Sample records for model reader choral

  1. Multicultural Choral Music Pedagogy Based on the Facets Model (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo


    Multicultural choral music has distinct characteristics in that indigenous folk elements are frequently incorporated into a Western European tonal system. Because of this, multicultural choral music is often taught using Western styles (e.g., "bel canto") rather than through traditional singing techniques from their cultures of origin.…

  2. Design-Based Research as an Informal Learning Model for Choral Conductors (United States)

    Cooper, Naomi


    The number of community choirs continues to grow, and literature endorsing the benefits of choral singing for physical, mental and emotional health and well-being is rapidly expanding, meaning that the professional development of community choral conductors is in the public interest. However, research on choral conductor education remains limited.…

  3. Extending the E-Z Reader Model of Eye Movement Control to Chinese Readers (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander


    Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…

  4. Suzuki, Chorally Speaking. (United States)

    Cox, Dennis K.


    The Suzuki talent education method, which combines sequential learning with continual review, is described. The method can be used in developing high levels of musical awareness, technical skill, and artistry in extremely young performers from very different backgrounds. How teachers of choral music might use it is discussed. (RM)

  5. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.


    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  6. Rap Music and Choral Education. (United States)

    Bitz, Michael


    Suggests choral teachers use rap music to promote student interest and to teach music basics, such as rhythm, pitch, harmony, and timbre. Maintains that students can write the arrangements allowing them to gain experience in notating. Identifies selected recordings and offers an example of how to use rap music. (CMK)

  7. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra


    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  8. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos


    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  9. Modelos de educación coral infantil: entre lo formal y lo no formal Models of child choral education: between formal and non-forma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzon Ibarretxe Txakartegi


    Full Text Available Responsables de educación y cultura de diferentes países europeos han alertado sobre la falta de nuevas voces y el peligro de continuidad de las agrupaciones corales existentes. No obstante, algunas instituciones corales están llevando a cabo una intensa labor de cantera, avalados por su trayectoria y prestigio históricos, así como por la organización e infraestructuras de calidad de que disponen. Así ocurre con determinados coros y orfeones vascos, que atraen a un número considerable de voces infantiles y juveniles, y con ello consiguen garantizar de algún modo el relevo generacional. En concreto, esta investigación ha estudiado los coros infantiles pertenecientes a cuatro instituciones corales (Orfeón Donostiarra, Coral Andra Mari, Sociedad Coral de Bilbao y Asociación Musical Luis Dorao, para ahondar en las claves que explican el éxito de su funcionamiento: los recursos humanos, técnicos y didácticos que utilizan en su trabajo cotidiano. A través de entrevistas semiestructuradas se ha examinado el punto de vista de los propios protagonistas (los niños y jóvenes coralistas, y los directores y responsables de dichas entidades, acerca del tipo de relaciones que esos coros mantienen con los diferentes entornos de educación formal y no formal.Those responsible for education and culture in several European countries have passed the alarm on the lack of new voices and the danger of extinction of existing choral groups. Nevertheless, some choral institutions are carrying out intense quarry labour, supported by their tradition and historical prestige as well as by the quality organization and infrastructures that are available to them. This happens with some Basque choirs and choral societies which attract a great number of infantile and juvenile voices, thus guaranteeing somehow that there will be a new generation of voices. Specifically, this research work studied the infantile choirs belonging to four choral organisations (Orfe

  10. Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland. (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Stewart, Anita L; Tolvanen, Asko; Ross, Leslie; Era, Pertti


    Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and QOL among community-dwelling older adults. One hundred seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland, completed self-report measures of QOL (WHOQOL-Bref), depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL. Both correlation and regression analyses found significant relationships between the benefits of choral singing and three QOL domains: psychological, social relationships, and environment. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, older choral singers who reported greater benefits of choir singing had higher QOL in multiple domains. The older choral singers in the study also reported few symptoms of depression and high overall QOL and satisfaction with health. Results suggest that singing in a community choir as an older adult may positively influence several aspects of QOL. These results suggest that community choral singing may be one potential avenue for promoting QOL in older adults.

  11. Computer Games versus Maps before Reading Stories: Priming Readers' Spatial Situation Models (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Majchrzak, Dan; Hayes, Shelley; Drobisz, Jack


    The current study investigated how computer games and maps compare as preparation for readers to comprehend and retain spatial relations in text narratives. Readers create situation models of five dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal, goal, and protagonist (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser 1995). Of these five, readers mentally model the spatial…

  12. Masculinity and Choral Singing: An Australian Perspective (United States)

    Powell, Sarah J.


    This article focuses on the perceptions of masculinity amongst male participants in choral singing, drawing on data that form part of a larger project where the overarching aim was to explore how these perceptions influenced male participation in choir. Masculinity was considered in terms of the stereotypes associated with being a male singing in…

  13. Probability and Style in the Chorales of J. S. Bach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Woolhouse


    Full Text Available This paper discusses de Clercq’s (2015 contribution to our understanding of the relationship between scale degree and cadence type within Bach chorales from the perspective of style and probability. De Clercq is applauded for the diligence of this research and for attempting to synthesize findings into a practical, working model of benefit to music-theory students and educators. A literal interpretation of a premise underpinning his model—that more common musical events are more indicative of a style—is, however, found to be inconsistent. A test is described in which university students enrolled in a second-level harmony class were presented with pairs of cadences. Cadences were manipulated in various ways, primarily to investigate whether the inclusion of certain figurations would result in a perfect-authentic cadence, the most ubiquitous cadence within Bach chorales, being considered less stylistic than a never-occurring cadence. This proved to be the case, demonstrating the importance of figuration over scale degree and cadence for the accomplishment of style. De Clercq’s model is further discussed with respect to probabilistic models of music and in relation to proscriptive approaches to teaching harmony.

  14. Reducing Apprehensions of Adolescent Singers in Choral Classrooms (United States)

    Silvey, Philip E.


    Choral music educators can purposefully create a learning environment that helps minimize the anxieties of young singers. According to Parker Palmer, "to teach is to create a space" that possesses three qualities: hospitality, openness, and boundaries. Choral music educators can influence these characteristics by applying five strategies…

  15. Choral Performance: Do You Hear What I Hear? (United States)

    Robinson, Charles R.


    Addresses choral music directors' concerns about ways in which trained and untrained audiences hear and evaluate choral music performances. Considers differing responses to two musical selections. Confirms listening skills are teachable. Offers suggestions for improving listening skills, emphasizing structure in formal auditory training. (CH)

  16. Scriptions of the Choral: The Historiography of Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay focusses on two moments in the historiography of black choralism. The work on choralism by the first generation ethnomusicologists, specifically Percival R. Kirby, provides an opportunity to re-evaluate their scholarship as well as revisit the charge of their collaboration with segregationist/apartheid thought.

  17. Candy Bar Chants, Mozart Maps: Creativity in Your Choral Classroom. (United States)

    Larson, Laurie


    Focuses on how music teachers can make choral rehearsals more interesting for students by incorporating creative lessons and activities. Explores what it means to be creative and includes examples of creative lessons that can be used in the choral rehearsal. (CMK)

  18. Comparing Choral Responding and a Choral Responding Plus Mnemonic Device during Geography Lessons for Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities (United States)

    Haydon, Todd; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Alter, Peter


    Four male 9th-grade students with mild to moderate disabilities participated in a single case design that compared choral responding (CR) and a choral responding plus mnemonic device (CR+) during geography lessons. The authors used an alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of the two strategies on students' on-task behavior and…

  19. Promoting Vocal Health in the Choral Rehearsal: When Planning for and Conducting Choral Rehearsals, Guide Your Students in Healthful Singing (United States)

    Webb, Jeffrey L.


    Choral conductors can positively affect the voices in their choirs through their instruction. It is their job to teach the choir not only the music, but also the healthy ways of singing it. Promoting vocal health benefits both singers and conductors. For singers, it helps remove the risk factors for vocal fatigue. For the choral conductor,…

  20. Four-part choral synthesis system for investigating intonation in a cappella choral singing. (United States)

    Howard, David M; Daffern, Helena; Brereton, Jude


    Accurate tuning is an important aspect of singing in harmony in the context of a choir or vocal ensemble. Tuning and 'pitch drift' are concerning factors in performance for even the most accomplished professional choirs when singing a cappella (unaccompanied). In less experienced choirs tuning often lacks precision, typically because individual singers have not developed appropriate listening skills. In order to investigate accuracy of tuning in ensemble singing situations, a chorally appropriate reference is required against which frequency measurements can be made. Since most basic choral singing involves chords in four parts, a four-part reference template is used in which the fundamental frequencies of the notes in each chord can be accurately set. This template can now be used in experiments where three of the reference parts are tuned in any musical temperament (tuning system), in this case equal and just temperaments, and played over headphones to a singer to allow her/his tuning strategy to be investigated. This paper describes a practical implementation of a four-part choral synthesis system in Pure Data (Pd) and its use in an investigation of tuning of notes by individual singers using an exercise originally written to explore pitch drift in a cappella choral singing.

  1. Between the Last Choral Concert and Summer Vacation. (United States)

    Tovey, David G.


    With a bit of imaginative thinking, a choral director can prevent the year from ending with a fizzle. Techniques include staging a pops concert, initiating an arts project, teaching about avant-garde works, and introducing solo repertoire. (RM)

  2. The Production of Quality Choral Performance: A Review of Literature (United States)

    Rolsten, Kathy


    This review of literature is a synthesis of research surrounding the production of superior choral performance. Findings described in this review suggest director characteristics, rehearsal techniques, singer behaviors, and auxiliary supports that are important to, or common in, the creation of meritorious performance. Effects of instructional…

  3. Liberating voices: narrative strategies and style in township choral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the authors argue for the close reading of South African township choral music in order to liberate the voices of a musical genre that has long been one of this country's musical silences. In this regard an analysis of selected compositions by three composers from the Eastern Cape – Tonny Vumazonke, Phillippe ...

  4. Becoming Poetry Teachers: Studying Poems through Choral Reading (United States)

    Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle


    The poet, Seamus Heaney, argues that transformations for both teachers and students may be engendered through recognising the connections and distinctions between the language of poetry and the language of everyday life. This article explores some of the ways in which choral reading of poetry, using multiple voices like musical instruments, may…

  5. Transformational Leadership in a High School Choral Program (United States)

    Williams, Owen Brian


    The purpose of this study was to examine a high school choral program to discover how the leadership behaviors of the teacher contributed to the success of the program. The teacher's leadership behaviors were examined through the framework of Transformational Leadership. Criteria for the selection of this program included a recent performance at a…

  6. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Biljana M.


    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  7. Secondary Choral Directors' Multicultural Teaching Practices, Attitudes and Experiences in International Schools (United States)

    Bennett Walling, Catherine


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether secondary choral directors employed at international schools implemented a multicultural education in their programs. Participants (N = 126) were secondary choral directors working at international schools in 59 different countries. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collect…

  8. The Effect of Piano Playing on Preservice Teachers' Ability to Detect Errors in a Choral Score (United States)

    Napoles, Jessica; Babb, Sandra L.; Bowers, Judy; Hankle, Steven; Zrust, Adam


    The purpose of this study was to examine and empirically test the pedagogical claim that playing the piano while listening to choral singers impedes error detection ability. In a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55 preservice teachers) either listened to four excerpts of choral hymns or played a single part (soprano/bass) on the piano…

  9. On the Road to Science Literacy: Building Confidence and Competency in Technical Language through Choral Repetition (United States)

    Hohenshell, Liesl M.; Woller, Michael J.; Sherlock, Wallace


    In order to be successful, students must acquire the language of science for both oral and written communication. In this article we examine an oral language learning technique called choral repetition for its role in building literacy in the context of an animal physiology course. For 3 weeks, the instructor conducted choral repetitions of nine…

  10. A Qualitative Study of Motivation to Read for Pleasure with Adolescent Struggling Readers Using a Theoretical Model: How to Begin? (United States)

    Fisher, Gary A.


    A mixed method study explored a theoretical model that employed, combined, and added to the theories of self-determination, the reading engagement perspective, and the four-phase model of interest to motivate adolescent struggling readers to read for pleasure. The model adds to the existing body of research because it specifies an instructional…

  11. Factors associated with singers' perceptions of choral singing well-being. (United States)

    Kirsh, Elliana R; van Leer, Eva; Phero, Heidi J; Xie, Changchun; Khosla, Sid


    Choral singing is a popular vocational pastime across cultures. The potential health benefits associated with choral singing, including positive effect on well-being, are a topic of interest in health research. However, anecdotal reports from voice professionals suggest that the unique demands of choral singing may enforce unhealthy singing habits. This study explores suboptimal vocal behaviors that are sometimes associated with choral singing, which include singing outside comfortable pitch range, singing too loudly, and singing too softly for blend. The relationships between suboptimal choral singing habits, vocal warm-ups (WUs), vocal fatigue, and singing-related well-being were assessed via a 14-item Likert-based response format questionnaire. Participants consisted of 196 attendees of the international World Choir Games. The final study group consisted of 53 male and 143 female international amateur singers aged 10-70. Results indicated a positive correlation between vocal fatigue and suboptimal singing behaviors (r = 0.34, P singing behavior experienced increased singing-related well-being (r = -0.32, P singing well-being. Substantially, more participants from this demographic preferred choir over solo singing (X²[1, N = 196] = 22.93, P singing behaviors may result in vocal fatigue and reduction of choral singing well-being and should therefore be considered when examining the effect of choral singing on singing-related well-being and health. Future research will compare the amateurs' perceptions of choral singing with perceptions from professional singers and will look at determinants of choral singing well-being. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models. (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros


    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reader's Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. Reader's Companion. Ganesh Subramanian. Book Review Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 366-383. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Pukhalskyi


    Full Text Available The article deals with the means of conducting and choral disciplines, which help the efficiency of training of future music teachers. Taking into consideration training and educational components of formation process of professional competence, the means of conducting and choral disciplines are classified as knowledge and skills integration, the organizational and pedagogical skills development, the communicative skills development, the realization of individual approach, the performing skills development, the educational influence and creative self- efficacy. It was established that the effective implementation of these means in the formation of music teachers’ professional competence is possible in close cooperation of choral disciplines (choir disciplines, choral conducting, choral arrangements, choral class and practical work with the choir is organized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Haiye


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to characterizing features of implementing project technology into future music teachers’ vocal and choral training. The analysis of scientific papers of outstanding scientists in philosophy, psychology, and art education, which deal with modern directions of using project technology, highlight its role in art education process. A methodological base is supported by considering contemporary scientific researches, in particular the theory and methodology of musical studies in accordance with forming students’ independence in the process of solving educational problems by means of project technology; developing principles of students’ professional training optimization on the basis of project activity; innovative development of future music teachers’ professional training that gives to the presented material novelty and presentable appearance. Studying future music teachers’ vocal and choral training as a process of constructing that has a special purpose of improving the quality descriptions of educational vocal and choral collective sound functioning, the author of the article discloses the basic principles of implementing project technology into future music teachers’ vocal and choral training. The author of the article pays the special attention to revealing specific features and maintenance of project technology in vocal and choral training of future leaders of child's art groups. An emphasis is made on the following basic factors that influence development of students’ creative individuality: constructing projects of their own becoming; setting aims, tasks, strategies and facilities of vocal and choral work; directing to the result; independent creative activity; presentation, reflection and correction of a project. On the basis of the obtained data the following principles of project technology are put forward in future music teachers’ vocal and choral training: principle of independence; principle of

  16. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Chyncheva


    Full Text Available The article reveals the specifics of teachers’ conductive and choral music training for practical work with students. The aim of the article is to specify future music teachers’ conductive and choral training for practical work with pupils; to identify the most significant functions of students’ conducting and choral training. The chosen problem is relevant as using of pedagogical opportunities of conductive and choral subjects is an effective tool of forming future music teachers’ professional competence due to involving them into active individual and group performing activity (participating in performances of educational choral group and managing it while working practically with choir. Procedural and functional analysis of conductive and choral training of art faculty students is done. The analysis allowed disclosing the most important tool for students’ conducting and choral training. In the conclusion the author emphasizes on the fact that a characteristic creative feature of a music teacher’s activity is a high level of creative activity that aims at implementing musical and creative abilities in the process of perception of the individual’s new spiritual needs, which help get practical experience. The system of indirect management in the creative process on the basis of a creative and reflexive manner is optimum. This property gains the special value in the process of interpreting music art and aesthetic image. The future music teachers’ attention should be paid to the lack of a student’s holistic vision of the art and music image. The problem of the future teachers’ creative development is connected with forming creativity, with efficient searching forms, methods, tools and techniques that intensify the independence of musical thinking in the process of interpretative activity. In the process, a gap between rational and emotional aspects of art and musical activities has been found.

  18. Acoustical Properties of Preferred Choral Performance Rooms in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. (United States)

    Dupere, George Henry


    The purpose of the study was to provide simple architectural and acoustic principles which other professional musicians could employ when involved with the planning and building of rooms that were to be used for the performance of choral music. It was determined that accomplished and recognized choral conductors should be consulted for their choice of rooms. Eight choral performance rooms were selected by four esteemed choral conductors from a midwest region including the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The conductors were selected by other choral conductors from the region who were members of the American Choral Directors Association and who were directing at the college/university level. With the technical assistance of an acoustician, the researcher visited each of the eight sites. Architectural features were investigated, such as room dimensions and shape, building materials, construction techniques, and any acoustical treatments. Acoustical measurements were conducted and reduced to reverberation curves. The acoustic qualities of the spaces were investigated through a variety of methods, drawing upon the researcher's experience and the acoustician's vast background in architectural acoustics. In the body of the paper photographs are provided for each of the rooms along with floor plans and longitudinal sections. Dimensions and specifications are listed and compared. It was found that the conductors preferred rooms with reverberation times greater than 2.0 seconds. They also preferred rooms that were greater in length than in width and rooms with a height greater than forty-three feet. Generalizations about construction materials and techniques were summarized along with their respective acoustic principles. The study concludes with a recommended plan for a choral performance room based on the principles ascertained from the research. This room is described, both acoustically and architecturally. A floor plan and longitudinal section are

  19. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  20. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi eZoccolotti


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN. Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37% to 52% of the explained variance when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69% and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colours as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs distal causes to predict reading fluency is


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Romanian choral music from the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century was built on the foundation of folk art, expressed through the monodic popular song, peasant dance and church music. Jn the pages of this article, the author highlights the most representative works of folk inspiration, signed by predecessor composers of Romanian choral music, who, through their creative effort, contributed essentially to the crystallization of the genre of the choral music of this period. Thus, in the author’s objective were the creations of composers Alexandru Flechtenmacher, Eduard Wachmann, Eduard Caudella, Gavriil Musicescu, Gheorghe Dima, Jacob Mureşianu, Ciprian Porumbescu, Jon Vidu and others.

  2. Eye movement control in reading: accounting for initial fixation locations and refixations within the E-Z Reader model. (United States)

    Reichle, E D; Rayner, K; Pollatsek, A


    Reilly and O'Regan (1998, Vision Research, 38, 303-317) used computer simulations to evaluate how well several different word-targeting strategies could account for results which show that the distributions of fixation locations in reading are systematically related to low-level oculomotor variables, such as saccade distance and launch site [McConkie, Kerr, Reddix & Zola, (1988). Vision Research, 28, 1107-1118]. Their simulation results suggested that fixation locations are primarily determined by word length information, and that the processing of language, such as the identification of words, plays only a minimal role in deciding where to move the eyes. This claim appears to be problematic for our model of eye movement control in reading, E-Z Reader [Rayner, Reichle & Pollatsek (1998). Eye movement control in reading: an overview and model. In G. Underwood, Eye guidance in reading and scene perception (pp. 243-268). Oxford, UK: Elsevier; Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher & Rayner (1998). Psychological Review, 105, 125-157], because it assumes that lexical access is the engine that drives the eyes forward during reading. However, we show that a newer version of E-Z Reader which still assumes that lexical access is the engine driving eye movements also predicts the locations of fixations and within-word refixations, and therefore provides a viable framework for understanding how both linguistic and oculomotor variables affect eye movements in reading.

  3. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  4. Conductor Feedback and the Amateur Singer: The Role of Criticism and Praise in Building Choral Confidence (United States)

    Bonshor, Michael


    This article is based on the findings of a qualitative exploration of factors influencing confidence levels among adult amateur choral singers. Three focus group interviews, involving 18 singers in total, and 16 individual interviews were carried out. These provided over 40 hours of recorded verbal data, which then underwent a process of…

  5. Choral groups in Spain: A space for coexistence and music education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Fernández Herranz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant data obtained from a study conducted with the participation of 1255 choirs, most of them registered in the database of the Music and Dance Documentation Center from the National Institute of Performing Arts and Music of Spain. The main aim of the study of such an extensive array of choirs is to get sufficient information to describe the basic profile of choral activity in Spain. In order to conduct this study a questionnaire was designed including some specific questions for each one of the three types of choirs in which the sample was classified: children/youth choirs, mixed choirs and equal voices choirs. The questionnaire includes variables referring to the basic profile of the choirs, institutional linkage, repertoires, financing, data about the activities of the choirs and the conductors’ profile. The results show, among other things, that the choirs establish long lasting associative experiences and that, though many conductors are trained as musicians, they are not specialized in choral conducting. Finally, the qualitative and quantitative importance of the choral activity to enhance cultural heritage, musical education and social relevance of the choral movement in Spain stands out.

  6. The National Standards and Medieval Music in Middle School Choral and General Music. (United States)

    Hawkins, Patrick; Beegle, Amy


    Discusses how medieval music can be utilized in the choral and general music classroom to teach middle school students and to address the National Standards for Music Education. Provides background information on medieval music, ideas for lessons, and a glossary of key terms. (CMK)

  7. Singing, Sissies, and Sexual Identity: How LGBTQ Choral Directors Negotiate Gender Discourse (United States)

    McBride, Nicholas R.


    This article explores how choral directors negotiate personal and professional identity in relation to gender discourse. Many music teachers have tried hypermasculine messages, such as "Real men sing," used as recruitment tools for getting adolescent boys to join choir. Designed to counter the perception that "singing is for…

  8. A Comparative Case Study of Non-Music Major Participation in Two Contrasting Collegiate Choral Ensembles (United States)

    Jones, Sara K.


    The purpose of this comparative case study was to examine the motivation for participation in traditional and non-traditional vocal ensembles by students who are not pursuing a career in music and the perceived benefits of this participation. Participants were selected from a traditional mixed choral ensemble and a student-run a cappella ensemble.…

  9. At Home, Song, and "Fika"--Portraits of Swedish Choral Initiatives amidst the Refugee Crisis (United States)

    de Quadros, Andre; Vu, Kinh T.


    With the unprecedented worldwide refugee crisis, to what extent can music play a role in welcoming? In particular, how does choral music have a role in mobilising communities, generating intercultural understanding, and lifting some of the barriers that confront refugees and asylum seekers? How can such activity be seen as a benefit to the…

  10. Adapting Choral Singing Experiences for Older Adults: The Implications of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Changes (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg


    As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…

  11. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 16, 2016 ... affect the health and the total wellbeing of people, then it is very important in our lives. Choral ... 'generative mechanism' in digital infrastructure to mean 'the causal powers that explain how and why ... This is because singing in the musical arts has often been discussed as a channel for human emotion and ...

  12. An Examination of Critical Thinking Skills in High School Choral Rehearsals (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time spent in nonperformance and critical thinking activities in high school choral rehearsals. Eighteen rehearsal observations were collected from public school music programs. Observed rehearsal behaviors were coded into three categories of nonperformance activity: lower-order…

  13. Problem-Based Learning and Structural Redesign in a Choral Methods Course (United States)

    Freer, Patrick


    This article describes the process of structural redesign of an undergraduate music education choral methods course. A framework incorporating Problem-based Learning was developed to promote individualized student learning. Ten students participated in the accompanying research study, contributing an array of written and spoken comments as well as…

  14. The 'folk-choral concept' of the music of Okechukwu Ndubuisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okechukwu Ndubuisi is a distinguished composer and arranger of vocal music in Nigeria. Even though he was an accomplished pianist, his major contribution in the field of Nigerian art music was in the choral medium. This work therefore examines the composer and his works in order to establish the contributions he has ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Kozyr


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of professional and individual development of Art Institute students. The aim of the article is to disclose the effectiveness of organising future music teachers’ methodological training which causes their professional and individual development. There is an urgent necessity of implementing integrated knowledge system in musical and pedagogical education which requires greater coordination of the disciplines. The article gives a detailed analysis of future music teachers ‘theoretic and methodological training in the course of conducting and choral disciplines that takes place during the whole period of studying at Art Institutes and at Music and Pedagogics Faculties of Pedagogical Universities. The author claims that the course of conducting and choral disciplines helps overcome drawbacks of future teachers’ training to practice. But this course should be combined with vocal and instrumental training, the unity of these components promote to forming performance skills. It is shown that the main task of learning conducting and choral disciplines at Art Institutes and at Music and Pedagogics Faculties of Pedagogical Universities is directing students to the constant acmeological self-development. The basis for this is future teachers’ independent work that is supervised by tutors. Tutors should encourage students to have responsible attitude to the author’s text. The future conductor should have a habit of accurate reading of author’s text which is one of the preconditions of successful performance. In the article much attention is given to getting basic professional skills that involves training the leaders of school choral groups according to the following trends: studying music and theoretical materials thoroughly; mastering conducting techniques; learning vocal and choral technique and methodology of working with the choir. The author concludes that mastering the main professional skills means

  16. Fitting the Mixed Rasch Model to a Reading Comprehension Test: Identifying Reader Types (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Carstensen, Claus H.


    Standard unidimensional Rasch models assume that persons with the same ability parameters are comparable. That is, the same interpretation applies to persons with identical ability estimates as regards the underlying mental processes triggered by the test. However, research in cognitive psychology shows that persons at the same trait level may…

  17. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers? (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff


    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…



  19. Thermoluminescence dosimeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.E.A.; Marshall, J.; Brabants, J.A.P.; Davies, M.E.


