WorldWideScience

Sample records for model proposed earlier

  1. Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Lutz, Amelie M.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Tranquart, Francois; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2013-01-01

    While there is an increasing role of ultrasound for breast cancer screening in patients with dense breast, conventional anatomical-ultrasound lacks sensitivity and specificity for early breast cancer detection. In this study we assessed the potential of molecular-ultrasound imaging, using clinically-translatable vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2)-targeted microbubbles (MBVEGFR2), to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in earlier detection of breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a transgenic mouse model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul). In vivo binding specificity studies (n=26 tumors) showed that ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P95% of cases and highly agreed between each other (ICC=0.98; 95% CI, 97, 99). These results suggest that VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging allows highly accurate detection of DCIS and breast cancer in transgenic mice and may be a promising approach for early breast cancer detection in women. PMID:23328585

  2. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-07

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause.

  3. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  4. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Treweek, S.; Francis, JJ; Bonetti, D; Barnett, K; Eccles, MP; Hudson, J.; Jones, C.; Pitts, NB; Ricketts, IW; Sullivan, F; Weal, M; MacLennan, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic p...

  5. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Francis, Jill J; Bonetti, Debbie; Barnett, Karen; Eccles, Martin P; Hudson, Jemma; Jones, Claire; Pitts, Nigel B; Ricketts, Ian W; Sullivan, Frank; Weal, Mark; MacLennan, Graeme

    2016-12-01

    Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic prescriptions in the management of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to complete an online questionnaire and eight clinical scenarios where an antibiotic might be considered. One hundred twenty-nine GPs completed the questionnaire. GPs receiving the persuasive communication did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.70 more scenarios (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-1.24) than those in the control arm. For the action plan, GPs did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.63 (95% CI = 0.11-1.15) more scenarios than those in the control arm. Unlike the earlier IME, behavioral intention was unaffected by the interventions; this may be due to a smaller sample size than intended. A Web-based IME largely replicated the findings of an earlier paper-based study, providing some grounds for confidence in the IME methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wind Magnetic Clouds for 2010-2012: Model Parameter Fittings, Associated Shock Waves, and Comparisons to Earlier Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Szabo, A.

    2015-01-01

    We fitted the parameters of magnetic clouds (MCs) as identified in the Wind spacecraft data from early 2010 to the end of 2012 using the model of Lepping, Jones, and Burlaga (J. Geophys. Res. 95, 1195, 1990). The interval contains 48 MCs and 39 magnetic cloud-like (MCL) events. This work is a continuation of MC model fittings of the earlier Wind sets, including those in a recent publication, which covers 2007 to 2009. This period (2010 - 2012) mainly covers the maximum portion of Solar Cycle 24. Between the previous and current interval, we document 5.7 years of MCs observations. For this interval, the occurrence frequency of MCs markedly increased in the last third of the time. In addition, over approximately the last six years, the MC type (i.e. the profile of the magnetic-field direction within an MC, such as North-to-South, South-to-North, all South) dramatically evolved to mainly North-to-South types when compared to earlier years. Furthermore, this evolution of MC type is consistent with global solar magnetic-field changes predicted by Bothmer and Rust (Coronal Mass Ejections, 139, 1997). Model fit parameters for the MCs are listed for 2010 - 2012. For the 5.7 year interval, the observed MCs are found to be slower, weaker in estimated axial magnetic-field intensity, and shorter in duration than those of the earlier 12.3 years, yielding much lower axial magnetic-field fluxes. For about the first half of this 5.7 year period, i.e. up to the end of 2009, there were very few associated MC-driven shock waves (distinctly fewer than the long-term average of about 50 % of MCs). But since 2010, such driven shocks have increased markedly, reflecting similar statistics as the long-term averages. We estimate that 56 % of the total observed MCs have upstream shocks when the full interval of 1995 - 2012 is considered. However, only 28 % of the total number of MCLs have driven shocks over the same period. Some interplanetary shocks during the 2010 - 2012 interval are seen

  7. Brand Value - Proposed Model Danrise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nascimento Pereira da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brands have taken dominance in the strategies of enterprises once they are able to generate feelings, sensations and emotions in their clients. These values, value for the enterprises and for the brands themselves, are not measurable. A strong brand configures itself as the highest representative of an enterprise and the brand is regarded as an asset of the enterprise. The evolution of a brand, as an intangible and strategic asset, becomes more vitally important for the enterprises, as a way of maximizing the results. This need, whether of the market or the enterprises, justifies the direction of the research for this vector – the value of the brand. A main objective of the research is to present a new model of brand evaluation. This model is supported by a tangible and intangible aspects and the intangible aspect, evaluates the knowledge and capacity of their managers and workers to build a brand with value through the correct ordering of the priorities of the dimensions of the proposed model. The model was tested on the brand ‗Blue Rise.‘ 

  8. Comparison of the LUNA 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be activation results with earlier measurements and model calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gyurky, Gy; Confortola, F; Costantini, H; Formicola, A; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Corvisiero, P; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Lozza, V; Marta, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the LUNA collaboration has carried out a high precision measurement on the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction cross section with both activation and on-line gamma-detection methods at unprecedented low energies. In this paper the results obtained with the activation method are summarized. The results are compared with previous activation experiments and the zero energy extrapolated astrophysical S factor is determined using different theoretical models.

  9. Interplay between filter-feeding zoobenthos and hydrodynamics in the shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) - Earlier and recent studies, perspectives and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lassen, J.; Kortegaard, M.; Møller, L. F.; Friedrichs, M.; Jensen, M. H.; Larsen, P. S.

    2007-11-01

    The shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) is characterized by a large biomass of filter-feeding polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), clams ( Mya arenaria), cockles ( Cerastoderma glaucum), and amphipods ( Corophium volutator). The present paper summarizes studies on zoobenthic filter-feeding in Odense Fjord from the last 10 years. The general principles discovered are extracted and compared to available tools for modelling of the primary characteristics of interplay between benthic filter-feeders and hydrodynamics. Earlier works have been supplemented with data from a recent field study conducted in the shallow inner part of the fjord. Based on data from this study site, the reduction in phytoplankton for fully mixed and incompletely mixed flows has been modelled. It was found that fully mixed flow results in a potential half-life for phytoplankton of only 1.3 h, whereas for the incompletely mixed water the half-life is 2.7 times longer. The field measurements clearly demonstrate the presence of a strong interplay between filter-feeders and hydrodynamics, but although a certain grazing impact is evident from vertical chlorophyll a profiles with often strongly reduced near-bottom concentrations it is not straightforward to identify and model even the main bio-physical processes that prevent the dense populations of filter-feeders to completely control the phytoplankton biomass in Odense Fjord.

  10. A proposed general model of information behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.

  11. A proposed health model: a step before model confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauff, J F

    1992-01-01

    Health marketers have devoted extensive conceptual and empirical effort toward explaining and predicting individuals' health-related decisions. This paper proposes a health behavior model by combining the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model. Recent modifications of the Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) model are discussed and an extension is introduced to better explain goal pursuit. These revisions (Bagozzi and Warshaw 1990) are incorporated in the proposed model.

