The stability equations with their boundary conditions and the radiation condition of the considered model are explicitly derived for small transversal deviations of the shock wave location. The paper shows how a second-order chemical kinetics description, derived at the microscopic level, and an analytic deduction of the equilibrium Hugoniot curve, lead to an accurate picture of the steady detonation with reversible reaction, as well as to a proper bidimensional linear stability analysis.

  6. Applying petrophysical models to radar travel time and electrical resistivity tomograms: Resolution-dependent limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.; Binley, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical imaging has traditionally provided qualitative information about geologic structure; however, there is increasing interest in using petrophysical models to convert tomograms to quantitative estimates of hydrogeologic, mechanical, or geochemical parameters of interest (e.g., permeability, porosity, water content, and salinity). Unfortunately, petrophysical estimation based on tomograms is complicated by limited and variable image resolution, which depends on (1) measurement physics (e.g., electrical conduction or electromagnetic wave propagation), (2) parameterization and regularization, (3) measurement error, and (4) spatial variability. We present a framework to predict how core-scale relations between geophysical properties and hydrologic parameters are altered by the inversion, which produces smoothly varying pixel-scale estimates. We refer to this loss of information as "correlation loss." Our approach upscales the core-scale relation to the pixel scale using the model resolution matrix from the inversion, random field averaging, and spatial statistics of the geophysical property. Synthetic examples evaluate the utility of radar travel time tomography (RTT) and electrical-resistivity tomography (ERT) for estimating water content. This work provides (1) a framework to assess tomograms for geologic parameter estimation and (2) insights into the different patterns of correlation loss for ERT and RTT. Whereas ERT generally performs better near boreholes, RTT performs better in the interwell region. Application of petrophysical models to the tomograms in our examples would yield misleading estimates of water content. Although the examples presented illustrate the problem of correlation loss in the context of near-surface geophysical imaging, our results have clear implications for quantitative analysis of tomograms for diverse geoscience applications. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Modelling of the kinetics and parametric behaviour of a copper vapour laser: Output power limitation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, R.J. [Centre for Lasers and Applications, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    A self-consistent computer model was used to simulate the plasma kinetics (radially resolved) and parametric behaviour of an 18 mm bore (6 W) copper vapour laser for a wide range of optimum and non-optimum operating conditions. Good quantitative agreement was obtained between modelled results and experimental data including the temporal evolution of the 4p{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}, 4s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} and 4s{sup 2}{sup 2}D{sub 3/2} Cu laser level populations derived from hook method measurements. The modelled results show that the two most important parameters that affect laser behaviour are the ground state copper density and the peak electron temperature T{sub e}. For a given pulse repetition frequency (prf), maximum laser power is achieved by matching the copper atom density to the input pulse energy thereby maintaining the peak T{sub e} at around 3 eV. However, there is a threshold wall temperature (and copper density) above which the plasma tube becomes thermally unstable. At low prf ({lt}8 kHz), this thermal instability limits the attainable copper density (and consequently the laser output power) to values below the optimum for matching to the input pulse energy. For higher prf values ({gt}8 kHz), the copper density can be matched to the input pulse energy to give maximum laser power because the corresponding wall temperature then falls below the threshold temperature for thermal instability. For prf {gt}14 kHz, the laser output becomes highly annular across the tube diameter due to a severe depletion of the copper atom density on axis caused by radial ion pumping. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. The scaling of wild events in stochastic models: The Fisher limit, the Mandelbrot limit, and FARIMA as a model of the intermediate cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    Stochastic modelling is of increasing importance, both specifically in climate science and more broadly across the whole of nonlinear geophysics. Traditionally, the noise components of such models would be spectrally white (delta-correlated) and Gaussian in amplitude, and their variance (first named by Fisher in 1918) would well characterise the likely size of fluctuations. Integration, for example in autoregressive models like AR(1), would redden a noise spectrum, while multiplication in turbulent cascades could greatly increase the range of fluctuation amplitudes, but such processes would still inherit aspects of their finite variance building blocks. In the 60s and 70s, however, Mandelbrot and others [see e.g. Watkins, GRL Frontiers, 2013] began to present evidence in nature for much stronger departures from Gaussianity (via very heavy tailed, infinite variance, distributions) and from white noise (through long range dependence (LRD) in time). He also observed intermittency, defined here as correlations between absolute magnitudes in some time series, in, for example, finance and turbulence. He proposed various models, including self-similar ones for heavy tails and LRD, and multifractal cascades for intermittency. In this presentation we compare contrasting types of model by looking at the "wild" events that they produce. The notion of a "wild" event can be made more precise in many ways, including by its duration in time, peak amplitude, and spatial extent. Our chosen measure will be the "burst", defined as the area of a time series above a fixed threshold. We will compare burst scaling in a self-similar, LRD, heavy tailed model (LFSM, e.g. Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] with our newer results for multifractal random walks [with M. Rypdal and O. Lovsletten], and for the heavy tailed extended version of the FARIMA (1,d,0) process, which combines long range dependence with the high frequency structure familiar from AR(1). We will also discuss the physical meaning of

  9. A multistate model to project elderly disability in case of limited data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Van der Gaag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of disability depends on when a person becomes disabled (disability incidence and when he or she dies (mortality. Multistate projection models can take into account both underlying processes of disability prevalence. The application of these models, however, is often hampered by high data requirements. Objective: This paper describes a generic estimation procedure for calculating disability incidence rates and mortality rates by disability status from data on disability prevalence and overall mortality. The procedure allows for the addition of risk factors. Methods: We estimate disability incidence rates from disability prevalence and mortality rates by disability status using prevalence data on disability from SHARE and mortality data from Eurostat and the Rotterdam Study of Health (ERGO. We use these rates to project future trends of ADL-disability prevalence among the elderly in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2040 using the multistate projection model LIPRO. Results: This paper shows that even in the case of limited data, multistate projection models can be applied to project trends in disability prevalence. In a scenario that assumes constant disability incidence rates, disability prevalence among the elderly will increase even though the mortality rates of disabled persons exceed those of non-disabled people. In a scenario that assumes declining incidence rates at the same pace as declining mortality rates, disability prevalence will be significantly lower. This latter scenario results in an almost similar decline in disability prevalence as the scenario assuming a strong reduction of age-specific obesity among the elderly. One conclusion, therefore, could be that the prevalence of obesity should be seriously reduced to reach a strong reduction of disability incidence. Conclusions: The strength of this method to calculate disability incidence-rates based on disability prevalence-rates is that the relationship

  10. Modeling of neutral pressure and pumping in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor and outboard pump limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loarer, T. [Association CEA-Euratom, CEN/Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-les-Durance Cedex (France); Grosman, A. [Association CEA-Euratom, CEN/Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-les-Durance Cedex (France); Meslin, B. [Association CEA-Euratom, CEN/Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-les-Durance Cedex (France); Klepper, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mioduszewski, P.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Uckan, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Active control of the core plasma density and partial depletion of the wall particle content have been achieved in experiments on Tore Supra with the plasma leaning on either the ergodic divertor (ED) or the pump limiters. Measurements of neutral pressures in the ED and outboard pump limiter (OPL) are modeled with 1D parallel transport equations (continuity and momentum balance) for the SOL plasma coupled to 2D neutral particle transport simulations. SOL density and temperature profiles from reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements for a range of volume-averaged densities are renormalized, where necessary, to agree with Langmuir probe measurements in the OPL throat and constitute the upstream boundary conditions for the 1D calculations. Good agreement with measured pressures and exhaust rates are obtained for both the ED and OPL in scans that span a factor of 2-3 in volume-averaged density. The importance of a self-consistent treatment of the plasma and neutral particle transport in the neighborhood of the neutralizer plate is demonstrated, particularly in the stronger recycling regimes characteristic of densities at the high end of the scans. Plasma flow reversal near the plasma/plenum interface is predicted to occur at the higher densities due to the large local ionization source. Predictions of pressure buildup in the plenum behind the prototype vented neutralizer plate agree with experiment if it is assumed that both the tops and partially the sides of the needles comprising the plate are wetted by the plasma. A discharge in which the ED pumps are active is analyzed; the calculated pressure and exhaust rate agree with experiment. The core fueling rate is the same as without pumping, suggesting, as is seen in the experiment, a small density decay rate and significant wall particle depletion. (orig.).

  11. Limits to Planetary Fresh Water Use: A Multi-Model Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Timmermans, J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest over the last few years in limits to various earth bound systems and processes. This has been instigated by the work of Rockström and colleagues on planetary limits. Essentially, the planetary limit concept can be understood as a modern update to the seminal system

  12. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species.

  13. Intercomparisons of land-surface parameterizations coupled to a limited area forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbal, B.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    1998-12-01

    The goal of the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) is to improve the understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere and the continental surface in climate and weather forecast models. In PILPS Phase 4(b), selected schemes are coupled to the Limited Area Prediction System (LAPS) developed by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. To facilitate the comparison of PILPS schemes' behavior within LAPS, a single mode of coupling is selected: explicit coupling. This type of coupling is more flexible and avoids most of the problems raised when interchanging the surface schemes. Exploratory tests are conducted. Initially, experiments are run in which the land-surface schemes use the same parameters as in their original host models. Then, in other runs, the most important surface parameters are set constant in an attempt to reduce the scatter amongst the schemes' results. In order to understand the impact of initialisation of soil moisture on the schemes' results some extreme cases (wet and dry) are performed. The partitioning between surface fluxes is studied as well as the soil moisture budget. Both regional and local results are analysed. Sensitivity between LSS is found in the precipitation field with rainfall over the Australian continent altering by about 20%, but no significant change is found in the net radiation. The scatter in the surface energy fluxes amongst the schemes is large (up to 300 W m -2 locally, during the daytime peak) but is seldom affected by the choice of surface parameters. The dynamical range of flux partitioning between extremely dry and wet initialisation varies strongly amongst the schemes. Some major shortcoming with the BUCKET approach are seen in the re-evaporation of convective precipitation over dry land, in the very large evaporation from wet surfaces and the diurnal cycle of surface temperature.

  14. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2011-11-28

    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows the utilization of asymmetric contacts to describe the built-in potential within the device. The model has been applied to extract information of the distribution of traps from experimental current-voltage measurements of a rubrene single crystal from Krellner showing excellent agreement across several orders of magnitude in the current. Although the two contacts are made of the same metal, an energy offset of 580 meV between them, ascribed to differences in the deposition techniques (lamination vs evaporation) was essential to correctly interpret the shape of the current-voltage characteristics at low voltage. A band mobility of 0.13cm 2V-1s-1 for holes is estimated, which is consistent with transport along the long axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The total density of traps deeper than 0.1 eV was 2.2×1016cm -3. The sensitivity analysis and error estimation in the obtained parameters show that it is not possible to accurately resolve the shape of the trap distribution for energies deeper than 0.3 eV or shallower than 0.1 eV above the valence-band edge. The total number of traps deeper than 0.3 eV, however, can be estimated. Contact asymmetry and the diffusion component of the current play an important role in the description of the device at low bias and are required to obtain reliable information about the distribution of deep traps. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  15. The physical properties of z>2 Lyman limit systems: new constraints for feedback and accretion models

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We study the physical properties of a homogeneous sample of 157 optically-thick absorption line systems at redshifts ~1.8-4.4, selected from a high-dispersion spectroscopic survey of Lyman limit systems (LLSs). By means of multiple ionisation models and Bayesian techniques, we derive the posterior probability distribution functions for the density, metallicity, temperature, and dust content of the absorbing gas. We find that z>2 LLSs are highly ionised with ionisation parameters between -32 are characterised by a broad unimodal distribution over >4 orders of magnitude, with a peak at log Z/Zsun~-2. LLSs are metal poor, significantly less enriched than DLAs, with ~70% of the metallicity PDF below log Z/Zsun19 rapidly evolves with redshift, with a ten-fold increase between z~2.1-3.6 (~1.5 Gyr). Based on this sample, we find that LLSs at z=2.5-3.5 account for ~15% of all the metals produced by UV-selected galaxies. The implications for theories of cold gas accretion and metal ejection from galaxies are also disc...