    An electric circuit arrangement is described including a photomultiplier tube and a high voltage source therefor also includes a feedback loop from the output of the tube to the high voltage source, and loop providing automatic gain stabilization for the tube. The arrangement is used in a dosimeter reader to provide sensitivity correction for the reader each time the reader is to be used

  20. Choral singing therapy following stroke or Parkinson's disease: an exploration of participants' experiences. (United States)

    Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Buetow, Stephen; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare M; Leão, Sylvia H S; Tippett, Lynette; Leung, Joan; McPherson, Kathryn M; Purdy, Suzanne C


    People with stroke or Parkinson's disease (PD) live with reduced mood, social participation and quality of life (QOL). Communication difficulties affect 90% of people with PD (dysarthria) and over 33% of people with stroke (aphasia). These consequences are disabling in many ways. However, as singing is typically still possible, its therapeutic use is of increasing interest. This article explores the experiences of and factors influencing participation in choral singing therapy (CST) by people with stroke or PD and their significant others. Participants (eight people with stroke, six with PD) were recruited from a community music therapy choir running CST. Significant others (seven for stroke, two for PD) were also recruited. Supported communication methods were used as needed to undertake semi-structured interviews (total N = 23). Thematic analysis indicated participants had many unmet needs associated with their condition, which motivated them to explore self-management options. CST participation was described as an enjoyable social activity, and participation was perceived as improving mood, language, breathing and voice. Choral singing was perceived by people with stroke and PD to help them self-manage some of the consequences of their condition, including social isolation, low mood and communication difficulties. Choral singing therapy (CST) is sought out by people with stroke and PD to help self-manage symptoms of their condition. Participation is perceived as an enjoyable activity which improves mood, voice and language symptoms. CST may enable access to specialist music therapy and speech language therapy protocols within community frameworks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Grigoriev


    Full Text Available Previously we have described certain correlation between the protein composition of mixed saliva (PCMS and human psycho-emotional state (PES. In this investigation, the analysis of PCMS was used to study the change of PES in the group in the process of creative activities, i.e. choral singing. During the experiment, three groups of singers performed different parts of songs in the course of their regular sessions. The saliva for the analysis was collected from the singers just before and after the choral singing. The results led to the following conclusions. The vast number of singers showed evidence of healthy mental state. During the experiment, in each of the three creative teams there was a relatively harmonious PES of the participants. Collective singing strengthened the positive PES of the most singers. In particular, after singing in the choir a few people were found to have changed their PES from depressive to normal. Also, the processing of the collected data showed that the analysis of the PCMS characteristics allows evaluating not only the direction of the PES change against the background of the creative process, but also the depth of the emotional experience. In conclusion, the results of the research provide an objective basis for the confirmation of the beneficial effects of choral singing on the psyche of the singers.

  2. Ancient Greek and Indian theatres: their origin in choral dances, which represent old myths by means of mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez Adrados


    Full Text Available Regarding the subject of the origin of Greek theatre, especially of tragedy, the author insists in defending the theory already published by him in several occasions, according to which it would have been originated in choral, religious dances, which represent myths by means of an old mimesis. Aristotle suggested choral lyric as its origin, but he did it in a superficial manner. The author develops his theory in detail and speaks of the necessity of using information found in Greek theatre plays themselves: lyric unities and their organization as theatre plays, adding the recitation of the choreutae to choral passages. He proves all this with parallel facts found in Indian theatre by Prof. Gupt, from New Delhi, as well as with the correlation that the author sets between these evidences and the Greek ones: mimetic dance, rite and myth.

  3. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažur, I.


    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore ( the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  4. Learning from Graded Readers. (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul


    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  5. Texts and Readers. (United States)

    Iser, Wolfgang


    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  6. 3D-modeling of the spine using EOS imaging system: Inter-reader reproducibility and reliability. (United States)

    Rehm, Johannes; Germann, Thomas; Akbar, Michael; Pepke, Wojciech; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-André; Spira, Daniel


    To retrospectively assess the interreader reproducibility and reliability of EOS 3D full spine reconstructions in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). 73 patients with mean age of 17 years and a moderate AIS (median Cobb Angle 18.2°) obtained low-dose standing biplanar radiographs with EOS. Two independent readers performed "full spine" 3D reconstructions of the spine with the "full-spine" method adjusting the bone contour of every thoracic and lumbar vertebra (Th1-L5). Interreader reproducibility was assessed regarding rotation of every single vertebra in the coronal (i.e. frontal), sagittal (i.e. lateral), and axial plane, T1/T12 kyphosis, T4/T12 kyphosis, L1/L5 lordosis, L1/S1 lordosis and pelvic parameters. Radiation exposure, scan-time and 3D reconstruction time were recorded. Interclass correlation (ICC) ranged between 0.83 and 0.98 for frontal vertebral rotation, between 0.94 and 0.99 for lateral vertebral rotation and between 0.51 and 0.88 for axial vertebral rotation. ICC was 0.92 for T1/T12 kyphosis, 0.95 for T4/T12 kyphosis, 0.90 for L1/L5 lordosis, 0.85 for L1/S1 lordosis, 0.97 for pelvic incidence, 0.96 for sacral slope, 0.98 for sagittal pelvic tilt and 0.94 for lateral pelvic tilt. The mean time for reconstruction was 14.9 minutes (reader 1: 14.6 minutes, reader 2: 15.2 minutes, p3D angle measurement of vertebral rotation proved to be reliable and was performed in an acceptable reconstruction time. Interreader reproducibility of axial rotation was limited to some degree in the upper and middle thoracic spine due the obtuse angulation of the pedicles and the processi spinosi in the frontal view somewhat complicating their delineation.

  7. Broken Voices or a Broken Curriculum? The Impact of Research on UK School Choral Practice with Boys (United States)

    Ashley, Martin R.


    Work such as that of John Cooksey on boys' changing voices has influenced choral practice in the USA and in certain UK youth choirs, but has hitherto had little impact in UK schools where many teachers continue to believe that boys' voices "break". Different practices are found across the independent and maintained sectors of secondary…

  8. 32 CFR 705.33 - Participation by Armed Forces bands, choral groups, and troops in the public domain. (United States)


    ..., fraternal organization, political group, or if it is associated with solicitation of votes in a political... choral group may be authorized; background, dinner, dance or other social music is considered..., dinner, dance or other social music cannot be authorized. The specified programs which may be authorized...

  9. Comparisons of Stuttering Frequency during and after Speech Initiation in Unaltered Feedback, Altered Auditory Feedback and Choral Speech Conditions (United States)

    Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph; Robbins, Mary; Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew


    Background: Stuttering is prone to strike during speech initiation more so than at any other point in an utterance. The use of auditory feedback (AAF) has been found to produce robust decreases in the stuttering frequency by creating an electronic rendition of choral speech (i.e., speaking in unison). However, AAF requires users to self-initiate…

  10. The Bakhtin Reader The Bakhtin Reader


    Helen Reid Thomas


    The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a d...

  11. Relationships among choral tone and intensity and the spectra of bass singing voices (United States)

    Neufeld, Charles Warren

    The purpose of this spectrographic study was to compare mean formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4 , F5) of three vowels---[a], [o], and [i]---as bass singers (N = 36) performed identical musical phrases in an authentic choral music performance environment. Two types of choral tone, a "blended" sound with minimal vibrato and an opera-chorus-like sound with free vibrato, and two levels of intensity, piano and forte, were employed in a fully crossed 2 x 2 x 3 multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) design. A panel of experts verified the tone type and intensity in the subject trials. MANOVA results revealed significant differences among formant frequencies for the main effects of vowel, intensity, and tone type, and interaction effects for vowel by intensity and intensity by tone type. Numerous significant differences were found among the five formant univariate effects. Contrast analysis led to the retention of the null hypothesis (H0) of no significant difference between tone types in F1, and the rejection of H 0 for F2, F3, F4, and F5. The H0 of no significant difference between intensifies was retained for F3, and rejected for all other formants. H0 was rejected for all formants except F5 for the main effect vowel. The null hypotheses for the three two-way interactions were rejected for all formants except vowel by intensity in F3. H0 was rejected for each of the five formants for the interaction of vowel by intensity by tone type. The influence of tone type was eliminated as a factor in F1. F2 was influenced mostly by vowel. Intensity was subordinate to tone type and vowel in F3. F4, the most unstable of all the formants, was subject to differences throughout all the combined effects. Vowel had little or no effect on F5 in all combined effect analyses. Contrast analyses resulted in numerous other findings. The study outcomes affirm the influence of tongue and mouth shape on vowel stability measured in F1 and F2. Results further indicate that aurally identifiable

  12. Literary context of interwar Serbian choral music composed to verses of artistic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Nataša D.


    Full Text Available Choral music in Serbia between two world wars developed simultaneously in the genre fields of spiritual and folklore music, and music written to the verse of artistic poetry. Literary context of the latter genre mostly involved poetry from the period of romanticism. Apart from that, certain authors gladly wrote music to the lyric poetry of their contemporaries, and there are also examples in which composers reached out to the poetry from distant past. This paper deals with the analysis of representation of verses of certain poets in the work of musical artists. The reasons for the domination of certain thematic fields and influence of stylistic orientation of lyricists to composer's choices are some of the most significant conclusions of this text.

  13. From The Model Reader to the Competent Translator: Theory and Practice of Umberto Eco’s Semiotics in a Literary Translation Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Classroom environment can be considered a sufficient place to practice and improve students’ translation skills. They can be possibly brainstormed and can discuss the problematic points with each other while translating. It can be estimated in the same way in a literary translation class. Students who are supposed to become model readers need to use their background knowledge, vocabulary, and encyclopedia to understand the text properly, to infer the unsaid from the said, and to translate them into a target language without disrupting the structure and taste of the source text because, considering Umberto Eco’s view, the structure of literary texts requires the cooperation of the reader and is sophisticated, and most of the words tend to be used with their connotations. Therefore, becoming a competent translator in order to conduct literary translation can be considered a crucial notion. This study aims at determining whether students, as translating candidates, are future’s “competent translators,” i.e., competent enough for literary translation. To achieve this goal, a case study is carried out in a literary translation class. In this process, we examined translations of 10 sophomore students from Trakya University’s Division of Translation and Interpretation. The students were asked to translate the short story titled “Hopeless Romantic” written by Susan Daitch, into Turkish. To analyze the translations obtained from students, the “Reviewing Model of Competent Translator” was devised with the favor from Eco’s thoughts and experiences in Mouse or Rat: Translation as Negotiation. In this study, through Eco’s thoughts and experiences and through the translation reviews, the applicability of the “Reviewing Model of Competent Translator” will be evaluated. This study will not only shed light on the researches in literary translation but also suggest a new model to examine translators.

  14. Our Readers Write...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dr. H D Chandrappa Gowda, very senior surgeon of Shimoga has written a book on YSR in Kannada. I have mentioned YSR in my book Hamsa Haaduva ... interesting. They cover a vast range of topics without going into undue details so that a general reader can easily experience the excitement of science. I am thinking of ...

  15. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus studying aged cultures in the laboratory can give several hints about microbial survival in the real world. Our Readers Write ... Suggested Reading. [1] M M Zambrano and R Kol- ter, GASPing for life in sta- tionary phase, Cell, Vol.86, pp.181–184, 1996. [2] S Finkel, Long-term survival during stationary phase: evo-.

  16. Rescuing Reluctant Readers. (United States)

    Crowe, Chris


    Discusses the attitudes and issues of reluctant readers by describing the author's son Jonathan, an intelligent young man who came to hate reading. Offers advice for teachers from Jonathan regarding how they can help students enjoy reading more. Presents annotations of 11 new or overlooked young adult books worth reading. (SR)

  17. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This concerns the article 'Ashoke Sen and S-duality'. The article omits an important fact: there is absolutely no experimental evidence for string theory. Without this information, readers may think they are reading about established facts, not speculation. A string theorist, Witten, was awarded a Fields Medal, which shows that ...

  18. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve


    In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...




  20. Helping Reluctant Readers (United States)

    McCormick, Montana K.; Segal, Pamela H.


    University educators work with preservice teachers who often feel overwhelmed when facing high school science classrooms full of reluctant readers. These struggling students often have various special-education modifications or are English language learners (ELLs) with different degrees of language proficiency. Teachers report that these students…

  1. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our Readers Write ... Resonance is thankful to Prof. Muthu for his valuable comments, which are given below. I take this opportunity to congratulate you for the September 2011 issue of Resonance featuring. Prof. Feynman ... his paper in Nature 118: 874 (1926) and not by Arthur Compton in 1927, as mentioned in the article.

  2. The effect of vocal function exercises on the voices of aging community choral singers. (United States)

    Tay, Evelyn Ya Lian; Phyland, Debra Jean; Oates, Jennifer


    The human voice undergoes changes associated with normal physiological aging after the age of approximately 65 years. These voice changes indicate an overall decline in vocal function, which can have diverse vocal and psychosocial impacts for the aging individual. At present, there is limited evidence as to whether vocal exercise can alleviate negative vocal changes arising from physiological aging, in particular for aging individuals who sing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 5-week Vocal Function Exercise (VFE) program on measures of vocal function in a sample of aging community choral singers. Prospective quasi-experimental design. A group of 22 aging community choral singers (eight men and 14 women) were randomly assigned to either the VFE program or control group. Pretraining and posttraining comparisons were made of auditory-perceptual, aerodynamic, acoustic, and self-evaluation voice measures. After VFE training, significant improvements in perceived roughness, maximum phonation time, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio were found for participants in the VFE group. However, evaluations of perceived breathiness and strain and phonational frequency range did not reveal significant changes. The VFE program was also generally perceived by the participants to have a positive effect on their voices. The results of this preliminary study suggest that VFE has the potential to mitigate the effects of physiological vocal aging and deserves further research attention as a mode of vocal training for aging individuals, particularly for those who sing. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The assessment of writing ability: Expert readers versus lay readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Vergeer, M.; Eiting, M.


    This article reports on three studies about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating three kinds of writing assignments. Readers had to rate the Con tent and Language Usage of students' writing performances. The studies show that expert readers are more reliable in rating Usage,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to identifying ways of development of Romanian choral music from the fi rst half of the twentieth century. In this regard, the author highlights the composition directions of this period, representative composers, the genre and thematic spectrum, and the ways of capitalizing authentic folk music. Th us, the author’s aim is to underline the achievements of composers, such as Dumitru G. Kiriac, Gheorghe Cucu (who cultivated the choral genre in miniature forms and of composers Ioan D. Chirescu, Dimitrie Cuclin, Sabin Drăgoi, Mihail Jora, Paul Constantinescu, Marţian Negrea (who conceived a varied choral creation by using modern harmonic methods: polyrhythm, colour modes, harmonization based on seconds, stacked fourths. Although strongly infl uenced by artistic currents „in vogue” of universal music, the Romanian composers of this period got more and more affi liated to those followers who created „in the style” or „in popular character”.

  5. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia


    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilán Fernández


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze, from the conceptual categories of Encyclopedia and Model Reader raised by Umberto Eco, a fragment of the school handbook Misiones 4, text required reading during the last two decades in schools in the State of Misiones, Argentina. The hypothesis to guide our analysis consider that the text fragment -but also the entire textbook Misiones 4- reinforces and configures an encyclopedia "official" that promotes the historical continuity -forgetting conflicts and tensions- between the Jesuit province of 18th century and the Argentine state of 20th century, postulating, at the same, a Reader Model that adheres to a simplified pedagogical and religious local memory.

  7. Reading Rescue: An Effective Tutoring Intervention Model for Language-Minority Students Who Are Struggling Readers in First Grade (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.; Dreyer, Lois G.; Flugman, Bert; Gross, Alan


    The Reading Rescue tutoring intervention model was investigated with 64 low-socioeconomic status, language-minority first graders with reading difficulties. School staff provided tutoring in phonological awareness, systematic phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and reading comprehension. Tutored students made significantly greater gains reading words…

  8. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna


    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  9. The perceived benefits of singing: findings from preliminary surveys of a university college choral society. (United States)

    Clift, S M; Hancox, G


    Two exploratory studies are reported on the perceived benefits associated with active participation in choral singing. In the first study, 84 members of a university college choral society completed a brief questionnaire that asked whether they had benefited personally from their involvement in the choir and whether there were ways in which participation could benefit their health. A large majority of respondents agreed they had benefited socially (87%) and emotionally (75%), with 58% agreeing they had benefited in some physical way, and 49% spiritually. A content analysis of written comments served to elaborate the ways in which choir members felt they had benefited. Common themes expressed were: meeting new people, feeling more positive, increased control over breathing, feeling more alert and feeling spiritually uplifted. With respect to health benefits, 84% of participants gave answers, the main themes of which related to improved lung function and breathing, improved mood and stress reduction. In the second study, 91 members of the choir completed a structured questionnaire consisting of 32 statements about singing reflecting the ideas expressed in the first study. Over 40% of respondents strongly agreed that 'singing helps to make my mood more positive', 'singing is a moving experience for me sometimes', 'singing makes me feel a lot happier' and 'singing is good for my soul'. A principal components analysis followed by Oblimin rotation identified six dimensions of benefit associated with singing. These were labelled as: benefits for well-being and relaxation, benefits for breathing and posture, social benefits, spiritual benefits, emotional benefits, and benefits for heart and immune system. Cronbach alpha coefficients were satisfactory for all components except the third, social benefits, due primarily to the small number of items loading on this component. Women were significantly more likely to experience benefits for well-being and relaxation, younger

  10. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed - Chorus Experience from Music Students of the University of Education Winneba, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Obed Acquah


    Full Text Available Abstract: Choral singing, termed ‘mixed chorus’ is an integral part of the academic activities of the Department of Music Education, University of Education, Winneba. However, the impact of the singing on the wellbeing of the students and lecturers is largely unexplored. With 350 participants, this study contributes to filling that gap. Using questionnaire and interviews, the article examines the health benefits of singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbeing. It concludes that the mixed chorus has a great impact on the total health of the participants. However, this impact is dependent on some generative mechanisms needed in the training of choral singers.

  11. Becoming a Reader: Significant Social Influences on Avid Book Readers (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.


    Understanding how social influences can foster avid book reader identification is a key research goal that warrants further investigation beyond a limited early-years lens. The author's 2015 International Study of Avid Book Readers (ISABR) explored, as one of its key research questions, the influence positive social agents can have on avid book…

  12. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.


    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  13. "I Owe It to My Group Members…who Critically Commented on My Conducting"--Cooperative Learning in Choral Conducting Education (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria


    This article explores cooperative learning in choral conducting education. The five characteristics of cooperative learning identified by Adams and Hamm ((1996). "Cooperative learning: Critical thinking and collaboration across the curriculum" (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publishers): positive interdependence; face-to-face…

  14. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia


    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  15. Readers Theatre: A different approach to English for struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew


    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the use of Readers Theatre in English lessons with groups of academically-challenged pupils in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The study is based on the teacher’s logs, interviews with the teacher, a questionnaire answered by the pupils, and lesson observations. Readers Theatre, a group reading activity that can be used with a wide range of texts, was successfully incorporated into the curriculum with relatively small ‘fordypning’ (specialisation groups in English. These pupils had opted for more English lessons instead of learning a second foreign language. Most of them struggled with English as their first foreign language and were struggling readers. However, the majority of the pupils experienced Readers Theatre as both enjoyable and educational. The experience had a positive effect on their confidence and motivation to read. It also helped to improve their reading fluency and accuracy, for example pronunciation, and facilitated growth in vocabulary. The experience of practising and performing as a group was especially satisfying and motivating for the pupils involved. The majority were keen to participate in other Readers Theatre projects.

  16. AVPR1A and SLC6A4 polymorphisms in choral singers and non-musicians: a gene association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Morley

    Full Text Available Amateur choral singing is a common pastime and worthy of study, possibly conferring benefits to health and social behaviour. Participants might be expected to possess musical ability and share some behavioural characteristics. Polymorphisms in genes concerned with serotonergic neurotransmission are associated with both behaviour and musical aptitude. Those investigated previously include the variable number tandem repeats RS1, RS3 and AVR in the AVPR1A (arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene and STin2 in the SLC6A4 (solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin], member 4 gene, as well as the SLC6A4 promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR. We conducted a genetic association study on 523 participants to establish whether alleles at these polymorphisms occur more commonly in choral singers than in those not regularly participating in organised musical activity (non-musicians. We also analysed tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for AVPR1A and SLC6A4 to determine whether other variants in these genes were associated with singer/non-musician status. At the STin2 polymorphism, overall association with singer/non-musician status was evident at P = 0.006. The 9-repeat (P = 0.04 and 12-repeat (P = 0.04 alleles were more common in singers and the 10-repeat allele less so (P = 0.009. Odds ratios were 0.73 (95% CI 0.57-0.94 for the 10-repeat allele and 2.47 (95% CI 0.88-6.94 for the rarer 9-repeat allele. No overall association was detected at P<0.05 between any other polymorphism and singer/non-musician status. Our null findings with respect to RS3, RS1 and AVR, polymorphisms associated with musical ability by other authors, suggest that choir membership may depend partly on factors other than musical ability. In a related musical project involving one participating choir, a new 40-part unaccompanied choral work, "Allele", was composed and broadcast on national radio. In the piece, each singer's part incorporated their personal

  17. AVPR1A and SLC6A4 polymorphisms in choral singers and non-musicians: a gene association study. (United States)

    Morley, Andrew P; Narayanan, Madan; Mines, Rebecca; Molokhia, Ashraf; Baxter, Sebastian; Craig, Gavin; Lewis, Cathryn M; Craig, Ian


    Amateur choral singing is a common pastime and worthy of study, possibly conferring benefits to health and social behaviour. Participants might be expected to possess musical ability and share some behavioural characteristics. Polymorphisms in genes concerned with serotonergic neurotransmission are associated with both behaviour and musical aptitude. Those investigated previously include the variable number tandem repeats RS1, RS3 and AVR in the AVPR1A (arginine vasopressin receptor 1a) gene and STin2 in the SLC6A4 (solute carrier family 6 [neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin], member 4) gene, as well as the SLC6A4 promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR. We conducted a genetic association study on 523 participants to establish whether alleles at these polymorphisms occur more commonly in choral singers than in those not regularly participating in organised musical activity (non-musicians). We also analysed tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for AVPR1A and SLC6A4 to determine whether other variants in these genes were associated with singer/non-musician status. At the STin2 polymorphism, overall association with singer/non-musician status was evident at P = 0.006. The 9-repeat (P = 0.04) and 12-repeat (P = 0.04) alleles were more common in singers and the 10-repeat allele less so (P = 0.009). Odds ratios were 0.73 (95% CI 0.57-0.94) for the 10-repeat allele and 2.47 (95% CI 0.88-6.94) for the rarer 9-repeat allele. No overall association was detected at P<0.05 between any other polymorphism and singer/non-musician status. Our null findings with respect to RS3, RS1 and AVR, polymorphisms associated with musical ability by other authors, suggest that choir membership may depend partly on factors other than musical ability. In a related musical project involving one participating choir, a new 40-part unaccompanied choral work, "Allele", was composed and broadcast on national radio. In the piece, each singer's part incorporated their personal RS3

  18. Subgrouping Poor Readers on the Basis of Individual Differences in Reading-Related Abilities


    Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.


    The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...

  19. Every reader his book – every book its reader?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte


    Collections are no longer the main attraction in libraries, and libraries are working to find new paths to tread. One strategy is to focus on reading and literature in new and surprising ways. The aim of this article is to enrich an understanding of activities situated in the span between readers...

  20. Reader response research in stylistics


    Whiteley, S.; Canning, P.


    This article introduces the special issue. In it, we argue that research into reader response\\ud should be recognised as a vital aspect of contemporary stylistics, and we establish our focus\\ud on work which explicitly investigates such responses through the collection and analysis of\\ud extra-textual datasets. Reader response research in stylistics is characterised by a commitment\\ud to rigorous and evidence-based approaches to the study of readers’ interactions with and\\ud around texts, and...

  1. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa


    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  2. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael


    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  3. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai. (United States)

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis


    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed - Chorus Experience from Music Students of the University of Education Winneba, Ghana


    Emmanuel Obed Acquah


    Abstract: Choral singing, termed ‘mixed chorus’ is an integral part of the academic activities of the Department of Music Education, University of Education, Winneba. However, the impact of the singing on the wellbeing of the students and lecturers is largely unexplored. With 350 participants, this study contributes to filling that gap. Using questionnaire and interviews, the article examines the health benefits of singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbein...

  5. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students


    Dwi Puspita Sari; Elicia Lanham; Lei Pan


    In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader) allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amaz...

  6. The Active Reader: What Is Active? (United States)

    van Woerkum, Cees


    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept of the "active reader," which is getting more…

  7. Liminality, Postmodernity and Passion: Towards a Theoretical Framework for the study of 21st Century Choral Passion Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kerr Budziak


    Full Text Available After more than a century of neglect of the form, over thirty major concert works with “Passion” within the title have emerged into the choral landscape during the past 50 years. These settings use diverse libretti, drawing from sources both sacred and secular; some of the composers of these works profess Christianity, some adhere to other religious traditions, and some do not profess any particular faith at all. Their only common threads seem to be their self-identification with the title of “Passion”, and their depiction of a story in which a particular individual undergoes suffering and death. The purpose of this article is not to analyze specific Passion settings but rather to explore the structural form and content of the Passion genre as a whole, and begin to develop an interdisciplinary framework for future analysis of this body of music, using the tools offered by the field of liminal studies. Additionally, this essay will explore how the concept of Postmodernism, both as it manifests both in Western culture and through that culture’s artistic and musical expression, might give some insight into the Passion form’s resurgence into modern musical thought.

  8. An Analysis of Reading Skill Development using E-Z Reader


    Mancheva, Lyuba; Reichle, Erik D.; Lemaire, Benoît; Valdois, Sylviane; Ecalle, Jean; Guérin-Dugué, Anne


    Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency (Reichle et al., 2013). However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) account for the concurrent changes in eye movements and reading skill. To examine this issue, the E-Z Reader model was first us...

  9. [Readers' position against induced abortion]. (United States)


    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  10. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers (United States)

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz


    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  11. Skew angle effects in shingled magnetic recording system with double/triple reader head array (United States)

    Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid; Sann Chan, Kheong; Greaves, Simon; Kanai, Yasushi; Muraoka, Hiroaki


    Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) is a scheme used to extend the life of the current perpendicular magnetic recording technology. SMR enables writing narrow tracks with a wide writer. Currently, SMR employs a single reader and will suffer inter-track interference (ITI) as the tracks become comparable in width to the reader. ITI can be mitigated by using narrower readers; however, narrower readers suffer from increased reader noise. Another approach to combat ITI is to process 2D readback and use ITI cancellation schemes to retrieve the data track. Multiple readbacks can be obtained either with a single reader and multiple revolutions or with a reader array. The former suffers from increased readback latency. In this work, we focus on the latter. When using a reader array, the skew angle poses major challenges. During writing, there is increased adjacent track erasure, and during readback the effective reader pitch varies and there is an increase in the 2D intersymbol interference caused by the rotated reader profile. In this work, we run micromagnetic simulations at different skew angles to train the grain flipping probability model, and then evaluate raw bit channel error rate performance at skew. In particular, we investigate the performance degradation caused by skewing of the 2 or 3 read head array for various read-head geometries.

  12. Selective targeting of epigenetic reader domains. (United States)

    Greschik, Holger; Schüle, Roland; Günther, Thomas


    Epigenetic regulators including writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin marks have been implicated in numerous diseases and are therefore subject of intense academic and pharmaceutical research. While several small-molecule inhibitors targeting writers or erasers are either approved drugs or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the targeting of epigenetic readers has lagged behind. Proof-of-principle that epigenetic readers are also relevant drug targets was provided by landmark discoveries of selective inhibitors targeting the BET family of acetyl-lysine readers. More recently, high affinity chemical probes for non-BET acetyl- and methyl-lysine reader domains have also been developed. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances with the identification and validation of inhibitors and chemical probes targeting epigenetic reader domains. Issues related to epigenetic reader druggability, quality requirements for chemical probes, interpretation of cellular action, unexpected cross-talk, and future challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: Chemical probes provide a powerful means to unravel biological functions of epigenetic readers and evaluate their potential as drug targets. To yield meaningful results, potency, selectivity, and cellular target engagement of chemical probes need to be stringently validated. Future chemical probes will probably need to fulfil additional criteria such as strict target specificity or the targeting of readers within protein complexes.