  12. Aerosol exposure to Rift Valley fever virus causes earlier and more severe neuropathology in the murine model, which has important implications for therapeutic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Reed

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that can cause severe disease including acute-onset hepatitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis and blindness, or a hemorrhagic syndrome. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exist to treat this potentially deadly disease. Detailed studies describing the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure have not been completed and candidate therapeutics have not been evaluated following an aerosol exposure. These studies are important because while mosquito transmission is the primary means for human infection, it can also be transmitted by aerosol or through mucosal contact. Therefore, we directly compared the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure to a subcutaneous (SC exposure in the murine model by analyzing survival, clinical observations, blood chemistry, hematology, immunohistochemistry, and virus titration of tissues. Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nucleoside analog ribavirin administered prophylactically to treat mice exposed by aerosol and SC. The route of exposure did not significantly affect the survival, chemistry or hematology results of the mice. Acute hepatitis occurred despite the route of exposure. However, the development of neuropathology occurred much earlier and was more severe in mice exposed by aerosol compared to SC exposed mice. Mice treated with ribavirin and exposed SC were partially protected, whereas treated mice exposed by aerosol were not protected. Early and aggressive viral invasion of brain tissues following aerosol exposure likely played an important role in ribavirin's failure to prevent mortality among these animals. Our results highlight the need for more candidate antivirals to treat RVFV infection, especially in the case of a potential aerosol exposure. Additionally, our study provides an account of the key pathogenetic differences in RVF disease following two potential

  13. Media Accountability Systems: Models, proposals and outlooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes one of the basic actions of SOS-Imprensa, the mechanism to assure Media Accountability with the goal of proposing a synthesis of models for the Brazilian reality. The article aims to address the possibilities of creating and improving mechanisms to stimulate the democratic press process and to mark out and assure freedom of speech and personal rights with respect to the media. Based on the Press Social Responsibility Theory, the hypothesis is that the experiences analyzed (Communication Council, Press Council, Ombudsman and Readers Council are alternatives for accountability, mediation and arbitration, seeking visibility, trust and public support in favor of fairer media.

  14. European Cohesion Policy: A Proposed Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bouroşu (Costăchescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current approach of European Cohesion Policy (ECP is intended to be a bridge between different fields of study, emphasizing the intersection between "the public policy cycle, theories of new institutionalism and the new public management”. ECP can be viewed as a focal point between putting into practice the principles of the new governance theory, theories of economic convergence and divergence and the governance of common goods. After a short introduction of defining the concepts used, the author discussed on the created image of ECP by applying three different theories, focusing on the structural funds implementation system (SFIS, directing the discussion on the evaluation part of this policy, by proposing a model of performance evaluation of the system, in order to outline key principles for creating effective management mechanisms of ECP.

  15. Proposal of Enhanced Extreme Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme programming is one of the commonly used agile methodologies in software development. It is very responsive to changing requirements even in the late phases of the project. However, quality activities in extreme programming phases are implemented sequentially along with the activities that work on the functional requirements. This reduces the agility to deliver increments continuously and makes an inverse relationship between quality and agility. Due to this relationship, extreme programming does not consume enough time on making extensive documentation and robust design. To overcome these issues, an enhanced extreme programming model is proposed. Enhanced extreme programming introduces parallelism in the activities' execution through putting quality activities into a separate execution line. In this way, the focus on delivering increments quickly is achieved without affecting the quality of the final output. In enhanced extreme programming, the quality concept is extended to include refinement of all phases of classical extreme programming and creating architectural design based on the refined design documents.

  16. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  17. Child-Labor Proposal Eyes Private Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2007-01-01

    Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…

  18. Vaccination adherence: Review and proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahussin, Asma A; Albarrak, Ahmed I

    The prevalence of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases can be significantly reduced through adherence to confirmed vaccination schedules. However, many barriers to vaccination compliance exist, including a lack of awareness regarding the importance of vaccines, missing due dates, and fear of complications from vaccinations. The aim of this study is to review the existing tools and publications regarding vaccination adherence, and to propose a design for a vaccination adherence application (app) for smartphones. Android and iOS apps designed for vaccination reminders have been reviewed to examine six elements: educational factor; customizing features; reminder tools; peer education facilitations; feedback, and the language of apps' interface and content. The literature from PubMed has been reviewed for studies addressing reminder systems or tools including apps. The study has revealed insufficient (n=6) technology-based interventions for increasing childhood vaccination rates by reminding parents in comparison to the fast growth in technology, out of which are two publications discussed mobile apps. Ten apps have been found in apps stores; only one out of them was designed for the Saudi vaccination schedule in Arabic language with some weaknesses. The study proposed a design for a vaccination reminder app that includes a number of features in order to overcome the limitations discussed in the studied reminders, apps, and systems. The design supports the Arabic language and the Saudi vaccination schedule; parental education including peer education; a variety of reminder methods, and the capability to track vaccinations and refer to the app as a personal health record. The study discussed a design for a vaccination reminder app that satisfies the specific requirements for better compliance to children's immunization schedules based on reviewing the existing apps and publications. The proposed design includes element to educate parents and answer their concerns

  19. A proposed model for construction project management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of a proper communication skills model for project management may ... done to identify the most important project management communication skills and applications of communication that effective project managers should possess.

  20. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today Major Milestones Treatment Horizon Earlier Diagnosis Prevention Alzheimer’s and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis What if we could diagnose Alzheimer's before symptoms started? The hope is, future treatments ...

  1. Proposal of a four-dimensional model of social response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, P R; MacDonald, G; Levy, D A

    2000-05-01

    Descriptive models of social response attempt to identify the conceptual dimensions necessary to define and distinguish various types of influence. Building on previous approaches, the authors propose a new response model and demonstrate that a minimum of 4 dimensions is necessary to adequately provide for such influence phenomena as conformity, minority influence, compliance, contagion, independence, and anticonformity in a single model. In addition, the proposed model suggests 5 potential types of response that have not been previously identified. These new types suggest directions for future research and theoretical development. Selected empirical evidence is reviewed in support of the validity and integrative power of the proposed model.

  2. Exploring Distance Learning Environments: A Proposal for Model Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Eduardo Martins; Yonezawa, Wilson; Reinhard, Nicolau

    This article proposes a categorization model for online distance education environments, based on two different aspects: interaction and content. The proposed categorization, which was based on the experience acquired in developing, implementing, and operating different remote training courses, is aimed at providing evidence to help educational…

  3. Cyber Capability Development Centre (CCDC): Proposed Governance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Canada. Contract Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-C170 December 2013 Cyber Capability Development Centre ( CCDC ) Proposed governance model Douglas...13 ii Table of Figures Figure 1: CCDC organization and infrastructure

  4. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal cancers ... the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy. This method is expensive, invasive ...