  16. Avoiding the Limits to Growth: Gross National Happiness in Bhutan as a Model for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In their 30-year update to Limits to Growth, Meadows et al. call for a vision of sustainable development that includes systemic change brought on by new perspectives on the purpose of development, new ways of measuring progress, and changes in social norms. Here, I discuss Meadows et al.’s work in the context of the literature on sustainable development and well-being as well as the development trajectory of Bhutan. I suggest that Bhutan’s development approach mirrors Meadows et al.’s recommendations and provides one model for sustainable development. The ideal of maximizing Gross National Happiness (GNH exemplifies Bhutan’s commitment to holistic development and dovetails with arguments about the shortcomings of approaches that emphasize economic growth. I provide examples of how GNH has been put into practice, describe how happiness is being measured, and discuss the emergence of social norms and a shared Bhutanese identity that may contribute to sustainable development. Bhutan’s development success suggests that an alternative to growth-centric development is viable. However, while Bhutan’s standard of living has increased, the country faces challenges, the most important of which may be their ability to manage rising consumption levels. Importantly, other nations have begun measuring well-being and considering similar development approaches.

  17. Growth instability due to lattice-induced topological currents in limited-mobility epitaxial growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaput, Wittawat; Limkumnerd, Surachate; Chatraphorn, Patcha

    2010-10-01

    The energetically driven Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier had been generally accepted as the primary cause of the growth instability in the form of quasiregular moundlike structures observed on the surface of thin film grown via molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. Recently the second mechanism of mound formation was proposed in terms of a topologically induced flux of particles originating from the line tension of the step edges which form the contour lines around a mound. Through large-scale simulations of MBE growth on a variety of crystalline lattice planes using limited-mobility, solid-on-solid models introduced by Wolf-Villain and Das Sarma-Tamborenea in 2+1 dimensions, we show that there exists a topological uphill particle current with strong dependence on specific lattice crystalline structure. Without any energetically induced barriers, our simulations produce spectacular mounds very similar, in some cases, to what have been observed in many recent MBE experiments. On a lattice where these currents cease to exist, the surface appears to be scale invariant, statistically rough as predicted by the conventional continuum growth equation.

  18. Diffusive behavior and the modeling of characteristic times in limit order executions

    CERN Document Server

    Eisler, Z; Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N; Eisler, Zoltan; Kertesz, Janos; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the order book data of the London Stock Exchange for five highly liquid stocks traded during the calendar year 2002. Specifically, we study the first passage time of order book prices needed to observe a prescribed price change "Delta", the time to fill (TTF) for executed limit orders and the time to cancel (TTC) for canceled ones. We find that the distribution of the first passage time decays asymptotically in time as a power law with an exponent "L_FPT ~ 1.5". The median of the same quantity scales as "Delta^1.6", which is different from the "Delta^2" behavior expected for Brownian motion. The quantities TTF, and TTC are also asymptotically power law distributed with exponents "L_TTF = 1.8-2.2" and "L_TTC = 1.9-2.4", respectively. For the medians of the time to fill we observe a scaling proportional to "Delta^1.4". We outline a simple model, which assumes that prices are characterized by the empirically observed distribution of the first passage time and orders are canceled randomly wi...

  19. Limitations to estimating bacterial cross-speciestransmission using genetic and genomic markers: inferencesfrom simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio Andre, Benavides; Cross, Paul C.; Luikart, Gordon; Scott, Creel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST. We found that CST estimates are biased for a wide range of parameters when based on VNTRs and a most parsimonious reconstructed phylogeny. However, estimations of CST rates lower than 5% can be achieved with relatively low bias using as low as 250 SNPs. CST estimates are sensitive to several parameters, including the number of mutations accumulated since introduction, stochasticity, the genetic difference of strains introduced, and the sampling effort. Our results suggest that, even with whole-genome sequences, unbiased estimates of CST will be difficult when sampling is limited, mutation rates are low, or for pathogens that were recently introduced.

  20. Two-state Bose-Hubbard model in the hard-core boson limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Velychk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase transition into the phase with Bose-Einstein (BE condensate in the two-band Bose-Hubbard model with the particle hopping in the excited band only is investigated. Instability connected with such a transition (which appears at excitation energies δ0|, where |t'0| is the particle hopping parameter is considered. The re-entrant behaviour of spinodales is revealed in the hard-core boson limit in the region of positive values of chemical potential. It is found that the order of the phase transition undergoes a change in this case and becomes the first one; the re-entrant transition into the normal phase does not take place in reality. First order phase transitions also exist at negative values of δ (under the condition δ>δcrit≈ − 0.12|t'0|. At μ0|, μ phase diagrams are built and localizations of tricritical points are established. The conditions are found at which the separation on the normal phase and the phase with the BE condensate takes place.

  1. Regional climate model simulations indicate limited climatic impacts by operational and planned European wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, Robert; Thais, Françoise; Tobin, Isabelle; Bréon, François-Marie; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Colette, Augustin; Yiou, Pascal; Ruti, Paolo Michele

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of wind energy has raised concerns about environmental impacts. Temperature changes are found in the vicinity of wind farms and previous simulations have suggested that large-scale wind farms could alter regional climate. However, assessments of the effects of realistic wind power development scenarios at the scale of a continent are missing. Here we simulate the impacts of current and near-future wind energy production according to European Union energy and climate policies. We use a regional climate model describing the interactions between turbines and the atmosphere, and find limited impacts. A statistically significant signal is only found in winter, with changes within ±0.3 °C and within 0-5% for precipitation. It results from the combination of local wind farm effects and changes due to a weak, but robust, anticyclonic-induced circulation over Europe. However, the impacts remain much weaker than the natural climate interannual variability and changes expected from greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Results and limits in the 1-D analytical modeling for the asymmetric DG SOI MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cobianu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results and the limits of 1-D analytical modeling of electrostatic potential in the low-doped p type silicon body of the asymmetric n-channel DG SOI MOSFET, where the contribution to the asymmetry comes only from p- and n-type doping of polysilicon used as the gate electrodes. Solving Poisson's equation with boundary conditions based on the continuity of normal electrical displacement at interfaces and the presence of a minimum electrostatic potential by using the Matlab code we have obtained a minimum potential with a slow variation in the central zone of silicon with the value pinned around 0.46 V, where the applied VGS voltage varies from 0.45 V to 0.95 V. The paper states clearly the validity domain of the analytical solution and the important effect of the localization of the minimum electrostatic potential value on the potential variation at interfaces as a function of the applied VGS voltage.

  3. Results and limits in the 1-D analytical modeling for the asymmetric DG SOI MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobianu, O.; Glesner, M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the results and the limits of 1-D analytical modeling of electrostatic potential in the low-doped p type silicon body of the asymmetric n-channel DG SOI MOSFET, where the contribution to the asymmetry comes only from p- and n-type doping of polysilicon used as the gate electrodes. Solving Poisson's equation with boundary conditions based on the continuity of normal electrical displacement at interfaces and the presence of a minimum electrostatic potential by using the Matlab code we have obtained a minimum potential with a slow variation in the central zone of silicon with the value pinned around 0.46 V, where the applied VGS voltage varies from 0.45 V to 0.95 V. The paper states clearly the validity domain of the analytical solution and the important effect of the localization of the minimum electrostatic potential value on the potential variation at interfaces as a function of the applied VGS voltage.

  4. Nutrient limitation reduces land carbon uptake in simulations with a model of combined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Goll

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon (C cycle models applied for climate projections simulate a strong increase in net primary productivity (NPP due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 21st century. These models usually neglect the limited availability of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, nutrients that commonly limit plant growth and soil carbon turnover. To investigate how the projected C sequestration is altered when stoichiometric constraints on C cycling are considered, we incorporated a P cycle into the land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg, which already includes representations of coupled C and N cycles.

    The model reveals a distinct geographic pattern of P and N limitation. Under the SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario, the accumulated land C uptake between 1860 and 2100 is 13% (particularly at high latitudes and 16% (particularly at low latitudes lower in simulations with N and P cycling, respectively, than in simulations without nutrient cycles. The combined effect of both nutrients reduces land C uptake by 25% compared to simulations without N or P cycling. Nutrient limitation in general may be biased by the model simplicity, but the ranking of limitations is robust against the parameterization and the inflexibility of stoichiometry. After 2100, increased temperature and high CO2 concentration cause a shift from N to P limitation at high latitudes, while nutrient limitation in the tropics declines. The increase in P limitation at high-latitudes is induced by a strong increase in NPP and the low P sorption capacity of soils, while a decline in tropical NPP due to high autotrophic respiration rates alleviates N and P limitations. The quantification of P limitation remains challenging. The poorly constrained processes of soil P sorption and biochemical mineralization are identified as the main uncertainties in the strength of P limitation

  5. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Methodology, Applications, and Limitations with a Focus on Its Role in Pediatric Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was introduced years ago, but it has not been practiced significantly. However, interest in and implementation of this modeling technique have grown, as evidenced by the increased number of publications in this field. This paper demonstrates briefly the methodology, applications, and limitations of PBPK modeling with special attention given to discuss the use of PBPK models in pediatric drug development and some examples described in detail. Although PBPK models do have some limitations, the potential benefit from PBPK modeling technique is huge. PBPK models can be applied to investigate drug pharmacokinetics under different physiological and pathological conditions or in different age groups, to support decision-making during drug discovery, to provide, perhaps most important, data that can save time and resources, especially in early drug development phases and in pediatric clinical trials, and potentially to help clinical trials become more “confirmatory” rather than “exploratory”.

  6. Screen-level non-GTS data assimilation in a limited-area mesoscale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The forecast in areas of very complex topography, as for instance the Alpine region, is still a challenge even for the new generation of numerical weather prediction models which aim at reaching the km-scale. The problem is enhanced by a general lack of standard observations, which is even more evident over the southern side of the Alps. For this reason, it would be useful to increase the performance of the mathematical models by locally assimilating non-conventional data. Since in ARPA Piemonte there is the availability of a great number of non-GTS stations, it has been decided to assimilate the 2 m temperature, coming from this dataset, in the very-high resolution version of the COSMO model, which has a horizontal resolution of about 3 km, more similar to the average resolution of the thermometers. Four different weather situations have been considered, ranging from spring to winter, from cloudy to clear sky. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of the assimilation of non-GTS data in order to create an operational very high-resolution analysis, but also to test the option of running in the future a very short-range forecast starting from these analyses (RUC or Rapid Update Cycle. The results, in terms of Root Mean Square Error, Mean Error and diurnal cycle of some surface variables such as 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity and 10 m wind intensity show a positive impact during the assimilation cycle which tends to dissipate a few hours after the end of it. Moreover, the 2 m temperature assimilation has a slightly positive or neutral impact on the vertical profiles of temperature, eventhough some calibration is needed for the precipitation field which is too much perturbed during the assimilation cycle, while it is unaffected in the forecast period. So the stability of the planetary boundary layer, on the one hand, has not been particularly improved by the new-data assimilation, but, on the other hand, it has not been destroyed

  7. How the nonlinear coupled oscillators modelization explains the Blazhko effect, the synchronisation of layers, the mode selection, the limit cycle, and the red limit of the instability strip

    CERN Document Server

    Zalian, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Blazhko effect, in RR Lyrae type stars, is a century old mystery. Dozens of theory exists, but none have been able to entirely reproduce the observational facts associated to this modulation phenomenon. Existing theory all rely on the usual continuous modelization of the star. Aims. We present a new paradigm which will not only explain the Blazhko effect, but at the same time, will give us alternative explanations to the red limit of the instability strip, the synchronization of layers, the mode selection and the existence of a limit cycle for radially pulsating stars. Methods. We describe the RR Lyrae type pulsating stars as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Considering a spatial discretisation of the star, supposing a spherical symmetry, we develop the equation of motion and energy up to the third order in the radial and adiabatic case. Then, we include the influence of the ionization region as a relaxation oscillator by including elements from synchronisation theory. Results. This dis...