  13. Do Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word n + 2? A Test of Serial Attention Shift versus Distributed Lexical Processing Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Brown, Sarah J.


    Two experiments tested predictions derived from serial lexical processing and parallel distributed models of eye movement control in reading. The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used, and the boundary location was set either at the end of word n - 1 (the word just to the left of the target word) or at the end of word n - 2. Serial lexical…

  14. Engaging Struggling Adolescent Readers through Situational Interest: A Model Proposing the Relationships among Extrinsic Motivation, Oral Reading Proficiency, Comprehension, and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Paige, David D.


    Reading ability and motivation among adolescents across the country continues to be problematic, as only slightly more than one-third read at a proficient level (Grigg, Donahue, & Dion, 2007; Unrau & Schlackman, 2006). Hidi and Renninger (2006) have proposed a four-phase model of situational interest that suggests how activities involving…

  15. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  16. Reader-Centered Technical Writing (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  17. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)


    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  18. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.


    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  19. Using Readers' Theater with Multicultural Literature (United States)

    Weisenburger, Stephanie


    The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…

  20. Technology: News Readers and Other Handy Utilities (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal


    In this article, the author discusses how there are advantages and disadvantages to using an Internet News Reader instead of a Web browser. The major advantage is that one can read the headlines and short summaries of news articles from dozens of sources quickly. Another advantage the author points out to news readers is that one gets a short…

  1. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić


    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  2. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita


    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  3. Why Readers Read What Writers Write. (United States)

    Crago, Hugh


    Explores the mystery of why readers choose to read texts. Considers the psychology of reading for pleasure and the figures of speech linking reading with love. Discusses a wide array of books and the reasons that readers have felt such a strong attachment to them. (HB)

  4. Secondary School Students' Opinions about Readers' Theatre (United States)

    Karabag, S. Gulin


    In this article, a teaching strategy which not only blends yesterday and today in a meaningful way but also powerfully integrates literacy and history will be examined. Firstly Readers' Theatre as a technique will be introduced. Secondly, the usage guidelines of Readers' Theatre will be presented. Finally the opinions of secondary school students…

  5. Cyber Literature: A Reader – Writer Interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathu Rahman


    Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.

  6. Predictors of Reading Comprehension among Struggling Readers Who Exhibit Differing Levels of Inattention and Hyperactivity (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…

  7. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari


    Full Text Available In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amazon Kindle, and Samsung Tablet are the most popular eReader devices used by higher education students. We presented these results, and then we analyzed the surveyed results in detail in order to develop an evaluation metric of the eReader in a mobile platform that clearly allows the selection of the most suitable eReader for higher education students. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a set of criteria that can be used by students in the selection of an eReader that matches their specific needs and requirements.

  8. Writer-reader contagion of inspiration and related states: Conditional process analyses within a cross-classified writer × reader framework. (United States)

    Thrash, Todd M; Maruskin, Laura A; Moldovan, Emil G; Oleynick, Victoria C; Belzak, Will C


    A longstanding tradition in the humanities holds that a writer's inspiration is infectious, but this thesis has not been tested. We hypothesized that (a) inspiration is infectious, such that inspired writers are more inspiring to the average reader; (b) contagion is mediated by the insightfulness of the text; and (c) contagion is moderated by readers' openness to experience, such that open readers are more prone to contagion. To test these hypotheses, a sample of 195 student writers, each of whom wrote 1 poem, was crossed with a sample of 220 student readers, who read all poems. Data were available for 36,020 cells of the resulting Writer × Reader matrix. Our analytic approach integrated cross-classified multilevel modeling with conditional process analysis. As hypothesized, writers who were more inspired elicited higher levels of inspiration in the average reader. Inspiration contagion was mediated by the insightfulness and pleasantness of the text and was partially suppressed by originality. Inspiration contagion was moderated by reader openness. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that open readers were prone to contagion because they were tolerant of the originality and sublimity of inspired writing. Additional analyses differentiated contagion of inspiration from contagion of its covariates (awe, positive affect), documented effects of writer inspiration on reader enthrallment (awe, chills), and showed that writer effort is a poor predictor of reader states. The infectiousness of inspiration-through poetry, if not also through scripture and academic writing-suggests that a given instance of inspiration may have far-reaching cultural implications, including dissemination of innovations and ideologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Role of Reader in Felpo Filva, by Eva Furnari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira L. Gebara


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the relationship between writer-reader and mediation of the text, it is necessary to identify the positions they occupy. Before the Internet, it was not common for the reader to approach the writer directly, except though letters. This virtual (but not digital contact is modelling to understand the reader’s relationship with the author because, in the written lines, he ends up indicating how he understands himself and the other – in a game of faces, understood in this work as Kerbrat-Orecchioni (2006 it characterizes in conversation. In this hyper-gender, without socio-historical restrictions or of categorization (MAINGUENEAU, 2010, there is a mandatory provision that constrains the sender to identify his position from the moment he chooses how to address the recipient. In these forms of treatment, the relationships of preservation or threat to the in the light of what is extended or made explicit in the treatment given to the theme of the letter to be outlined. This article aims to identify the concepts of the reader in the correspondence exchanged by the main characters, Charlô and Felpo, core of the development of the narrative (FURNARI, 2006. These concepts allow us to comprehend, in a discursive and dialogical perspective, which boundaries remain for the reader towards the text and which are outdated.

  10. Cultural Journalism Publications for Reluctant Readers. (United States)

    Hatcher, Barbara


    Provides a list of cultural journalism publications (based on oral history interviews) written, edited, and produced by students around the country that provide good easy reading for older reluctant readers. (MKM)

  11. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Thank you for inviting me to this meeting. I understood that it is a meeting of the editorial board with readers. But I would like to note that there is still such a small layer between the editors and readers, which is called the printing house. So it is the typography that materially embodies the ideas, thoughts and innovations of the editorial staff and the authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Frederico


    Full Text Available This work explores the interactive book app for children as a form of literary expression that requires from the young reader the capacity to orchestrate various forms of literacy to promote their ability of reading critically multimodal, digital and interactive texts. Serafini’s model for the analysis of picturebooks in three levels, perceptive, structural, and ideological (SERAFINI, 2010; 2015, is proposed as a didactic tool to promote these multiliteracies at school through the reading of picturebook apps.

  13. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen


    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  14. Asynchronous readers and asynchronous writers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boode, Antoon Hendrik; Broenink, Johannes F.


    Abstract. Reading and writing is modelled in CSP using actions containing the symbols ? and !. These reading actions and writing actions are synchronous, and there is a one-to-one relationship between occurrences of pairs of these actions. In the CPA conference 2016, we introduced the

  15. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.


    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  16. A sonoridade vocal e a prática coral no Barroco: subsídios para a performance barroca nos dias atuais The vocal sonority and the choral practice in the Baroque period: guidelines for today's Baroque music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo José Fernandes


    Full Text Available Este trabalho é uma pequena parte de uma ampla pesquisa sobre prática e sonoridade de diversos estilos de música coral. A partir de uma investigação bibliográfica, que inclui autores desde o período Barroco, temos como objetivos: a descrição da sonoridade vocal e coral ao longo do referido período; a abordagem dos tipos vocais da época; a análise de alguns procedimentos técnico-vocais; a descrição de características importantes da prática coral no período; e, por fim, uma apresentação de sugestões técnicas e estilísticas para a prática da música coral barroca na atualidade.This paper is a small part of a large research on practice and sonority of many choral music styles. Through bibliographical investigation of works written by authors from the Baroque period to the present, our goals are: the description of the vocal sonority throughout the Baroque period; the presentations of the vocal types in the Baroque; the analysis of some vocal techniques; the description of important aspects of the choral practice of the period; and finally, the presentation of some technical and stylistic suggestions for the practice of the Baroque choral music in the present.

  17. Beck's Song Reader: An Unbound Music Book


    Maxwell, Kate


    This article is under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License. This article is also available via DOI:10.7202/1038035ar The pop/alternative musician Beck created a stir in the music world when he released his 2012 “album” Song Reader as a book compilation of individual pieces of sheet music. This included a guide to reading music notation, together with an introduction describing the work’s intentions and inviting readers to perform their own ...

  18. Cancer on a mammogram is not memorable: readers remember their recalls and not cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, Alexander G.; Kok, Phebe; Zentner, Lucila


    To determine if presence of cancer on a mammogram makes that mammogram more memorable. A total of 100 mammograms (25 cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases. Set pairs were presented in five reads to eight radiologist readers. Readers were asked to 'clear' or 'call back' cases, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old ' (remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline, to calculate each reader's false recollection rate. For cases presented more than once ('old' cases, 100 presentations) readers could have 'correct memory' or 'memory loss'. Memory performance was defined as odds ratio of correct memory to memory loss. Multivariate logistic data regression analysis identified predictors of memory performance from: reader, set, time since last read, presence of cancer, and whether the case was called back at the last read. Memory performance differed markedly between readers and reader identity was a highly significant predictor of memory performance. Presence of cancer was not a significant predictor of memory performance (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI: 0.49–1.21). Whether the case was called back at the last read was a highly significant predictor (odds ratio 4.22, 95% CI: 2.70–6.61) for the model incorporating reader variability, and also the model without reader variability (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI: 1.74–4.08). The only statistically significant predictor of radiologist memory for a mammogram was whether the radiologist 'called it back' at a prior reading round. Presence of cancer on a mammogram did not make it memorable.

  19. Development of Comprehension Monitoring in Beginner Readers (United States)

    Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria


    The current study was designed to understand the development of comprehension monitoring among beginner readers from first to third grade, and to determine the extent to which first graders' comprehension monitoring predicts reading comprehension in grade three. Participants were 113 children (57% female) from four US states who were followed from…

  20. Young Readers Programme Evaluation 2015/2016 (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence; Clark, Christina


    The Young Readers Programme (YRP) motivates children to read for enjoyment by running a series of three literacy-focused events, teaching children strategies to choose books that are right for them, and showing them that reading can be enjoyable. One of the most effective ways of developing children's literacy skills is to engage them in reading…

  1. Readers' Survey Results: What is Computer Literacy? (United States)

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1986


    Readers of Classroom Computer Learning were asked for a definition of computer literacy; a summary of their responses is provided. Three opinions offered are that computer literacy instruction should begin early, that it should be made compulsory, and instruction should also focus on use of tool programs and education software. (JN)

  2. Accelerated Reader: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat


    Accelerated Reader (AR) is a whole-group reading management and monitoring program that aims to foster the habit of independent reading among primary and early secondary age pupils. The internet-based software initially screens pupils according to their reading levels, and suggests books that match their reading age and reading interest. Pupils…

  3. Reader Reactions to Color in Newspapers. (United States)

    Bohle, Robert H.; Garcia, Mario R.

    In order to discover reader reactions to color on a newspaper page, specifically eye movement and overall opinion of the paper, identical pages were created and printed by the "St. Petersburg Times" (Florida). The content of fifteen front pages, six lifestyles pages, and three sports front pages were nearly identical, differing only in the kind…

  4. The Author as Reader and Writer (United States)

    Miller, Tom


    This article presents contemporary commentary on the previously published articles "Writing for the Reader: A Problem-Solution Approach" and "Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities." Having been out of the field of English as a foreign language for several years, the author was surprised and pleased when he was asked to write some…

  5. Project Physics Reader 4, Light and Electromagnetism. (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 4, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. The 21 articles are included under the following headings: Letter from Thomas Jefferson; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; Systems, Feedback, Cybernetics; Velocity of Light; Popular Applications of Polarized Light; Eye and…

  6. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy


    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  7. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan


    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  8. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service. (United States)


    ... to have a visual impairment necessitating reader service includes a veteran: (1) Whose best corrected...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31... is limited to such an extent that the widest diameter of a visual field subtends to an angle no...

  9. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers. (United States)

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  10. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature (United States)

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail


    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  11. Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adolescent Readers (United States)

    Stover, Katie; O'Rear, Allison; Morris, Carolyn


    Research suggests that additional reading instruction is necessary to support struggling adolescent readers. In addition to time allocated for reading and access to appropriately leveled texts, many students need teacher support in learning and implementing a range of reading strategies. As a high school English teacher and a middle school Social…

  12. Understanding readers' understanding theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols


    This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.

  13. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults. (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  14. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret


    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  15. Collaboration between SSMJ and its readers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of us in the healthcare professions throughout the world can learn much from each other. This has been demonstrated so well by the collaboration between the editors, authors, medical experts and readers of the South Sudan Medical Journal. The Editor-in-Chief recently sent out a request for photographs and received a ...

  16. RFID reader immunity test against electrostatic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin


    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.

  17. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader


    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark


    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  18. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market (United States)

    Perks, Simon


    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  19. Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John


    Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.

  20. Improvements of RGD3 TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun


    The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly

  1. Integrated fluency instruction: Three approaches for working with struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kuhn


    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  2. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie KUHN


    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  3. 75 FR 69986 - Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program AGENCY: Office of... for funding under the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. SUMMARY: By February 2011, the...) projects to support comprehensive literacy development and to advance literacy skills, including pre...

  4. Management Problems in Readers' Services: The Nigerian Experience. (United States)

    Ifidon, Betty I.


    Identifies major problems that affect reader's services departments in Nigerian university libraries. Highlights include the functions of the reader's services department, including circulation, collection management, user education, and interlibrary loan; student population explosion; funding shortages; staffing shortages; and suggested…

  5. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  7. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana


    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  8. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers (United States)

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham


    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated…

  9. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles (United States)

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan


    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  10. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)


    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  11. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SCHMITZ


    Full Text Available From the scientific perspective this review is very interesting. It is well-structured, has an attractive lay-out and typography and serves as an important forum for the scientific debate on public administration in the Republic of Moldova. Furthermore, there is a special website with several subwebsites for the review. This makes it easy for every interested reader to get an idea of the review. Finally, the websites allows free downloads even of the newest issue. This allows everybody to read it, even students (because it is free and foreign researchers (who otherwise would not have access to Moldovan scientific reviews.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers) (United States)

    Kibble, Bob


    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  13. The effect of computer-aided detection markers on visual search and reader performance during concurrent reading of CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbren, Emma; Taylor, Stuart A.; Fanshawe, Thomas R.; Mallett, Susan; Phillips, Peter; Boone, Darren; Gale, Alastair; Altman, Douglas G.; Manning, David; Halligan, Steve


    We aimed to identify the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on visual search and performance in CT Colonography (CTC) of inexperienced and experienced readers. Fifteen endoluminal CTC examinations were recorded, each with one polyp, and two videos were generated, one with and one without a CAD mark. Forty-two readers (17 experienced, 25 inexperienced) interpreted the videos during infrared visual search recording. CAD markers and polyps were treated as regions of interest in data processing. This multi-reader, multi-case study was analysed using multilevel modelling. CAD drew readers' attention to polyps faster, accelerating identification times: median 'time to first pursuit' was 0.48 s (IQR 0.27 to 0.87 s) with CAD, versus 0.58 s (IQR 0.35 to 1.06 s) without. For inexperienced readers, CAD also held visual attention for longer. All visual search metrics used to assess visual gaze behaviour demonstrated statistically significant differences when ''with'' and ''without'' CAD were compared. A significant increase in the number of correct polyp identifications across all readers was seen with CAD (74 % without CAD, 87 % with CAD; p < 0.001). CAD significantly alters visual search and polyp identification in readers viewing three-dimensional endoluminal CTC. For polyp and CAD marker pursuit times, CAD generally exerted a larger effect on inexperienced readers. (orig.)

  14. The effect of computer-aided detection markers on visual search and reader performance during concurrent reading of CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbren, Emma; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Fanshawe, Thomas R.; Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Phillips, Peter [University of Cumbria, Health and Medical Sciences Group, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Boone, Darren [Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust and Anglia University, Colchester (United Kingdom); Gale, Alastair [Loughborough University, Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Altman, Douglas G. [University of Oxford, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Manning, David [Lancaster University, Lancaster Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Gastrointestinal Radiology, University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, Podium Level 2, London, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)


    We aimed to identify the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on visual search and performance in CT Colonography (CTC) of inexperienced and experienced readers. Fifteen endoluminal CTC examinations were recorded, each with one polyp, and two videos were generated, one with and one without a CAD mark. Forty-two readers (17 experienced, 25 inexperienced) interpreted the videos during infrared visual search recording. CAD markers and polyps were treated as regions of interest in data processing. This multi-reader, multi-case study was analysed using multilevel modelling. CAD drew readers' attention to polyps faster, accelerating identification times: median 'time to first pursuit' was 0.48 s (IQR 0.27 to 0.87 s) with CAD, versus 0.58 s (IQR 0.35 to 1.06 s) without. For inexperienced readers, CAD also held visual attention for longer. All visual search metrics used to assess visual gaze behaviour demonstrated statistically significant differences when ''with'' and ''without'' CAD were compared. A significant increase in the number of correct polyp identifications across all readers was seen with CAD (74 % without CAD, 87 % with CAD; p < 0.001). CAD significantly alters visual search and polyp identification in readers viewing three-dimensional endoluminal CTC. For polyp and CAD marker pursuit times, CAD generally exerted a larger effect on inexperienced readers. (orig.)

  15. From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage (United States)

    Bruns, Axel

    Today, participatory or citizen journalism - journalism which enables readers to become writers - exists online and offline in a variety of forms and formats, operates under a number of editorial schemes, and focuses on a wide range of topics from the specialist to the generic and the micro-local to the global. Key models in this phenomenon include veteran sites Slashdot and Indymedia, as well as news-related weblogs; more recent additions into the mix have been the South Korean OhmyNews, which in 2003 was “the most influential online news site in that country, attracting an estimated 2 million readers a day” (Gillmor, 2003a, p. 7), with its new Japanese and international offshoots, as well as the Wikipedia with its highly up-to-date news and current events section and its more recent offshoot Wikinews, and even citizen-produced video news as it is found in sites such as YouTube and

  16. What Makes a Good Reader? Asking Students to Define Good Readers (United States)

    Johnson, Jill Caton


    This article shares a simple questionnaire that can be used with students to ascertain their understanding of good readers and the strategies they use. Responses from a questionnaire administered in January and August in one fourth-grade classroom are categorized and shared. The responses show the students' belief that good reading is done by both…

  17. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia. (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth


    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Regulating Readers: The Social Origins of the Readers' Advisor in the United States. (United States)

    Luyt, Brendan


    The readers' advisory service was a product of social forces operating in the context of early twentieth century capitalism. The work of French regulation theorists provides a framework for analyzing these forces using the concepts of regime of accumulation and mode of regulation. Libraries were connected in a society-wide project, as opposed to…

  19. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.


    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  20. The Reader-Text-Writer Interaction: L2 Japanese Learners' Response toward Graded Readers (United States)

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue


    This paper reports on two projects which investigated graded readers (GRs) as meaningful input for learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Project One examined the intentions of six writers of Japanese GRs. A focus group interview demonstrated that the writers had a genuine communicative intent in the writing process. Project Two…

  1. Image based automatic water meter reader (United States)

    Jawas, N.; Indrianto


    Water meter is used as a tool to calculate water consumption. This tool works by utilizing water flow and shows the calculation result with mechanical digit counter. Practically, in everyday use, an operator will manually check the digit counter periodically. The Operator makes logs of the number shows by water meter to know the water consumption. This manual operation is time consuming and prone to human error. Therefore, in this paper we propose an automatic water meter digit reader from digital image. The digits sequence is detected by utilizing contour information of the water meter front panel.. Then an OCR method is used to get the each digit character. The digit sequence detection is an important part of overall process. It determines the success of overall system. The result shows promising results especially in sequence detection.

  2. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    Studies suggest that online news journalists are very sceptical towards the value of the user participation, because of what they perceive as poor quality of the public participation, the scepticism varies from one interactivity feature to another and from newsroom to newsroom. This paper examines...... how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... scepticism towards it, dismissing audience feedback because they see it as largely unrepresentative of the general population (Gans, 1980; 230-5). The doors opened by interactivity in the newsrooms, thus equally opens the discussion of journalistic autonomy and specialist knowledge. And guarding the gate can...

  3. Implementation and extension of a GNU-Radio RFID reader


    G. Smietanka; S. Brato; M. Freudenberg; J. Götze


    The development of a flexible software defined RFID is discused. Commercial reader systems only allow a top level view on the communication and restrict the variation for many transmission parameters. Recently a software reader from the CGran project was proposed which uses the GNU Radio environment in combination with an USRP front end. Because most of the signal processing is done on a common host PC, this reader offers high flexibility, but also has several disadvantages. One ...

  4. Universal 3D Wearable Fingerprint Targets: Advancing Fingerprint Reader Evaluations


    Engelsma, Joshua J.; Arora, Sunpreet S.; Jain, Anil K.; Paulter Jr, Nicholas G.


    We present the design and manufacturing of high fidelity universal 3D fingerprint targets, which can be imaged on a variety of fingerprint sensing technologies, namely capacitive, contact-optical, and contactless-optical. Universal 3D fingerprint targets enable, for the first time, not only a repeatable and controlled evaluation of fingerprint readers, but also the ability to conduct fingerprint reader interoperability studies. Fingerprint reader interoperability refers to how robust fingerpr...

  5. Tracking the emergence of the consonant bias in visual-word recognition: evidence with developing readers. (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat


    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias"). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd) and 4(th) Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th) Grade children, whereas 2(nd) graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th) graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading.

  6. Pleasure in the use of new technologies. the case of e-book readers


    Antón Martín, María del Carmen; Camarero Izquierdo, María del Carmen; Rodríguez, Antón


    Producción Científica We analyse the adoption process of e-book readers and examine how the perception about the advantages of this technology and its incompatibility with consumer values determine the pleasure felt and its effective use. We also propose that consumer involvement with ICTs moderates these effects. Design/methodology/approach –Hierarchical moderated regression analysis is used to test the proposed model with survey data from a sample of e-book reader owners. Findings...

  7. Treatment Effects for Adolescent Struggling Readers: An Application of Moderated Mediation (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon


    This study used multigroup structural equations to evaluate the possibility that a theory-driven, evidence-based, yearlong reading program for sixth-grade struggling readers moderates the interrelationships among elements of the simple model of reading (i.e., listening comprehension, word reading, and reading comprehension; Hoover & Gough,…

  8. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher


    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  9. Co-editors’ Note to Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh


    Full Text Available Dear Cross-Currents readers, We are pleased to present you with the fifteenth quarterly issue of the Cross-Currents e-journal. The research articles in the June 2015 issue—guest edited by Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Xiang Biao (University of Oxford, and Antonia Chao (Tunghai University—explore the theme “Governing Marriage Migrations: Perspectives from Mainland China and Taiwan.” The issue includes five articles by scholars from Japan, Germany, the UK, Taiwan, and Hong Kong who are engaged in critical analysis of cross-border migration for the purpose of marriage in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as a subject of governance. As the guest editors emphasize in their introduction, cross-border marriage is “perceived to be inseparable from a wide range of other issues, such as sexual morality, family norms, national identity, and border security.” The contributors—Hongfang Hao (Kyoto University, Caroline Grillot (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Mei-Hua Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, and Hsun-Hui Tseng (Chinese University of Hong Kong—offer valuable new insights on international marriage migration in their multidisciplinary and fieldwork-based studies...

  10. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua


    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  12. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader (United States)

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia


    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  13. Effects of Subvocal Suppression of Learning Disabled Readers' Sentence Comprehension. (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee


    The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)

  14. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers (United States)

    Hudson, John


    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  15. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest. (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  16. Accelerated Reader Program: What Do Teachers Really Think? (United States)

    Smith, Amy Frances; Westberg, Karen; Hejny, Anne


    What do teachers really think about the Accelerated Reader program, a widely used supplemental, independent reading program in which their students read fiction and non-fiction books of their choice and take brief online comprehension quizzes about the books? The Accelerated Reader (AR) program was designed by Renaissance Learning Company to…

  17. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers (United States)

    Peoples, Clayton D.


    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  18. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007


    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  19. Fictionalizing the Readers of Scholarly Articles in Biology. (United States)

    Gragson, Gay; Selzer, Jack


    Analyzes two scientific journal articles from a reader-response perspective. Elaborates the rhetorical nature of scientific discourse and demonstrates that even within the constraints of the journal articles, scientists have considerable freedom to exercise choices. Explicates how writers use cues to direct readers into fictional roles. (MG)

  20. Learning to Choose: The Hidden Art of the Enthusiastic Reader (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret


    Often the difference between a successful and unsuccessful reader is that the former is simply better at finding enjoyable books to read. The capacity to select appealing reading is not developed in classrooms where the decision about what book to read is made by someone other than the reader: the teacher, the curriculum planner, the person who…

  1. Teaching Materials for German. G3: Readers. Teaching Materials Lists. (United States)

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication, part of a bibliography of language teaching materials, lists 91 readers. It contains a contents list, annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. In addition to basic bibliographical details, the following are provided for each entry: an annotation describing the reader, a statement…

  2. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.


    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  3. Perceptions about "Good Readers": Analyzing Curricular, Linguistic, and Socioeconomic Differences (United States)

    Moses, Lindsey


    Students' perceptions about "what good readers do" are representative of their definition of reading and what they believe they should be striving toward as a reader. These beliefs about reading influence their motivation and ways they engage with texts. In this study, interviews were conducted with students in three first-grade…

  4. How Blind Readers Perceive and Gather Information Written in Braille. (United States)

    Simon, C.; Huertas, J. A.


    Twenty-six expert adult readers, 13 of whom were blind, were compared for how they perceived and retrieved written information. The study found that braille readers were not limited to the isolated identification of individual braille characters as previously thought, but could integrate greater quantities of written information. Implications for…

  5. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan


    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  6. "Struggling Readers: What Consultants Need to Know." The Consultant's Corner. (United States)

    Margolis, Howard


    To help struggling readers' improve their reading, educational consultants must know a great deal about reading, reading assessment, and struggling readers. This article provides basic information about these topics by discussing Lipson and Wixson's (2003) Assessment-Instruction Process, making recommendations for working with struggling readers…

  7. Towards More Secure Biometric Readers for Effective Digital Forensic Investigation (United States)

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad

    This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.

  8. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin


    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  9. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías


    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  10. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  11. Journal of Clipped Words in Reader's Digest Magazine


    Simanjuntak, Lestari


    This study deals with Clipped Words in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of clipped words which are used in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest, to find out sthe dominantly used in the whole story and to reason the dominant clipped word use in the text. The study use descriptive qualitative method. The data were collected from seventeen selected Reader's Digest which contains the clipped word by applie...

  12. How do readers choose to undergo treatments based on medical articles? (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Seul; Kim, Jeongjoo; Joo, Seongsu; Go, Byeongho; Lee, Hyangsook; Chae, Younbyoung


    The purpose of this study is to study the reader's cognitive process in reading medical articles and its influence on the decision-making process. Twenty-four participants completed a survey pertaining to 36 medical articles on new treatments with similar text structures and similar titles. Participants rated each article on its level of interest, informativeness, and reliability, and were asked whether they would choose the treatments in the news article. A cognitive decision-making model can be applied to health contexts, in which the reader's subjective ratings on interest, informativeness, and reliability were positively associated with choosing new treatments. The decision-making process path from the perception of informativeness was mediated by the reliability of the news article. Interest was positively linked to informativeness, although it was not directly associated with reliability. This study shows that readers' subjective ratings on health information can indicate their decision-making. Artifacts in the information that might incite emotions or interest, such as framing, can affect the reader's decision-making process.