  5. Proposal of New PRORISK Model for GSD Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of complexity and risks associated with software are increasing exponentially because of competing environment especially in geographically distributed projects. Global software development (GSD face challenges like distance, communication and coordination challenges. The coordination and communication challenges are the main causes of failure in GSD. Project Oriented Risk Management (PRORISK is one of the models to address the importance of risk management and project management processes in standard software projects. However, existing model is not proposed to handle GSD associated risks. This warrants the proposal of new PRORISK model to manage the risks of GSD. Survey is used as a research design to validate the proposed solution. We anticipate that the proposed solution will help the software companies to cater the risks associated with GSD.

  6. Proposal for product development model focused on ce certification methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.

  7. Proposal Of Landfill Site Model In The Particular Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopka Ondrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, waste logistics is a relevant element within the worldwide logistics system. This paper is focused on the proposal of the appropriate model of landfill site for disposal of municipal waste. This issue refers to waste logistics in urban areas. In this regard, three different alternative models of landfill sites are considered. Landfill site model can significantly influence the waste management productivity and effectiveness of the enterprise. In the paper, one of the decision-making problem methods is utilized. This particular method enables to assess each model of landfill site in relation to each of the specified criterion and order the models according to the achieved results.

  8. A Proposed Model of Jazz Theory Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…

  9. A Proposed Model of Jazz Theory Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…

  10. Optimal Portfolio Model with Earlier Retirement and Dividend Payments under Constraint Conditions%在约束条件下考虑红利和提前退休的最优投资组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹安照; 田丽; 周明龙; 苏凯; 程晶晶

    2012-01-01

    分别研究了在退休期限和借贷约束条件下提前退休的最优投资组合问题,其中考虑风险资产派发红利的情形;退休期限和借贷约束条件会使代理人相应地改变投资策略;运用了随机控制等方法,得到了代理人在约束条件下最优消费投资组合策略显示解.%This paper studies optimal portfolio model for earlier retirement problem under retirement age and borrow/lend constraint conditions respectively through considering the case of the dividend-payment of risk assets.Retirement age and borrow/lend constraint conditions will change the agent’s corresponding investment strategy.In this article,we use the method such as stochastic control and so on and obtain the explicit solution to optimal consumption-investment portfolio of the agent under constraint condition.

  11. An Optimization Model for A Proposed Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Kezban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems play an important role in the reduction of carbon emissions and the increase of energy efficiency for businesses and social organizations. Because of its potentials, tri-generation system has become a preference during the last decade. In this paper a hybrid trigeneration system is proposed for a university campus. The system is also important because it uses renewable energy sources as well as non-renewable energy sources. The objective of this paper is to propose an optimization model for this new Tri-generation system

  12. Bayesian inference of chemical kinetic models from proposed reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Galagali, Nikhil

    2015-02-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Bayesian inference provides a natural framework for combining experimental data with prior knowledge to develop chemical kinetic models and quantify the associated uncertainties, not only in parameter values but also in model structure. Most existing applications of Bayesian model selection methods to chemical kinetics have been limited to comparisons among a small set of models, however. The significant computational cost of evaluating posterior model probabilities renders traditional Bayesian methods infeasible when the model space becomes large. We present a new framework for tractable Bayesian model inference and uncertainty quantification using a large number of systematically generated model hypotheses. The approach involves imposing point-mass mixture priors over rate constants and exploring the resulting posterior distribution using an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The posterior samples are used to identify plausible models, to quantify rate constant uncertainties, and to extract key diagnostic information about model structure-such as the reactions and operating pathways most strongly supported by the data. We provide numerical demonstrations of the proposed framework by inferring kinetic models for catalytic steam and dry reforming of methane using available experimental data.

  13. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1994-09-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  14. Electric Propulsion System Modeling for the Proposed Prometheus 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Dougherty, Ryan; Manzella, David

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 spacecraft would utilize nuclear electric propulsion to propel the spacecraft to its ultimate destination where it would perform its primary mission. As part of the Prometheus 1 Phase A studies, system models were developed for each of the spacecraft subsystems that were integrated into one overarching system model. The Electric Propulsion System (EPS) model was developed using data from the Prometheus 1 electric propulsion technology development efforts. This EPS model was then used to provide both performance and mass information to the Prometheus 1 system model for total system trades. Development of the EPS model is described, detailing both the performance calculations as well as its evolution over the course of Phase A through three technical baselines. Model outputs are also presented, detailing the performance of the model and its direct relationship to the Prometheus 1 technology development efforts. These EP system model outputs are also analyzed chronologically showing the response of the model development to the four technical baselines during Prometheus 1 Phase A.

  15. A Proposed Supergrid Model for National Transmission Network of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAHEEM AKHTER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is facing a severe energy crisis of its time with significant generation deficit in recent years. The future plan shows hydro and thermal coal generation as major contributor and Wind power to replace Thermal-oil generation in long run. This paper proposes a Super grid model for the transfer of bulk power from generation station to the load centres, which can provide efficient transmission between generation and load centres and is also adaptive to deal with variations in power from renewable generations. A dynamic simulation analysis is performed on six-terminal MTDC (Multi-Terminal High Voltage Direct Current system VSC (Voltage Source Converter based MTDC meshed grid with different control operations. The results show that the proposed super grid model can provide efficient transmission between generation and load centres and it is also adaptive to deal with variation in power from renewable generation.

  16. Proposed Bilingual Model for Right to Left Language Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan M Al Obisat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using right to left languages (RLL in software programming requires switching the direction of many components in the interface. Preserving the original interface layout and only changing the language may result in different semantics or interpretations of the content. However, this aspect is often dismissing in the field. This research, therefore, proposes a Bilingual Model (BL to check and correct the directions in social media applications. Moreover, test-driven development (TDD For RLL, such as Arabic, is considered in the testing methodologies. Similarly, the bilingual analysis has to follow both the TDD and BL models.

  17. The Proposal of Model for Building Cooperation Management in Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Vodák

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to use detailed literature analysis and findings of an empirical research, and to propose model for building cooperation management in a company. The article brings a valuable tool to company managers in a form of a complex and detailed model to achieve successful implementation of cooperation management in a company. The article thus provides a tool for company managers for managing their cooperation projects and activities. Use of this tool is meant to help minimize occurrence of conflict situations and to support smooth progress of cooperation activities.

  18. Proposed Methodology for Generation of Building Information Model with Laserscanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutao Li; J(o)rg lsele; Georg Bretthauer

    2008-01-01

    For refurbishment and state review of an existing old building,a new model reflecting the current state is often required especially when the original plans are no longer accessible.Laser scanners are used more and more as surveying instruments for various applications because of their high-precision scanning abilities.For buildings,the most notable and widely accepted product data model is the IFC product data model.It is designed to cover the whole lifecycle and supported by various software vendors and enables applications to efficiently share and exchange project information.The models obtained with the laser scan-ner,normally sets of points ("point cloud"),have to be transferred to an IFC compatible building information model to serve the needs of different planning states.This paper presents an approach designed by the German Research Center in Karlsmhe (Forschungszentrum Kadsmhe) to create an IFC compatible building information model from laser range images.The methodology through the entire process from data acquisi tion to the IFC compatible product model was proposed in this paper.In addition,IFC-Models with different level of detail (LoDs) were introduced and discussed within the work.