  8. Channel Flow Model of Extrusion of the Higher Himalaya- Successes & Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2009-04-01

    During laminar ‘channel flow'/‘Plane Poiseuille flow' of an incompressible Newtonian viscous fluid through a very long parallel horizontal static walls of a channel due to a pressure gradient, a parabolic velocity profile is produced. The sense of ductile shearing across the middle of the channel is opposite. Grujic et al. (1996) and Beaumont et al. (2001) applied this flow mechanism to explain the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya (HH). In their sequel, the Dalhousie school of modelers kept enumerating this extrusion model. Successes of the channel flow extrusion model are that it explains (1) extensional top-to-NE sense of ductile shearing in the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) simultaneous to the top-to-SW sense of compressional shearing in the remainder of the HH; (2) fluid activity below the southern part of the Tibetan plateau; and (3) inverted metamorphism in the HH. However, limitations of this extrusion model are as follows. (1) A previous top-to-SW sense of compressional shearing in the STDS is not taken care by the model alone. (2) The thickness of the STDS in reality is thinner than the remainder of the HH. In the model, on the other hand, their thicknesses should be the same. (3) Presence of a second strand of the STDS inside the HH that is absent in some sections of the mountain chain remained unexplained in the model. (4) The ductile shear fabric of more commonly sigmoid-, and less commonly parallelogram- and lenticular geometries are found inside the HH. However, had the channel flow been the extrusion mechanism and rocks deformed as a Newtonian fluid, parabolic shear fabrics are expected. Additionally, can the genesis of the intrafolial folds inside the two strands of the STDS (e.g. Mukherjee, 2007) be explained by the channel flow mechanism? (5) Regions and their spatial extents with different senses of ductile shearing would change if the rocks deformed Non-Newtonically. The exact geometry of the velocity profile will depend on the

  9. Production by intertidal benthic animals and limits to their predation by shorebirds : a heuristic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the question whether the cumulative amount of benthic biomass removed by feeding shorebirds on a certain intertidal area is limited by the renewal rate of benthic food stocks. Limitations of current methods to estimate both predatory impact by shorebirds and harvestable benthic

  10. 3D MODELING OF INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE BUILDING USING COTSs SYSTEM: TEST, LIMITS AND PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of UAV systems in applied geomatics is continuously increasing in several applications as inspection, surveying and geospatial data. This evolution is mainly due to two factors: new technologies and new algorithms for data processing. About technologies, from some years ago there is a very wide use of commercial UAV even COTSs (Commercial On-The-Shelf systems. Moreover, these UAVs allow to easily acquire oblique images, giving the possibility to overcome the limitations of the nadir approach related to the field of view and occlusions. In order to test potential and issue of COTSs systems, the Italian Society of Photogrammetry and Topography (SIFET has organised the SBM2017, which is a benchmark where all people can participate in a shared experience. This benchmark, called “Photogrammetry with oblique images from UAV: potentialities and challenges”, permits to collect considerations from the users, highlight the potential of these systems, define the critical aspects and the technological challenges and compare distinct approaches and software. The case study is the “Fornace Penna” in Scicli (Ragusa, Italy, an inaccessible monument of industrial architecture from the early 1900s. The datasets (images and video have been acquired from three different UAVs system: Parrot Bebop 2, DJI Phantom 4 and Flytop Flynovex. The aim of this benchmark is to generate the 3D model of the “Fornace Penna”, making an analysis considering different software, imaging geometry and processing strategies. This paper describes the surveying strategies, the methodologies and five different photogrammetric obtained results (sensor calibration, external orientation, dense point cloud and two orthophotos, using separately – the single images and the frames extracted from the video – acquired with the DJI system.

  11. A generic model-based methodology for quantification of mass transfer limitations in microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Fernandes del Pozo, David; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Microreactors are becoming more popular in the biocatalytic field to speed up reactions and thus achieve process intensification. However, even these small-scale reactors can suffer from mass transfer limitations. Traditionally, dimensionless numbers such as the second Damköhler number are used...... to determine whether the reaction is either kinetically or mass transfer limited. However, these dimensionless numbers only give a qualitative measure of the extent of the mass transfer limitation, and are only applicable to simple reactor configurations. In practice, this makes it difficult to rapidly...... quantify the importance of such mass transfer limitations and compare different reactor configurations. This paper presents a novel generic methodology to quantify mass transfer limitations. It was applied to two microreactor configurations: a microreactor with immobilised enzyme at the wall and a Y...

  12. Modeling the Dynamics of a Non-Limited and a Self-Limited Gene Drive System in Structured Aedes aegypti Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Mathieu; Xu, Chonggang; Morrison, Amy; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Recently there have been significant advances in research on genetic strategies to control populations of disease-vectoring insects. Some of these strategies use the gene drive properties of selfish genetic elements to spread physically linked anti-pathogen genes into local vector populations. Because of the potential of these selfish elements to spread through populations, control approaches based on these strategies must be carefully evaluated to ensure a balance between the desirable spread of the refractoriness-conferring genetic cargo and the avoidance of potentially unwanted outcomes such as spread to non-target populations. There is also a need to develop better estimates of the economics of such releases. We present here an evaluation of two such strategies using a biologically realistic mathematical model that simulates the resident Aedes aegypti mosquito population of Iquitos, Peru. One strategy uses the selfish element Medea, a non-limited element that could permanently spread over a large geographic area; the other strategy relies on Killer-Rescue genetic constructs, and has been predicted to have limited spatial and temporal spread. We simulate various operational approaches for deploying these genetic strategies, and quantify the optimal number of released transgenic mosquitoes needed to achieve definitive spread of Medea-linked genes and/or high frequencies of Killer-Rescue-associated elements. We show that for both strategies the most efficient approach for achieving spread of anti-pathogen genes within three years is generally to release adults of both sexes in multiple releases over time. Even though females in these releases should not transmit disease, there could be public concern over such releases, making the less efficient male-only release more practical. This study provides guidelines for operational approaches to population replacement genetic strategies, as well as illustrates the use of detailed spatial models to assist in safe and

  13. Modeling the dynamics of a non-limited and a self-limited gene drive system in structured Aedes aegypti populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Legros

    Full Text Available Recently there have been significant advances in research on genetic strategies to control populations of disease-vectoring insects. Some of these strategies use the gene drive properties of selfish genetic elements to spread physically linked anti-pathogen genes into local vector populations. Because of the potential of these selfish elements to spread through populations, control approaches based on these strategies must be carefully evaluated to ensure a balance between the desirable spread of the refractoriness-conferring genetic cargo and the avoidance of potentially unwanted outcomes such as spread to non-target populations. There is also a need to develop better estimates of the economics of such releases. We present here an evaluation of two such strategies using a biologically realistic mathematical model that simulates the resident Aedes aegypti mosquito population of Iquitos, Peru. One strategy uses the selfish element Medea, a non-limited element that could permanently spread over a large geographic area; the other strategy relies on Killer-Rescue genetic constructs, and has been predicted to have limited spatial and temporal spread. We simulate various operational approaches for deploying these genetic strategies, and quantify the optimal number of released transgenic mosquitoes needed to achieve definitive spread of Medea-linked genes and/or high frequencies of Killer-Rescue-associated elements. We show that for both strategies the most efficient approach for achieving spread of anti-pathogen genes within three years is generally to release adults of both sexes in multiple releases over time. Even though females in these releases should not transmit disease, there could be public concern over such releases, making the less efficient male-only release more practical. This study provides guidelines for operational approaches to population replacement genetic strategies, as well as illustrates the use of detailed spatial models to

  14. Modeling the dynamics of a non-limited and a self-limited gene drive system in structured Aedes aegypti populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Mathieu; Xu, Chonggang; Morrison, Amy; Scott, Thomas W; Lloyd, Alun L; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Recently there have been significant advances in research on genetic strategies to control populations of disease-vectoring insects. Some of these strategies use the gene drive properties of selfish genetic elements to spread physically linked anti-pathogen genes into local vector populations. Because of the potential of these selfish elements to spread through populations, control approaches based on these strategies must be carefully evaluated to ensure a balance between the desirable spread of the refractoriness-conferring genetic cargo and the avoidance of potentially unwanted outcomes such as spread to non-target populations. There is also a need to develop better estimates of the economics of such releases. We present here an evaluation of two such strategies using a biologically realistic mathematical model that simulates the resident Aedes aegypti mosquito population of Iquitos, Peru. One strategy uses the selfish element Medea, a non-limited element that could permanently spread over a large geographic area; the other strategy relies on Killer-Rescue genetic constructs, and has been predicted to have limited spatial and temporal spread. We simulate various operational approaches for deploying these genetic strategies, and quantify the optimal number of released transgenic mosquitoes needed to achieve definitive spread of Medea-linked genes and/or high frequencies of Killer-Rescue-associated elements. We show that for both strategies the most efficient approach for achieving spread of anti-pathogen genes within three years is generally to release adults of both sexes in multiple releases over time. Even though females in these releases should not transmit disease, there could be public concern over such releases, making the less efficient male-only release more practical. This study provides guidelines for operational approaches to population replacement genetic strategies, as well as illustrates the use of detailed spatial models to assist in safe and

  15. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  16. Limit cycles by FEM for a one - parameter dynamical system associated to the Luo - Rudy I model

    CERN Document Server

    Bichir, Cătălin Liviu; Amuzescu, Bogdan; Nistor, Gheorghe; Popescu, Marin; Flonta, Maria-Luiza; Corlan, Alexandru Dan; Svab, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    An one - parameter dynamical system is associated to the mathematical problem governing the membrane excitability of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, according to the Luo-Rudy I model. Limit cycles are described by the solutions of an extended system. A finite element method time approximation (FEM) is used in order to formulate the approximate problem. Starting from a Hopf bifurcation point, approximate limit cycles are obtained, step by step, using an arc-length-continuation method and Newton's method. Some numerical results are presented.

  17. Model predictive control for power flows in networks with limited capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2012-01-01

    We consider an interconnected network of consumers powered through an electrical grid of limited capacity. A subset of the consumers are intelligent consumers and have the ability to store energy in a controllable fashion; they can be filled and emptied as desired under power and capacity...... limitations. We address the problem of maintaining power balance between production and consumption using the intelligent consumers to ensure smooth power consumption from the grid. Further, certain capacity limitations to the links interconnecting the consumers must be honored. In this paper, we show how...

  18. Heavy-to-Light Form Factors in the Final Hadron Large Energy Limit Covariant Quark Model Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1999-01-01

    We prove the full covariance of the heavy-to-light weak current matrix elements based on the Bakamjian-Thomas construction of relativistic quark models, in the heavy mass limit for the parent hadron and the large energy limit for the daughter one. Moreover, this quark model representation of the heavy-to-light form factors fulfills the general relations that were recently argued to hold in the corresponding limit of QCD, namely that there are only three independent form factors describing the B -> pi (rho) matrix elements, as well as the factorized scaling law sqrt(M)z(E) of the form factors with respect to the heavy mass M and large energy E. These results constitute another good property of the quark models à la Bakamjian-Thomas, which were previously shown to exhibit covariance and Isgur-Wise scaling in the heavy-to-heavy case.

  19. Global Existence of Classical Solutions for Some Oldroyd-B Model via the Incompressible Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen LEI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we prove local and global existence of classical solutions for a system of equations concerning an incompressible viscoelastic fluid of Oldroyd-B type via the incompressible limit when the initial data are sufficiently small.

  20. Thermoacoustic analysis of the dynamic pressure inside a model combustor during limit cycle oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemela, Panduranga Reddy; Roman Casado, Juan; Tarband Veeraraghavan, Santos Kumar; Kok, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In this work comprehensive experimental and numerical studies incorporating the most relevant physical mechanisms causing limit cycle pressure and combustion rate oscillations (LCO) in a laboratory scale combustor will be discussed. The strong interaction between the aerodynamics-combustion-acoustic

  1. Direct methods for limit and shakedown analysis of structures advanced computational algorithms and material modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Aurora; Weichert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Articles in this book examine various materials and how to determine directly the limit state of a structure, in the sense of limit analysis and shakedown analysis. Apart from classical applications in mechanical and civil engineering contexts, the book reports on the emerging field of material design beyond the elastic limit, which has further industrial design and technological applications. Readers will discover that “Direct Methods” and the techniques presented here can in fact be used to numerically estimate the strength of structured materials such as composites or nano-materials, which represent fruitful fields of future applications.   Leading researchers outline the latest computational tools and optimization techniques and explore the possibility of obtaining information on the limit state of a structure whose post-elastic loading path and constitutive behavior are not well defined or well known. Readers will discover how Direct Methods allow rapid and direct access to requested information in...