  13. Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming. (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo


    Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTEARTE). This is consistent with the idea that there is fast access to abstract representations. In contrast, this process does not seem to be fully operative in third graders, as revealed by the pattern of data with DIS words (ARTE-ARTEarte-ARTE=edad-ARTE). These findings have relevant implications for developmental models of visual word recognition and for the use of masked priming experiments with developmental readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-sample integrated TL/OSL reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.R.; Sutar, S.S.; Datta, D.


    In modern societies ionizing radiation measurements using thermo-luminescence (TL) and optically stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has occupied definite space of the applications, extending from medical dosimetry, personnel monitoring, environment monitoring and geological/archaeological dating. The need of low cost multi-sample functional TL/OSL reader system remains integral need of new age researchers. Only few such type of reader systems exist commercially. Considering this, BARC has developed low cost Multi-sample integrated TL-OSL reader (MS-ITOR) system. This reader system will fulfill the need of basic research in TL-OSL radiation dosimetry in India. The MS-ITOR-1 provides all advance TL/OSL features such as NL-TL and NL-OSL. The present paper describes its design and performance in brief

  15. Creating the Virtual Work: Readers' Processes in Understanding Literary Texts. (United States)

    Earthman, Elise Ann


    Studies the ways readers create meaning initially from literary texts. Analyzes the data collected via think-aloud protocols and interviews. Compares reading tactics of first-year college students and graduate students. (HB)

  16. A highly sensitive programmable OSL reader for research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Gaonkar, Uma; Kulkarni, M.S.


    A highly sensitive programmable optical stimulation luminescence (OSL) reader system has been developed for research applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. The system hardware consists of stimulation source, light detection assembly, drawer assembly, high current driver for the stimulation light source, photon counting module and microcontroller card. The electronic hardware for the Reader is developed around P8952RD2BN microcontroller. Two Luxeon power LEDs (blue, 470 nm) placed diagonally opposite at 45 ° in the drawer assembly of the reader are used as a stimulation light source. The LED's together can generate a power of ∼ 100 mW/cm 2 at the sample position with a LED current of ∼ 200 mA. The reader works in constant wave-OSL (CW-OSL), light intensity modulated-OSL (LM-OSL) and nonlinear modulated OSL(NLOSL) modes of operation. The performance of the reader system is evaluated using a-Al 2 O 3 :C OSL phosphor developed in BARC. This paper discusses the study of the Reader parameters like linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity, minimum measurable dose using the Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor using CW-OSL mode. It also discusses the photoionization cross section of the Al 2 O 3 :C sample to evaluate the linearity of stimulation light intensity. The reader also has a facility to measure the LED light intensity at the sample position. The LM-OSL curves are plotted photoionization cross-section of various phosphor materials was evaluated. Such low cost reader systems are very useful for radiation dosimetry and material research. (author)

  17. A highly sensitive programmable OSL reader for research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Gaonkar, Uma; Kulkarni, M.S.


    A Highly sensitive programmable Optical Stimulation Luminescence (OSL) reader system has been developed for Research applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. The system hardware consists of stimulation source, light detection assembly, drawer assembly, high current driver for the stimulation light source, photon counting module and microcontroller card. The electronic hardware for the Reader is developed around P8952RD2BN microcontroller. Two Luxeon power LEDs (blue, 470 nm) placed diagonally opposite at 45 deg. in the drawer assembly of the reader are used as a stimulation light source. The LEDs together can generate a power of ∼ 100 mW/cm 2 at the sample position with a LED current of ∼ 200 mA. The reader works in constant wave-OSL (CW-OSL), light intensity modulated-OSL (LM-OSL) and non linear modulated OSL (NLOSL) modes. The performance of the reader system is evaluated using a-Al 2 O 3 :C OSL phosphor developed in BARC. This paper discusses the study of the Reader parameters like linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity, minimum measurable dose of the reader for the Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor samples using CW-OSL mode. It also discusses the photoionization cross section of the Al 2 O 3 :C sample to evaluate the linearity of stimulation light intensity. For the verification of the LM-OSL mode, OSL curves are plotted and shown that how the glow peaks are shifting towards left with respect to the time scale as the stimulation light intensity increases on the sample for the same radiation exposure. It is also shown that if the ramp rate of power is constant, the LM-OSL peak height increases with respect to the increase in the exposures. This reader also gives the facility to measure the LED current and intensity at the sample position and feeds value to the PC along with the readings. (author)

  18. Inferential processes in readers with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosende-Vázquez, Marta


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a

  19. Visual and Auditory Synchronization Deficits Among Dyslexic Readers as Compared to Non-impaired Readers: A Cross-Correlation Algorithm Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar eSela


    Full Text Available Visual and auditory temporal processing and crossmodal integration are crucial factors in the word decoding process. The speed of processing gap (Asynchrony between these two modalities, which has been suggested as related to the dyslexia phenomenon, is the focus of the current study. Nineteen dyslexic and 17 non-impaired University adult readers were given stimuli in a reaction time procedure where participants were asked to identify whhether the stimulus type was only visual, only auditory or crossmodally integrated. Accuracy, reaction time, and Event Related Potential (ERP measures were obtained for each of the three conditions. An algorithm to measure the contribution of the temporal speed of processing of each modality to the crossmodal integration in each group of participants was developed. Results obtained using this model for the analysis of the current study data, indicated that in the crossmodal integration condition the presence of the auditory modality at the pre-response time frame (between 170- 240 ms after stimulus presentation, increased processing speed in the visual modality among the non-impaired readers, but not in the dyslexic group. The differences between the temporal speed of processing of the modalities among the dyslexics and the non-impaired readers give additional support to the theory that an asynchrony between the visual and auditory modalities is a cause of dyslexia.

  20. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier


    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain. PMID:28350356

  1. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors. (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier


    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  2. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild


    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  3. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel


    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  4. An Analysis of Reading Skill Development using E-Z Reader. (United States)

    Mancheva, Lyuba; Reichle, Erik D; Lemaire, Benoît; Valdois, Sylviane; Ecalle, Jean; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency (Reichle et al., 2013). However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) account for the concurrent changes in eye movements and reading skill. To examine this issue, the E-Z Reader model was first used to simulate the aggregate eye-movement data from 15 adults and 75 children to replicate the finding that gross differences in reading skill can be accounted for by differences in lexical processing proficiency. The model was then used to simulate the eye-movement data of individual children so that the best-fitting lexical-processing parameters could be correlated to measures of orthographic knowledge, phonological-processing skill, sentence comprehension, and general intelligence. These analyses suggest that orthographic knowledge accounts for variance in the eye-movement measures that is observed with between-individual differences in reading skill. The theoretical implications of this conclusion will be discussed in relation to computational models of reading and our understanding of reading skill development.

  5. Impact of model-based iterative reconstruction on low-contrast lesion detection and image quality in abdominal CT: a 12-reader-based comparative phantom study with filtered back projection at different tube voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, Andre; Stieltjes, Bram; Eichenberger, Reto; Reisinger, Clemens; Hirschmann, Anna; Zaehringer, Caroline; Kircher, Achim; Streif, Matthias; Bucher, Sabine; Buergler, David; D' Errico, Luigia; Kopp, Sebastien; Wilhelm, Markus [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt [Hospital Centre of Biel, Institute of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland); Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Institute of Radiology, Aarau (Switzerland)


    To evaluate the impact of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) on image quality and low-contrast lesion detection compared with filtered back projection (FBP) in abdominal computed tomography (CT) of simulated medium and large patients at different tube voltages. A phantom with 45 hypoattenuating lesions was placed in two water containers and scanned at 70, 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The 120-kVp protocol served as reference, and the volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) was kept constant for all protocols. The datasets were reconstructed with MBIR and FBP. Image noise and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) were assessed. Low-contrast lesion detectability was evaluated by 12 radiologists. MBIR decreased the image noise by 24% and 27%, and increased the CNR by 30% and 29% for the medium and large phantoms, respectively. Lower tube voltages increased the CNR by 58%, 46%, and 16% at 70, 80, and 100 kVp, respectively, compared with 120 kVp in the medium phantom and by 9%, 18% and 12% in the large phantom. No significant difference in lesion detection rate was observed (medium: 79-82%; large: 57-65%; P > 0.37). Although MBIR improved quantitative image quality compared with FBP, it did not result in increased low-contrast lesion detection in abdominal CT at different tube voltages in simulated medium and large patients. (orig.)

  6. Echoic memory processes in good and poor readers. (United States)

    Sipe, S; Engle, R W


    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether echoic memory plays a role in differences between good and poor readers. The first two experiments used a suffix procedure in which the subject is read a list of digits with either a tone control or the word go appended to the list. For lists that exceeded the length of the subjects memory span by one digit (i.e., that avoided ceiling effects), the poor readers showed a larger decrement in the suffix condition than did the good readers. The third experiment was directed at the question of whether the duration of echoic memory is different for good and poor readers. Children shadowed words presented to one ear at a rate determined to give 75-85% shadowing accuracy. The items presented to the nonattended ear were words and an occasional digit. At various intervals after the presentation of the digit, a light signaled that the subject was to cease shadowing and attempt to recall any digit that had occurred in the nonattended ear recently. Whereas good and poor readers recalled the digit equally if tested immediately after presentation, the poor readers showed a faster decline in recall of the digit as retention interval increased. A fourth experiment was conducted to determine whether the differences in echoic memory were specific to speech stimuli or occurred at a more basic level of aural persistence. Bursts of white noise were separated by 9-400 ms of silence and the subject was to say whether there were one or two sounds presented. There were no differences in detectability functions for good and poor readers.

  7. Thermoluminescent characteristics of new pre-calibrated dosimeters (TLD) in commercially available readers for selected applications (United States)

    Tawil, R. A.; Pontikos, P.; Szalanczy, A.; Velbeck, K.; Bruml, W.; Rotunda, J. E.


    This paper reports the performance of newly developed pre-calibrated Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) with a description and performance results for two commercially available TLD readers. Introduced for use in basic research, medical diagnostics and therapy applications, the Harshaw Model 5500 Automatic TLD Reader evaluates up to 50 dosimeters (rods, chips, disks, μ-cubes) per loading; the Harshaw Model 3500 Manual TLD Reader evaluates single dosimeters and powder. Tests were conducted using the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) guidelines for TLD readers to determine system performance and compliance. Both instruments passed the compliance standards in all tests established by the IEC: detection thresholds for both instruments were less than 10μGy, reproducibility was better than 0.7%, sensitivity to ambient light was less than 0.2 Hmax (where Hmax is the maximum detection threshold), TL residue was less than 1% of the total integral charge, stability less than 1% deviation after a 24 hour warm-up period, linearity was within specification, test light stability was under 1%, and power leakage requirements set forth by UL-544 (less than 500 μA AC RMS leakage) was less than 42 μA AC RMS in all cases. The characteristics of newly introduced, factory calibrated, extruded TLD-100 rods were investigated by studying the consistency of the Element Correction Coefficients (ECCs) under a variety of conditions. The ECC ( / xi) relates an individual dosimeter's response, xi, to the mean response, , of the group. Supralinearity effects and the validity of ECCs generated at 1 cGy for use in the 50-900 cGy dose range were characterized and reported. The results for two specific applications, phantom studies with 60Co and at four Orthovoltage energies are also reported. Portability of Element Correction Coefficients from reader to reader was achieved with a relative standard deviation of less than 1.7%. The relative standard deviation of five TLDs exposed to

  8. Background reduction and gain stabilisation in auto TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Kannan


    More than 40 Auto TLD Badge Readers are in use for country-wide personnel monitoring in India. The background of the reader consists of the two components, namely the non-radiation induced luminescence from the dosimeter and the reader background. The minimum measurable radiation dose being dependent on the variation in the background of the reader, it is important to reduce the variation in the background to as low as possible. The variation in the background of the reader was studied and it was found that there was a gradual increase in the temperature of the photo-cathode of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) as 50 badges are read over a period of 90 minutes. The resulting variation in dark current and sensitivity of the PMT was found to introduce a systematic variation in the measurement up to 7% from the first to the last badge. Simple forced N 2 gas cooling of the PMT reduces the variation to less than 2%. The results are presented. (author)

  9. CT colonography: effect of experience and training on reader performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve; Bassett, Paul; Atkin, Wendy


    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)

  10. A study on the development of an infographic reader questionnaire and reader opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan


    Full Text Available Educational materials are commonly used to assist with communication during learning. One of the ways to determine the use of educational materials and their contribution to the learning process is to ask students for their opinions. Student opinions provide useful information regarding various objectives such as making both the learning process and resources more effective, bringing about the necessary improvements and organising the teaching process. In this study, we developed a questionnaire for determining the opinions of information graphics (infographics readers on information graphics prepared for teaching purposes. This study was conducted in the fall semester of the 2013-2014 academic year with the participation of 59 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education. The students were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 29 items that inquired their opinions on infographics. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a second questionnaire consisting of 23 items and six factors (Learnability, Selection Preferences, Sharing, Basic Presentation Structure, Memorability, and Role in the Learning Process was developed. According to the study results, the students considered infographics as highly instructive, and described that they help ensure a more lasting learning experience.

  11. The Visceral Novel Reader and Novelized Medicine in Georgian Britain. (United States)

    Class, Monika

    The article introduces "the visceral novel reader" as a diachronic, context-sensitive mode of novelistic reception, in which fact and fiction overlap cognitively: the mental rehearsal of the activity of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching while reading novels and, vice versa, the mental rehearsal of novels in the act of perceiving the real world. Located at the intersection of literature, medicine and science, "the visceral novel reader" enhances our understanding of the role that novels played in the dialectic construction of erudition in English. In Georgian Britain, reading practices became a testing ground for the professionalization of physicians, natural philosophers, and men of letters. While it was in the professionals' common interest to implement protocols that taught readers to separate body from mind, and fact from fiction, novels came to stand for "debased" (visceral) reading. Novels inverted these notions by means of medicalization (regimentation, somatization, and individuation) and contributed to the professional stratification of medicine and literature.

  12. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso


    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included

  13. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne


    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  14. How Do Fluent and Poor Readers' Endurance Differ in Reading? (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Keskin, Hasan Kagan; Akyol, Mustafa


    It was observed in this research how endurance status of fluent readers and poor readers changed as the text became longer. 40 students of the primary school 4th-grade, 20 were fluent readers and other 20 were poor readers, participated in the research. A narrative text was utilised in the data collection process. Students' oral readings were…

  15. Modeling Individual Differences among Writers Using ReaderBench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Laura; Dascalu, Mihai; McNamara, Danielle; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan


    The current study builds upon a previous study, which examined the degree to which the lexical properties of students’ essays could predict their vocabulary scores. We expand on this previous research by incorporating new natural language processing indices related to both the surface- and

  16. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection (United States)

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  17. Reader error, object recognition, and visual search (United States)

    Kundel, Harold L.


    Small abnormalities such as hairline fractures, lung nodules and breast tumors are missed by competent radiologists with sufficient frequency to make them a matter of concern to the medical community; not only because they lead to litigation but also because they delay patient care. It is very easy to attribute misses to incompetence or inattention. To do so may be placing an unjustified stigma on the radiologists involved and may allow other radiologists to continue a false optimism that it can never happen to them. This review presents some of the fundamentals of visual system function that are relevant to understanding the search for and the recognition of small targets embedded in complicated but meaningful backgrounds like chests and mammograms. It presents a model for visual search that postulates a pre-attentive global analysis of the retinal image followed by foveal checking fixations and eventually discovery scanning. The model will be used to differentiate errors of search, recognition and decision making. The implications for computer aided diagnosis and for functional workstation design are discussed.

  18. The role of working memory and fluency practice on the reading comprehension of students who are dysfluent readers. (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee; O'Connor, Rollanda


    The authors investigated whether practice in reading fluency had a causal influence on the relationship between working memory (WM) and text comprehension for 155 students in Grades 2 and 4 who were poor or average readers. Dysfluent readers were randomly assigned to repeated reading or continuous reading practice conditions and compared with untreated dysfluent and fluent readers on posttest measures of fluency, word identification, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (a) The influence of WM on text comprehension was not related to fluency training, (b) dysfluent readers in the continuous-reading condition had higher posttest scores than dysfluent readers in the other conditions on measures of text comprehension but not on vocabulary, and (c) individual differences in WM better predicted posttest comprehension performance than word-attack skills. In general, the results suggested that although continuous reading increased comprehension, fluency practice did not compensate for WM demands. The results were interpreted within a model that viewed reading comprehension processes as competing for a limited supply of WM resources that operate independent of fluency.

  19. Using Randomized Clinical Trials to Determine the Impact of Reading Intervention on Struggling Adolescent Readers: Reports of Research from Five Nationally Funded Striving Readers Grants (United States)

    Loadman, William; Sprague, Kim; Hamilton, Jennifer; Coffey, Deb; Faddis, Bonnie


    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education awarded eight Striving Readers grants to projects around the country. The goal of Striving Readers is to improve literacy skills and achievement for struggling readers in middle and high school and to increase the research base using randomized clinical research to address improvement in adolescent…

  20. Glycan Reader: Automated Sugar Identification and Simulation Preparation for Carbohydrates and Glycoproteins (United States)

    Jo, Sunhwan; Song, Kevin C.; Desaire, Heather; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Im, Wonpil


    Understanding how glycosylation affects protein structure, dynamics, and function is an emerging and challenging problem in biology. As a first step toward glycan modeling in the context of structural glycobiology, we have developed Glycan Reader and integrated it into the CHARMM-GUI, Glycan Reader greatly simplifies the reading of PDB structure files containing glycans through (i) detection of carbohydrate molecules, (ii) automatic annotation of carbohydrates based on their three-dimensional structures, (iii) recognition of glycosidic linkages between carbohydrates as well as N-/O-glycosidic linkages to proteins, and (iv) generation of inputs for the biomolecular simulation program CHARMM with the proper glycosidic linkage setup. In addition, Glycan Reader is linked to other functional modules in CHARMM-GUI, allowing users to easily generate carbohydrate or glycoprotein molecular simulation systems in solution or membrane environments and visualize the electrostatic potential on glycoprotein surfaces. These tools are useful for studying the impact of glycosylation on protein structure and dynamics. PMID:21815173

  1. The parts of a research paper? What your readers expect (United States)

    Scientific papers are organized into sections that are easy for scientific readers to follow. This second part of a three part series, summarizes the points that should be considered when writing the main sections of a research report. These sections typically include Introduction Methods, Results,...

  2. English Language Learners Utilizing the Accelerated Reader Program (United States)

    Gomez, Frank, II


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact (positive, negative, or neutral) of Accelerated Readers (AR), a standard based intervention, on the academic achievement of English Language Learners at Carolina Herrera Elementary School. Carolina Herrera Elementary School, was analyzed using these specific lenses: (1) curriculum and…

  3. Dose reader of dosimetric foil; Czytnik dawki folii dozymetrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.


    Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.

  4. Digital Books and Your Rights: A Checklist for Readers (United States)

    McSherry, Corynne; Cohn, Cindy


    After several years of false starts, the universe of digital books seems at last poised to expand dramatically. Readers should view this expansion with both excitement and wariness. Excitement because digital books could revolutionize reading, making more books more findable and more accessible to more people in more ways than ever before.…

  5. Using Audiobooks to Meet the Needs of Adolescent Readers (United States)

    Wolfson, Gene


    Audiobooks may be used with adolescent readers to improve fluency, expand vocabulary, activate prior knowledge, develop comprehension, and increase motivation to interact with books. Removing the restraints of word recognition and decoding allows a very positive focus on the meaning behind an author's words. This provides an opportunity for many…

  6. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis


    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  7. Growing Readers and Writers with Help from Mother Goose. (United States)

    Hamner, Devon

    Primary-grade children can learn rhythm and rhyme from nursery rhymes. But those same poems can be used to help young students make connections to letters, sounds, and word chunks. This lesson lets Mother Goose help children grow as readers and writers. During the 5-10 minutes per day for these lessons, students will: develop a feel for the rhythm…

  8. Student Attitudes toward Accelerated Reader: "Thanks for Asking!" (United States)

    Smith, Amy; Westberg, Karen


    The Accelerated Reader program was designed by Renaissance Learning to increase students' motivation to read and students' achievement in reading; however, a review of the literature reveals inconsistent findings about its outcomes. The Renaissance Learning company reports several research studies on their website that suggest the program is…

  9. Strategy Availability and Use by Good and Poor Readers. (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert M.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    Two studies investigated the use of graphic and contextual information in word recognition, and the extent to which good and poor fourth grade readers were flexible in their ability to trade off one type of information for another as situations warranted. The subjects orally read stories containing ten altered words, with a single letter…

  10. Machine-Translated Text: Is It Comprehensible to Proficient Readers? (United States)

    Leffa, Vilson J.


    This paper examines the development and testing of a machine-translation program designed to translate English text into Portuguese. A comparison of machine- and human-translated texts, using Brazilian secondary school students as readers, found that they were equally understood, both in terms of main ideas and details. (six references) (MDM)

  11. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  12. Perception of Undergraduate Newspaper Readers on the Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found, among other things, that although most newspaper readers read because they want to be informed and educated, some are discouraged from reading because of the level of language use in some of these papers. In spite of geolinguistic and socio-cultural differences, the study shows that the perception of ...

  13. The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem (United States)

    Butcher, Neil; Hoosen, Sarah; Levey, Lisbeth; Moore, Derek


    The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem examines how to use open licensing to promote quality learning resources for young children that are relevant and interesting. Research in early reading tends to focus on traditional publishing value and supply chains, without taking much consideration of new approaches and solutions…

  14. English for Mass Communications and for Other Purposes-Readers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an investigation into the way readers perceive the use of English, for different purposes, and in particular, for mass communication in a second language setting. For this purpose, a simple questionnaire in form of the Likert rating scale was used to generate data. The study involved 337 respondents.

  15. Selecting literature for beginner readers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibbert, Liesel


    Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.

  16. Phonological Activation of Word Meanings in Grade 5 Readers (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann


    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…

  17. Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund National Library Power Program. (United States)

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993


    Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)

  18. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse


    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,

  19. Spongelike Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary in Beginning Readers? (United States)

    Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie; Dixon, Maureen


    Investigates the relation between phonological awareness, sound-to-letter mapping knowledge, and printed word learning in novice five-year-old readers. Explores effects of visual memory and of teaching methods. Finds mental representations of printed words are more easily formed by beginners who are able to match at least some of the phonological…

  20. En guide til gyset. Horror: The Film Reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus


    Der er gennem tiden skrevet og teoretiseret vidt og bredt om, hvad horrorgenren er for en størrelse – og det med skiftende held. Antologien Horror: The Film Reader forsøger at levere en både bred og dybdegående introduktion til det mudrede genrefelt, som horror er. Det lykkedes langt hen af vejen....

  1. The influence of psychological type preferences on readers trying To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Around 65% could do so ('imaginers') and 35% could not. The likelihood of being an imaginer was higher among (i) women than among men, (ii) those who preferred intuition to sensing or feeling to thinking, and (iii) those who were most charismatically active. Readers with intuition as their dominant function were most ...

  2. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly


    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  3. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book (United States)

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip


    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  4. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader. (United States)

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  5. An Experimental Examination of Readers' Perceptions of Media Bias. (United States)

    D'Alessio, Dave


    Explores perceptions of media bias by manipulating expectations of bias and news topic. Explains that university students read dummy newspaper articles and then responded to a survey. Concludes that readers were more likely to designate material opposing their own views as biased. (PM)

  6. Does Linguistic Comprehension Support the Decoding Skills of Struggling Readers? (United States)

    Blick, Michele; Nicholson, Tom; Chapman, James; Berman, Jeanette


    This study investigated the contribution of linguistic comprehension to the decoding skills of struggling readers. Participants were 36 children aged between eight and 12 years, all below average in decoding but differing in linguistic comprehension. The children read passages from the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and their first 25 miscues…

  7. Reader Response and the Verbal Icon: Implications for English Education. (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    During the past 15 years, a fundamental change has taken place in literary criticism, with a decline in New Criticism (literature viewed as a public object) and an increase in reader response criticism (literature viewed as a private experience). New Critics considered the meaning of a literary text to exist within the text as an independent and…

  8. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin


    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  9. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.


    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  10. The Development of Visual Search Strategies in Biscriptal Readers. (United States)

    Liow, Susan Rikard; Green, David; Tam, Melissa


    To test whether cognitive processing in bilingual depends on script combinations and language proficiency, this study investigated the development of alphabetic and logographic visual search strategies in two kinds of biscriptals: (1) Malay-English and (2) Chinese-English readers. Results support the view that there are script implications of…

  11. Statistical comparison of ROC curves from multiple readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving, M; VanHouwelingen, H; Ottes, FP; Steerneman, T


    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the commonly accepted method for comparing diagnostic imaging systems. In general, ROC studies are designed in such a way that multiple readers read the same images and each image is presented by means of two different imaging systems. Statistical

  12. Instructions That Enhance Multiple-Text Comprehension for College Readers (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Kwon, Heekyung; Therriault, David J.


    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that prereading instructions, including how to self-explain during reading, would enhance multiple-text comprehension for college readers. Three prereading instruction conditions included a control condition that provided only the instruction for participants to try to comprehend well; a definition-only…

  13. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.


    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  14. Trends in Teacher Certification: Equipping Teachers to Prepare Proficient Readers (United States)

    Rowland, Julie


    Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…

  15. Image based quantitative reader for Lateral flow immunofluorescence assay. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar


    Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips.

  16. Using Jacqueline Woodson's "Locomotion" with Middle School Readers (United States)

    Napoli, Mary; Ritholz, Emily Rose


    Motivation is an essential component in developing a love of reading in middle level struggling students. For these readers, novels in verse bridge the gap to more challenging pieces of literature. In this article, Title One students explored Locomotion by Jacqueline Woodson and learned that they, too, are poets. (Contains 9 figures.)

  17. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond (United States)

    Latham, Don


    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  18. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein


    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  19. Mnemonic Strategy Instruction for Beginning Readers with Cognitive Impairments (United States)

    Burton, Rivka


    Many students with cognitive impairments are not afforded the opportunity to develop their potential as readers. A review of the literature reveals that few researchers have evaluated the effects of phonics instruction on the reading skills of students with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a…

  20. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance (United States)

    Al-Noori, Bushra Saadoon Mohammed


    This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC) tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items, multiple-choice items, and cloze test and re-test. This…

  1. Taxation: Myths and Realities. A Courses by Newspaper Reader. (United States)

    Break, George F., Ed.; Wallin, Bruce, Ed.