  19. The Associative Basis of Scientific Creativity: A Model Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kanli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is accepted as an important part of scientific skills. Scientific creativity proceeds from a need or urge to solve a problem, and in-volves the production of original and useful ideas or products. Existing scientific creativity theories and tests do not feature the very im-portant thinking processes, such as analogical and associative thinking, which can be consid-ered crucial in creative scientific problem solv-ing. Current study’s aim is to provide an alter-native model and explicate the associative basis of scientific creativity. Emerging from the re-viewed theoretical framework, Scientific Asso-ciations Model is proposed. This model claims that, similarity and mediation constitutes the basis of creativity and focuses on three compo-nents namely; associative thinking, analogical thinking (analogical reasoning & analogical problem solving and insight which are consid-ered to be main elements of scientific associa-tive thinking.

  20. Proposal: A Hybrid Dictionary Modelling Approach for Malay Tweet Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Nor Azlizawati Binti; Idris, Norisma; Arshi Saloot, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Malay Twitter message presents a special deviation from the original language. Malay Tweet widely used currently by Twitter users, especially at Malaya archipelago. Thus, it is important to make a normalization system which can translated Malay Tweet language into the standard Malay language. Some researchers have conducted in natural language processing which mainly focuses on normalizing English Twitter messages, while few studies have been done for normalize Malay Tweets. This paper proposes an approach to normalize Malay Twitter messages based on hybrid dictionary modelling methods. This approach normalizes noisy Malay twitter messages such as colloquially language, novel words, and interjections into standard Malay language. This research will be used Language Model and N-grams model.

  1. PROPOSAL OF A MODEL MANAGEMENT TO SMALL DESIGN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio José de OLIVEIRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the proposition of a management model specifically developed for small building design firms, aligned with their needs and particularities. The field research was conducted with a qualitative approach through the analysis of four case studies in small building design firms acting mainly in São Paulo City. The data collection was accomplished through semi-structured interviews, direct observation and analysis of documents. The proposed model includes guidance to the management of the core processes and activities of small building design firms, such as: organizational structure; strategic planning; planning and control of design process; costs management; sales management; information systems; human resources management; services added to the design; and performance evaluation. Key-words: design firms; design process; building construction.

  2. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The evaluation of doctoral thesis. A model proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Miguel, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the development of a model that can be used as a framework for evaluators and PhD tribunal members, either during the previous administrative processing phase or at the actual exposition and viva on doctoral dissertations. To this end, once reviewed the existing literature and normative, a new proposal is laid out on the main aspects and criteria to be analysed and assessed from any given scientific work, thus introducing a tool that facilitates and specifies this work. Our model is intended to be an open proposal on which we would welcome any contribution and suggestion. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la elaboración de un modelo que pueda ser utilizado como marco de referencia por los evaluadores y miembros de tribunales de las tesis doctorales tanto en la fase previa a la tramitación administrativa como en el acto de exposición y defensa de la misma. Para ello, una vez revisada la literatura y la normativa vigente al respecto, efectuamos una propuesta sobre los principales aspectos y criterios que deben ser objeto de análisis y valoración en todo trabajo científico, y presentamos una herramienta que facilita y precisa esta tarea. Nuestro modelo constituye una propuesta abierta sobre la que esperamos aportaciones y sugerencias.

  4. Can prion disease suspicion be supported earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Zaira; Balaguer, Rainier Rodriguez; Calleja, Jesus Higuera

    2011-01-01

    The subacute spongiform encephalopathies are prion diseases characterized by acute and rapid neurodegeneration that lead to the death of the patient within months to a few years. The epidemiology of CJD is complicated and the frequency in Mexico is unknown. We aim to describe the cases of prion disease in Mexico. Consecutive patients who met the diagnostic criteria by the WHO were enrolled. We describe 26 patients with clinical manifestations, imaging and laboratory studies compatible with prion disease. The mean age at onset was 52 years old. The main clinical manifestations were cognitive alterations (69%) followed by extrapyramidal movements (50%), abnormal cerebellar function (46%), behavioral alterations (46%), myoclonus (46%) and mood depression (23%), among other features. Half of the patients progressed rapidly to a state of akinetic mutism (53%). Only 2 (7.6%) patients had a family history of a similar disease. Time interval between onset and diagnosis varied between 71 days to 24 months, with a median of 6 months. The classical bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities were present in the very early stage of the disease. Protein 14-3-3 immuneassay in the CSF was positive in all measured cases. Bilateral basal ganglia hyperintensities was the most important early finding, while protein 14-3-3 was a late finding and the results were usually obtained after the patient was discharged. Around 1.5 cases of CJD cases per year are reported in our country. When suspected, MRI can support the diagnosis earlier than other studies. PMID:21869605

  5. Product/Service-Systems: Proposal for models and terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; Tan, Adrian; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    Over recent years a growing number of studies and research programmes have been conducted on the issue of product/service-systems (PSS) [1, 2] and results have been presented at this row of symposia [3, 4]. These studies usually analyse the potential of integrated solutions to reduce the environm......Over recent years a growing number of studies and research programmes have been conducted on the issue of product/service-systems (PSS) [1, 2] and results have been presented at this row of symposia [3, 4]. These studies usually analyse the potential of integrated solutions to reduce...... very blurred and ill defined. This paper will try to identify the fundamental characteristics of PSS and propose a system of concepts that can be used to describe and discuss the phenomenon, for the purpose of developing new PSS solutions. Coming from a tradition of product development research...... development models. Furthermore, the models should be able to integrate with the existing models and concepts of new product development....

  6. Evidence-based ergonomics: a model and conceptual structure proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Dierci Marcio

    2012-01-01

    In Human Factors and Ergonomics Science (HFES), it is difficult to identify what is the best approach to tackle the workplace and systems design problems which needs to be solved, and it has been also advocated as transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary the issue of "How to solve the human factors and ergonomics problems that are identified?". The proposition on this study is to combine the theoretical approach for Sustainability Science, the Taxonomy of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline and the framework for Evidence-Based Medicine in an attempt to be applied in Human Factors and Ergonomics. Applications of ontologies are known in the field of medical research and computer science. By scrutinizing the key requirements for the HFES structuring of knowledge, it was designed a reference model, First, it was identified the important requirements for HFES Concept structuring, as regarded by Meister. Second, it was developed an evidence-based ergonomics framework as a reference model composed of six levels based on these requirements. Third, it was devised a mapping tool using linguistic resources to translate human work, systems environment and the complexities inherent to their hierarchical relationships to support future development at Level 2 of the reference model and for meeting the two major challenges for HFES, namely, identifying what problems should be addressed in HFE as an Autonomous Science itself and proposing solutions by integrating concepts and methods applied in HFES for those problems.