  2. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  3. Tracheal compliance and limit flow rate changes in a murine model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Trachea is the unique passage for air to flow in and out. Its tone is of importance for the respiration system. However, investigation on how tracheal tone changes due to asthma is limited. Aiming at studying how the mechanical property changes due to asthma as well as the compliance and flow limitation, the following methods are adopted. Static and passive pressure-volume tests of rats’ trachea of the asthmatic and control groups are carried out and a new type of tube law is formulated to fit the experimental data, based on which changes of compliance and limit flow rate are investigated. In order to give explanation to such changes, histological examinations with tracheal soft tissues are made. The results show that compliance, limit flow rate and material constants included in the tube law largely depend on the longitudinal stretching ratio. Compared with the control group, the tracheal compliance of asthmatic animals decreases significantly, which results in an increased limit flow rate. Histological studies indicate that asthma can lead to hyperplasia/hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells, and increase elastin and collagen fibres in the muscular membrane. Though decreasing compliance increases sta- bility, during the onset of asthma, limit flow rate is much smaller due to the lower transmural pressure. Asthma leads to a stiffer trachea and the obtained results reveal some aspects relevant to asthma-induced tracheal remodelling.

  4. Tracheal compliance and limit flow rate changes in a urine model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG ZhongZhao; WANG YiQin; LI FuFeng; YAN HaiXia; LIU ZhaoRong

    2008-01-01

    Trachea is the unique passage for air to flow in and out. Its tone is of importance for the respiration system. However, investigation on how tracheal tone changes due to asthma is limited. Aiming at studying how the mechanical property changes due to asthma as well as the compliance and flow limitation, the following methods are adopted. Static and passive pressure-volume tests of rats' trachea of the asthmatic and control groups are carried out and a new type of tube law is formulated to fit the experimental data, based on which changes of compliance and limit flow rate are investigated. In order to give explanation to such changes, histological examinations with tracheal soft tissues are made. The results show that compliance, limit flow rate and material constants included in the tube law largely depend on the longitudinal stretching ratio. Compared with the control group, the tracheal compliance of asthmatic animals decreases significantly, which results in an increased limit flow rate. Histological studies indicate that asthma can lead to hyperplasia/hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells, and increase elastin and collagen fibres in the muscular membrane. Though decreasing compliance increases sta-bility, during the onset of asthma, limit flow rate is much smaller due to the lower transmural pressure. Asthma leads to a stiffer trachea and the obtained results reveal some aspects relevant to asthma-induced tracheal remodelling.

  5. THE ASYMPTOTIC LIMIT FOR A COMBUSTION MODEL IN REGARD TO INFINITE REACTION RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Longan

    2008-01-01

    The Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring model and the Chapman-Jouguet model for a simplified combustion model-Majda's model is studied. The author proves a uniform maximum norm estimate, then proves that as the rate of chemical reaction tends to infinity the solutions to the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring model tend to that of the Chapman-Jouguet model. The type of combustion waves is studied. This result is compared with the result of the projection and finite difference method for the same model.

  6. Modeling of limiter heat loads and impurity transport in Wendelstein 7-X startup plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Florian; Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Hoelbe, H.; Koenig, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Pedersen, T. S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Reiter, D.

    2015-11-01

    The quasi-isodynamic stellarator Wendelstein 7-X starts plasma operation in a limiter configuration. The field consists of closed magnetic flux surfaces avoiding magnetic islands in the plasma boundary. Because of the small size of the limiters and the absence of wall-protecting elements in this phase, limiter heat loads and impurity generation due to plasma surface interaction become a concern. These issues are studied with the 3D fluid plasma edge and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-Eirene. It is shown that the 3D SOL consists of three separate helical magnetic flux bundles of different field line connection lengths. A density scan at input power of 4MW reveals a strong modulation of the plasma paramters with the connection length. The limiter peak heat fluxes drop from 14 MWm-2 down to 10 MWm-2 with raising the density from 1 ×1018m-3 to 1.9 ×1019m-3, accompanied by an increase of the heat flux channel widths λq. Radiative power losses can help to avoid thermal overloads of the limiters at the upper margin of the heating power. The power removal feasibility of the intrinsic carbon and other extrinsic light impurities via active gas injection is discussed as a preparation of this method for island divertor operation. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, USA and by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-SC0013911.

  7. Determination of the mass transfer limiting step of dye adsorption onto commercial adsorbent by using mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Pricila; Borba, Carlos Eduardo; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Silvia Priscila Dias; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    Reactive blue 5G dye removal in a fixed-bed column packed with Dowex Optipore SD-2 adsorbent was modelled. Three mathematical models were tested in order to determine the limiting step of the mass transfer of the dye adsorption process onto the adsorbent. The mass transfer resistance was considered to be a criterion for the determination of the difference between models. The models contained information about the external, internal, or surface adsorption limiting step. In the model development procedure, two hypotheses were applied to describe the internal mass transfer resistance. First, the mass transfer coefficient constant was considered. Second, the mass transfer coefficient was considered as a function of the dye concentration in the adsorbent. The experimental breakthrough curves were obtained for different particle diameters of the adsorbent, flow rates, and feed dye concentrations in order to evaluate the predictive power of the models. The values of the mass transfer parameters of the mathematical models were estimated by using the downhill simplex optimization method. The results showed that the model that considered internal resistance with a variable mass transfer coefficient was more flexible than the other ones and this model described the dynamics of the adsorption process of the dye in the fixed-bed column better. Hence, this model can be used for optimization and column design purposes for the investigated systems and similar ones.

  8. Inventory models with stock- and price-dependent demand for deteriorating items based on limited shelf space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chun-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of determining the optimal selling price and order quantity simultaneously under EOQ model for deteriorating items. It is assumed that the demand rate depends not only on the on-display stock level but also the selling price per unit, as well as the amount of shelf/display space is limited. We formulate two types of mathematical models to manifest the extended EOQ models for maximizing profits and derive the algorithms to find the optimal solution. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the models developed and sensitivity analysis is reported.

  9. Estimates of committed effective dose and annual limit on intake for radioactive dusts using the new ICRP respiratory tract model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.S. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the implications of using the new ICRP 66 respiratory tract model for calculation of the committed effective dose(CED), for a period of 50 years post-intake, together with the annual limit on intake(ALI), for radioactive dusts encountered in the uranium and mineral sand mining and processing industries. Some of the differences between the old ICRP 30 respiratory tract model and the LUDEP 1.1 computer code, which is based on the new ICRP 66 respiratory tract model, are discussed and a comparison of values obtained using both models is given. 4 figs; 8 tabs; 16 refs.

  10. Uses and Limitations of Scientific Models: The Periodic Table as an Inductive Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Nava; Genut, Sara

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that scientific laws about nature and their representative models, as taught and described by theory, are often different from the method as practiced. Focuses on the use of the Periodic Table as a scientific model. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  11. A Tropical Atmosphere Model with Moisture: Global Well-posedness and Relaxation Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinkai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a nonlinear interaction system between the barotropic mode and the first baroclinic mode of the tropical atmosphere with moisture; that was derived in [Frierson, D.M.W.; Majda, A.J.; Pauluis, O.M.: Dynamics of precipitation fronts in the tropical atmosphere: a novel relaxation limit, Commum. Math. Sci., 2 (2004), 591-626.] We establish the global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions to this system, with initial data in $H^1$, for each fixed convective adjustment relaxation time parameter $\\varepsilon>0$. Moreover, if the initial data enjoy slightly more regularity than $H^1$, then the unique strong solution depends continuously on the initial data. Furthermore, by establishing several appropriate $\\varepsilon$-independent estimates, we prove that the system converges to a limiting system, as the relaxation time parameter $\\varepsilon$ tends to zero, with convergence rate of the order $O(\\sqrt\\varepsilon)$. Moreover, the limiting system has a unique global strong solution, fo...

  12. A scaling limit theorem for the parabolic Anderson model with exponential potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lacoin, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The parabolic Anderson problem is the Cauchy problem for the heat equation with random potential and localized initial condition. In this paper we consider potentials which are constant in time and independent exponentially distributed in space. We study the growth rate of the total mass of the solution in terms of weak and almost sure limit theorems, and the spatial spread of the mass in terms of a scaling limit theorem. The latter result shows that in this case, just like in the case of heavy tailed potentials, the mass gets trapped in a single relevant island with high probability.

  13. A trap-limited-current-based model of Meyer-Neldel rule and its connection to persistent photocurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lianjun; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Guangfu

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical model is established to describe the emergence of the Meyer-Neldel rule (MNR) based on trap-limited current (TLC) theory. The model produces both MNR and anti-MNR behavior, and is available to various trap distributions. Moreover, TLC-based MNR is connected to persistent photocurrent (PPC) phenomenon. The information from MNR and PPC as well as their connection can be used to probe the distribution of the traps in materials.

  14. Continuum modeling of micro-particle electrorotation in Couette and Poiseuille flows—The zero spin viscosity limit

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hsin-Fu; Zahn, Markus; LEMAIRE, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A continuum mechanical model is presented to analyze the negative electrorheological responses of a particle-liquid mixture with the suspended micro-particles undergoing Quincke rotation for both Couette and Poiseuille flow geometries by combining particle electromechanics and continuum antisymmetric/couple stress analyses in the zero spin viscosity limit. We propose a phenomenological polarization relaxation model to incorporate both the micro-particle rotation speed ...

  15. Duality in the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model in the Shifman-Voloshin limit a pedagogical example

    CERN Document Server

    Le Yaouanc, A; Morénas, V; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    2000-01-01

    The detailed way in which duality between sum of exclusive states and the free quark model description operates in semileptonic total decay widths, is analysed. It is made very explicit by the use of the non relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model in the SV limit, and a simple interaction current with the lepton pair. In particular, the Voloshin sum rule is found to eliminate the mismatches of order $\\delta m/m_b^2$.

  16. Hard-sphere limit of soft-sphere model for granular materials: stiffness dependence of steady granular flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2003-02-01

    Dynamical behavior of steady granular flow is investigated numerically in the inelastic hard-sphere limit of the soft-sphere model. We find distinctively different limiting behaviors for the two flow regimes, i.e., the collisional flow and the frictional flow. In the collisional flow, the hard-sphere limit is straightforward; the number of collisions per particle per unit time converges to a finite value and the total contact time fraction with other particles goes to zero. For the frictional flow, however, we demonstrate that the collision rate diverges as the power of the particle stiffness so that the time fraction of the multiple contacts remains finite even in the hard-sphere limit, although the contact time fraction for the binary collisions tends to zero.

  17. Averaging over fast variables in the fluid limit for Markov chains: application to the supermarket model with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Luczak, M J

    2010-01-01

    We set out a general procedure which allows the approximation of certain Markov chains by the solutions of differential equations. The chains considered have some components which oscillate rapidly and randomly, while others are close to deterministic. The limiting dynamics are obtained by averaging the drift of the latter with respect to a local equilibrium distribution of the former. Some general estimates are proved under a uniform mixing condition on the fast variable which give explicit error probabilities for the fluid approximation. Mitzenmacher, Prabhakar and Shah \\cite{MPS} introduced a variant with memory of the `join the shortest queue' or `supermarket' model, and obtained a limit picture for the case of a stable system in which the number of queues and the total arrival rate are large. In this limit, the empirical distribution of queue sizes satisfies a differential equation, while the memory of the system oscillates rapidly and randomly. We illustrate our general fluid limit estimate in giving a ...