    This reader is one of two supplementary materials for a newspaper course about taxation and tax reform. Five units contain 75 primary-source readings about topics such as tax loopholes, social security financing, income tax reform, the impact of taxes on the economy, and alternatives to the property tax. Sources include government publications,…

  2. Implications of unchanged detection criteria with CAD as second reader of mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornefalk, Hans


    In this paper we address the use of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems as second readers in mammography. The approach is based on Bayesian decision theory and its implication for the choice of optimal operating points. The choice of a certain operating point along an ROC curve corresponds to a particular tradeoff between false positives and missed cancers. By minimizing a total risk function given this tradeoff, we determine optimal decision thresholds for the radiologist and CAD system when CAD is used as a second reader. We show that under very general circumstances, the performance of the sequential system is improved if the decision threshold of the latent human decision variable is increased compared to what it would have been in the absence of the CAD system. This means that an initial stricter decision criterion should be applied by the radiologist when CAD is used as a second reader than otherwise. First and foremost, the results in this paper should be interpreted qualitatively, but an attempt is made at quantifying the effect by tuning the model to a prospective study evaluating the use of CAD as a second reader. By making some necessary and plausible assumptions, we are able to estimate the effect of the resulting suboptimal operating point. In this study of 12 860 women, we estimate that a 15% reduction in callbacks for masses could have been achieved with only about a 1.5% relative decrease in sensitivity compared to that without using a stricter initial criterion by the radiologist. For microcalcifications the corresponding values are 7% and 0.2%

  3. A Novel Marking Reader for Progressive Addition Lenses Based on Gabor Holography. (United States)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Picazo-Bueno, José Angel; Micó, Vicente


    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are marked with permanent engraved marks (PEMs) at standardized locations. Permanent engraved marks are very useful through the manufacturing and mounting processes, act as locator marks to re-ink the removable marks, and contain useful information about the PAL. However, PEMs are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, partially occluded, and difficult to recognize on tinted lenses or with antireflection or scratch-resistant coatings. The aim of this article is to present a new generation of portable marking reader based on an extremely simplified concept for visualization and identification of PEMs in PALs. Permanent engraved marks on different PALs are visualized using classical Gabor holography as underlying principle. Gabor holography allows phase sample visualization with adjustable magnification and can be implemented in either classical or digital versions. Here, visual Gabor holography is used to provide a magnified defocused image of the PEMs onto a translucent visualization screen where the PEM is clearly identified. Different types of PALs (conventional, personalized, old and scratched, sunglasses, etc.) have been tested to visualize PEMs with the proposed marking reader. The PEMs are visible in every case, and variable magnification factor can be achieved simply moving up and down the PAL in the instrument. In addition, a second illumination wavelength is also tested, showing the applicability of this novel marking reader for different illuminations. A new concept of marking reader ophthalmic instrument has been presented and validated in the laboratory. The configuration involves only a commercial-grade laser diode and a visualization screen for PEM identification. The instrument is portable, economic, and easy to use, and it can be used for identifying patient's current PAL model and for marking removable PALs again or finding test points regardless of the age of the PAL, its scratches, tints, or coatings.

  4. Low-Skilled Adult Readers Look Like Typically Developing Child Readers: A Comparison of Reading Skills and Eye Movement Behavior (United States)

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk


    Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…

  5. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books (United States)

    Gleason, Carrie


    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  6. A TLD reader for wide range in situ dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.


    A portable thermoluminescent dosemeter reader suitable for reading at the site of exposure is described. The instrument consists of a glass bulb containing the CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent material laminated to the surface of an electrically heated resistive metal plate. The bulb is encapsulated in a cylindrical, pen-like metal holder made of aluminium. A one-wire-port integrated electronic programmable memory chip mounted inside the holder contains the identification code and the individual calibration parameters of the dosemeter. The aperture of the holder is normally covered by a stainless steel tube to protect the bulb from light and mechanical shocks. The tube slips backwards automatically when the dosemeter is inserted into the reader. The system is used by the Hungarian nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  7. Social Imaginary in web advertising of e-readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Marcela Angelozzi


    Full Text Available This paper explores the imaginary meanings that appear in the advertising discourses on e-book reading devices commonly known as e-readers. It starts from the assumption that imaginary meanings are associated with both: the imaginary associated to digital technologies (Cabrera, 2006, 2011 and to the imaginary of "order of books" (Chartier, 2000, 2005. In order to carry out the exploration, the advertising discourses in the homepages of three cases are analized: The Amazon Kindle, Kobo and MovistarBq brands. The conclusion is that e-readers are devices that participate of the imaginary of the digital technologies as other devices in the complex of digital technologies in everyday life, and also refers strongly to the imaginary meanings related to printed books.

  8. Power Efficient Gurumukhi Unicode Reader Design and Implementation on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Sunny; Pandey, Bishwajeet


    Gurumukhi is found to be the most widely used language of Pakistan, and it is ranked 3rd in Canada, 7th in India and almost 4th most spoken language in U.K. This Unicode Reader is cost effective solution for learning as well as understanding the Punjabi language by the people across the globe .Th...... Impedance) logic families to make this design more energy efficient. It is concluded that using LVDCI_DV2_15 rather than SSTL18_II_DCI, the total power can be saved up to 51.22% with the device operating at a frequency of 1MHz.......) and is implemented on Virtex-6 FPGA on Xilinx software. This GUR design is tested on different frequencies by applying frequency scaling techniques .The reader is also observed on different IO Standards of two logic families i.e. on SSTL (Stub-Series Terminated Logic) and LVDCI (Low Voltage Digitally Controlled...

  9. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh


    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  10. Afrikaans literature, Breyten Breytenbach, prison poetry, the reader ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Breyten Breytenbach's poetry the “I” is complex. “I” and “you”, the writer and the reader, are not represented with constituted meanings but as signifiers and as part of language production. This article reflects on the development process of the writer as the textual “I”, the “I” narrator in the poetic text – the “I” of language that ...

  11. An improved PC based TL reader for research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Gaikwad, N.P.; More, V.S.; Kulkarni, M.S.


    A new improved PC based TL Reader for its applications in routine dosimetry and research is described. The reader can generate glow curves both time versus TL response and temperature versus TL response with an overall reproducibility of ± 1 %. Here the main thing is design of a linear temperature controller capable of (± 0.5 %) reproducing a selected linear heating rate (0.5 - 60 deg C/s) up to a clamping temperature (500 deg C). Some of the limitations faced in the earlier versions of TL reader for dosimetry have been improved in this system. In the earlier versions, temperature can be clamped only up to 400 deg C and heating rate can be selected up to 35 deg C/s. It is a PC based instrument, where parameters like heating rate, end point temperature, EHT, cycle time etc can be entered and stored in the memory of the microcontroller IC. Phosphors can be in the form of powder, disc, tape etc. When the sample (in the powder form) is loaded on the kanthal heater directly, spilIage of the powder inside the drawer assembly takes place. This leads to the collection of the powder inside the drawer assembly. A small removable sample tray is designed using the same material (kanthal) to avoid the spillage of the sample powder. An elaborate study was carried to find out the lag in temperature when the sample is loaded on the tray and results were compared with the sample directly on the heater. To evaluate the performance of the reader for higher temperature, glow curves were taken for some new phosphors whose glow peaks were above 350 deg C. (author)

  12. The Use of English Collocations in Reader's Digest


    Sinaga, Yudita Putri Nurani; Sinaga, Lidiman Sahat Martua


    This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at identifying and describing the types of free collocations found in the articles of Reader's Digest. By taking a sample of ten articles from different months for each year since 2003 up to 2012, it was found all the four productive free collocations were in the data. Type 4 (Determiner + Adjective + Noun) was the dominant type (53.92 %). This was possible because the adjective in the pattern included the present participle and past participle of v...

  13. A Malawian school library: culture, literacy and reader development


    Anderson, J.; Matthews, P.


    Purpose: This project aimed to investigate the success and suitability of a Western-donated school library in furthering the aims of literacy and reader development in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Methodology: A qualitative, case study approach was taken using extensive interviews with school teachers and a library assistant at a primary school in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Findings: Contrary to a common discourse that libraries are of limited value in a predominately oral culture, the research revealed a valuable rol...

  14. Mexican Serials: Titles, Contents and Readers of Treasures to Tap


    Lau, Jesús


    Mexican journals are usually ignored at local and foreign universities despite the fact that they convey the most updated academic and scientific information generated by national researchers and writers. Libraries and readers have difficulty in accessing Mexican journals, because local serials are normally out of the mainstream of journal indexing and full-text databases from the industrialized world. The barriers for local journals are many, among them the language, limited marketing, and...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  16. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)


    Highlights: • The main findings of our study are, that reader experience and lesion type (i.e., mass versus non-mass enhancement) are independent predictors of the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. • Specifically, benign and malignant non-mass lesions cannot be differentiated with sufficient accuracy, especially if readers are not experienced. • We conclude that future research in breast MRI should focus on non-mass lesions, as these are the problem makers in modern breast MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of lesion type (mass versus non-mass) and reader experience on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (BMRI) in a non-screening setting. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 12 years) with breast lesions that were verified by biopsy or surgery, and who had had BMRI as part of their diagnostic workup, were eligible for this retrospective single-center study. Cancers diagnosed by biopsy before BMRI were excluded to eliminate biological and interpretation bias due to biopsy or chemotherapy effects (n = 103). Six blinded readers (experience level, high (HE, n = 2); intermediate (IE, n = 2); and low (LE, n = 2)) evaluated all examinations and assigned independent MRI BI-RADS ratings. Lesion type (mass, non-mass, focal) was noted. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and logistic regression analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracies. Results: There were 259 histologically verified lesions (123 malignant, 136 benign) investigated. There were 169 mass (103 malignant, 66 benign) and 48 non-mass lesions (19 malignant, 29 benign). Another 42 lesions that met the inclusion criteria were biopsied due to conventional findings (i.e., microcalcifications, architectural distortions), but did not enhance on MRI (41 benign, one DCIS). ROC analysis revealed a total area under the curve (AUC) between 0.834 (LE) and 0.935 (HI). Logistic regression identified a significant effect of non-mass lesions (P < 0.0001) and

  17. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results (United States)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.


    STARtorialist ( is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  18. Acute work injuries among electric utility meter readers. (United States)

    Sahl, J D; Kelsh, M A; Haines, K D; Sands, F K; Kraus, J


    This report provides estimates of incidence rates for acute work injuries for a well defined cohort of electric utility meter readers. Specifically, person-time rates by sex, age, and job experience are evaluated by part of body injured and type of injury. Meter readers experienced 731 acute lost time [11.1 per 100 person-work years; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.3-11.9] and 4,401 acute non-lost time (66.5 per 100 person-work years; 95% CI = 64.6-68.5) work injuries over the study period, 1980-1992. Women had nearly twice the lost time injury rate as men (17.5 vs 9.6 per 100 person-work years). There is an inverse relation between job experience and both lost time and non-lost time injuries. Although these data are limited to the electric utility industry, they may be relevant to occupations with similar tasks and environments, including residential gas and water supply industry meter readers and postal carriers.

  19. Social  reading - the reader on digital margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Despot


    Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.

  20. Text Mining in Python through the HTRC Feature Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Organisciak


    Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.

  1. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone. (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan


    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.

  2. Building an ACT-R Reader for Eye-Tracking Corpus Data. (United States)

    Dotlačil, Jakub


    Cognitive architectures have often been applied to data from individual experiments. In this paper, I develop an ACT-R reader that can model a much larger set of data, eye-tracking corpus data. It is shown that the resulting model has a good fit to the data for the considered low-level processes. Unlike previous related works (most prominently, Engelmann, Vasishth, Engbert & Kliegl, ), the model achieves the fit by estimating free parameters of ACT-R using Bayesian estimation and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, rather than by relying on the mix of manual selection + default values. The method used in the paper is generalizable beyond this particular model and data set and could be used on other ACT-R models. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Reduced Text Structure at Two Text Levels: Impacts on the Performance of Technical Readers. (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.; Spyridakis, Jan H.


    Studies empirically the effects on reader performance of reduced text structure in technical writing texts. Reveals that removal of cues to local coherence produced reliable decrements in reader performance. Discusses results with regard to questions of information design. (HB)

  4. Does one report design suit all sorts of readers in the forest sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartebrodt, C.


    Full Text Available Description of the subject. In the past two decades, new types of reports, such as sustainability reports, have become more important. Normally, issuing reports is a cost-intensive activity; however, the effectivity in terms of communicational success is often unknown. Research about forest reporting has often focused on general acceptance of different reporting concepts. Analysis about the perception of published reports is either uncommon or results may not be published for several internal reasons. Objectives. This double case study aims to identify if conceptual elements of sustainability reporting (SR meet the expectations of different target groups of public forest enterprises in two German provinces. Method. A three sphere model derived from communication theory is introduced and used to analyze the success of reports in different stakeholder groups. A set of hypotheses is derived from the state of knowledge on sustainability as well as corporate social responsibility reporting and is structured according to the model. The hypotheses are tested on the basis of a double case study. Results. It can be shown that satisfaction with traditional reports is already high; however, structural components of SR are also accepted. Readers want shorter reports and printed versions. Results indicate that the SR concept can be transferred to the readers of forest reports. Differences between stakeholder groups are mainly related to contents and different means of verification. Conclusions. The concept of SR can be basically applied in forest enterprises and meets the expectations of most readers. However, it must be kept in mind that traditional reporting concepts already meet most of the expectations of the relevant target groups. Any effort to implement a new reporting instrument should be supported by an ex ante evaluation of the expectations of the target readership.

  5. Computational Sensing Using Low-Cost and Mobile Plasmonic Readers Designed by Machine Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.


    Plasmonic sensors have been used for a wide range of biological and chemical sensing applications. Emerging nanofabrication techniques have enabled these sensors to be cost-effectively mass manufactured onto various types of substrates. To accompany these advances, major improvements in sensor read-out devices must also be achieved to fully realize the broad impact of plasmonic nanosensors. Here, we propose a machine learning framework which can be used to design low-cost and mobile multispectral plasmonic readers that do not use traditionally employed bulky and expensive stabilized light sources or high-resolution spectrometers. By training a feature selection model over a large set of fabricated plasmonic nanosensors, we select the optimal set of illumination light-emitting diodes needed to create a minimum-error refractive index prediction model, which statistically takes into account the varied spectral responses and fabrication-induced variability of a given sensor design. This computational sensing approach was experimentally validated using a modular mobile plasmonic reader. We tested different plasmonic sensors with hexagonal and square periodicity nanohole arrays and revealed that the optimal illumination bands differ from those that are “intuitively” selected based on the spectral features of the sensor, e.g., transmission peaks or valleys. This framework provides a universal tool for the plasmonics community to design low-cost and mobile multispectral readers, helping the translation of nanosensing technologies to various emerging applications such as wearable sensing, personalized medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics. Beyond plasmonics, other types of sensors that operate based on spectral changes can broadly benefit from this approach, including e.g., aptamer-enabled nanoparticle assays and graphene-based sensors, among others.

  6. 5 CFR 315.711 - Readers, interpreters, and personal assistants serving under Schedule A appointments. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Readers, interpreters, and personal... or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.711 Readers, interpreters, and... noncompetitively to career or career-conditional employment, a reader, interpreter, or personal assistant: (1) Who...

  7. Training readers to improve their accuracy in grading Crohn's disease activity on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C. Yung; Stoker, Jaap


    To prospectively evaluate if training with direct feedback improves grading accuracy of inexperienced readers for Crohn's disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-one inexperienced readers assessed 25 cases as a baseline set. Subsequently, all readers received training and

  8. Long-Term Performance of Readers Trained in Grading Crohn Disease Activity Using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puylaert, Carl A. J.; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C. Yung; Stoker, Jaap


    We aim to evaluate the long-term performance of readers who had participated in previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reader training in grading Crohn disease activity. Fourteen readers (8 women; 12 radiologists, 2 residents; mean age 40; range 31-59), who had participated in a previous MRI

  9. Reading Maps Remake RA: Re-Create a Book's Entire Universe Online, and Transform Readers' Advisory (United States)

    Wyatt, Neal


    For years, readers' advisory librarians focused primarily on matching readers to books based upon the concept of appeal--traditionally considered pacing, character, story line, and frame (setting, tone, atmosphere, etc.). Books have internal lives of their own that readers want to reexperience, and they have additional elements or references that…

  10. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.


    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  11. Flexibility in reading literature. Differences between good and poor adolescent readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; van den Bergh, H.


    Previous research has shown that adolescent readers differ in their ‘online’ processing of literary texts. Differences were found in the extent to which these readers performed certain (meta)cognitive and affective activities while reading literary texts. However, readers might also differ in

  12. Follow the Reader: An Effective Strategy to Support Students Reading More Complex Text (United States)

    Klvacek, Michelle L.; Monroe, Eula Ewing; Wilcox, Brad; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Morrison, Timothy G.


    This article describes how one second-grade teacher implemented Follow the Reader, her term for dyad reading. Common Core expects students to read increasingly complex texts. Teachers can implement dyad reading with this end in mind. It is a modified version of the neurological impress method in which a lead reader and an assisted reader sit side…

  13. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization. (United States)

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake


    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot.

  14. An Design of HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Mi


    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot.

  15. First French reader a beginner's dual-language book

    CERN Document Server

    Appelbaum, Stanley


    This excellent anthology offers the beginning French-language student a first taste of some of the world's most significant prose. Chosen for both their eloquence and ease of reading, excerpts from such masterpieces as Les Misérables, The Red and the Black, Madame Bovary, Carmen, and The Three Musketeers will open new worlds for linguists. Readers will savor the words of fifty great writers of multiple genres from the seventeenth through twentieth centuries, including Voltaire, Rousseau, Balzac, Baudelaire, Dumas, Proust, and other literary virtuosos.Lucid and accessible, the unabridged Englis

  16. Sentiment Perception of Readers and Writers in Emoji use


    Berengueres, Jose; Castro, Dani


    Previous research has traditionally analyzed emoji sentiment from the point of view of the reader of the content not the author. Here, we analyze emoji sentiment from the point of view of the author and present a emoji sentiment benchmark that was built from an employee happiness dataset where emoji happen to be annotated with daily happiness of the author of the comment. The data spans over 3 years, and 4k employees of 56 companies based in Barcelona. We compare sentiment of writers to reade...

  17. The Learning Curve in Prostate MRI Interpretation: Self-Directed Learning Versus Continual Reader Feedback. (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ayoola, Abimbola; Hoffman, David; Khasgiwala, Anunita; Prabhu, Vinay; Smereka, Paul; Somberg, Molly; Taneja, Samir S


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of self-directed learning and continual feedback in the learning curve for tumor detection by novice readers of prostate MRI. A total of 124 prostate MRI examinations classified as positive (n = 52; single Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] category 3 or higher lesion showing Gleason score ≥ 7 tumor at MRI-targeted biopsy) or negative (n = 72; PI-RADS category 2 or lower and negative biopsy) for detectable tumor were included. These were divided into four equal-sized batches, each with matching numbers of positive and negative examinations. Six second-year radiology residents reviewed examinations to localize tumors. Three of the six readers received feedback after each examination showing the preceding case's solution. The learning curve, plotting accuracy over time, was assessed by the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA were performed. For readers with and without feedback, the learning curve exhibited an initial rapid improvement that slowed after 40 examinations (change in AIC > 0.2%). Accuracy improved from 58.1% (batch 1) to 71.0-75.3% (batches 2-4) without feedback and from 58.1% to 72.0-77.4% with feedback (p = 0.027-0.046), without a difference in the extent of improvement (p = 0.800). Specificity improved from 53.7% to 68.5-81.5% without feedback and from 55.6% to 74.1-81.5% with feedback (p = 0.006-0.010), without a difference in the extent of improvement (p = 0.891). Sensitivity improved from 59.0-61.5% (batches 1-2) to 71.8-76.9% (batches 3-4) with feedback (p = 0.052), though did not improve without feedback (p = 0.602). Sensitivity for transition zone tumors exhibited larger changes (p = 0.024) with feedback than without feedback. Sensitivity for peripheral zone tumors did not improve in either group (p > 0.3). Reader confidence increased only with feedback (p learning curve in prostate tumor detection largely reflected self

  18. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    There is great concern in the scientific community that students in the United States, when compared with other countries, are falling behind in their scientific achievement. Increasing students' reading comprehension of scientific text may be one of the components involved in students' science achievement. To investigate students' reading comprehension this quantitative study examined the effects of different reader characteristics, namely, students' logical reasoning ability, factual chemistry knowledge, working memory capacity, and schema of the chemistry concepts, on reading comprehension of a chemistry text. Students' reading comprehension was measured through their ability to encode the text, access the meanings of words (lexical access), make bridging and elaborative inferences, and integrate the text with their existing schemas to make a lasting mental representation of the text (situational model). Students completed a series of tasks that measured the reader characteristic and reading comprehension variables. Some of the variables were measured using new technologies and software to investigate different cognitive processes. These technologies and software included eye tracking to investigate students' lexical accessing and a Pathfinder program to investigate students' schema of the chemistry concepts. The results from this study were analyzed using canonical correlation and regression analysis. The canonical correlation analysis allows for the ten variables described previously to be included in one multivariate analysis. Results indicate that the relationship between the reader characteristic variables and the reading comprehension variables is significant. The resulting canonical function accounts for a greater amount of variance in students' responses then any individual variable. Regression analysis was used to further investigate which reader characteristic variables accounted for the differences in students' responses for each reading comprehension

  19. A Minkowski Fractal Circularly Polarized Antenna for RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Yu


    Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.

  20. THE RURAL IMAGINARY OF THE URBAN READER: The mythic dream of a house in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Silva


    Full Text Available This research is an attempt, within a socio-anthropological
    approach, to understand an apparently common phenomenon: the dream many urban dwellers have of owning a house in the country. The investigation is carried out among readers of the Globo Rural magazine, a publication which specializes in agricultural matters. The subscribers live in the city of São Paulo and they do not own any kind of property in rural areas. The purpose of this study is to try to apprehend the motives of this imaginary vision, thus contributing to the debate on the relations between country and town, as well as to an understanding of the interaction between subjects and symbolic cultural products in contemporary urban daily life. Faced with the complex relationship between man and nature and the historical condition experienced in a metropolis at this turn of the century, it is perceived that when dreaming of a house in the country, urban readers of the magazine do not simply turn nostalgically to a rural past. In fact, they express their deep criticism of the civilizing model of urbanity in the metropolis at the present time, and, looking ahead, they imagine a better future away
    from the city in a rural environment, closer to nature, in a place with more solidarity, away from violence, heavy traffic, pollution, and therefore with improved quality of life.

  1. The narrative language performance of three types of at-risk first-grade readers. (United States)

    Allen, Melissa M; Ukrainetz, Teresa A; Carswell, Alisa L


    This study investigated the narrative language performance of 3 types of readers who had been identified as being at risk through code-based response-to-intervention (RTI) procedures. In a retrospective group comparison, 32 at-risk 1st-grade readers were identified: children who resolved without intervention (early resolvers, n = 11), children who met criterion following 4 weeks of intervention (good responders, n = 8), and children who failed to meet criterion following 4 weeks of intervention (poor responders, n = 13). A narrative retell and a norm-referenced language test were obtained before intervention. There were no significant differences between the 3 learner types on the language test. However, the narratives of the good responders were significantly higher than the narratives of the other 2 groups on total number of words, number of different words, and number of communication units. The narratives of early resolvers and good responders differed significantly on the productivity index, number of coordinating conjunctions, and number of episodic elements. There were no other significant differences. Types of learners distinguished by a code-based RTI model showed differences in their narrative language. First graders who responded well to code-based reading intervention retold stories that contained more language and better story grammar than first graders who did not respond well to intervention. These results indicate the need to evaluate narrative language performance within RTI, especially for early resolvers.

  2. Imitated prosodic fluency predicts reading comprehension ability in good and poor high school readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Breen


    Full Text Available Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers’ silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs, who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker’s production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension.

  3. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries. (United States)

    Pilavaki, Evdokia; Demosthenous, Andreas


    Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  4. Conflicting but close: Readers' integration of information sources as a function of their disagreement. (United States)

    Saux, Gaston; Britt, Anne; Le Bigot, Ludovic; Vibert, Nicolas; Burin, Debora; Rouet, Jean-François


    According to the documents model framework (Britt, Perfetti, Sandak, & Rouet, 1999), readers' detection of contradictions within texts increases their integration of source-content links (i.e., who says what). This study examines whether conflict may also strengthen the relationship between the respective sources. In two experiments, participants read brief news reports containing two critical statements attributed to different sources. In half of the reports, the statements were consistent with each other, whereas in the other half they were discrepant. Participants were tested for source memory and source integration in an immediate item-recognition task (Experiment 1) and a cued recall task (Experiments 1 and 2). In both experiments, discrepancies increased readers' memory for sources. We found that discrepant sources enhanced retrieval of the other source compared to consistent sources (using a delayed recall measure; Experiments 1 and 2). However, discrepant sources failed to prime the other source as evidenced in an online recognition measure (Experiment 1). We argue that discrepancies promoted the construction of links between sources, but that integration did not take place during reading.

  5. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Pilavaki


    Full Text Available Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  6. Effect of computer-aided detection as a second reader in multidetector-row CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Peloschek, Philipp; Plank, Christina; Maier, Andrea; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Graser, Anno; Bogoni, Luca


    Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps ≥0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer. (orig.)

  7. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team


    Astrobites ( is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics, as well as potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom.

  8. Updates from Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin; Chisari, N.; Donaldson, J.; Dressing, C. D.; Drout, M.; Faesi, C.; Fuchs, J. T.; Kohler, S.; Lovegrove, E.; Mills, E. A.; Nesvold, E.; Newton, E. R.; Olmstead, A.; Vasel, J. A.; Weiss, L. M.; Astrobites Team


    Astrobites ( is a daily blog aimed at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions across the United States. Primarily, we present journal articles recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences, including readers who are not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We present recent readership statistics and potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom. We also discuss the Astrobites format across multiple social media platforms, including the newly launched Astroplots, and highlight our recent work organizing the annual "Communicating Science" workshop for graduate students.

  9. Research on Positioning Algorithm of Forklift-mounted RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang


    Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.

  10. Readers' opinion about English original articles in Ugeskrift for Laeger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Rosberg, Hanne Mohr; Rosenberg, J.


    in original articles from Danish into English. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as an on-line questionnaire among the members of the DMA. A systematic sample was drawn from the Danish Medical Association's member database. The sample comprised a total of 1,970 e-mail addresses. Among these, 1......,952 were valid, and 1,952 physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. RESULTS: The response rate (1,046/1,952) was 54%. Among the participants, 43% were specialists, 36% were junior doctors and 20% general practitioners. Overall, 45% of the respondents publish scientific articles, and particularly...... specialists and junior doctors did not object to the shift from Danish to English language. CONCLUSION: Our survey showed that the readers and authors were willing to accept a shift from Danish into English publication language for original research papers...

  11. Understanding a reader's attraction to a literary short text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Luis Banegas


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand why a reader may feel attracted to a short stretch of fictional discourse. I analyse a short extract taken from Khaled Hosseini’s novel A Thousand Splendid Suns through the integration of different perspectives in discourse analysis. First, I analyse the text in terms of contexts of culture and situation including field, tenor, mode, participants’ social world, setting, channel, and key. In the second section I attempt to examine the text line by line following my interdisciplinary framework of reference. Secondly, I offer a line-by-line analysis through Grice’s maxims, topicality, deixis, coding time, types of utterances and verbal processes, and metaphors. Through my analysis I discovered that my reader’s attraction was based on the combination and integration of different textual devices and my personal interpretation of the pragmatics behind the text.