  7. Principles of the Proposed Czech Postal Sector Price Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Švadlenka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the postal sector control. It resultsfrom the control theory and proves the justifiability of control inthe postal sector. Within the price control it results from E U Directive97!67/EC requirements on this control and states individualtypes of price control focusing on ineffective price controlcurrently used in the Czech postal sector (especially withindomestic services and proposes a more effective method ofprice control. The paper also discusses the principles of the proposedmethod of price control of the Czech postal sector. It describesconcrete fulfilment of the price control model resultingfrom the price-cap and tariff formula RP I-X and concentrateson its quantitative expression. The application of the proposedmodel is carried out for a hypothetical period in the past (in orderto compare it with the current control system for letteritems tariff basket.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility And Islamic Business Organizations: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR has been of growing concern among business communities in recent years. Various corporate leaders maintain that business is considered to contribute fully to the society if it is effi cient, profi table and socially responsible. Islam is considered as addin (a way of life, thus, providing comprehensive guidelines in every aspects of the believers’ life. It is the aim of this paper to propose an Islamic model of corporate social responsibility based on human relationships with the God (hablun min’Allah; with other fellow human being (hablun min’an-nas and with the environment.Keywords : Corporate Social Responsibility, Islamic Business Organization

  9. Proposed model for ONCHIT pre-case biosurveillance using multiple array sensing and non-invasive data capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Richard; Lorence, Daniel; Richards, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Recent initiatives by the US ONCHIT highlight the need for electronic population health data collection relating to aspects of Public Health Case (PH Case) reporting and Adverse Event (AE) reporting. Proposed solutions to date have been primarily provider-based, limited by organization-wide startup & maintenance costs, and hampered by risk-averse data distribution policies. Little attention has been given to consumer-focused, distributed data collection models, where objective, consumer-provided standardized data can be used prior to case identification to facilitate earlier use of extensible and distributed information networks in biosurveillance. We propose here one promising model for pre-case biosurveillance management, employing the use of breath-based, multiple array sensing and data capture. The conceptual applications employed in this technology set are provided by way of illustration, and may also serve as a transformative model for emerging EMR/EHR requirements.

  10. Methodology Using MELCOR Code to Model Proposed Hazard Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin Hawkley

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrates a methodology for using the MELCOR code to model a proposed hazard scenario within a building containing radioactive powder, and the subsequent evaluation of a leak path factor (LPF) (or the amount of respirable material which that escapes a facility into the outside environment), implicit in the scenario. This LPF evaluation will analyzes the basis and applicability of an assumed standard multiplication of 0.5 × 0.5 (in which 0.5 represents the amount of material assumed to leave one area and enter another), for calculating an LPF value. The outside release is dependsent upon the ventilation/filtration system, both filtered and un-filtered, and from other pathways from the building, such as doorways (, both open and closed). This study is presents ed to show how the multiple leak path factorsLPFs from the interior building can be evaluated in a combinatory process in which a total leak path factorLPF is calculated, thus addressing the assumed multiplication, and allowing for the designation and assessment of a respirable source term (ST) for later consequence analysis, in which: the propagation of material released into the environmental atmosphere can be modeled and the dose received by a receptor placed downwind can be estimated and the distance adjusted to maintains such exposures as low as reasonably achievableALARA.. Also, this study will briefly addresses particle characteristics thatwhich affect atmospheric particle dispersion, and compares this dispersion with leak path factorLPF methodology.

  11. QAM: PROPOSED MODEL FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE IN CBSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Kharb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software engineering (CBSE / Component-Based Development (CBD lays emphasis on decomposition of the engineered systems into functional or logical components with well-defined interfaces used for communication across the components. Component-based software development approach is based on the idea to develop software systems by selecting appropriate off-the-shelf components and then to assemble them with a well-defined software architecture. Because the new software development paradigm is much different from the traditional approach, quality assurance for component-based software development is a new topic in the software engineering research community. Because component-based software systems are developed on an underlying process different from that of the traditional software, their quality assurance model should address both the process of components and the process of the overall system. Quality assurance for component-based software systems during the life cycle is used to analyze the components for achievement of high quality component-based software systems. Although some Quality assurance techniques and component based approach to software engineering have been studied, there is still no clear and well-defined standard or guidelines for component-based software systems. Therefore, identification of the quality assurance characteristics, quality assurance models, quality assurance tools and quality assurance metrics, are under urgent need. As a major contribution in this paper, I have proposed QAM: Quality Assurance Model for component-based software development, which covers component requirement analysis, component development, component certification, component architecture design, integration, testing, and maintenance.

  12. Human sperm chromatin stabilization: a proposed model including zinc bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of this review is to challenge the current concepts on sperm chromatin stability. The observations (i) that zinc depletion at ejaculation allows a rapid and total sperm chromatin decondensation without the addition of exogenous disulfide cleaving agents and (ii) that the human sperm chromatin contains one zinc for every protamine for every turn of the DNA helix suggest an alternative model for sperm chromatin structure may be plausible. An alternative model is therefore proposed, that the human spermatozoon could at ejaculation have a rapidly reversible zinc dependent chromatin stability: Zn(2+) stabilizes the structure and prevents the formation of excess disulfide bridges by a single mechanism, the formation of zinc bridges with protamine thiols of cysteine and potentially imidazole groups of histidine. Extraction of zinc enables two biologically totally different outcomes: immediate decondensation if chromatin fibers are concomitantly induced to repel (e.g. by phosphorylation in the ooplasm); otherwise freed thiols become committed into disulfide bridges creating a superstabilized chromatin. Spermatozoa in the zinc rich prostatic fluid (normally the first expelled ejaculate fraction) represent the physiological situation. Extraction of chromatin zinc can be accomplished by the seminal vesicular fluid. Collection of the ejaculate in one single container causes abnormal contact between spermatozoa and seminal vesicular fluid affecting the sperm chromatin stability. There are men in infertile couples with low content of sperm chromatin zinc due to loss of zinc during ejaculation and liquefaction. Tests for sperm DNA integrity may give false negative results due to decreased access for the assay to the DNA in superstabilized chromatin.

  13. Instructor’s Performance: A Proposed Model for Online Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alkhafaji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently due to high awareness and quality audits, the higher education institutions have made to keep a track on various performances of the institutions. One such most important activity that has to be analyzed and evaluated is Instructor’s classroom performance. As the students are the main stakeholders of the educational process, their concerns over the instructor, teaching pedagogies and methodologies, assessment techniques need to be collected and analyzed for achieving the institution’s goals and objectives. The students shall give their opinions related to the various performance indicators of instructor.In general, the higher education institutions use various techniques to evaluate instructor’s performance in the classroom from the students. The latest technological developments help in data collection using web technologies. Online system with required questionnaire and attributes will help the higher education institutions in easy data collection. Apart from that the students shall give their opinions without any fear from any place and at any time. In this paper, we have identified the major factors and users of an instructor online evaluation system. Also, we have proposed a model for such system with subsystem interface, entity relationship diagram and context diagram.