  18. Oxygen safety margins set thermal limits in an insect model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    A mismatch between oxygen availability and metabolic demand may constrain thermal tolerance. While considerable support for this idea has been found in marine organisms, results from insects are equivocal and raise the possibility that mode of gas exchange, oxygen safety margins and the physico-chemical properties of the gas medium influence heat tolerance estimates. Here, we examined critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and aerobic scope under altered oxygen supply and in two life stages that varied in metabolic demand in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). We also systematically examined the influence of changes in gas properties on CTmax. Larvae have a lower oxygen safety margin (higher critical oxygen partial pressure at which metabolism is suppressed relative to metabolic demand) and significantly higher CTmax under normoxia than pupae (53°C vs 50°C). Larvae, but not pupae, were oxygen limited with hypoxia (2.5 kPa) decreasing CTmax significantly from 53 to 51°C. Humidifying hypoxic air relieved the oxygen limitation effect on CTmax in larvae, whereas variation in other gas properties did not affect CTmax. Our data suggest that oxygen safety margins set thermal limits in air-breathing invertebrates and the magnitude of this effect potentially reconciles differences in oxygen limitation effects on thermal tolerance found among diverse taxa to date. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  20. Computational Models of the Viscous Sublayer and Limiting Behavior of Turbulence Near a Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    S132. Fulachier, L. (1972): Contribution a L’Etude des Analogies des Champs Dynamique et Thermique dans une Couche Limite Turbulent. Effect de...transfer in fluids with high Prandtl number, or diffusion in fluids with high Schmidt number, the near-wall values of uv are of central importance. The

  1. 76 FR 25648 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., the engine mounts and the supporting structures must be designed to withstand a ``limit engine torque... of producing much higher transient loads on the engine mounts and supporting structures. As a result... events, the proposed standard would require engine mounts and structures to support maximum...

  2. 76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... engine mounts and the supporting structures must be designed to withstand a ``limit engine torque load... of producing much higher transient loads on the engine mounts and supporting structures. As a result... deceleration events, the proposed standard would require engine mounts and structures to support...

  3. Modelling limit stress of a seam roof ahead of a working face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdantsev, N. V.

    2017-09-01

    Solving of boundary problem of geomechanic state of a roof working developed along the seam is introduced in the article. The rock mass works under the condition of a plane-strain deformation with marginal seam zones are in a limit stress state. The problem is solved by boundary element method using Coulomb – Mohr and Mohr – Kuznetsov strength indices.

  4. Serviceability limit state related to excessive lateral deformations to account for infill walls in the structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. S. ALVA

    Full Text Available Brazilian Codes NBR 6118 and NBR 15575 provide practical values for interstory drift limits applied to conventional modeling in order to prevent negative effects in masonry infill walls caused by excessive lateral deformability, however these codes do not account for infill walls in the structural model. The inclusion of infill walls in the proposed model allows for a quantitative evaluation of structural stresses in these walls and an assessment of cracking in these elements (sliding shear diagonal tension and diagonal compression cracking. This paper presents the results of simulations of single-story one-bay infilled R/C frames. The main objective is to show how to check the serviceability limit states under lateral loads when the infill walls are included in the modeling. The results of numerical simulations allowed for an evaluation of stresses and the probable cracking pattern in infill walls. The results also allowed an identification of some advantages and limitations of the NBR 6118 practical procedure based on interstory drift limits.

  5. Qualitative Contrast between Knowledge-Limited Mixed-State and Variable-Resources Models of Visual Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Donkin, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to provide a qualitative contrast between knowledge-limited versions of mixed-state and variable-resources (VR) models of visual change detection. The key data pattern is that observers often respond "same" on big-change trials, while simultaneously being able to discriminate between same and small-change…

  6. Light-limited growth and competition for light in well-mixed aquatic environments : An elementary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef; Weissing, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Light is never distributed homogeneously since it forms a gradient over biomass. As a consequence, the common theories on nutrient competition are not applicable to competition for light. In this paper, we investigate a model for light-limited growth and competition among phytoplankton species in a

  7. Validation of limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring - is a separate validation group required?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring are usually validated in a separate group of patients, according to published guidelines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validation of LSM by comparing independent validation with cross-validation us

  8. Light-limited growth and competition for light in well-mixed aquatic environments : An elementary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jef; Weissing, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Light is never distributed homogeneously since it forms a gradient over biomass. As a consequence, the common theories on nutrient competition are not applicable to competition for light. In this paper, we investigate a model for light-limited growth and competition among phytoplankton species in a

  9. Limits of applicability of a two-temperature model under nonuniform heating of metal by an ultrashort laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, D. S.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2015-10-01

    The heating of metals (silver and aluminium) by ultrashort laser pulses is analysed proceeding from a spatially nonuniform kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. The electron subsystem thermalisation is estimated in a wide range of absorbed pulse energy density. The limits of applicability are determined for the two-temperature model.

  10. A numerical study on the limitations of modal Iwan models for impulsive excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacayo, Robert M.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2017-03-01

    Structures with mechanical joints are difficult to model accurately. Even if the natural frequencies of the system remain essentially constant, the damping introduced by the joints is often observed to change dramatically with amplitude. Although models for individual joints have been employed with some success, accurately modeling a structure with many joints remains a significant obstacle. To this end, Segalman proposed a modal Iwan model, which simplifies the analysis by modeling a system with a linear superposition of weakly-nonlinear, uncoupled single degree-of-freedom systems or modes. Given a simulation model with discrete joints, one can identify the model for each mode by selectively exciting each mode one at a time and observing how the transient response decays. However, in the environment of interest several modes may be excited simultaneously, such as in an experiment when an impulse is applied at a discrete point. In this work, the modal Iwan model framework is assessed numerically to understand how well it captures the dynamic response of typical structures with joints when they are excited with impulsive forces applied at point locations. This is done by comparing the effective natural frequency and modal damping of the uncoupled modal models with those of truth models that include nonlinear modal coupling. These concepts are explored for two structures, a simple spring-mass system and a finite element model of a beam, both of which contain physical Iwan elements to model joint nonlinearity. The results show that modal Iwan models can effectively capture the variations in frequency and damping with amplitude, which, for damping, can increase by as much as two orders of magnitude in the microslip regime. However, even in the microslip regime the accuracy of a modal Iwan model is found to depend on whether the mode in question is dominant in the response; in some cases the effective damping that the uncoupled model predicts is found to be in error by

  11. Modeling fracture in the context of a strain-limiting theory of elasticity: a single anti-plane shear crack

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    2011-01-06

    This paper is the first part of an extended program to develop a theory of fracture in the context of strain-limiting theories of elasticity. This program exploits a novel approach to modeling the mechanical response of elastic, that is non-dissipative, materials through implicit constitutive relations. The particular class of models studied here can also be viewed as arising from an explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is specified to be a nonlinear function of stress. This modeling construct generalizes the classical Cauchy and Green theories of elasticity which are included as special cases. It was conjectured that special forms of these implicit theories that limit strains to physically realistic maximum levels even for arbitrarily large stresses would be ideal for modeling fracture by offering a modeling paradigm that avoids the crack-tip strain singularities characteristic of classical fracture theories. The simplest fracture setting in which to explore this conjecture is anti-plane shear. It is demonstrated herein that for a specific choice of strain-limiting elasticity theory, crack-tip strains do indeed remain bounded. Moreover, the theory predicts a bounded stress field in the neighborhood of a crack-tip and a cusp-shaped opening displacement. The results confirm the conjecture that use of a strain limiting explicit theory in which the displacement gradient is given as a function of stress for modeling the bulk constitutive behavior obviates the necessity of introducing ad hoc modeling constructs such as crack-tip cohesive or process zones in order to correct the unphysical stress and strain singularities predicted by classical linear elastic fracture mechanics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Animal models of Parkinson's disease: limits and relevance to neuroprotection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezard, Erwan; Yue, Zhenyu; Kirik, Deniz; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, significant strides has been made toward acquiring a better knowledge of both the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental models are of paramount importance to obtain greater insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. Thus far, neurotoxin-based animal models have been the most popular tools employed to produce selective neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo systems. These models have been commonly referred to as the pathogenic models. The current trend in modeling PD revolves around what can be called the disease gene-based models or etiologic models. The value of utilizing multiple models with a different mechanism of insult rests on the premise that dopamine-producing neurons die by stereotyped cascades that can be activated by a range of insults, from neurotoxins to downregulation and overexpression of disease-related genes. In this position article, we present the relevance of both pathogenic and etiologic models as well as the concept of clinically relevant designs that, we argue, should be utilized in the preclinical development phase of new neuroprotective therapies before embarking into clinical trials.

  13. The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; He, Xiaoming

    2014-04-14

    A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (<50 K/min). In addition, the lower critical cooling rates for IIF that is lethal to cells predicted by the present model were much lower than those estimated with the ideal-solution assumption. This study represents the first investigation on how accounting for solution nonideality in modeling water transport across the cell membrane could affect the prediction of diffusion-limited ice formation in biological cells during freezing. Future studies are warranted to look at other assumptions alongside nonideality to further develop the model as a useful tool for optimizing the protocol of cell cryopreservation for practical applications.

  14. Limitations of individual causal models, causal graphs, and ignorability assumptions, as illustrated by random confounding and design unfaithfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-10-01

    We describe how ordinary interpretations of causal models and causal graphs fail to capture important distinctions among ignorable allocation mechanisms for subject selection or allocation. We illustrate these limitations in the case of random confounding and designs that prevent such confounding. In many experimental designs individual treatment allocations are dependent, and explicit population models are needed to show this dependency. In particular, certain designs impose unfaithful covariate-treatment distributions to prevent random confounding, yet ordinary causal graphs cannot discriminate between these unconfounded designs and confounded studies. Causal models for populations are better suited for displaying these phenomena than are individual-level models, because they allow representation of allocation dependencies as well as outcome dependencies across individuals. Nonetheless, even with this extension, ordinary graphical models still fail to capture distinctions between hypothetical superpopulations (sampling distributions) and observed populations (actual distributions), although potential-outcome models can be adapted to show these distinctions and their consequences.

  15. Sample Size Limits for Estimating Upper Level Mediation Models Using Multilevel SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2013-01-01

    This simulation study investigated use of the multilevel structural equation model (MLSEM) for handling measurement error in both mediator and outcome variables ("M" and "Y") in an upper level multilevel mediation model. Mediation and outcome variable indicators were generated with measurement error. Parameter and standard…

  16. A multistate model to project elderly disability in case of limited data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, N.L.; Bijwaard, G.E.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Bonneux, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background : Prevalence of disability depends on when a person becomes disabled (disability incidence) and when he or she dies (mortality). Multistate projection models can take into account both underlying processes of disability prevalence. The application of these models, however, is often hamper

  17. A multistate model to project elderly disability in case of limited data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, N.L.; Bijwaard, G.E.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Bonneux, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background : Prevalence of disability depends on when a person becomes disabled (disability incidence) and when he or she dies (mortality). Multistate projection models can take into account both underlying processes of disability prevalence. The application of these models, however, is often

  18. The Limit Behavior of a Stochastic Logistic Model with Individual Time-Dependent Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a variant of the stochastic logistic model that allows individual variation and time-dependent infection and recovery rates. The model is described as a heterogeneous density dependent Markov chain. We show that the process can be approximated by a deterministic process defined by an integral equation as the population size grows.

  19. 78 FR 27869 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Model Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-001-736-005, installed. (5) Model 230 with (i) Fitting Assembly Engine Bipod Mount, P/N 230-060-113..., P/N 427- 001-723-101, installed. (9) Model 430 with (i) Fitting Assembly Engine Bipod Mount, P/N...

  20. Limits from Weak Gravity Conjecture on Chaplygin-Gas-Type Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xing; ZHU Zong-Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The weak gravity conjecture is proposed as a criterion to distinguish the landscape from the swampland in string theory. As an application in cosmology of this conjecture, we use it to impose theoretical constraint on parameters of the Chaplygin-gas-type models. Our analysis indicates that the Chaplygin-gas-type models realized in quintessence field are in the swampland.