  12. iQuant™ Analyser: A rapid quantitative immunoassay reader. (United States)

    Joseph, Jayaraj; Vasan, Jayaraman Kiruthi; Shah, Malay; Sivaprakasam, Mohansankar; Mahajan, Lalit


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) used in rapid quantitative point of care testing require an accurate, reliable and easy to operate instrument to read the LFIA kit and calculate the quantitative result value. We present iQuant® Analyser, an immunoassay reader designed for reading the Quanti® range of LFIA test kits for key markers such as HbA1C, Vitamin D, TSH etc. The instrument utilizes a laser based confocal optics system to capture the test and control lines from the LFIA kit, digitizes the fluorescent signal with high spatiotemporal resolution, computes necessary peak area ratios, applies calibration curves and declares the final result in an automated manner with minimal operator input. The instrument uses kit specific calibration information embedded on each LFIA test kit, to compute the final clinical parameter without using any external calibration chip. An intuitive icon based interface enables easy operation with minimal key presses, suited for point of care applications. The technology is designed in a modular manner to enable the instrument to perform tests on various parameters such as HbA1C, TSH, and Vitamin D etc without any hardware changes, using test-specific LFIA kits. The functional performance of the iQuant Analyser was verified over the range of expected area ratio values with standard reference cartridges that provided stable fluorescent lines. Repeatability of the instrument was found to be excellent with coefficient of variation (CoV) of area ratios found to be less than 1%. The inter-instrument reproducibility was also found to be good with CoV less than 4 %. Tests using blood samples with Quanti LFIA kits verified the accuracy of HbA1C results to be acceptable as per international standards with errors <; 4 %. The iQuant Analyser is a portable, easy to use rapid quantitative immunoassay reader best suited for point of care applications.

  13. What are the early indicators of persistent word reading difficulties among Chinese readers in elementary grades? (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa


    To identify the indicators of persistent reading difficulties among Chinese readers in early elementary grades, the performance of three groups of Chinese children with different reading trajectories ('persistent poor word readers', 'improved poor word readers' and 'skilled word readers') in reading-related measures was analysed in a 3-year longitudinal study. The three groups were classified according to their performance in a standardized Chinese word reading test in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Results of analysis of variance and logistic regression on the reading-related measures revealed that rapid naming and syntactic skills were important indicators of early word reading difficulty. Syntactic skills and morphological awareness were possible markers of persistent reading problems. Chinese persistent poor readers did not differ significantly from skilled readers on the measures of phonological skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. EDMC: An enhanced distributed multi-channel anti-collision algorithm for RFID reader system (United States)

    Zhang, YuJing; Cui, Yinghua


    In this paper, we proposes an enhanced distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments which is based on the distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments (called DiMCA). We proposes a monitor method to decide whether reader receive the latest control news after it selected the data channel. The simulation result shows that it improves interrogation delay.



    Fatih Bayram


    Giving information is one of the main function of mass communication tools. Newspaper readers are using newspaper for different motivations. Gaining information, entertainment, leisure time activities, social integration is some motivations of media. Uses and gratifications theory asserts that reader is active part of communication process and reading habits figure on social and psychological needs. Items from readers’gratifications are categorized by using factor analysis from questionnair...

  16. Normal Speed and Accuracy of Saccade and Vergence Eye Movements in Dyslexic Reader Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci


    Full Text Available Objective. Latency of eye movements depends on cortical structures while speed of execution and accuracy depends mostly on subcortical brainstem structures. Prior studies reported in dyslexic reader children abnormalities of latencies of saccades (isolated and combined with vergence; such abnormalities were attributed to deficits of fixation control and of visual attention. In this study we examine speed and accuracy characteristics of horizontal eye movements in natural space (saccades, vergence and combined movements in dyslexic reader children. Methods. Two paradigms are tested: gap paradigm (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset, producing shorter latencies, in both non-dyslexic reader and dyslexic reader children and simultaneous paradigm. Seventeen dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±0.08 years and thirteen non-dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±1 years were tested. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis. Results. For all movements tested (saccades, vergence, isolated or combined and for both paradigms, the mean velocity and accuracy were similar in dyslexic readers and non-dyslexic readers; no significant difference was found. Conclusion. This negative but important result, suggests no dysfunction of brainstem ocular motor circuits in dyslexic readers. It contrasts results on latencies related to visual attention dysfunction at cortical level.

  17. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk. (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin


    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept-particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.

  18. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk


    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin


    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types...

  19. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin


    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers. PMID:27867764

  20. Modernism in secondary school didactic books: the fundamental themes and texts and the education of the schooled reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Dalvi


    Full Text Available Based on a cultural perspective, this article presents the results of a bibliographical and documentary research about the Brazilian modernism in contemporary didactic books – the fundamental themes and texts and the education of the schooled reader. It first brings a brief syntheses on research made on the didactic book and its interrelationship with the formation of the schooled reader in Brazil. It then goes on to present a short consideration on what is understood by “modern” and by “modernism”, by examining the institutionalization of the term and by considering European, Latin American and Brazilian vanguardism of the 20thcentury. Finally, it organizes data on the themes and sub themes related to Brazilian modernism presented in four contemporary didactic books used in Portuguese language and literature classes for secondary level students, published by leading editorial groups. It also includes the texts and authors presented (especially those by Oswald de Andrade, Mario de Andrade, Manuel Bandeira and Carlos Drummond de Andrade. To conclude, an analysis on how the set of themes and sub themes, authors and texts circulating in pedagogical books serve in the process of educating schooled readers is presented. It will defend the notion that a less predictable didactic book may perhaps be a form of criticizing anything that reproduces a model of identity – and of education, truth and formation – stagnant and essentialist.

  1. Using E-Z Reader to Simulate Eye Movements in Nonreading Tasks: A Unified Framework for Understanding the Eye-Mind Link (United States)

    Reichle, Erik D.; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith


    Nonreading tasks that share some (but not all) of the task demands of reading have often been used to make inferences about how cognition influences when the eyes move during reading. In this article, we use variants of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading to simulate eye-movement behavior in several of these tasks, including…

  2. Monitoring enzyme-catalyzed reactions in micromachined nanoliter wells using a conventional microscope-based microarray reader (United States)

    van den Doel, L. Richard; Moerman, R.; van Dedem, G. W. K.; Young, Ian T.; van Vliet, Lucas J.


    Yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae - it widely used as a model system for other higher eukaryotes, including man. One of the basic fermentation processes in yeast is the glycolytic pathway, which is the conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide. This pathway consists of 12 enzyme-catalyzed reactions. With the approach of microarray technology we want to explore the metabolic regulation of this pathway in yeast. This paper will focus on the design of a conventional microscope based microarray reader, which is used to monitor these enzymatic reactions in microarrays. These microarrays are fabricated in silicon and have sizes of 300 by 300 micrometers 2. The depth varies from 20 to 50 micrometers . Enzyme activity levels can be derived by monitoring the production or consumption rate of NAD(P)H, which is excited at 360nm and emits around 450nm. This fluorophore is involved in all 12 reactions of the pathway. The microarray reader is equipped with a back-illuminated CCD camera in order to obtain a high quantum efficiency for the lower wavelengths. The dynamic range of our microarray reader varies form 5(mu) Molar to 1mMolar NAD(P)H. With this microarray reader enzyme activity levels down to 0.01 unit per milliliter can be monitored. The acquisition time per well is 0.1s. The total scan cycle time for a 5 X 5 microarray is less than half a minute. The number of cycles for a proper estimation of the enzyme activity is inversely proportional to the enzyme activity: long measurement times are needed to determine low enzyme activity levels.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of mammography readers and their memory performance have no correlation with each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, P.; Cawson, J.N.; Mercuri, V.; Pitman, A.G.; Gledhill, S.; Shnier, D.; Taft, R.; Zentner, L.


    Full text: The study aims to determine if any association exists between visual memory performance and diagnostic accuracy performance in a group of radiologist mammogram readers. Materials and Methods: One hundred proven mammograms (23 with cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases, with sets being of equal difficulty. Pairs of sets were presented in 5 reads (40 cases per read, order random) to a panel of 8 radiologist readers (either present or past screening readers, with experience range from 20 years). The readers were asked to either 'clear' or 'call back' cases depending on need for further workup, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old' (i .e. remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline (40 cases per reader), and were used to calculate the reader's false recollection rate. Three sets were repeated post-baseline once or twice (100 cases per reader). Reading conditions were standardised. Results: Memory performance differed markedly between readers. The number of correctly remembered cases (of 100 'old' cases) had a median of 10.5 and range of 0-58. The observed number of false recollections (of 40 'totally new' cases) had a median of 2 and range of 0-17. Diagnostic performance measures were mean (range): sensitivity 0.68 (0.54-0.81); specificity 0.82 (0.74-0.91); positive predictive value (PPV) 0.55 (0.500.65); negative predictive value (NPV) 0.89 (0.86-0.93) and accuracy 0.78 (0.76-0.83). Confidence intervals (CIs; 95%) for each reader overlapped for all the diagnostic parameters, indicating a lack of statistically significant difference between the readers at the 5% level. The most sensitive and the most specific reader showed a trend away from each other on sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV; their accuracies were 0.76 and 0.82, respectively, and their accuracy 95% CIs overlapped considerably. Correlation analysis by reader showed no association between observed memory performance and

  4. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers. (United States)

    Visser, Troy A W


    While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention

  5. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study (United States)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman


    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  6. Migrant readers and wordless books: visual narratives’ inclusive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Grilli


    Full Text Available The research here told is the Italian contribution to the international project Visual Journeys: Understanding Immigrant Children’s Response to Visual Images in Picturebooks, Conducted in Scotland, Arizona, Spain and Australia as an Observation of the Response of Migrant ten-eleven years old Readers to the Wordless Book The Arrival by Shaun Tan (2006. Reflections are made about co-construction and negotiation of meaning in a shared reading; wordless book is experienced as occasion of empowerment for those involved, giving value to individual stories and showing a positive outcome in school life, as for self-esteem and reciprocal relationships; it promotes discussion and increases interest in books, it shows an important effect on learning a foreign language and creating a group. The perspective of the whole experience is an interdisciplinary approach. The reading of wordless or silent book can be a true practice of right and belonging to the international community, and therefore a precious means for an education to global citizenship.

  7. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  8. The Birthing of Things: Bergson as a Reader of Lucretius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Healy


    Full Text Available I examine, in this short paper, the work of Henri Bergson on Lucretius first published in 1884, and argue for its vital significance in understanding the development of his philosophical thinking. This publication was to serve as an introduction to extracts from Lucretius, for his students at Clermont-Ferrand, with a commentary and notes on the poetry, philosophy, the physics, language and text of his poem De Rerum Natura. In the published volume most of the overview of Lucretius by Bergson is given in the long preface, and this is followed by extracts in Latin, without translation into French, with comments on lines and individual words, which covers all the books of the original poem. By 1899 it had gone to a third edition, and was still in print until the 1960's. Copies today are very difficult to obtain, and only recently has a full electronic version become available on the Internet Archive, to which readers are here directly referred.

  9. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty! (United States)

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.


    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  10. Lexical processing in deaf readers: an FMRI investigation of reading proficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Corina

    Full Text Available Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21, comparing proficient (N = 11 and less proficient (N = 10 readers' performance in a widely used test of implicit reading. Proficient deaf readers activated left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle and superior temporal gyrus in a pattern that is consistent with regions reported in hearing readers. In contrast, the less-proficient readers exhibited a pattern of response characterized by inferior and middle frontal lobe activation (right>left which bears some similarity to areas reported in studies of logographic reading, raising the possibility that these individuals are using a qualitatively different mode of orthographic processing than is traditionally observed in hearing individuals reading sound-based scripts. The evaluation of proficient and less-proficient readers points to different modes of processing printed English words. Importantly, these preliminary findings allow us to begin to establish the impact of linguistic and educational factors on the neural systems that underlie reading achievement in profoundly deaf individuals.

  11. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers (United States)

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin


    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  12. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency (United States)

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine


    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  13. Metacognitive Online Reading Strategy Use: Readers' Perceptions in L1 and L2 (United States)

    Taki, Saeed


    This study aimed to explore whether first-language (L1) readers of different language backgrounds would employ similar metacognitive online reading strategies and whether reading online in a second language (L2) could be influenced by L1 reading strategies. To this end, 52 Canadian college students as English L1 readers and 38 Iranian university…

  14. Exploring e-readers to support clinical medical education: two case studies. (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne; von Isenburg, Megan


    Can e-readers loaded with medical textbooks and other relevant material benefit medical students, residents, and preceptors in clinical settings? The settings are North Carolina community clinics served by Duke University Medical Center and St. Joseph's Hospital in Bryan, Texas, and Scott and White Memorial Hospital in Temple, Texas. DUKE UNIVERSITY: Twenty second-year medical students and fourteen family medicine clerkship preceptors used Kindle e-readers in clinics during eight months of rotations. Students and preceptors provided feedback through an anonymous online survey. Texas A&M University: Nine fourth-year medical students in an elective compared medical textbooks in print, online, and on a Kindle. Six residents at a local hospital completed an anonymous online survey after a three-week loan of a Kindle loaded with medical textbooks. The e-reader's major advantages in clinical settings are portability and searchability. The selected e-reader's limitations include connection speed, navigation, and display. User preferences varied, but online resources were preferred. Participants suggested additional uses for Kindles in medical education. The selected e-reader's limitations may be resolved with further development of the device. Investigation of other e-readers is needed. Criteria for evaluating e-readers in clinical settings should include portability, searchability, speed, navigation, and display. Research comparing e-readers and mobile devices in clinical education is also warranted.

  15. Literature Discussion: Encouraging Reading Interest and Comprehension in Struggling Middle School Readers (United States)

    Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…

  16. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers (United States)


    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  17. Teaching Early Readers to Self-Monitor and Self-Correct (United States)

    Pratt, Sharon M.; Urbanowski, Melena


    Proficient readers self-monitor and self-correct to derive meaning from text. This article reviews research on how students learn to self-monitor and self-correct and describes a Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instructional routine that was successfully used with early readers to build their metacognitive processes. The RT routine included teacher…

  18. From Reader to Mediated Witness: The Engaging Effects of Journalistic Crime Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, K; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.


    This study tests the claim that news narratives about shocking criminal acts enable readers to become mediated witnesses, which implies that readers identify with actual eyewitnesses to a crime and vicariously experience the crime from up close. In an experiment (n = 128), participants read an

  19. Expository Text Comprehension in Secondary School: For Which Readers Does Knowledge of Connectives Contribute the Most? (United States)

    Welie, Camille; Schoonen, Rob; Kuiken, Folkert; Bergh, Huub


    The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different language backgrounds or readers who vary in reading…

  20. 78 FR 35935 - National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)-Certified B Readers; Training and Testing (United States)


    ... CDC-2013-0008; NIOSH-234] National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)--Certified B Readers; Training and Testing AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers... testing of National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)--certified B Readers. SUMMARY: The National...

  1. Excitement, Adventure, Indifference: Romance Readers' Perceptions of How Romance Reading Impacts Their Sex Lives (United States)

    Anderton, Gretchen E.


    This mixed-methods study examined romance readers' perceptions of how reading romance novels has impacted their sex lives, feelings about their sex partners, knowledge of sexuality and their sexual behavior. Fifty-three women romance readers over the age of 18 completed an online survey composed of multiple choice and open-ended essay questions. …

  2. News in online and print newspapers: Differences in reader consumption and recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, Leen; Jankowski, Nicholas; Heuvelman, A.


    How readers consume and recall news presented in online and print versions of two newspapersin the Netherlands are investigated in this experimental study. Few differences are found between the online and print versions in terms of news supply. Reader attention to the news stories varies, depending

  3. Short Vowels versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue (United States)

    Seraye, Abdullah M.


    Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…

  4. Developing Historical Reading and Writing with Adolescent Readers: Effects on Student Learning (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark; Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Croninger, Robert; Jackson, Cara; Deogracias, Jeehye Shim; Hoffman, Benjamin Polk


    In this study, the effects of a disciplinary reading and writing curriculum intervention with professional development are shared. We share our instructional approach and provide writing outcomes for struggling adolescent readers who read at or below basic proficiency levels, as well as writing outcomes for proficient and advanced readers.…

  5. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers (United States)

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne


    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  6. Rereading the Multicultural Reader: Toward More "Infectious" Practices in Multicultural Composition (United States)

    Jordan, Jay


    After summarizing typical criticisms of multicultural composition readers, the author draws on work in "New Literacy Studies" to point toward composition pedagogies that encourage multicultural interactions beyond selections in assigned readers. The author suggests that what is ultimately needed is a productive critical frame not only for refining…

  7. Differences in Visual Analysis and Sequence Memory of Skilled and Poor Readers. (United States)

    Gildemeister, Joan E.; Friedman, Philip

    Reading achievement tests have been used to identify deficiencies in inner city, poor readers; however, they often do not provide information about encoding strategies which lead some children to academic success. Immediate memory and visual analytic differences which contribute to the success of skilled readers are isolated in this study using 20…

  8. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul


    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  9. Motor Coordination Difficulties in a Municipality Group and in a Clinical Sample of Poor Readers (United States)

    Iversen, Synnove; Berg, Karin; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Tonnessen, Finn-Egil


    The purpose of the study was to investigate incidence, severity and types of motor problems in two groups of poor readers compared to good reading controls. A group of children with severe dyslexia referred to specialist evaluation, a teacher selected municipality sample comprising the 5% poorest readers, and a control group consisting of the 5%…

  10. Roles of Frequency, Attitudes, and Multiple Intelligence Modality Surrounding Electricity Content-Based Reader's Theatre (United States)

    Hosier, Julie Winchester


    Integration of subjects is something elementary teachers must do to insure required objectives are covered. Science-based Reader's Theatre is one way to weave reading into science. This study examined the roles of frequency, attitudes, and Multiple Intelligence modalities surrounding Electricity Content-Based Reader's Theatre. This study used…

  11. Engaging Readers, Increasing Comprehension, and Building Skills: The Power of Patterned Books (United States)

    Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia


    Reading comprehension requires thoughtful interactions between the reader, the text, and the author. The author may assist the reader in building meaning by creating purposefully crafted conversations that are organized into predictable patterns also known as patterned books. In this article, three predictable patterns found within children's text…

  12. An Analysis of the Reading Strategies Used by Adult and Student Deaf Readers (United States)

    Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye


    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which…

  13. Design and trial evaluation of the user interface for MusicReader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoné, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.


    This paper describes the design and trial results of MusicReader, a networked application realizing sheet music related services for the support of ensemble and orchestra rehearsals and performances. To this end, MusicReader presents sheet music on computer screens and supports annotations, sheet

  14. Do good and poor readers make use of morphemic structure in English word recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne G. Duncan


    Full Text Available The links between oral morphological awareness and the use of derivational morphology are examined in the English word recognition of 8-year-old good and poor readers. Morphological awareness was assessed by a sentence completion task. The role of morphological structure in lexical access was examined by manipulating the presence of embedded words and suffixes in items presented for lexical decision. Good readers were more accurate in the morphological awareness task but did not show facilitation for real derivations even though morpho-semantic information appeared to inform their lexical decisions. The poor readers, who were less accurate, displayed a strong lexicality effect in lexical decision and the presence of an embedded word led to facilitation for words and inhibition for pseudo-words. Overall, the results suggest that both good and poor readers of English are sensitive to the internal structure of written words, with the better readers showing most evidence of morphological analysis.

  15. Low Access Delay Anti-Collision Algorithm for Reader in RFID systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Carlo; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.


    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which is spreading more and more as a medium to identify, locate and track assets through the productive chain. As all the wireless communication devices sharing the same transmission channel, RFID readers and tags experience collisions whenever...... deployed over the same area. In this work, the RFID reader collision problem is studied and a centralized scheduling-based algorithm is proposed as possible candidate solution, especially for those scenarios involving static or low mobility readers. Taking into account the circuitry limitations of the tags......, which do not allow to use frequency or code division multiple access schemes in the RFID systems, this paper proposes an algorithm aiming to prevent the readers collisions, while keeping the access delay of the readers to the channel possibly low. The simulation results show that this algorithm performs...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Komarov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some strategies aimed at involving the reader into the writer's book by means of making the reader's attitude to its content personal or subjective. In the article it is stated that there are two components which are intrinsic to virtual intercourse between writer and reader. One of the components is the content of the writer's publication while the other is the reader's attitude towards the content suggested. The article shows that the reader's attitude encompasses two processes: the process of self-estrangement from the writer's content and the process of self-involvement into it. In the article, the author analyses these two processes in relation to the content of the book. In the article, the author singles out and gives descriptions of such dimensions of the book's content as its topical and emotional dimension, its depth, human nature dimension and interpersonal relations dimension as well as of strategies used by the writer in order to involve the reader into his writings. The author argues that a successful strategy is based on managing to touch the reader to the quick, i.e. his or her subjectivity, and the result of successfulness can be measured by the reader's readiness and willingness to sink into one of the dimensions suggested. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that signs of the successful strategy can be traced in the reader's return to the intercourse with the writer when he or she rereads the writer's books, repeats or makes references to words, situations or ideas suggested or described by the writer who has grasped the reader's attention in one or several content dimensions.

  17. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers (United States)


    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  18. Mathematical Modeling Using MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Donovan


    .... Mathematical Modeling Using MA MATLAB acts as a companion resource to A First Course in Mathematical Modeling with the goal of guiding the reader to a fuller understanding of the modeling process...

  19. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Saadoon Mohammed Al-Noori


    Full Text Available This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items , multiple - choice items , and cloze test and re-test. This technique involves the examinees in two types of tasks, i.e. pre-reading and post -reading task. Two hypotheses have been proposed to achieve the aims of this study. They are  1-There are no significant differences between the pre-reading and post-reading performances of examinees on reading comprehension(RC. 2-There are no significant differences in information gain scores across the different techniques of testing reading comprehension (RC in EFL. To verify the validity of these two hypotheses, a number of statistical procedures have been used such as arithmetical mean, t-test for correlated and independent samples to analyze the performance of third and fourth year College students studying at the Department of English at University of Baghdad /Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities on two reading passages taken from TOEFL practice tests (2011. The analysis of the data has shown the following results: 1-The background knowledge has an effect on the performance on reading comprehension (RC. 2-There is a significant difference in students' performance on reading comprehension (RC. 3-The effect of background knowledge is investable on reading comprehension (RC tests, but it can be identified or neutralized. Based on these conclusions, the researcher presented a number of recommendations.

  20. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litian Duan


    Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  1. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangcheol Shin


    Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.

  2. Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics: The Vantage Points and the Horizons in Readers' Responses to an American Literature Text. (United States)

    Rees, Dilys Karen


    Presents how Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics can be used to analyze readers' responses to an American literature text. Readers are Brazilian college students reading a text by the American author, Amy Tan. (Author/VWL)

  3. “How often can you ask your reader to leave?” Text and Reader in Lars Skinnebach: Din misbruger (You/r addict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ølholm


    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of Avant-garde art is the radical approach to established artistic forms. One way of describing tradition and norms of artistic expression is through genre: Literary genre represents a set of conventions which are transcended by the experimental text. The poetic genre can be defined through the expectations of the reader, and this approach seems particularly relevant in the case of Lars Skinnebach's Din misbruger (You/r addict (2006 as this work actively addresses the role of the reader, his or her expectations of the text, and the status of the work as an object of interpretation. This paper investigates the conditions of the construction of poetic voice in the Din misbruger (You/r addict and how it challenges the role of the reader as well as the status of the text as a literary product.

  4. Expanding the Four Resources Model: Reading Visual and Multi-Modal Texts (United States)

    Serafini, Frank


    Freebody and Luke proffered an expanded conceptualization of the resources readers utilize when reading and the roles readers adopt during the act of reading. The four resources model, and its associated four roles of the reader, expanded the definition of reading from a simple model of decoding printed texts to a model of constructing meaning and…

  5. Epigenetic Readers of Lysine Acetylation Regulate Cocaine-Induced Plasticity. (United States)

    Sartor, Gregory C; Powell, Samuel K; Brothers, Shaun P; Wahlestedt, Claes


    Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic "reader" proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity. The role of BET proteins in cocaine-induced plasticity, however, remains elusive. Here, we used behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular techniques to examine the involvement of BET bromodomains in cocaine reward. Of the BET proteins, BRD4, but not BRD2 or BRD3, was significantly elevated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice and rats following repeated cocaine injections and self-administration. Systemic and intra-accumbal inhibition of BRD4 with the BET inhibitor, JQ1, attenuated the rewarding effects of cocaine in a conditioned place preference procedure but did not affect conditioned place aversion, nor did JQ1 alone induce conditioned aversion or preference. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we found that repeated cocaine injections enhanced the binding of BRD4, but not BRD3, to the promoter region of Bdnf in the NAc, whereas systemic injection of JQ1 attenuated cocaine-induced expression of Bdnf in the NAc. JQ1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRD4 in vitro also reduced expression of Bdnf. These findings indicate that disrupting the interaction between BET proteins and their acetylated lysine substrates may provide a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of drug addiction. Proteins involved in the "readout" of lysine acetylation marks, referred to as BET bromodomain proteins (including BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT), have been shown to be key regulators of chromatin dynamics and disease, and BET inhibitors are currently

  6. The Effects of Inter-Letter Spacing in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Young Normal Readers and Developmental Dyslexics (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Gomez, Pablo


    Recent research has demonstrated that slight increases of inter-letter spacing have a positive impact on skilled readers' recognition of visually presented words. In the present study, we examined whether this effect generalises to young normal readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, and whether increased inter-letter spacing affects the…

  7. Phonics training for English-speaking poor readers. (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Eve, Philippa M; Jones, Kristy; Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; Anandakumar, Thushara; Larsen, Linda; Marinus, Eva; Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne


    Around 5% of English speakers have a significant problem with learning to read words. Poor word readers are often trained to use letter-sound rules to improve their reading skills. This training is commonly called phonics. Well over 100 studies have administered some form of phonics training to poor word readers. However, there are surprisingly few systematic reviews or meta-analyses of these studies. The most well-known review was done by the National Reading Panel (Ehri 2001) 12 years ago and needs updating. The most recent review (Suggate 2010) focused solely on children and did not include unpublished studies. The primary aim of this review was to measure the effect that phonics training has on the literacy skills of English-speaking children, adolescents, and adults whose reading was at least one standard deviation (SD), one year, or one grade below the expected level, despite no reported problems that could explain their impaired ability to learn to read. A secondary objective was to explore the impact of various factors, such as length of training or training group size, that might moderate the effect of phonics training on poor word reading skills. We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL 2012 (Issue 6), MEDLINE 1948 to June week 3 2012, EMBASE 1980 to 2012 week 26, DARE 2013 (Issue 6), ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to current), CINAHL (1938 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1990 to 29 June 2012), ZETOC, Index to Theses-UK and Ireland,, ICTRP, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, DART Europe E-theses Portal, Australasian Digital Theses Program, Education Research Theses, Electronic Theses Online System, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations

  8. Adapting Web content for low-literacy readers by using lexical elaboration and named entities labeling (United States)

    Watanabe, W. M.; Candido, A.; Amâncio, M. A.; De Oliveira, M.; Pardo, T. A. S.; Fortes, R. P. M.; Aluísio, S. M.