  14. Neutronic characteristics of coupled moderator proposed in integrated model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Sakata, Hideaki; Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Ikeda, Yujiro; Watanabe, Noboru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-05-01

    A pulsed spallation source for the materials science and the life science is currently developing for its construction in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project proposed jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). This report presents the analytical results of the neutronic characteristics of the coupled moderator based on the analytical results obtained by using an integrated model which has established on the extensive neutronic and technical study. Total heat deposition in a hydrogen (H{sub 2}) moderator working as the main moderator was about 420 W/MW. Maximum nuclear heat density in the H{sub 2} moderator was about 1 W/cm{sup 3}/MW. Also total heat deposition in a premoderator was about 9.2 kW/MW. The heat density of the premoderator was comparable to that of the moderator vessel made of aluminum alloy. The heat density of the premoderator and the moderator vessel is about 1.2-2 times higher than that of the hydrogen moderator. The temperature from 300 K to 400 K of the premoderator did not affect on neutron intensity of the H{sub 2} moderator. This suggested an engineering advantage on the thermal and hydraulic design. 6000 or 7000 type of a aluminum alloy was considered from the viewpoint of the neutron beam transmission. The proton beams scattered by the proton beam window did not affect on the nuclear heating in the H{sub 2} moderator. The heat deposition in the H{sub 2} moderator and the neutron intensity of the H{sub 2} moderator did not depend on the proton beam profile but it did on the distance between the proton beam and the moderator. (author)

  15. A proposal for a consistent parametrization of earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbriger, Thomas; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    The current way to parametrize earth models in terms of real-valued seismic velocities and quality factors is incomplete as it does not specify how complex-valued viscoelastic moduli or complex velocities should be computed from them. Various ways to do this can be found in the literature. Depending on the context they may specify (1) the real part of the viscoelastic modulus, (2) the absolute value of the viscoelastic modulus, (3) the real part of complex velocity or (4) the phase velocity of a propagating plane wave. We propose here to exclusively use the first alternative because it is the only one which allows both a flexible choice of elastic parameters and a mathematically rigorous evaluation of the complex-valued viscoelastic moduli. The other definitions only permit an evaluation of viscoelastic moduli if the tabulated quality factors are directly associated with the listed velocities. Ignoring the subtle differences between the three definitions leads to variations in viscoelastic moduli which are second order in 1/Q where Q is a quality factor. This may be the reason why the topic has never been discussed in the literature. In case of shallow seismic media, however, where quality factors may assume values of less than 10, the subtle differences become noticeable in synthetic seismograms. It is then essential to use the same definition in all algorithms to make results comparable. Matters become worse for anisotropic media, which are commonly specified in terms of real elastic moduli and quality factors for effective isotropic moduli. In that case, the complex-valued viscoelastic moduli cannot be determined uniquely. However, interpreting the tabulated constants as the real parts of the complex-valued viscoelastic moduli at least allows a consistent definition, which respects the relative magnitude of the anelastic and anisotropic parts compared to the elastic parts. It should be noted that all these considerations apply to complex-valued viscoelastic

  16. Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164003.html Heart Disease Kicks in Earlier for Obese People Study found ... News) -- Overweight and obese people tend to develop heart disease at an earlier age, living with chronic illness ...

  17. Models of initiation fatigue crack paths proposed by Macha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Marciniak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Professor E. Macha devoted his academic life to solving the problems connected with random multiaxial fatigue in components of machines and structures. In his studies he formulated stress, strain and energy criteria related to critical plane concept. He also proposed several methods to determine critical plane position. In particular, he formulated and verified weight functions applied in order to determine critical plane position. The variance method constituted another significant contribution to the development of methods for determining critical plane position. Apart from these criteria, Macha was exploring energy approach in fatigue of materials and the development of fatigue cracks. He has also observed that strain characteristics multiplied by stress amplitude determined at specimen half-life are applied to estimate fatigue life using energy criteria. However, for cyclically instable materials, stress amplitude value may differ a lot; therefore he proposed the method to determine energy fatigue characteristics directly from experimental research.

  18. Proposing an Environmental Excellence Self-Assessment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Johansen, John; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an Environmental Excellence Self-Assessment (EEA) model based on the structure of the European Foundation of Quality Management Business Excellence Framework. Four theoretical scenarios for deploying the model are presented as well as managerial implications, suggesting...... that the EEA model can be used in global organizations to differentiate environmental efforts depending on the maturity stage of the individual sites. Furthermore, the model can be used to support the decision-making process regarding when organizations should embark on more complex environmental efforts...... to continue to realize excellent environmental results. Finally, a development trajectory for environmental excellence is presented....

  19. 3D mmWave Channel Model Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong; R. MacCartney Jr., George

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in using millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for future access communications based on the enormous amount of available spectrum. To characterize the mmWave channel in urban areas, wideband propagation measurements at 73 GHz have recently been made in New York City. Using...... mmWave channel model is developed with special emphasis on using the ray tracer to determine elevation model parameters. The channel model includes distance-dependent elevation modeling which is critical for the expected 2D arrays which will be employed at mmWave....

  20. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  1. Evaluating Instructional Design Models: A Proposed Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of prescriptive models in an "engineering" field is not a sign of its maturity. Quite the opposite. Materials engineering, for example, meets the criterion of parsimony. Sadly, the very large number of models in "instructional design," putatively an engineering field, raises questions about its status. Can the…

  2. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  3. Modelling Transformations of Quadratic Functions: A Proposal of Inductive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study about using scientific simulations to enhance the process of mathematical modelling. The main component of the study is a lesson whose major objective is to have students mathematise a trajectory of a projected object and then apply the model to formulate other trajectories by using the properties of function…

  4. Proposed best practice for projects that involve modelling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Michael; Anisimov, Vladimir; Campbell, Chris; Hamilton, Sinéad

    2017-03-01

    Modelling and simulation has been used in many ways when developing new treatments. To be useful and credible, it is generally agreed that modelling and simulation should be undertaken according to some kind of best practice. A number of authors have suggested elements required for best practice in modelling and simulation. Elements that have been suggested include the pre-specification of goals, assumptions, methods, and outputs. However, a project that involves modelling and simulation could be simple or complex and could be of relatively low or high importance to the project. It has been argued that the level of detail and the strictness of pre-specification should be allowed to vary, depending on the complexity and importance of the project. This best practice document does not prescribe how to develop a statistical model. Rather, it describes the elements required for the specification of a project and requires that the practitioner justify in the specification the omission of any of the elements and, in addition, justify the level of detail provided about each element. This document is an initiative of the Special Interest Group for modelling and simulation. The Special Interest Group for modelling and simulation is a body open to members of Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry and the European Federation of Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Examples of a very detailed specification and a less detailed specification are included as appendices. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Proposal for a new CAPE-OPEN Object Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process simulation applications require the exchange of significant amounts of data between the flowsheet environment, unit operation model, and thermodynamic server. Packing and unpacking various data types and exchanging data using structured text-based architectures, including...