  1. One-dimensional modelling of limit-cycle oscillation and H-mode power scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xingquan; Xu, Guosheng; Wan, Baonian

    2015-01-01

    To understand the connection between the dynamics of microscopic turbulence and the macroscale power scaling in the L-I-H transition in magnetically confined plasmas, a new time-dependent, one-dimensional (in radius) model has been developed. The model investigates the radial force balance equati...

  2. Risk analysis in cattle fattening in North West Ethiopia: Empirical evidence form two limit Tobit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Yesigat Ayenew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is a point of concern in small to large farms and is generally argued that small farmers in developing countries are “poor but efficient”, trying to allocate the limited resources to unlimited desires efficiently in the given production system in the light of their life-long experiences. The issue of market orientation in cattle fattening is basically challenged with the risks and uncertainties in the production and the market. Data were collected from 112 purposively selected fattening operator farmers from 3 districts and 6 peasant associations to see the risks. The data were analyzed through both descriptive and econometric statistical tools using STATA. Only about 13% of the respondents have participated in the farm business with own capital and the vast majority borrowed from Amhara Credit and Saving Association (ACSI through their cooperatives. It is found that production risks are limited while economic and market related risks play vital role in the farm operation. Duration of stay of the cattle, land holding of the household, distance to the development agent’s office and age of the household head increase the risk averse nature of the household and limit their participation in export market. In the other hand, frequency of fattening enhances the risk taking character of the households and their participation in the export of cattle. It is vital to enhance the institutional support from the public to enhance the gain from the fattening activity and market orientation of farming.

  3. A model for drying control cosolvent selection for spin-coating uniformity: the thin film limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Dunbar P

    2013-07-23

    Striation defects in spin-coated thin films are a result of unfavorable capillary forces that develop due to the physical processes commonly involved in the spin-coating technique. Solvent evaporation during spinning causes slight compositional changes in the coating during drying, and these changes lead to instability in the surface tension, which causes lateral motions of the drying fluid up to the point where it gels and freezes in the thickness variations. In an earlier publication, we looked at the case where evaporation happens fast enough that the compositional depletion is mostly a surface effect. In terms of the mass transport rate competition within the coating solution, that work covered the thick film limit of this instability problem. However, in many cases, the coatings are thin enough or diffusion of solvent within the coating is fast enough to require a different solvent mixing strategy, which is developed here. A simple perturbation analysis of surface roughness is developed, and evaporation is allowed in the thin film limit. The perturbation analysis allows for a simple rubric to be laid out for cosolvent additions that can reduce the Marangoni effect during the later stages of coating deposition and drying when the thin film limit applies.

  4. LHC Limits on the Top-Higgs in Models with Strong Top-Quark Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Logan, Heather E; Martin, Adam; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2011-01-01

    LHC searches for the standard model Higgs Boson in WW or ZZ decay modes place strong constraints on the top-Higgs state predicted in many models with new dynamics preferentially affecting top quarks. Such a state couples strongly to top-quarks, and is therefore produced through gluon fusion at a rate enhanced relative to the rate for the standard model Higgs boson. A top-Higgs state with mass less than 300 GeV is excluded at 95% CL if the associated top-pion has a mass of 150 GeV, and the constraint is even stronger if the mass of the top-pion state exceeds the top-quark mass or if the top-pion decay constant is a substantial fraction of the weak scale. These results have significant implications for theories with strong top dynamics, such as topcolor-assisted technicolor, top-seesaw models, and certain Higgsless models.

  5. Critical Behaviors in a Stochastic Local Limited One-Dimensional Rice-Pile Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-Zhang; TANG Zheng-Xin

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic local fimited one-dimensional rice-pile model is numerically investigated. The distributions for ayalanche sizes have a clear power-law behavior and it displays a simple finite size scaling. We obtain the avalanche exponents Ts = 1.54±0.10, βs = 2.17±0.10 and τT = 1.80±0.10, βT = 1.46±0.10. This self-organized critical model belongs to the same universality class with the Oslo rice-pile model studied by K. Christensen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 107], a rice-pile model studied by L.A.N. Amaral et al. [Phys. Rev. E 54 (1996) 4512], and a simple deterministic self-organized critical model studied by M.S. Vieira [Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 6056].

  6. Control model design to limit DC-link voltage during grid fault in a dfig variable speed wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Cajethan M.; Ogbuka, Cosmas U.; Oti, Stephen E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a control model design capable of inhibiting the phenomenal rise in the DC-link voltage during grid- fault condition in a variable speed wind turbine. Against the use of power circuit protection strategies with inherent limitations in fault ride-through capability, a control circuit algorithm capable of limiting the DC-link voltage rise which in turn bears dynamics that has direct influence on the characteristics of the rotor voltage especially during grid faults is here proposed. The model results so obtained compare favorably with the simulation results as obtained in a MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The generated model may therefore be used to predict near accurately the nature of DC-link voltage variations during fault given some factors which include speed and speed mode of operation, the value of damping resistor relative to half the product of inner loop current control bandwidth and the filter inductance.

  7. Differences in activity limitation between 2 low back pain subgroups based on the movement system impairment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Shannon L; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2010-12-01

    To examine if activity limitation differs between 2 low back pain (LBP) subgroups in the Movement System Impairment (MSI) model. Cross-sectional observational study. University medical center musculoskeletal analysis laboratory. Convenience sample of 83 subjects with chronic LBP who were subgrouped as rotation (Rot) or rotation with extension (RotExt) according to the MSI model. Not applicable. Subjects completed the modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short-Form Health survey (SF-36 PFS) to assess activity limitation. Subjects also completed baseline measures related to demographics, LBP history, pain intensity, habitual activity level, general health status, and fear-avoidance behavior. Independent-samples t-tests, χ² tests of independence, and 2-way analysis of variance tests were used to analyze the data. Subjects in the Rot subgroup reported greater activity limitation on the modified Oswestry Questionnaire (P = .02) and SF-36 PFS (P = .03) than subjects in the RotExt subgroup. No other differences between LBP subgroups were significant (P > .05), except gender. More women (71%) than men (29%) were in the RotExt subgroup (P = .03). However, there was no main effect of gender and no interaction effect of gender and LBP subgroup on the modified Oswestry Questionnaire or the SF-36 PFS (P > .05). These results support that the Rot and RotExt LBP subgroups based on the MSI model differ with regard to variables that index activity limitation, with the Rot subgroup reporting greater limitation on both activity limitation measures. These differences are not the result of differences in other baseline measures. © 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling sensory limitation: the role of tree selection, memory and information transfer in bats' roost searching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruczyński, Ireneusz; Bartoń, Kamil A

    2012-01-01

    Sensory limitation plays an important role in the evolution of animal behaviour. Animals have to find objects of interest (e.g. food, shelters, predators). When sensory abilities are strongly limited, animals adjust their behaviour to maximize chances for success. Bats are nocturnal, live in complex environments, are capable of flight and must confront numerous perceptual challenges (e.g. limited sensory range, interfering clutter echoes). This makes them an excellent model for studying the role of compensating behaviours to decrease costs of finding resources. Cavity roosting bats are especially interesting because the availability of tree cavities is often limited, and their quality is vital for bats during the breeding season. From a bat's sensory point of view, cavities are difficult to detect and finding them requires time and energy. However, tree cavities are also long lasting, allowing information transfer among conspecifics. Here, we use a simple simulation model to explore the benefits of tree selection, memory and eavesdropping (compensation behaviours) to searches for tree cavities by bats with short and long perception range. Our model suggests that memory and correct discrimination of tree suitability are the basic strategies decreasing the cost of roost finding, whereas perceptual range plays a minor role in this process. Additionally, eavesdropping constitutes a buffer that reduces the costs of finding new resources (such as roosts), especially when they occur in low density. We conclude that natural selection may promote different strategies of roost finding in relation to habitat conditions and cognitive skills of animals.

  9. Modelling sensory limitation: the role of tree selection, memory and information transfer in bats' roost searching strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Ruczyński

    Full Text Available Sensory limitation plays an important role in the evolution of animal behaviour. Animals have to find objects of interest (e.g. food, shelters, predators. When sensory abilities are strongly limited, animals adjust their behaviour to maximize chances for success. Bats are nocturnal, live in complex environments, are capable of flight and must confront numerous perceptual challenges (e.g. limited sensory range, interfering clutter echoes. This makes them an excellent model for studying the role of compensating behaviours to decrease costs of finding resources. Cavity roosting bats are especially interesting because the availability of tree cavities is often limited, and their quality is vital for bats during the breeding season. From a bat's sensory point of view, cavities are difficult to detect and finding them requires time and energy. However, tree cavities are also long lasting, allowing information transfer among conspecifics. Here, we use a simple simulation model to explore the benefits of tree selection, memory and eavesdropping (compensation behaviours to searches for tree cavities by bats with short and long perception range. Our model suggests that memory and correct discrimination of tree suitability are the basic strategies decreasing the cost of roost finding, whereas perceptual range plays a minor role in this process. Additionally, eavesdropping constitutes a buffer that reduces the costs of finding new resources (such as roosts, especially when they occur in low density. We conclude that natural selection may promote different strategies of roost finding in relation to habitat conditions and cognitive skills of animals.

  10. (12) limit and complete classification of symmetry schemes in proton–neutron interacting boson model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K B Kota

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the proton–neutron interacting boson model (pnIBM) admits new symmetry limits with (12) algebra which break spin but preserves the quantum number . The generators of (12) are derived and the quantum number of (12) for a given boson number is determined by identifying the corresponding quasi-spin algebra. The (12) algebra generates two symmetry schemes and for both of them, complete classification of the basis states and typical spectra are given. With the (12) algebra identified, complete classification of pnIBM symmetry limits with good is established.

  11. The Goodwin model revisited: Hopf bifurcation, limit-cycle, and periodic entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Aurore; Gonze, Didier; Erneux, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The three-variable Goodwin oscillator is a minimal model demonstrating the emergence of oscillations in simple biochemical feedback systems. As a prototypical oscillator, this model was extensively studied from a theoretical point of view and applied to various biological systems, including circadian clocks. Here, we reexamine this model, derive analytically the amplitude equation near the Hopf bifurcation and investigate the effect of a periodic modulation of the oscillator. In particular, we compare the entrainment performance when the free oscillator displays either self-sustained or damped oscillations. We discuss the results in the context of circadian oscillators.

  12. Refinement of a limit cycle oscillator model of the effects of light on the human circadian pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Kronauer, R. E.; Brown, E. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, Kronauer proposed a mathematical model of the effects of light on the human circadian pacemaker. Although this model predicted many general features of the response of the human circadian pacemaker to light exposure, additional data now available enable us to refine the original model. We first refined the original model by incorporating the results of a dose response curve to light into the model's predicted relationship between light intensity and the strength of the drive onto the pacemaker. Data from three bright light phase resetting experiments were then used to refine the amplitude recovery characteristics of the model. Finally, the model was tested and further refined using data from an extensive phase resetting experiment in which a 3-cycle bright light stimulus was presented against a background of dim light. In order to describe the results of the four resetting experiments, the following major refinements to the original model were necessary: (i) the relationship between light intensity (I) and drive onto the pacemaker was reduced from I1/3 to I0.23 for light levels between 150 and 10,000 lux; (ii) the van der Pol oscillator from the original model was replaced with a higher-order limit cycle oscillator so that amplitude recovery is slower near the singularity and faster near the limit cycle; (iii) a direct effect of light on circadian period (tau x) was incorporated into the model such that as I increases, tau x decreases, which is in accordance with "Aschoff's rule". This refined model generates the following testable predictions: it should be difficult to enhance normal circadian amplitude via bright light; near the critical point of a type 0 phase response curve (PRC) the slope should be steeper than it is in a type 1 PRC; and circadian period measured during forced desynchrony should be directly affected by ambient light intensity.

  13. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between ...