    This paper presents an approach for assisting low-literacy readers in accessing Web online information. The "Educational FACILITA" tool is a Web content adaptation tool that provides innovative features and follows more intuitive interaction models regarding accessibility concerns. Especially, we propose an interaction model and a Web application that explore the natural language processing tasks of lexical elaboration and named entity labeling for improving Web accessibility. We report on the results obtained from a pilot study on usability analysis carried out with low-literacy users. The preliminary results show that "Educational FACILITA" improves the comprehension of text elements, although the assistance mechanisms might also confuse users when word sense ambiguity is introduced, by gathering, for a complex word, a list of synonyms with multiple meanings. This fact evokes a future solution in which the correct sense for a complex word in a sentence is identified, solving this pervasive characteristic of natural languages. The pilot study also identified that experienced computer users find the tool to be more useful than novice computer users do.

  9. [Impact on reading scientific articles:an attempt to dialogue with "my reader"]. (United States)

    Akerman, Marco


    This article discusses the concept of "impact" and is based on the scientific output of the author that is examined for the analysis of impacts from the qualitative standpoint. It is done not as an end in itself, but under the aegis of the author/text/reader relationship. Seeking to establish this relationship, the way in which the author is quoted in a selected article, entering each of the quotes and identifying what aspects were emphasized by the readers who referenced the quote is explored in detail. This qualitative observation of each of the quotes provided an indication of how each author/reader perceived the original text. This personal experience of this finite and delicate dialogue with "my reader" is presented here as a recommendation, to anyone who may be interested, of a viable device that can be repeated by authors in order to re-visit their writings based on the acknowledgement of the impact that it has on others.

  10. Flexibility in the Use of Graphic and Contextual Information by Good and Poor Readers. (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert M.; Stanovich, Keith E.


    Investigates the use of graphic and contextual information in word recognition and the extent to which good and poor readers are flexible in their ability to trade off one type of information for another when the situation warrants. (HOD)

  11. Annotating a "Reader's Digest" Article--'The NEA: A Washington Lobby Run Rampant.' (United States)

    Methvin, Eugene H.; Herndon, Terry


    The copy of a "Reader's Digest" article critical of the political activities of the National Education Association (NEA) is run with marginal comments written by Terry Herndon, NEA executive director. (IRT)

  12. Expository text comprehension: for which readers does knowledge of connectives contribute the most?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welie, C; Schoonen, R; Kuiken, F; van den Bergh, H.H.


    The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different

  13. Development of a Handheld Line Information Reader and Generator for Efficient Management of Optical Communication Lines. (United States)

    Lee, Jaeyul; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Song, Jaewon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun


    A handheld line information reader and a line information generator were developed for the efficient management of optical communication lines. The line information reader consists of a photo diode, trans-impedance amplifier, voltage amplifier, microcontroller unit, display panel, and communication modules. The line information generator consists of a laser diode, laser driving circuits, microcontroller unit, and communication modules. The line information reader can detect the optical radiation field of the test line by bending the optical fiber. To enhance the sensitivity of the line information reader, an additional lens was used with a focal length of 4.51 mm. Moreover, the simulation results obtained through BeamPROP ® software from Synopsys, Inc. demonstrated a stronger optical radiation field of the fiber due to a longer transmission wavelength and larger bending angle of the fiber. Therefore, the developed devices can be considered as useful tools for the efficient management of optical communication lines.

  14. Poor readers' retrieval mechanism: efficient access is not dependent on reading skill


    Johns, Clinton L.; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Van Dyke, Julie A.


    A substantial body of evidence points to a cue-based direct-access retrieval mechanism as a crucial component of skilled adult reading. We report two experiments aimed at examining whether poor readers are able to make use of the same retrieval mechanism. This is significant in light of findings that poor readers have difficulty retrieving linguistic information (e.g., Perfetti, 1985). Our experiments are based on a previous demonstration of direct-access retrieval in language processing, pre...

  15. Reliability, Validity, and Reader Acceptance of LI-RADS-An In-depth Analysis.


    Barth Borna K; Donati Olivio F; Fischer Michael A; Ulbrich Erika J; Karlo Christoph A; Becker Anton; Seifert Burkhard; Reiner Caecilia S


    This study aimed to analyze interreader agreement and diagnostic accuracy of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI RADS) in comparison to a nonstandardized 5 point scale and to assess reader acceptance of LI RADS for clinical routine. Eighty four consecutive patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent liver magnetic resonance imaging were included in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant retrospective study. Four readers rated the likelihood ...

  16. Microcomputer-Controlled Reader Systems for Archaeological and Geological TL Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.


    Two fully automated TL reader systems for TL dating and a manually operated reader for research purpose were put into operation during 1982-3. All systems are controlled by HP-85 or HP-86 microcomputers; thus flexibility in selection of measurement parameters, calculation of TL signals and displa...... the archaeological and geological ages. The principle of the measurement procedures are described, and dating results are presented to illustrate the performance of the systems...

  17. Literature, ciberliterature and the instruction of a student-reader: dialogues with canon and fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Silva Fidelis


    Full Text Available Contemporary texts have been re-signified by the development of online technology so that such texts favor collaboration and interaction between authors and readers thus reconfiguring their roles. The current paper aims at revisiting the place of reading and the reader position by discussing the place occupied by the canon and the fanon (neologism to fan texts in scholar literacies at the present days. 

  18. Course Reader: Food Concept Design, mapping strategic and service-oriented possibilities within food businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tenna Doktor

    This course reader is a guide to the content of the last series of FOOD DESIGN lectures and design workshops given with the course: ‘Food Concept Design: Mapping Strategic and Service‐Oriented possibilities within Food Businesses', offered at the Masters education 'Integrated Food Studies...... for the individual exams. Together with the course programmes provided at the two previous semesters, this course reader is thus attempts to begin develop af theoratical framework for teaching Food Design Thinking....

  19. Difficulty in detecting discrepancies in a clinical trial report: 260-reader evaluation


    Cole, Graham D; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Buell, Kevin G; Al-Mayahi, Faisal; Zargaran, David; Mahmood, Saliha; Singh, Bharpoor; Mielewczik, Michael; Francis, Darrel P


    Background: Scientific literature can contain errors. Discrepancies, defined as two or more statements or results that cannot both be true, may be a signal of problems with a trial report. In this study, we report how many discrepancies are detected by a large panel of readers examining a trial report containing a large number of discrepancies. Methods: We approached a convenience sample of 343 journal readers in seven countries, and invited them in person to participate in a study. They were...

  20. The Narratological Style and the Reader of Evelyn Waugh’s Early Satires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Zgierska


    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the implied reader in Evelyn Waugh’s novels. An attempt will be made to define who the implied reader is and what is his position and role in fictional realm. By analysing narrative strategies and techniques within a selection of Waugh’s works, I attempt to discuss the changing relationship between author/narrator and the implied reader. I try to point that within Evelyn Waugh’s writing one can observe a simultaneous evolution of the narrator voice and the role ascribed to the implied reader. What is more, I discuss the limits of interpretation. I try to present and analyse how both the author/narrator and the text can impose limitations on the implied reader allowing him to move freely, however, within a set frame. Intertextuality is one of the focal points of the article, as I try to propose that the use of specific intertextual references in several different novels enhances the reader’s understanding of  Waugh’s fictional world. An attempt is made to prove that through analysis of different levels of understanding intertextual relation the reader takes on himself a role of creator. Furthermore, I draw attention to the places of indeterminacy. In this discussion I include both structures of indeterminacy proposed by Roman Ingarden i.e. blanks and negations, as both are needed not only to establish the interaction that takes place between text and the implied reader, but also to try to regulate such relation. An attempt will be made to explain how important filling the gaps within the text is and how completing the blanks affects the reader and the process of reading as such.

  1. Making renal stones change size-impact of CT image post processing and reader variability. (United States)

    Lidén, Mats; Andersson, Torbjörn; Geijer, Håkan


    The objectives of this study were to quantify the impact of image post-processing parameters on the apparent renal stone size, and to quantify the intra- and inter-reader variability in renal stone size estimation. Fifty CT datasets including a renal or ureteral stone were included retrospectively during a prospective inclusion period. Each of the CT datasets was post-processed in different ways regarding slice thickness, slice increment and window setting. In the first part of the study a single reader repeated size estimations for the renal stones using different post-processing parameters. In the intra-reader variability experiment one reader reported size estimations for the same images with a one-week interval. The inter-reader variability data were obtained from 11 readers reporting size estimations for the same renal stones. The apparent stone size differed according to image post-processing parameters with the largest mean differences seen with regard to the window settings experiment (1.5 mm, p images.

  2. SciReader enables reading of medical content with instantaneous definitions. (United States)

    Gradie, Patrick R; Litster, Megan; Thomas, Rinu; Vyas, Jay; Schiller, Martin R


    A major problem patients encounter when reading about health related issues is document interpretation, which limits reading comprehension and therefore negatively impacts health care. Currently, searching for medical definitions from an external source is time consuming, distracting, and negatively impacts reading comprehension and memory of the material. SciReader was built as a Java application with a Flex-based front-end client. The dictionary used by SciReader was built by consolidating data from several sources and generating new definitions with a standardized syntax. The application was evaluated by measuring the percentage of words defined in different documents. A survey was used to test the perceived effect of SciReader on reading time and comprehension. We present SciReader, a web-application that simplifies document interpretation by allowing users to instantaneously view medical, English, and scientific definitions as they read any document. This tool reveals the definitions of any selected word in a small frame at the top of the application. SciReader relies on a dictionary of ~750,000 unique Biomedical and English word definitions. Evaluation of the application shows that it maps ~98% of words in several different types of documents and that most users tested in a survey indicate that the application decreases reading time and increases comprehension. SciReader is a web application useful for reading medical and scientific documents. The program makes jargon-laden content more accessible to patients, educators, health care professionals, and the general public.

  3. Readers as gatekeepers of online news: Brazil, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Shoemaker


    Full Text Available The popularity  of online news items is calculated by news sites as a function of reader behaviors, such as clicking on or reading articles, emailing them to others, commenting on or discussing them, and even linking to them in blogs.  Online news sites often provide rank-ordered lists of popular articles that are updated throughout the day.  Popularity reflects not only the interest of individuals, but it also can represent communication from an individual reader to other people.  In the case of emailed articles, recipients may be friends, family or colleagues.  When readers add comments below an article, they may reach anyone on the internet.  When readers communicate with other readers, they extend the usual gatekeeping process but their selections may not reflect the news values of the journalists who put the sites together.  This study compares the news values of readers in Brazil, China and the United States.

  4. Contributions of syntactic awareness to reading in Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han


    This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Assessment of typical SpA lesions on MRI of the spine: do local readers and central readers agree in the DESIR-cohort at baseline? (United States)

    de Hooge, Manouk; Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Heijde, Désirée; Claudepierre, Pascal; Saraux, Alain; Dougados, Maxime; Feydy, Antoine


    Comparing local reading (LocR) with central reading (CentR) of typical spondyloarhritis lesions including bone marrow edema (BME) and structural lesions on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine (MRI-spine), in patients with inflammatory back pain (IBP; ≥3 months, Devenir des Spondylarthopathies Indifferenciees Recentes (DESIR)-cohort were used. Two trained central readers scored anterior and posterior corner BME, fatty lesions, erosions and syndesmophytes on MRI-spine. Presences of lesions, based on average scores, were used for CentR. A local radiologist and/or rheumatologist scored MRI-spine on presence/doubt/absence of 'inflammation' and 'structural lesions'. Agreement between central readers and readings was calculated (Cohen's kappa: κ). Agreement between central readers was moderate (BME κ = 0.55, fatty lesions κ = 0.50) to slight (erosions κ = 0.12, syndesmophytes κ = 0.19). Agreement between LocR and CentR was κ = 0.32 (BME) and κ = 0.13 (structural lesions). In 78/160 patients (48.8%) LocR were in doubt while CentR scored BME lesions, for structural lesions this was 17.8% (28/157 patients). Agreement between 2 central readers for scoring spondyloarhritis-like lesions on MRI-spine was moderate but better compared to LocR and CentR agreement. LocR often doubt about the presence of MRI-spine lesions while central trained readers score lesions.

  6. Learning Styles of Typical Readers and Dyslexic Adolescents (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Vlachos, Filippos


    The present study examined the link between learning styles and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic (VAK) learning styles model. According to the VAK model, most people possess a dominant or preferred learning style, however some people have a mixed and evenly balanced blend of the three styles. Our…

  7. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne


    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception “could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people” (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener–reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener–speaker coupling. PMID:24367344

  8. Impact of different study populations on reader behavior and performance metrics: initial results (United States)

    Gallas, Brandon D.; Pisano, Etta; Cole, Elodia; Myers, Kyle


    The FDA recently completed a study on design methodologies surrounding the Validation of Imaging Premarket Evaluation and Regulation called VIPER. VIPER consisted of five large reader sub-studies to compare the impact of different study populations on reader behavior as seen by sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, the area under the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve). The study investigated different prevalence levels and two kinds of sampling of non-cancer patients: a screening population and a challenge population. The VIPER study compared full-field digital mammography (FFDM) to screenfilm mammography (SFM) for women with heterogeneously dense or extremely dense breasts. All cases and corresponding images were sampled from Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) archives. There were 20 readers (American Board Certified radiologists) for each sub-study, and instead of every reader reading every case (fully-crossed study), readers and cases were split into groups to reduce reader workload and the total number of observations (split-plot study). For data collection, readers first decided whether or not they would recall a patient. Following that decision, they provided an ROC score for how close or far that patient was from the recall decision threshold. Performance results for FFDM show that as prevalence increases to 50%, there is a moderate increase in sensitivity and decrease in specificity, whereas AUC is mainly flat. Regarding precision, the statistical efficiency (ratio of variances) of sensitivity and specificity relative to AUC are 0.66 at best and decrease with prevalence. Analyses comparing modalities and the study populations (screening vs. challenge) are still ongoing.

  9. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Knowledge for Adolescent Readers


    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Petscher, Yaacov; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Mitchell, Alison M.


    This study examined the dimensionality of morphological knowledge. The performance of 371 seventh- and eighth-graders on seven morphological knowledge tasks was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that morphological knowledge was best fit by a bifactor model with a general factor of morphological knowledge and seven specific factors, representing tasks that tap different facets of morphological knowledge. Next, structural equation modelling was used to explore l...

  10. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism (United States)

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić


    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin.

  11. The influence of reading expertise in mirror-letter perception: Evidence from beginning and expert readers (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, María; Estévez, Adelina; Carreiras, Manuel


    The visual word recognition system recruits neuronal systems originally developed for object perception which are characterized by orientation insensitivity to mirror reversals. It has been proposed that during reading acquisition beginning readers have to “unlearn” this natural tolerance to mirror reversals in order to efficiently discriminate letters and words. Therefore, it is supposed that this unlearning process takes place in a gradual way and that reading expertise modulates mirror-letter discrimination. However, to date no supporting evidence for this has been obtained. We present data from an eye-movement study that investigated the degree of sensitivity to mirror-letters in a group of beginning readers and a group of expert readers. Participants had to decide which of the two strings presented on a screen corresponded to an auditorily presented word. Visual displays always included the correct target word and one distractor word. Results showed that those distractors that were the same as the target word except for the mirror lateralization of two internal letters attracted participants’ attention more than distractors created by replacement of two internal letters. Interestingly, the time course of the effects was found to be different for the two groups, with beginning readers showing a greater tolerance (decreased sensitivity) to mirror-letters than expert readers. Implications of these findings are discussed within the framework of preceding evidence showing how reading expertise modulates letter identification. PMID:24273596

  12. The fan letter correspondence of Willa Cather: Challenging the divide between professional and common reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Bates


    Full Text Available Although literary scholars, including those who study American novelist Willa Cather, typically have drawn distinctions between real and professional readers, this article overturns the assumption that Cather's fan letters are merely the purview of common readers. Since both common and professional readers appear in her archive, I argue that the misplaced emphasis on who writes fan letters would be constructively replaced by treating fan letters as a genre used by many kinds of readers. Both professionals and nonprofessionals wrote fan letters to Cather and used its rhetorical methods, since it offered an attractive alternative to professional reading modes popularized by English departments of the 1890s and magazine discourse of the first quarter of the twentieth century. The fan letters create an author-reader relationship based on repeated readings and affective responses to the text as well as personal familiarity with its locations and characters. Moreover, I argue that the letters in Cather's archive are not a random sampling but are the letters that she preserved, enjoyed, and encouraged. Within the period's fraught debates about the purpose and nature of literature and the qualifications needed to interpret and judge it, the fan letter exchange creates a more detailed understanding of Cather's relationship with her audience—what reading methods she sought and preferred over others.

  13. A simple scoring system for breast MRI interpretation: does it compensate for reader experience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Maria Adele; Clauser, Paola; Woitek, Ramona; Wengert, Georg J.; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Preidler, Klaus


    To investigate the impact of a scoring system (Tree) on inter-reader agreement and diagnostic performance in breast MRI reading. This IRB-approved, single-centre study included 100 patients with 121 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions (52 malignant, 68 benign). Four breast radiologists with different levels of MRI experience and blinded to histopathology retrospectively evaluated all examinations. Readers independently applied two methods to classify breast lesions: BI-RADS and Tree. BI-RADS provides a reporting lexicon that is empirically translated into likelihoods of malignancy; Tree is a scoring system that results in a diagnostic category. Readings were compared by ROC analysis and kappa statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa: 0.643-0.896) for Tree and moderate (kappa: 0.455-0.657) for BI-RADS. Diagnostic performance using Tree (AUC: 0.889-0.943) was similar to BI-RADS (AUC: 0.872-0.953). Less experienced radiologists achieved AUC: improvements up to 4.7 % using Tree (P-values: 0.042-0.698); an expert's performance did not change (P = 0.526). The least experienced reader improved in specificity using Tree (16 %, P = 0.001). No further sensitivity and specificity differences were found (P > 0.1). The Tree scoring system improves inter-reader agreement and achieves a diagnostic performance similar to that of BI-RADS. Less experienced radiologists, in particular, benefit from Tree. (orig.)

  14. Effectiveness of Critical Thinking Skills for English Literature Study with Reader Response Theory: Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Qamar


    Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.

  15. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Knowledge for Adolescent Readers (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Petscher, Yaacov; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Mitchell, Alison M.


    This study examined the dimensionality of morphological knowledge. The performance of 371 seventh- and eighth-graders on seven morphological knowledge tasks was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that morphological knowledge was best fit by a bifactor model with a general factor of morphological knowledge and seven…

  16. Processamento cognitivo em crianças com e sem dificuldades de leitura Cognitive skills in children: comparing good readers and poor readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra Capovilla


    Full Text Available Para buscar identificar habilidades cognitivas mais freqüentemente prejudicadas nas dificuldades de leitura, 90 crianças de pré-escola e 1ª Série foram avaliadas em leitura, escrita, consciência fonológica, memória fonológica, vocabulário, aritmética, processamento visual e seqüenciamento. Comparando as habilidades de bons e maus leitores (acima e abaixo de 1 desvio-padrão em relação à média, respectivamente, observou-se que bons leitores foram significativamente superiores em escrita, consciência fonológica, vocabulário, memória fonológica e memória visual. Resultados sugerem uma relação funcional e forte entre processamento fonológico e leitura; funcional e moderada entre processamento seqüencial, aritmética e leitura; e fraca e correlacional entre processamento visual e leitura.To identify cognitive skills that may be diminished in reading difficulties, 90 preschoolers and first graders were tested in reading, spelling, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, arithmetic, visual processing, and sequential processing. Comparison between good readers and poor readers (above and below one standard deviation, respectively, revealed that good readers were significantly superior to poor readers in spelling, phonological awareness, vocabulary, phonological memory and visual memory. Results suggest strong functional relationship between phonological processing and reading, moderate functional relationships between sequential processing and arithmetic on one hand and reading on the other, and weak correlation between visual processing and reading.

  17. Exploring the Readability of Assessment Tasks: The Influence of Text and Reader Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wray


    Full Text Available Readability is the degree to which a text is matched to its intended and actual reader. The factors influencing readability, both text factors and reader factors, have been widely researched from the standpoint of attempts to maximise reader understanding of texts. The application of understandings in the area has not, however, always been applied systematically to the design and writing of assessment tasks and consequently test items are sometimes less accessible to the intended test takers than they might be.This paper is an attempt to provide a wide ranging review of literature which bears on the task of the assessment designer in ensuring that assessment items measure what they are supposed to measure, and not just the reading abilities of the test takers.

  18. Evaluating the effect of a reader worker program on team performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.; Alvarez, Y.P.


    When safety, security, or other logistical concerns prevent direct objective assessment of team performance, other evaluation techniques become necessary. In this paper, the effect of a Department of Energy-mandated reader worker program on team performance at a particular DOE facility was evaluated using unstructured observations, informal discussions with technicians, and human reliability analysis. The reader worker program is intended to enhance nuclear explosive safety by improving the reliability of team performance. The three methods used for the evaluation combine to provide a strong indication that team performance is in fact enhanced by a properly implemented reader worker procedure. Because direct quantitative data on dependent variables particular to the task of interest is not available, however, there has been some skepticism regarding the results by staff at the facility

  19. A new luminescence detection and stimulation head for the Risø TL/OSL reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, T.; Kook, M.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Buylaert, J.-P.; Jain, M.


    A new automated Detection And Stimulation Head (DASH) has been developed for the Risø TL/OSL luminescence reader to provide easy access to new technologies, new signals and new measurement methods. The automated DASH includes a filter changer and a detector changer that makes it possible to change stimulation filters (4 × 4 filter combinations possible) and detectors (3 detectors possible) as part of a measurements sequence. The new automated DASH with dedicated driver electronics does not affect the use of other attachments, and can be retrospectively fitted to existing Risø TL/OSL readers. - Highlights: • A new detection and stimulation head for the Risø TL/OSL reader is described. • An example of the use of the filter changer is presented. • The power and spatial uniformity of blue, green and IR stimulation are characterised. • The potential of an EMCCD camera detector is described.

  20. Difficulty in detecting discrepancies in a clinical trial report: 260-reader evaluation. (United States)

    Cole, Graham D; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Buell, Kevin G; Al-Mayahi, Faisal; Zargaran, David; Mahmood, Saliha; Singh, Bharpoor; Mielewczik, Michael; Francis, Darrel P


    Scientific literature can contain errors. Discrepancies, defined as two or more statements or results that cannot both be true, may be a signal of problems with a trial report. In this study, we report how many discrepancies are detected by a large panel of readers examining a trial report containing a large number of discrepancies. We approached a convenience sample of 343 journal readers in seven countries, and invited them in person to participate in a study. They were asked to examine the tables and figures of one published article for discrepancies. 260 participants agreed, ranging from medical students to professors. The discrepancies they identified were tabulated and counted. There were 39 different discrepancies identified. We evaluated the probability of discrepancy identification, and whether more time spent or greater participant experience as academic authors improved the ability to detect discrepancies. Overall, 95.3% of discrepancies were missed. Most participants (62%) were unable to find any discrepancies. Only 11.5% noticed more than 10% of the discrepancies. More discrepancies were noted by participants who spent more time on the task (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, P < 0.01), and those with more experience of publishing papers (Spearman's ρ = 0.13 with number of publications, P = 0.04). Noticing discrepancies is difficult. Most readers miss most discrepancies even when asked specifically to look for them. The probability of a discrepancy evading an individual sensitized reader is 95%, making it important that, when problems are identified after publication, readers are able to communicate with each other. When made aware of discrepancies, the majority of readers support editorial action to correct the scientific record. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Resources for authors of reports of randomized trials: harnessing the wisdom of authors, editors, and readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Kenneth F


    Full Text Available Abstract The CONSORT Statement was developed to help authors improve the quality of reporting randomized trials. To augment the statement we published the CONSORT explanation and elaboration paper which included at least one example of good reporting for each CONSORT checklist item. We are developing a comprehensive database of examples of good reporting for each checklist item to take advantage of the breadth and variety of trials familiar to authors and readers globally. We invite authors, editors, and readers worldwide to nominate examples of well reported items for the database.

  2. Reading for pleasure and reading circles for adult emergent readers insights in adult learning

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Sam


    In the UK, the adult literacy provision has become more functional and more assessment driven over the last decade, largely due to funding requirements. However, one result of this is that the clear benefits of reading for pleasure in adult skills development have become less apparent. This book addresses the need to support teachers in the development of adults' skills through reading for pleasure, by incorporating the activity into the curriculum. It focuses on reading for pleasure for adult emergent readers - those who consider themselves non-readers, either because they feel they cannot or

  3. Altmetrics for the Humanities: Comparing Goodreads reader ratings with citations to history books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Verleysen, Frederik; Cornacchia, Roberto


    Purpose: This paper assesses the value of Goodreads reader ratings as an altmetric research tool for measuring the wider impact of scholarly books published in the field of History. Design/methodology/approach: Book titles were extracted from the reference lists of articles that appeared in 604...... history journals indexed in Scopus (2007-2011). The titles were cleaned and matched using an API in (for publisher information) as well as Goodreads (for reader ratings). A set of N=8,538 books was first filtered based on Dewey Decimal Classification class 900 ‘History and Geography...

  4. A new luminescence detection and stimulation head for the Risø TL/OSL reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho; Murray, Andrew Sean


    A new automated Detection And Stimulation Head (DASH) has been developed for the Risø TL/OSL luminescence reader to provide easy access to new technologies, new signals and new measurement methods. The automated DASH includes a filter changer and a detector changer that makes it possible to change...... stimulation filters (4×4 filter combinations possible) and detectors (3 detectors possible) as part of a measurements sequence. The new automated DASH with dedicated driver electronics does not affect the use of other attachments, and can be retrospectively fitted to existing Risø TL/OSL readers....

  5. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....

  6. Compact mobile-reader system for two-way wireless communication, tracking and status monitoring for transport safety and security (United States)

    Tsai, Han-Chung; Liu, Yung Y.; Lee, Hok L.; Craig, Brian; Byrne, Kevin; Mittal, Ketan; Scherer, Justin C.


    A system for monitoring a plurality radio frequency identification tags is described. The system uses at least one set of radio frequency identification tags. Each tag is attached to a container and includes several sensors for detecting physical conditions of said container. The system includes at least one autonomous intermediate reader in wireless communication with the frequency identification tags. The intermediate reader includes external wireless communication system, intermediate reader logic controller, and a self-contained rechargeable power supply. The system uses a central status reporting system in communication the intermediate reader.