  6. From Enneagram to Nine Types Temperament Model: A Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Enver Demirel; Gençer, Ali Görkem; Ünal, Özge; Aydemir, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, character and personality concepts are addressed by many disciplines that study interpersonal differences. Although each of these concepts is related with each other, they are different and often used instead of one another. Nine Types Temperament Model (NTTM), a new temperament model formulated with the interpretation of Enneagram System, explains the definition, limit, scope and interrelations of these concepts, as well as presents a new perspective on studying the differences ...

  7. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bailey, David A [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  8. A mental model proposed to address sustainability and terrorism issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Richard

    2002-06-01

    I have assembled traditional ways to think about human needs and power along with empirical data to support a mental model of human values. The hierarchy of needs from the world of psychology and the hierarchy of power from the world of diplomacy provide a structure for the model. The empirical data collected from several nations over the last three decades support the structure. Furthermore, an examination of specific trends in this data for specific values indicates that it is not impossible to achieve a sustainable world driven by sustainable values. A world that will be defined by its successful movement toward the "triple bottom line," a term articulated by John Elkington, is a world in which economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity are aligned. To say that the model allows one to address terrorism is based on the assumption that the lack of social equity or the perception of that lack determines the likelihood of terrorism.

  9. Queering Constructs: Proposing a Dynamic Gender and Sexuality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education educators commonly understand social identities, including gender, to be fluid and dynamic. Lev's (2004) model of four components of sexual identity is commonly used to demonstrate the fluidity of sex, gender, and sexuality for individuals, but it does little to address the fixedness of those constructs. Through a multipronged…

  10. Queering Constructs: Proposing a Dynamic Gender and Sexuality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education educators commonly understand social identities, including gender, to be fluid and dynamic. Lev's (2004) model of four components of sexual identity is commonly used to demonstrate the fluidity of sex, gender, and sexuality for individuals, but it does little to address the fixedness of those constructs. Through a multipronged…

  11. Proposing a Metaliteracy Model to Redefine Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Trudi E.; Mackey, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Metaliteracy is envisioned as a comprehensive model for information literacy to advance critical thinking and reflection in social media, open learning settings, and online communities. At this critical time in higher education, an expansion of the original definition of information literacy is required to include the interactive production and…

  12. A proposed fractional-order Gompertz model and its application to tumour growth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Larisse; Cloot, Alain H J J; Schoombie, Schalk W; Slabbert, Jacobus P

    2015-06-01

    A fractional-order Gompertz model of orders between 0 and 2 is proposed. The main purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the ordinary or proposed fractional Gompertz model would best fit our experimental dataset. The solutions for the proposed model are obtained using fundamental concepts from fractional calculus. The closed-form equations of both the proposed model and the ordinary Gompertz model are calibrated using an experimental dataset containing tumour growth volumes of a Rhabdomyosarcoma tumour in a mouse. With regard to the proposed model, the order, within the interval mentioned, that resulted in the best fit to the data was used in a further investigation into the prediction capability of the model. This was compared to the prediction capability of the ordinary Gompertz model. The result of the investigation was that a fractional-order Gompertz model of order 0.68 produced a better fit to our experimental dataset than the well-known ordinary Gompertz model.

  13. Proposing a Formalised Model for Mindful Information Systems Offshoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Gabriel J.; Coughlan, Chris; Donnellan, Brian; Gadatsch, Andreas

    The central thesis of this chapter is that mathematical economics can provide a novel approach to the examination of offshoring business decisions and provide an impetus for future research in the area. A growing body of research indicates that projected cost savings from IT offshoring projects are not being met. Furthermore, evidence suggests that decision-making processes have been more emotional than rational, and that many offshoring arrangements have been rushed into without adequate analysis of the true costs involved. Building on the concept of mindfulness and mindlessness introduced to the IS literature by Swanson and Ramiller, a cost equation is developed using “deductive reasoning rather than inductive study” in the tradition of mathematical economics. The model endeavours to capture a wide range of both the quantitative and qualitative parameters. Although the economic model is illustrated against the background of a European scenario, the theoretical framework is generic and applicable to organisations in any global location.

  14. Proposing a model for absorption capacity of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption capacity of knowledge is the concept which is been introduced in this situation. This phenomenon describes why some countries are in a better condition with a view to technology. Many countries believe that the power to stay in the battle and excel other competitors directly depends on their abilities in taking knowledge. Many countries have used their technological gap with developed countries as an accelerator for improving their absorption capacity. In this study, authors tried to produce a complete definition for absorption capacity through analyzing different research. Then with using expert opinions, a categorization for dimensions of absorption capacity will be prepared by using the structural equation modeling analysis, and finally a model for measuring absorption capacity is suggested. The results show effective dimensions in 5 different section. Studies depict that the most important one is keeping which could be a fundamental for long-term policies of 1404.

  15. Proposing a Metaliteracy Model to Redefine Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudi E. Jacobson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Metaliteracy is envisioned as a comprehensive model for information literacy to advance critical thinking and reflection in social media, open learning settings, and online communities. At this critical time in higher education, an expansion of the original definition of information literacy is required to include the interactive production and sharing of original and repurposed digital materials. Metaliteracy provides an overarching and unifying framework that builds on the core information literacy competencies while addressing the revolutionary changes in how learners communicate, create, and distribute information in participatory environments. Central to the metaliteracy model is a metacognitive component that encourages learners to continuously reflect on their own thinking and literacy development in these fluid and networked spaces. This approach leads to expanded competencies for adapting to the ongoing changes in emerging technologies and for advancing critical thinking and empowerment for producing, connecting, and distributing information as independent and collaborative learners.

  16. PROPOSAL OF AN EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR SUPPLIERS SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ávila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of selecting suppliers/partners is a crucial and important part in the process of decision making for companies that intend to perform competitively in their area of activity. The selection of supplier/partner is a time and resource-consuming task that involves data collection and a careful analysis of the factors that can positively or negatively influence the choice. Nevertheless it is a critical process that affects significantly the operational performance of each company. In this work, trough the literature review, there were identified five broad suppliers selection criteria: Quality, Financial, Synergies, Cost, and Production System. Within these criteria, it was also included five sub-criteria. Thereafter, a survey was elaborated and companies were contacted in order to answer which factors have more relevance in their decisions to choose the suppliers. Interpreted the results and processed the data, it was adopted a model of linear weighting to reflect the importance of each factor. The model has a hierarchical structure and can be applied with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method or Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART. The result of the research undertaken by the authors is a reference model that represents a decision making support for the suppliers/partners selection process.

  17. Performance assessment modeling of the proposed Genting Island repository facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imardjoko, Y.U. [Gadjah Mada Univ., Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Yatim, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    1996-12-01

    Indonesia is about to enter the nuclear era with the construction of several nuclear power plants in the near future. Numerous issues, including disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, must be addressed to evaluate the impact of these plants on the environment. This paper reviews the Genting ocean island repository site development plan with respect to three main areas, the inventory of HLRW, the barrier systems (natural and engineered), and the physical condition of the site. The radionuclide inventory and waste form require analyses of the waste package that include selection of container materials, the type of engineered barrier and its predicted performance, and radionuclide release models. Parameters pertinent to the repository site includes information pertaining to the geology, hydrology, climatology, and water chemistry of the site. These data are important to aid in the prediction of the long-term performance of the site.