  14. Limits on decaying dark energy density models from the CMB temperature-redshift relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetzer, Philippe; Tortora, Crescenzo

    2012-03-01

    We discuss the thermodynamic and dynamical properties of a variable dark energy model with density scaling as ρx propto (1 + z)m, z being the redshift. These models lead to the creation/disruption of matter and radiation, which affect the cosmic evolution of both matter and radiation components in the Universe. In particular, we have studied the temperature-redshift relation of radiation, which has been constrained using a recent collection of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature measurements up to z ~ 3. We find that, within the uncertainties, the model is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant which does not exchange any particles with other components. Future observations, in particular measurements of CMB temperature at large redshift, will allow to give firmer bounds on the effective equation of state parameter weff for such types of dark energy models.

  15. Sea-ice extent provides a limited metric of model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Notz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the common practice of using sea-ice extent as the primary metric to evaluate modeled sea-ice coverage. Based on this analysis, we recommend a possible best practice for model evaluation. We find that for Arctic summer sea ice, model biases in sea-ice extent can be qualitatively different compared to biases in the geophysically more meaningful sea-ice area. These differences come about by a different frequency distribution of high-concentration sea-ice: while in summer about half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the Bootstrap and the ASI algorithm show a compact ice cover with large areas of high concentration sea ice, the other half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the NASA Team algorithm show a loose ice cover. The different behaviour of the CMIP5 models can be explained by their different distribution of excess heat between lateral melt and sea-ice thinning. Differences in grid geometry and round-off errors during interpolation only have a minor impact on the different biases in sea-ice extent and sea-ice area. Because of regional cancellation of biases in the integrative measures sea-ice extent and sea-ice area, these measures show little correlation with the more meaningful mean absolute bias in sea-ice concentration. Comparing the uncertainty arising directly from the satellite retrievals with those that arise from internal variability, we find that the latter by far dominates the uncertainty estimate for trends in sea-ice extent and area: much of the differences between modeled and observed trends can simply be explained by internal variability. Only for the absolute value of sea-ice area, differences between observations and models are so large that they cannot be explained by either observational uncertainty nor internal variability.

  16. Creating 3D model for new urbanized area from limited resources and data in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Nawzad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology developments ratify web based Geographical Information System (GIS for further developments especially in the developing countries. However, the progress of technology made the consumers to expect the corresponding progression in the field of GIS too. Perhaps GIS recently developed further and allows visual tours over 3D models in numerous places, while these models are barely available in the developing countries, due to the lack of data, techniques and professionals.

  17. Well-posedness of the limiting equation of a noisy consensus model in opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Bernard; Jiu, Quansen; Li, Qianxiao; Wang, Chu

    2017-07-01

    This paper establishes the global well-posedness of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation for a noisy version of the Hegselmann-Krause model. The equation captures the mean-field behavior of a classic multiagent system for opinion dynamics. We prove the global existence, uniqueness, nonnegativity and regularity of the weak solution. We also exhibit a global stability condition, which delineates a forbidden region for consensus formation. This is the first nonlinear stability result derived for the Hegselmann-Krause model.

  18. Limits of I-models Principles Application on Czech SMEs'’ Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Kubíčková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization process of small and medium sized enterprises is examined often in an effort to get detailed description of particular stages of this process. There are many authors who deal with the internationalization process theories. The most popular theory is so-called Uppsala Model (Johanson, Vahlne, 1977. Very popular is also a group of models based on theory of innovations, called I-models (Bilkey, Tesar, 1977. These models are based on the idea that the process of internationalization is gradual, sequential process built on innovative decisions relating to new company’s needs, possibilities or new resources. The aim of this paper is to apply I-models principles on the internationalization process of Czech SMEs. There were processed data from the survey conducted in 2009-2012. The data were obtained from 385 Czech SMEs operating in the field of engineering, constructing, wood processing industry, food industry and viticulture. To apply the basic principles of the I-models to internationalization process of Czech SMEs it was necessary to determine if there are so-called Born Globals which deny the I-model’s internationalization theories. It was necessary to examine motives of internationalization of Czech SMEs, to prove dependency between the number of years on the market and proactivity/reactivity of the motives for entering foreign markets. Processing obtained data did not enable to unequivocally confirm that the basic principles forming a keystone of the I-models are functional in the internationalization process of Czech SMEs.

  19. Comment on "Modeling of electrode polarization for electrolytic cells with a limited ionic adsorption".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe-Ionescu, A L; Barbero, G; Lelidis, I

    2014-05-01

    Recently, Sawada [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032406 (2013)] proposed a model to take into account the dielectric dispersion of ionic origin in a weak electrolyte cell. We first show that the model is based on questionable assumptions. Next, we point out an error in the author's calculation of the current in the external circuit. Finally, we demonstrate why some criticism on recent papers is irrelevant.

  20. Accounting for uncertainty in ecological analysis: the strengths and limitations of hierarchical statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressie, Noel; Calder, Catherine A; Clark, James S; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Wikle, Christopher K

    2009-04-01

    Analyses of ecological data should account for the uncertainty in the process(es) that generated the data. However, accounting for these uncertainties is a difficult task, since ecology is known for its complexity. Measurement and/or process errors are often the only sources of uncertainty modeled when addressing complex ecological problems, yet analyses should also account for uncertainty in sampling design, in model specification, in parameters governing the specified model, and in initial and boundary conditions. Only then can we be confident in the scientific inferences and forecasts made from an analysis. Probability and statistics provide a framework that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty. Given the complexities of ecological studies, the hierarchical statistical model is an invaluable tool. This approach is not new in ecology, and there are many examples (both Bayesian and non-Bayesian) in the literature illustrating the benefits of this approach. In this article, we provide a baseline for concepts, notation, and methods, from which discussion on hierarchical statistical modeling in ecology can proceed. We have also planted some seeds for discussion and tried to show where the practical difficulties lie. Our thesis is that hierarchical statistical modeling is a powerful way of approaching ecological analysis in the presence of inevitable but quantifiable uncertainties, even if practical issues sometimes require pragmatic compromises.

  1. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  2. Research of the rapid pressure-strain correlation model in the rapid distortion limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Even though a number of rapid pressure-strain models have been suggested and successfully tested for different flow situations by various authors,the model proposals still exhibit some apparent deficiencies when subjected to the flows with rapid distortion. From Mansour’s relatively straightforward rapid distortion analysis,if an initially anisotropic flow undergoes a purely rapid rotation,the anisotropy measures will exhibit the behavior of the damped oscillations. Within the current framework of modeling the rapid pressure-strain correlation,i.e.,the models based on the assumption that the M-tensor for the rapid pressure-strain term is expand-able in the Reynolds-stress anisotropy tensor alone,all the model predictions fail to give the damped oscillations in the turbulence anisotropy. In the case of initially isotropic turbulence subjected to rapid distortion,Sj?gren and Johansson showed that all the existing rapid pressure-strain models would deliver the identical path in the anisotropy-invariant map for both homogeneous plane strain and shear flows. The rapid distortion analysis shows two distinct curves reflecting different flow physics. In this work,we try to present a possible way to create a system that can overcome these deficiencies with the aid of the rapid distortion theory (RDT).

  3. Historical superprocess limits for population models with past dependence and competition

    CERN Document Server

    Méléard, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    We consider a population structured in trait. When a birth occurs, the trait of the parent is hereditarily transmitted to the offspring unless a mutation occurs. We associate with each individual its lineage consisting of all the traits of his ancestors. The evolution of the population results from the aging, births and deaths of individuals, with a dynamics that may depend on the past history of the lineage and that allows interactions between individuals. We introduce the stochastic process that describes the system and consider its diffusion limit under the assumptions of large populations, individuals of small masses and allometric demographies.

  4. Reconstruction of the Tambora forcing with global aerosol models : Challenges and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, Myriam; Zanchettin, Davide; Timmreck, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that volcanic eruptions have an important effect on climate variability from inter-annual to decadal timescales. For the largest tropical volcanic eruptions of the last millennium, simulated volcanic surface cooling derived from climate models often disagrees with the cooling seen in tree-ring-based proxies. Furthermore, cooling estimates from simulations show large uncertainties. Such disagreement can be related to several sources, including inconsistency of the currently available volcanic forcing datasets, unrealistic modelled volcanic forcing, insufficient representation of relevant climate processes, and different background climate states simulated at the time of the eruption. In particular, for eruptions that occurred before the observational period forcing characteristics related to the eruption magnitude and stratospheric aerosol properties are deduced from indirect evidences. So, while climatically relevant forcing properties for recent volcanic eruptions are relatively well constrained by direct observations, large uncertainties remain regarding processes of aerosol formation and evolution in the stratosphere after large tropical eruptions of the remote past. Several coordinated modelling assessments have been defined to frame future modeling activities and constrain the above-mentioned uncertainties. Among these, the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) has endorsed a multi-model assessment focused on the climatic response to strong volcanic eruptions (VolMIP). VolMIP defines a protocol for idealized volcanic-perturbation experiments to improve comparability among climate model results. Identification of a consensual volcanic forcing dataset for the 1815 Tambora eruption is a key step of VolMIP, as it is the largest-magnitude volcanic eruption of the past five centuries and reference for the VolMIP core experiments. Therefore, as a first key step, five current/state-of-the-art global aerosol

  5. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  6. Limitations of a coupled regional climate model in the reproduction of the observed Arctic sea-ice retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of internal model variability on the simulation of Arctic sea-ice extent and volume have been examined with the aid of a seven-member ensemble with a coupled regional climate model for the period 1948–2008. Beyond general weaknesses related to insufficient representation of feedback processes, it is found that the model's ability to reproduce observed summer sea-ice retreat depends mainly on two factors: the correct simulation of the atmospheric circulation during the summer months and the sea-ice volume at the beginning of the melting period. Since internal model variability shows its maximum during the summer months, the ability to reproduce the observed atmospheric summer circulation is limited. In addition, the atmospheric circulation during summer also significantly affects the sea-ice volume over the years, leading to a limited ability to start with reasonable sea-ice volume into the melting period. Furthermore, the sea-ice volume pathway shows notable decadal variability which amplitude varies among the ensemble members. The scatter is particularly large in periods when the ice volume increases, indicating limited skill in reproducing high-ice years.

  7. Modelling of diffusion-limited retardation of contaminants in hydraulically and lithologically nonuniform media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, Rudolf; Ptak, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    A new reactive transport modelling approach and examples of its application are presented, dealing with the impact of sorption/desorption kinetics on the spreading of solutes, e.g. organic contaminants, in groundwater. Slow sorption/desorption is known from the literature to be strongly responsible for the retardation of organic contaminants. The modelling concept applied in this paper quantifies sorption/desorption kinetics by an intra-particle diffusion approach. According to this idea, solute uptake by or release from the aquifer material is modelled at small scale by a "slow" diffusion process where the diffusion coefficient is reduced as compared to the aqueous diffusion coefficient due to (i) the size and shape of intra-particle pores and (ii) retarded transport of solutes within intra-particle pores governed by a nonlinear sorption isotherm. This process-based concept has the advantage of requiring only measurable model parameters, thus avoiding fitting parameters like first-order rate coefficients. In addition, the approach presented here allows for modelling of slow sorption/desorption in lithologically nonuniform media. Therefore, it accounts for well-known experimental findings indicating that sorptive properties depend on (i) the grain size distribution of the aquifer material and (ii) the lithological composition (e.g. percentage of quartz, sandstone, limestone, etc.) of each grain size fraction. The small-scale physico-chemical model describing sorption/desorption is coupled to a large-scale model of groundwater flow and solute transport. Consequently, hydraulic heterogeneities may also be considered by the overall model. This coupling is regarded as an essential prerequisite for simulating field-scale scenarios which will be addressed by a forthcoming publication. This paper focuses on mathematical model formulation, implementation of the numerical code and lab-scale model applications highlighting the sorption and desorption behavior of an organic

  8. Discrete tyre model application for evaluation of vehicle limit handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siramdasu, Y.; Taheri, S.