  7. Plate reader-based cell viability assays for glioprotection using primary rat optic nerve head astrocytes. (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Naumchuk, Yuliya; Levy, Deborah; Zaidi, Danish H; Altman, Alexa M; Nawazish, Saba; Ghuman, Jasleen K; Gerdes, Bryan C; Moore, Mark A; Koulen, Peter


    Optic nerve head astrocytes (ONHAs) are the major glia cell type in the non-myelinated optic nerve head where they contribute critically to extracellular matrix synthesis during development and throughout life. In glaucoma, and in related disorders affecting the optic nerve and the optic nerve head, pathological changes include altered astrocyte gene and protein expression resulting in their activation and extracellular matrix remodeling. ONHAs are highly sensitive to mechanical and oxidative stress resulting in the initiation of axon damage early during pathogenesis. Furthermore, ONHAs are crucial for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell physiology and function. Therefore, glioprotective strategies with the goal to preserve and/or restore the structural and functional viability of ONHA in order to slow glaucoma and related pathologies are of high clinical relevance. Herein, we describe the development of standardized methods that will allow for the systematic advancement of such glioprotective strategies. These include isolation, purification and culture of primary adult rat ONHAs, optimized immunocytochemical protocols for cell type validation, as well as plate reader-based assays determining cellular viability, proliferation and the intracellular redox state. We validated and standardized our protocols by performing a glioprotection study using primary ONHAs. Specifically, we measured protection against exogenously-applied oxidative stress using tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as a model of disease-mediated oxidative stress in the retina and optic nerve head by the prototypic antioxidant, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). Levels of oxidative stress were increased in the response to exogenously applied tBHP and were assessed by 6-carboxy-2', 7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. Normalized DCFDA fluorescence showed a maximal 5.1-fold increase; the half-maximal effect (EC50) for tBHP was 212 ± 25

  8. A Comparison of the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Used by EFL and ESL Readers (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza


    This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…

  9. The Monolingual Cataloging Monolith: A Barrier to Library Access for Readers of Spanish. (United States)

    Jensen, Bruce


    Asserts that despite growing awareness of frontline public service concerns in accommodating Spanish speakers, little care is invested in the technical processing side of the library's responsibility to Spanish speakers. Examines the usefulness and accessibility of online public access catalogs for monolingual Spanish readers, focusing on records…

  10. Does the Freedom of Reader Choice Affect Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition? (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee; Bai, Yi Ling


    In this study, the effect of freedom of reader choice on the incidental acquisition of vocabulary was investigated in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classes. Despite advocating free extensive reading as a means of obtaining a native-like L2 vocabulary,existing studies investigating the incidental acquisition of vocabulary have not…

  11. Readers, Players, and Watchers: EFL Students' Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Video Games (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohsen


    The present study investigated vocabulary acquisition through a commercial digital video game compared to a traditional pencil-and-paper treatment. Chosen through cluster sampling, 241 male high school students (age 12-18) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups. The first group, called Readers,…

  12. Comparing Good and Poor Readers: A Critique of the Research. Technical Report. No. 246. (United States)

    Kleiman, Glenn M.

    The many studies comparing good and poor readers have yielded few conclusive findings as a result of a number of problems. The first set of problems has to do with the choice of tests or tasks. There are many differences in the cognitive demands of reading and listening tasks children encounter in school. In listening, prosodic cues facilitate…

  13. The use of sublexical clusters in normal reading and dyslexic readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinus, E.; de Jong, P.F.


    The current study examined the use of sublexical clusters in normal and dyslexic readers.We focused primarily on onset consonantal clusters, but the use of rimes and digraphs was also considered. A segmentation paradigm, the separation of two adjacent letters in a word by a nonletter symbol, was

  14. Resistant Readers 8 Months Later: Energizing the Student's Learning Milieu by Targeted Counselling (United States)

    Andreassen, Anne Brit; Knivsberg, Ann Mari; Niemi, Pekka


    Several studies have reported that an alarming large subgroup of poor readers seems to be treatment resistant. This group obviously needs attention beyond standard special education instructions. In Norway, the National Centre for Reading Education and Research has been assigned the task of assisting the school psychological services nationwide in…

  15. Morpho-Phonemic Analysis Boosts Word Reading for Adult Struggling Readers (United States)

    Gray, Susan H.; Ehri, Linnea C.; Locke, John L.


    A randomized control trial compared the effects of two kinds of vocabulary instruction on component reading skills of adult struggling readers. Participants seeking alternative high school diplomas received 8 h of scripted tutoring to learn forty academic vocabulary words embedded within a civics curriculum. They were matched for language…

  16. Reader, Word, and Character Attributes Contributing to Chinese Children's Concept of Word (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Ku, Yu-Min; Zhang, Jie; O'Connell, Ann


    Concept of word--the awareness of how words differ from nonwords or other linguistic properties--is important to learning to read Chinese because words in Chinese texts are not separated by space, and most characters can be productively compounded with other characters to form new words. The current study examined the effects of reader, word, and…

  17. Developmental Trajectories for Children with Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah E. A.; Goswami, Usha


    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The…

  18. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco


    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  19. Turn It on with Light Bulb Reading! Sound-Switching Strategies for Struggling Readers. (United States)

    Vogt, Maryellen; Nagano, Patty


    Notes that "Light Bulb Reading" is done in short, one-on-one, daily lessons that include oral reading with note-taking and discussions about miscues, skills, and strategies. Suggests that this is an effective approach for assisting struggling readers that focuses on specific, individual, assessed needs. Outlines an 11-step plan. (SG)

  20. Dva shliakhy: zbirka tekstiv (Two Paths: A Reader). Collage 3: A Ukrainian Language Development Series. (United States)

    Cyncar-Hryschuk, Markiana, Comp.

    Part of a Ukrainian language development series, this intermediate-level reader provides a selection of short texts in modern Ukrainian, including poems, newspaper articles, short stories, fairy tales, fables, and dialogs for use by native speakers, heritage language, or second language learners of Ukrainian. (CNP)

  1. A Reading Instruction Intervention Program for English-Language Learners Who Are Struggling Readers (United States)

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heward, William L.; Heng, Mary Anne


    We used a multiple baseline across students design to evaluate the effects of an intervention program consisting of vocabulary instruction, error correction, and fluency building on oral reading rate and comprehension of five English-language learners who were struggling readers in a primary school. During the first intervention condition (new…

  2. Embodiments of "Struggle": The Melancholy, Loss, and Interactions with Print of Two "Struggling Readers" (United States)

    Enriquez, Grace


    This article examines the significance of the "struggling reader" identity on students' classroom experiences. Drawing upon sociocultural theories of literacy, performance theories of education, and psychosocial qualities of identity, I argue that such an identity is felt, lived, and embodied throughout students' daily…

  3. "Spaces Invested with Content": Crossing the "Gaps" in Comics with Readers in Schools (United States)

    Low, David


    In recent years, reading scholars have increasingly attended to children's responses to picturebook page breaks, reasoning that the inferences young readers make during the turning of the page are central to understanding how children construct continuous narratives in semiotically rich texts. In this paper I argue that comics (including comic…

  4. The Role of Critical Thinking in Reader Perceptions of Leadership in Comic Books (United States)

    Krusemark, Renee


    This study qualitatively explored how readers use critical thinking to perceive leadership in "The Walking Dead" comic books. Sixty-nine participants gave responses regarding their thoughts about leadership in the comic via an online survey. A majority of the participants indicated a wide range of values for comics as a learning…

  5. Competent Adolescent Readers' Use of Internet Reading Strategies: A Think-Aloud Study (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Young


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the type, pattern, and complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants performed an academic Internet reading task with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen controversial topic. Strategies for Internet reading were…

  6. Differentiating for Struggling Readers and Writers: Improving Motivation and Metacognition through Multisensory Methods & Explicit Strategy Instruction (United States)

    Walet, Jennifer


    This paper examines the issue of struggling readers and writers, and offers suggestions to help teachers increase struggling students' motivation and metacognition. Suggestions include multisensory methods that make use of the visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning pathways, as well as explicit strategy instruction to improve students' ability…

  7. The Use of Attention in Reading and Listening: Do Good and Poor Readers Differ? (United States)

    Hudson, Susan B.; Angell, Linda Sala

    Two experiments were conducted (1) to identify the component processes of language comprehension that draw upon cognitive capacity for their execution, and (2) to determine differences in patterns of resource allocation during integrative processing for good and poor readers. In the first experiment, nine good and nine poor college-age readers…

  8. Performance-Effective and Low-Complexity Redundant Reader Detection in Wireless RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Heau-Jo


    Full Text Available Abstract The problems of redundant RFID reader detection and coverage have instigated researchers to propose different optimization heuristics due to the rapid advance of technologies in large-scale RFID systems. In this paper, we present a layered elimination optimization (LEO which is an algorithm-independent technique aims to detect maximum amount of redundant readers that could be safely removed or turned off with preserving original RFID network coverage. A significant improvement of the LEO scheme is that amount of "write-to-tag" operations could be largely reduced during the redundant reader identification phase. Moreover, LEO is a distributed approach which does not need to collect global information for centralizing control, leading to no communications or synchronizations among RFID readers. To evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques, we have implemented the LEO technique along with other methods. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the LEO is reliable, effective, and efficient. The proposed techniques can provide reliable performance with detecting higher redundancy and has lower algorithm overheads.

  9. Basic Quechua. Volume I: Quechua Reader. Volume II: Quechua Grammar and Dictionary. (United States)

    Aitken-Soux, Percy G.; Crapo, Richley H.

    Volume I, the reader, has 86 lessons consisting of short passages and vocabulary lists. The language and the stories presented were learned and collected at the Indian community and Hacienda of Cayara near Potosi, Bolivia. Translations of the passages are provided in a separate section. The second volume presents the grammar and phonology of the…

  10. Reader Perception of Newspaper Mug Shot Subjects in Photos and in Stories. (United States)

    Lain, Laurence B.

    A study investigated whether newspaper mug shots are perceived by readers as being positive or negative in tone and whether the mug shots that are selected match the roles of their subjects in accompanying stories. Twenty-three news and feature stories with associated mug shots were clipped from seven daily newspapers. Pictures and stories were…

  11. The Influence of Reading Expertise in Mirror-Letter Perception: Evidence from Beginning and Expert Readers (United States)

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Dimitropoulou, María; Estevez, Adelina; Carreiras, Manuel


    The visual word recognition system recruits neuronal systems originally developed for object perception which are characterized by orientation insensitivity to mirror reversals. It has been proposed that during reading acquisition beginning readers have to "unlearn" this natural tolerance to mirror reversals in order to efficiently…

  12. Perceptions of Talk, Text, Transactions, and Technology: Preservice Teachers, CMC, and Reader Response (United States)

    Akers, Anne Trice Thompson


    This qualitative study examined middle grades preservice language arts teachers' perceptions of young adult literature through the lenses of reader response, new literacy, and activity theory. Undergraduate preservice teachers used synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) to respond online to three young adult books with…

  13. Altering Perspectives: How the Implied Reader Invites Us to Rethink the Difficulty of Graphic Novels (United States)

    Connors, Sean P.


    This article reports the author's experiences using graphic novels with pre-service teachers in a young adult literature course. Drawing on critical response papers two students composed after reading "Pride of Baghdad," a graphic novel by Brian K. Vaughan and Niko Henrichon, the author argues that when readers possess the background…

  14. Care of the Postcolonial Self: Cultivating Nationalisms in "The Philippine Readers" (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos


    The article examines the cultivation of revolutionary nationalisms and the construction of postcolonial subjectivities under a foreign regime. The analysis centers on "The Philippine Readers," one of the longest published and most widely adopted reading series for elementary students in grades 1 to 7 in the Philippines from the 1920s to…

  15. Een nieuw publiek voor patriotse samenspraken? Popular political periodicals and the reader revolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, Miranda ten


    abstractThe first political periodicals were published during the Patriot period (1780-1787). Following Engelsing, historians thought that this indicated a reader revolution as more and morereaders arose from the different social classes, and read a greater variety of publications. However, many

  16. Rhetoric and Etiological Beliefs About Sexuality: Reader Responses to Cynthia Nixon's New York Times Interview. (United States)

    Jowett, Adam; Barker, Sophie


    In 2012, the U.S. actress Cynthia Nixon was quoted in the New York Times Magazine as having stated that "for me, it [being gay] is a choice. I understand that for many people it's not, but for me it's a choice, and you don't get to define my gayness for me." The interview attracted international media attention and public criticism by lesbian and gay activists. This article suggests a rhetorical approach to understanding etiological beliefs and provides a discursive analysis of 198 online comments by readers of Pink News, a gay news Web site that reported on Nixon's controversial interview. This article explores common arguments used in readers' comments about Nixon and examines the rhetorical construction of sexuality. The analysis examines three themes within the data. First, biological essentialism was treated by many readers as common knowledge; second, readers suggested that only bisexuals have "choice"; and, third, it was suggested by both Nixon's critics and her supporters that counterarguments colluded with homophobia. The article suggests that there is an ideological dilemma whereby both "born-this-way" and "choice" arguments can be understood as colluding with anti-gay prejudice.

  17. A Look at the Modern Fantasy Currently Available to Young Readers. (United States)

    Cianciolo, Patricia Jean

    This paper examines the fantasy literature that is currently available to young readers. Twenty-two children's books are listed and discussed under the following topics: good storytelling and lively imagination, recurring themes, satires and word play, original fairytales, and works that reflect the divided self, the occult, and parapsychology. It…

  18. A Study of the Vocabulary Adequacy of College Student Education Majors for Reading "Reader's Digest." (United States)

    Greif, Ivo P.

    Doubts about the reading vocabulary adequacies of today's high school graduates led to an experiment with a list of 199 difficult words culled from the "Reader's Digest." College juniors and seniors (298 in the first stage and 388 in the second stage) were asked to indicate whether they knew the pronunciation and the meaning of the…

  19. Of Lasting Interest? A Study of Change in the Content of the "Reader's Digest." (United States)

    Smith, Ron F.; Decker-Amos, Linda


    Reports on a content analysis of "Reader's Digest" indicating that there is some validity to the notion that it is unchanging. Notes that the percentages of articles in some important categories, specifically those discussing controversial issues, have remained consistent over 40 years. (FL)

  20. Beyond Library Power: Reader's Digest Adds Public Libraries to the Mix. (United States)

    Rockfield, Gary


    Describes the Tall Tree Initiative for Library Services, sponsored by the Reader's Digest Foundation and administered by the public and school library systems of Westchester County, New York. The initiative focuses on improving services offered children in the 21st century, and demands a new level of school-public library cooperation. (AEF)

  1. The Preferences of a Selected Group of Older Readers for Five Biographical Short Stories. (United States)

    Drotter, Molly Wilson

    The reading interests of a group of older adults were examined. Subjects were 16 adults between the ages of 50 and 85 who read five stories from "Readers' Digest" short story collections and who responded to a questionnaire about their preferences for the stories, their reading habits and interests, and the appealing elements of the stories. The…

  2. Using Game-Based Learning to Support Struggling Readers at Home (United States)

    Holmes, Wayne


    Significant numbers of children (6% of 11-year-olds) have difficulties learning to read. Meanwhile, children who receive appropriate support from their parents do better in literacy than those who do not. This study uses a case study approach to investigate how digital games designed to support struggling readers in school were used at home, by…

  3. Reading in the Digital Age: Using Electronic Books as a Teaching Tool for Beginning Readers (United States)

    Ciampa, Katia


    Beginning readers' motivation to read and the texts they choose to read impact on their literacy achievement and willingness to engage with reading activities in the primary years of schooling. This study investigated the eBook reading experiences of eight grade 1 students. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software…

  4. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Graded Readers, MReader and the MReader Challenge (United States)

    Cheetham, Catherine; Harper, Alan; Elliott, Melody; Ito, Mika


    This paper describes a pilot study conducted with English as a foreign language (EFL) students at a private university in Japan who used graded readers and the MReader website in class or independently to enhance their English reading skills. Each semester students who read 100,000 words with MReader quizzes passed enter into the "MReader…

  5. Racial Harmony & Heroes: A Content Analysis of the Pearson Reading Program "Good Habits, Great Readers" (United States)

    Tosolt, Brandelyn; Love, Bettina L.


    Multicultural education is a term with a variety of definitions growing from a number of different disciplines. These authors conducted a content analysis of the Pearson reading program "Good Habits, Great Readers" for grades four and five. The qualitative approach of content analysis allowed researchers to examine text "through the…

  6. The Effects of Music on Students Engaged in Reader Response Strategies. (United States)

    Kagan, Susan C.

    This study examined the effects of background classical music on silent reading in a sixth grade class, in order to determine the amount and type of influence it would have on the reader's written response to what was read. Thirty-four suburban sixth graders from two history classes were selected for this study. The data was obtained over a period…

  7. Queering Chapter Books with LGBT Characters for Young Readers: Recognizing and Complicating Representations of Homonormativity (United States)

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill M.; Ryan, Caitlin L.


    In this paper, we consider the limited chapter book options with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) characters available for upper elementary readers. While these texts all include one or more LGBT character(s), the overall representations of LGBT people and issues highlight particular normative identities and silence others. We are…

  8. Wish to Live: The Hip-Hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader. Educational Psychology. Volume 3 (United States)

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Kwakye, Chamara Jewel, Ed.


    "Wish To Live: The Hip-hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader" moves beyond the traditional understanding of the four elements of hip-hop culture--rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying--to articulate how hip-hop feminist scholarship can inform educational practices and spark, transform, encourage, and sustain local and global youth…

  9. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  10. E-Books and E-Book Apps: Considerations for Beginning Readers (United States)

    Bates, Celeste C.; Klein, Adria; Schubert, Barbara; McGee, Lea; Anderson, Nancy; Dorn, Linda; McClure, Erin; Ross, Rachael Huber


    This article highlights considerations for teachers when selecting and using e-books and e-book applications (apps) with beginning readers during guided and independent reading. A framework for examining e-books and e-book apps is suggested, and several apps and related digital features are described. The article also includes an overview of…

  11. A One-to-One Programme for At-Risk Readers Delivered by Older Adult Volunteers (United States)

    Fives, Allyn; Kearns, Noreen; Devaney, Carmel; Canavan, John; Russell, Dan; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; O'Brien, Aoife


    This paper is based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluation of a reading programme delivered by older adult volunteers for at-risk early readers. Wizards of Words (WoW) was targeted at socially disadvantaged children in first and second grade experiencing delays in reading but who were not eligible for formal literacy supports. The…

  12. How do e-book readers enhance learning opportunities for distance work-based learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Witthaus


    Full Text Available We report on the incorporation of e-book readers into the delivery of two distance-taught master's programmes in Occupational Psychology (OP and one in Education at the University of Leicester, UK. The programmes attract work-based practitioners in OP and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, respectively. Challenges in curriculum delivery included the need for more flexibility in the curricula, better access to essential readings and maximising the benefit of learners' limited study time. As part of a suite of pilot changes to curriculum design and delivery, 28 Sony PRS-505™ e-book readers were pre-loaded with course materials and sent out to students. The evidence suggests that the students' learning experiences improved as a result of four key benefits afforded by the e-book readers: enhanced flexibility in curriculum delivery to accommodate the mobile lifestyle of our learners, improved efficiency in the use of study time, especially short breaks during the working day, new strategies for reading course materials and cost. We discuss the opportunities and limitations associated with the e-book readers used and the challenges encountered in the study.

  13. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers. (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte


    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  14. Constructing Readers and Reading: Depictions of Learning to Read in Children's Literature (United States)

    Brenner, Devon; Apol, Laura


    This article looks closely at a subset of books about literacy in and out of school by analyzing images of children learning and struggling to learn to read in realistic fiction. There are several books in which characters wish to learn to read, worry about being poor readers, and work hard to learn to read. These books raise important questions…

  15. Empowering Girls through Sport? Sports Advice Books for Young Female Readers (United States)

    Heinecken, Dawn


    Advice books by female athletes are among the top selling sports books for young readers in the US. Though they have received little attention to date, sports advice books are important to examine because of how they function as a form of conduct manual instructing girls in specific understandings of female identity. Implying that girls face…

  16. Emergent Readers' Social Interaction Styles and Their Comprehension Processes during Buddy Reading (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming


    To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that interaction…

  17. The Power of Life Histories: Moving Readers to Greater Acts of Empathy through Literature and Memoir (United States)

    Lee, Valarie G.; Madden, Marjorie E.


    This paper argues that narratives, specifically literature and memoir, offer a way to build empathy and understanding by moving readers to deeper levels of text interpretation and critique. The paper examines a new literacy framework, Life Histories, that uses talk, collaboration, writing, and performance to understand the complex relationships…

  18. How Parental Support during Homework Contributes to Helpless Behaviors among Struggling Readers (United States)

    Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne


    This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…

  19. How Adequate is your CV? Analyzing French CVs with ReaderBench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutu, Gabriel; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Lepoivre, Olivier


    This study is aimed at presenting a new ReaderBench-based tool built to support candidates in increasing the quality of their CV for a job opening. Both the visual quality and the textual content are considered while also providing an overview and corresponding feedback for the entire CV.

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh


    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this end, a TOEFL…

  1. 78 FR 59065 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops (United States)


    ... Justice (NIJ) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) are hosting two workshops in... Plate Readers used by criminal justice agencies. Sessions are intended to inform manufacturers, test... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office...

  2. Enhancing decoding efficiency in poor readers via a word identification game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, K. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    The effects of a word identification game aimed at enhancing decoding efficiency in poor readers were tested. Following a pretest-posttest-retention design with a waiting control group, 62 poor-reading Dutch second graders received a five-hour tablet intervention across a period of five weeks.

  3. "It Makes Me Really Want To Read": Struggling Readers Discover Literature. (United States)

    Primeaux, Joan


    Presents a project where the teacher, rather than teaching the students how to read using a remedial, isolated skills approach, concerned herself with getting them to read by "falling into the literature" and getting involved in the characters' lives. Describes a reader response approach that was designed to motivate the students to engage with…

  4. Is "E" Really for Everybody? Picture Books for Older Readers in Public Libraries (United States)

    Smith, Mikki


    Picture books for older readers present challenges for libraries in terms of how best to provide access to them. These books often have an "E" on the spine to indicate that they are "easy" or for "everybody," and share lower shelves with a far greater number of picture books geared for the preschool and primary grade audience. However, this…

  5. Effects of Educational Technology Applications on Reading Outcomes for Struggling Readers: A Best Evidence Synthesis (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.


    This review examines the effectiveness of educational technology applications in improving the reading achievement of struggling readers in elementary schools. The review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. A total of 20 studies based on about 7,000 students in grades K-6 were included…

  6. Multidisciplinary Collaboration to Support Struggling Readers: Centering Culture in Concerns about Process and Outcomes (United States)

    King Thorius, Kathleen A.; Simon, Marsha


    Our commentary responds to the five articles of the special issue on multidisciplinary collaboration to support struggling readers. From our perspectives informed by experiences working with diverse student and family populations in urban settings, preparing pre- and in-service educators and specialists to do the same, and working in federally…

  7. Engaging Struggling Early Readers to Promote Reading Success: A Pilot Study of Reading by Design (United States)

    Mendez, Linda M. Raffaele; Pelzmann, Catherine A.; Frank, Michael J.


    In this study, we piloted a Tier 2 intervention designed to improve reading skills among struggling early readers using an intervention that included SRA Reading Mastery, listening-while-reading activities, strategies to increase motivation and engagement in reading, and parent involvement in reading homework. The study included 6 students in…

  8. Dear Readers, Authors, Reviewers and Editorial Board Members of Advances in Cognitive Psychology (United States)


    In this first newsletter of 2016 we first wanted to wish all our readers, authors, reviewers, and editorial board members a happy, healthy, inspiring, but also peaceful new year. Recently, the fourth issue of Advances in Cognitive Psychology of 2015 was completed, which is of course freely available on our website. The current newsletter will also be included in the first issue of 2016.

  9. Developing a Scale to Measure Reader Self-Perception for EFL Students (United States)

    Adunyarittigun, Dumrong


    The development of a scale for measuring self-perception for readers of English as a foreign language is discussed in this paper. The scale was developed from the four dimensions of self-efficacy theory proposed by Bandura (1977a): progress, observational comparison, social feedback and physiological states. A 36 item scale was developed to…

  10. Cultural Signification through Reader's Theatre: An Analysis of African American Girls and Their Hair (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda; Jeffries, Devair


    This article explored the role of hair in Sylviane Diouf's "Bintou's Braids" and focused on the impact of hair as a cultural signifier on girls and the curriculum. The article examined the ability of this children's text to address female beauty standards and suggests the use of literary techniques, such as reader's theatre, to recognize…

  11. Collection Development. Stocking Library Shelves for Student Success: Motivating Readers through Science-Focused Fun (United States)

    Fleishhacker, Joy


    By providing a wide selection of high-quality materials that will grab the attention of individual readers, school libraries can play an integral part in initiating and supporting student agency and a student-centered approach to learning. Such materials should not only address and expand upon what kids are learning in the classroom, but also…

  12. Reading the Covers off Nancy Drew: What Readers Say about Series Books. (United States)

    Ross, Catherine


    Examines the readers' perspective on series books for children/adolescents based on 142 interviews of people who read for pleasure. Concludes that public and school librarians should help develop literacy by encouraging free voluntary reading, rather than automatically condemning series books. (AEF)

  13. Beyond Phonology: Visual Processes Predict Alphanumeric and Nonalphanumeric Rapid Naming in Poor Early Readers (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Luther Ruban, Cassia


    Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded…

  14. In the Age of Analytic Reading: Understanding Readers' Engagement with Text (United States)

    Pennell, Colleen


    Teaching children to inquire, discuss ideas, and defend thinking about a literary text is a key aim of the common core state standards (CCSS). This article describes how four third-grade, male struggling readers successfully co-constructed meaning during a discussion based reading intervention rooted in philosophical inquiry. Three elements that…

  15. Quantitative interaction proteomics and genome-wide profiling of epigenetic histone marks and their readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Michiel; Eberl, H Christian; Matarese, Filomena


    Trimethyl-lysine (me3) modifications on histones are the most stable epigenetic marks and they control chromatin-mediated regulation of gene expression. Here, we determine proteins that bind these marks by high-accuracy, quantitative mass spectrometry. These chromatin "readers" are assigned...

  16. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion (United States)

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi


    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  17. My Bluford High Boys: How a Book Club for Reluctant Readers Proved the Naysayers Wrong (United States)

    Stevenson, Sara


    As a middle school librarian in Austin, Texas, the author has been running weekly book clubs for years, which covered many genres that appeal to a wide cross section of kids. When approached by a group of Latino boys from low-income families, the author was inspired to run a Bluford High book club for reluctant readers. The author shares how she…

  18. The Effectiveness of Adopting E-Readers to Facilitate EFL Students' Process-Based Academic Writing (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Chun; Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching


    English as Foreign Language (EFL) students face additional difficulties for academic writing largely due to their level of language competency. An appropriate structural process of writing can help students develop their academic writing skills. This study explored the use of the e-readers to facilitate EFL students' process-based academic…

  19. Being Bilingual, Being a Reader: Prekindergarten Dual Language Learners' Reading Identities (United States)

    Wagner, Christopher J.


    This study explores the interplay between early reading, identity and bilingualism. Reading identities, or understandings about what reading is and whom one is as a reader, have been linked to reading achievement and the development of reading skills. Only a small portion of the overall research on reading identities has included dual language…

  20. The nonword-reading deficit of disabled readers : A developmental interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Geudens, Astrid; van den Bos, Kees P.

    This article presents empirical evidence challenging the received wisdom that a nonword-reading deficit is a characteristic trait of disabled readers. On the basis of 2 large-scale empirical studies using the reading-level match design, we argue that a nonword-reading deficit is the consequence of