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study is twofold, first, to understand the transient and nonlinear effects of anti-lock braking systems (ABS), road undulations and driving dynamics on lateral performance of tyre and second, to develop objective handling manoeuvres and respective metrics to characterise these effects on vehicle behaviour. For studying the transient and nonlinear handling performance of the vehicle, the variations of relaxation length of tyre and tyre inertial properties play significant roles [Pacejka HB. Tire and vehicle dynamics. 3rd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann; 2012]. To accurately simulate these nonlinear effects during high-frequency vehicle dynamic manoeuvres, requires a high-frequency dynamic tyre model (? Hz). A 6 DOF dynamic tyre model integrated with enveloping model is developed and validated using fixed axle high-speed oblique cleat experimental data. Commercially available vehicle dynamics software CarSim® is used for vehicle simulation. The vehicle model was validated by comparing simulation results with experimental sinusoidal steering tests. The validated tyre model is then integrated with vehicle model and a commercial grade rule-based ABS model to perform various objective simulations. Two test scenarios of ABS braking in turn on a smooth road and accelerating in a turn on uneven and smooth roads are considered. Both test cases reiterated that while the tyre is operating in the nonlinear region of slip or slip angle, any road disturbance or high-frequency brake torque input variations can excite the inertial belt vibrations of the tyre. It is shown that these inertial vibrations can directly affect the developed performance metrics and potentially degrade the handling performance of the vehicle.

  9. The Influence of Matrix Size on Statistical Properties of Co-Occurrence and Limiting Similarity Null Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Thomas Michael; Schamp, Brandon S; Lamb, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    Null models exploring species co-occurrence and trait-based limiting similarity are increasingly used to explore the influence of competition on community assembly; however, assessments of common models have not thoroughly explored the influence of variation in matrix size on error rates, in spite of the fact that studies have explored community matrices that vary considerably in size. To determine how smaller matrices, which are of greatest concern, perform statistically, we generated biologically realistic presence-absence matrices ranging in size from 3-50 species and sites, as well as associated trait matrices. We examined co-occurrence tests using the C-Score statistic and independent swap algorithm. For trait-based limiting similarity null models, we used the mean nearest neighbour trait distance (NN) and the standard deviation of nearest neighbour distances (SDNN) as test statistics, and considered two common randomization algorithms: abundance independent trait shuffling (AITS), and abundance weighted trait shuffling (AWTS). Matrices as small as three × three resulted in acceptable type I error rates (p ) was associated with increased type I error rates, particularly for matrices with fewer than eight species. Type I error rates increased for limiting similarity tests using the AWTS randomization scheme when community matrices contained more than 35 sites; a similar randomization used in null models of phylogenetic dispersion has previously been viewed as robust. Notwithstanding other potential deficiencies related to the use of small matrices to represent communities, the application of both classes of null model should be restricted to matrices with 10 or more species to avoid the possibility of type II errors. Additionally, researchers should restrict the use of the AWTS randomization to matrices with fewer than 35 sites to avoid type I errors when testing for trait-based limiting similarity. The AITS randomization scheme performed better in terms of

  10. The Influence of Matrix Size on Statistical Properties of Co-Occurrence and Limiting Similarity Null Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michael Lavender

    Full Text Available Null models exploring species co-occurrence and trait-based limiting similarity are increasingly used to explore the influence of competition on community assembly; however, assessments of common models have not thoroughly explored the influence of variation in matrix size on error rates, in spite of the fact that studies have explored community matrices that vary considerably in size. To determine how smaller matrices, which are of greatest concern, perform statistically, we generated biologically realistic presence-absence matrices ranging in size from 3-50 species and sites, as well as associated trait matrices. We examined co-occurrence tests using the C-Score statistic and independent swap algorithm. For trait-based limiting similarity null models, we used the mean nearest neighbour trait distance (NN and the standard deviation of nearest neighbour distances (SDNN as test statistics, and considered two common randomization algorithms: abundance independent trait shuffling (AITS, and abundance weighted trait shuffling (AWTS. Matrices as small as three × three resulted in acceptable type I error rates (p was associated with increased type I error rates, particularly for matrices with fewer than eight species. Type I error rates increased for limiting similarity tests using the AWTS randomization scheme when community matrices contained more than 35 sites; a similar randomization used in null models of phylogenetic dispersion has previously been viewed as robust. Notwithstanding other potential deficiencies related to the use of small matrices to represent communities, the application of both classes of null model should be restricted to matrices with 10 or more species to avoid the possibility of type II errors. Additionally, researchers should restrict the use of the AWTS randomization to matrices with fewer than 35 sites to avoid type I errors when testing for trait-based limiting similarity. The AITS randomization scheme performed better

  11. A tropical atmosphere model with moisture: global well-posedness and relaxation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinkai; Titi, Edriss S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a nonlinear interaction system between the barotropic mode and the first baroclinic mode of the tropical atmosphere with moisture, which was derived in Frierson et al (2004 Commum. Math. Sci. 2 591-626). We establish the global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions to this system, with initial data in H 1, for each fixed convective adjustment relaxation time parameter \\varepsilon >0 . Moreover, if the initial data possess slightly more regularity than H 1, then the unique strong solution depends continuously on the initial data. Furthermore, by establishing several appropriate ɛ-independent estimates, we prove that the system converges to a limiting system as the relaxation time parameter ɛ tends to zero, with a convergence rate of the order O≤ft(\\sqrt{\\varepsilon}\\right) . Moreover, the limiting system has a unique global strong solution for any initial data in H 1 and such a unique strong solution depends continuously on the initial data if the initial data posses slightly more regularity than H 1. Notably, this solves the viscous version of an open problem proposed in the above mentioned paper of Frierson, Majda and Pauluis.

  12. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  13. A multi-scale distribution model for non-equilibrium populations suggests resource limitation in an endangered rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Bean

    Full Text Available Species distributions are known to be limited by biotic and abiotic factors at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Species distribution models, however, frequently assume a population at equilibrium in both time and space. Studies of habitat selection have repeatedly shown the difficulty of estimating resource selection if the scale or extent of analysis is incorrect. Here, we present a multi-step approach to estimate the realized and potential distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat. First, we estimate the potential distribution by modeling suitability at a range-wide scale using static bioclimatic variables. We then examine annual changes in extent at a population-level. We define "available" habitat based on the total suitable potential distribution at the range-wide scale. Then, within the available habitat, model changes in population extent driven by multiple measures of resource availability. By modeling distributions for a population with robust estimates of population extent through time, and ecologically relevant predictor variables, we improved the predictive ability of SDMs, as well as revealed an unanticipated relationship between population extent and precipitation at multiple scales. At a range-wide scale, the best model indicated the giant kangaroo rat was limited to areas that received little to no precipitation in the summer months. In contrast, the best model for shorter time scales showed a positive relation with resource abundance, driven by precipitation, in the current and previous year. These results suggest that the distribution of the giant kangaroo rat was limited to the wettest parts of the drier areas within the study region. This multi-step approach reinforces the differing relationship species may have with environmental variables at different scales, provides a novel method for defining "available" habitat in habitat selection studies, and suggests a way to create distribution models at spatial and

  14. Planck Limits on Non-canonical Generalizations of Large-field Inflation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Nina K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two case examples of Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) generalizations of canonical large-field inflation models, characterized by a reduced sound speed, $c_{S} < 1$. The reduced speed of sound lowers the tensor-scalar ratio, improving the fit of the models to the data, but increases the equilateral-mode non-Gaussianity, $f^\\mathrm{equil.}_\\mathrm{NL}$, which the latest results from the Planck satellite constrain by a new upper bound. We examine constraints on these models in light of the most recent Planck and BICEP/Keck results, and find that they have a greatly decreased window of viability. The upper bound on $f^\\mathrm{equil.}_\\mathrm{NL}$ corresponds to a lower bound on the sound speed and a corresponding lower bound on the tensor-scalar ratio of $r \\sim 0.01$, so that near-future Cosmic Microwave Background observations may be capable of ruling out entire classes of DBI inflation models. The result is, however, not universal: infrared-type DBI inflation models, where the speed of so...

  15. Inverse modeling of soil characteristics from surface soil moisture observations: potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models (LSM are widely used as scientific and operational tools to simulate mass and energy fluxes within the soil vegetation atmosphere continuum for numerous applications in meteorology, hydrology or for geobiochemistry studies. A reliable parameterization of these models is important to improve the simulation skills. Soil moisture is a key variable, linking the water and energy fluxes at the land surface. An appropriate parameterisation of soil hydraulic properties is crucial to obtain reliable simulation of soil water content from a LSM scheme. Parameter inversion techniques have been developed for that purpose to infer model parameters from soil moisture measurements at the local scale. On the other hand, remote sensing methods provide a unique opportunity to estimate surface soil moisture content at different spatial scales and with different temporal frequencies and accuracies. The present paper investigates the potential to use surface soil moisture information to infer soil hydraulic characteristics using uncertain observations. Different approaches to retrieve soil characteristics from surface soil moisture observations is evaluated and the impact on the accuracy of the model predictions is quantified. The results indicate that there is in general potential to improve land surface model parameterisations by assimilating surface soil moisture observations. However, a high accuracy in surface soil moisture estimates is required to obtain reliable estimates of soil characteristics.

  16. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  17. Brain in flames – animal models of psychosis: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattei D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Mattei,1 Regina Schweibold,1,2 Susanne A Wolf1 1Department of Cellular Neuroscience, Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Helios Clinics, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that schizophrenia is a psychopathological condition resulting from aberrations in neurodevelopmental processes caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors which proceed long before the onset of clinical symptoms. Many studies discuss an immunological component in the onset and progression of schizophrenia. We here review studies utilizing animal models of schizophrenia with manipulations of genetic, pharmacologic, and immunological origin. We focus on the immunological component to bridge the studies in terms of evaluation and treatment options of negative, positive, and cognitive symptoms. Throughout the review we link certain aspects of each model to the situation in human schizophrenic patients. In conclusion we suggest a combination of existing models to better represent the human situation. Moreover, we emphasize that animal models represent defined single or multiple symptoms or hallmarks of a given disease. Keywords: inflammation, schizophrenia, microglia, animal models 

  18. Physical Limitations of Empirical Field Models: Force Balance and Plasma Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng

    2002-06-18

    In this paper, we study whether the magnetic field of the T96 empirical model can be in force balance with an isotropic plasma pressure distribution. Using the field of T96, we obtain values for the pressure P by solving a Poisson-type equation {del}{sup 2}P = {del} {center_dot} (J x B) in the equatorial plane, and 1-D profiles on the Sun-Earth axis by integrating {del}P = J x B. We work in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials. Our results lead to the conclusion that the T96 model field cannot be in equilibrium with an isotropic pressure. We also analyze in detail the computation of Birkeland currents using the Vasyliunas relation and the T96 field, which yields unphysical results, again indicating the lack of force balance in the empirical model. The underlying reason for the force imbalance is likely the fact that the derivatives of the least-square fitted model B are not accurate predictions of the actual magnetospheric field derivatives. Finally, we discuss a possible solution to the problem of lack of force balance in empirical field models.

  19. Two Decades of WRF/CMAQ simulations over the continental United States: New approaches for performing dynamic model evaluation and determining confidence limits for ozone exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confidence in the application of models for forecasting and regulatory assessments is furthered by conducting four types of model evaluation: operational, dynamic, diagnostic, and probabilistic. Operational model evaluation alone does not reveal the confidence limits that can be ...

  20. Limitations and possibilities of animal models for human allergenic risk evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    -response relationship. The outcome of the test is sensitization measured as cell proliferation in the regional lymph node. Animal models in food allergy can be used to increase our understanding of food allergens and food allergy sensitization e.g. the influence of digestion or processing or to compare closely related......’t know under what circumstances oral tolerance develops. With all these unanswered questions, it is a big challenge to design an animal model that, with relatively few animals, is able to predict if a food allergen is not only a potential allergen but also predict its potency, a prerequisite for risk...... evaluation. One of the pitfalls may be the premise that an animal model needs to mimic the disease. Chemical contact sensitizers may be predicted in an animal test, the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). This assay is based on detailed mechanistic knowledge of contact sensitization including knowledge on dose...