  18. A PROPOSED HYBRID AGILE FRAMEWORK MODEL FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Khader Almasri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing in mobile application systems and a high competition between companies, that led to increase in the number of mobile application projects. Mobile software development is a group of process for creating software for mobile devices with limited resources like small screen, low-power. The development of mobile applications is a big challenging because of rapidly changing business requirements and technical constraints for mobile systems. So, developers faced the challenge of a dynamic environment and the Changing of mobile application requirements. Moreover, Mobile applications should adapt appropriate software development methods that act in response efficiently to these challenges. However, at the moment, there is limited knowledge about the suitability of different software practices for the development of mobile applications. According to many researchers ,Agile methodologies was found to be most suitable for mobile development projects as they are short time, require flexibility, reduces waste and time to market. Finally, in this research we are looking for a suitable process model that conforms to the requirement of mobile application, we are going to investigate agile development methods to find a way, making the development of mobile application easy and compatible with mobile device features.

  19. A proposed model of e-trust for electronic banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Yousefi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customer’s trust is the most important and one of the key factors of success in e-commerce. However, trust is the essential aspects of e-banking adoption and the main element for building long-term relationships with the bank's customers. So the purpose of this research is to investigate the factors influencing on customer′s trust in e-banking services and prioritize them. Therefore, designed questionnaire was distributed among 177 electronic service customers in number of banks in the city of Karaj, Iran. Likert quintuplet scales were used to measure the variables. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (by using LISREL 8.5. The results revealed that quality of electronic services such as ease of use, privacy and security, individual characteristics of customers such as disposition to trust and features of bank such as reputation, size and dependence on government, have had the greatest effect on customer′s trust in e-banking services.

  20. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  1. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  2. Controlling Laser-Driven Hohlraums-Clues from Experiments with Earlier Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruer, William; Thomas, Cliff

    2015-11-01

    Better characterized and controlled hohlraums are very important for both implosion and science experiments on NIF. A brief review of some hohlraum and related experiments with earlier lasers is given to search for lessons learned and clues for better understanding NIF hohlraums. For example, surprises associated with heat transport inhibition and improved models for radiation generation have been a recurring theme in indirect drive experiments. In Shiva experiments, the hohlraum filling with plasma with density near quarter-critical was only calculated after inhibited heat transport and improved radiation models were adopted in the design code. Early NIF experiments also led to a change in the heat transport and radiation models. In this case, the heat transport model was changed from one with modest inhibition (which had been used to model Nova experiments) to near classical transport. Most recently, a design model invoking very inhibited transport (at various times and locations) has been proposed by C. Thomas for NIF hohlraums. Other recurring themes will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. 78 FR 38091 - Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...] Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model LMZ1M Airship... on the proposed design criteria for the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics model LMZ1M airship. On March 12.... The LMZ1M is a manned cargo lifting hybrid airship incorporating a number of advanced features. The...

  4. Survey of NoC and Programming Models Proposals for MPSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Fernandez-Alonso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give briefing of the concept of network-on-chip and programming model topics on multiprocessors system-on-chip world, an attractive and relatively new field for academia. Numerous proposals from academia and industry are selected to highlight the evolution of the implementation approaches both on NoC proposals and on programming models proposals.

  5. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  6. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  7. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  8. This contribution follows an earlier attempt to show that many ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    of longevity in large squid should be revised upwards. * Fisheries Centre, 2204 .... can be assumed to trigger reproduction in squid as well (see text) ..... and the ageing bias mentioned earlier), the second phase, however, is ... and senescence ...

  9. Empirical Evaluation of the Proposed eXScrum Model: Results of a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M Rizwan Jameel

    2012-01-01

    Agile models promote fast development. XP and Scrum are the most widely used agile models. This paper investigates the phases of XP and Scrum models in order to identify their potentials and drawbacks. XP model has certain drawbacks, such as not suitable for maintenance projects and poor performance for medium and large-scale development projects. Scrum model has certain limitations, such as lacked in engineering practices. Since, both XP and Scrum models contain good features and strengths but still there are improvement possibilities in these models. Majority of the software development companies are reluctant to switch from traditional methodologies to agile methodologies for development of industrial projects. A fine integration, of software management of the Scrum model and engineering practices of XP model, is very much required to accumulate the strengths and remove the limitations of both models. This is achieved by proposing an eXScrum model. The proposed model is validated by conducting a controlled...

  10. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  11. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trigger Pulse Generator Using Proposed Buffered Delay Model and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Krishna Dwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a circuit capable of incorporating buffered delays in the order of picoseconds. To study our proposed circuit in the profound way, we have also explored our proposed circuit using emerging technologies such as FinFET and CNFET. Comparisons between these technologies have been made in terms of different parameters such as duration of incorporated delays (pulse width and its variability with supply voltages. Further, this paper also proposes a trigger pulse generator by utilizing proposed buffered delay circuit as its basic element. Parametric results obtained for the proposed trigger pulse generator match different application specific requirements. These applications are also mentioned in this paper. The proposed trigger pulse generator requires very low supply voltage (700 mV and also proves its effectiveness in terms of tunability of pulse width of the generated pulses. The modeling of the circuit has been done using Verilog and the simulation results are extensively verified using SPICE.

  13. Proposal of a regressive model for the hourly diffuse solar radiation under all sky conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Arias, J.A.; Alsamamra, H.; Tovar-Pescador, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D. [Department of Physics, Building A3-066, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work, we propose a new regressive model for the estimation of the hourly diffuse solar irradiation under all sky conditions. This new model is based on the sigmoid function and uses the clearness index and the relative optical mass as predictors. The model performance was compared against other five regressive models using radiation data corresponding to 21 stations in the USA and Europe. In a first part, the 21 stations were grouped into seven subregions (corresponding to seven different climatic regions) and all the models were locally-fitted and evaluated using these seven datasets. Results showed that the new proposed model provides slightly better estimates. Particularly, this new model provides a relative root mean square error in the range 25-35% and a relative mean bias error in the range -15% to 15%, depending on the region. In a second part, the potential global character of the new model was evaluated. To this end, the model was fitted using the whole dataset. Results showed that the global fitting model provides overall better estimates that the locally-fitted models, with relative root mean square error values ranging 20-35% and a relative mean bias error ranging -5% to -12%. Additionally, the new proposed model showed some advantages compared to other evaluated models. Particularly, the sigmoid behaviour of this model is able to provide physically reliable estimates for extreme values of the clearness index even though using less parameter than other tested models. (author)

  14. Proposed E-Health Service Model by using Smart Phone Apps for Uttarakhand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukesh Joshi; Durgesh Pant

    2014-01-01

      For E-HEALTH initiatives in Uttarakhand the proposed E-HEALTH service model may allow better sharing of health information among multiple government departments, locally as well as at a distant location...

  15. A business model improvement proposal for Finnish enterprises doing business in China : case study: Hankintatukku Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mengzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a more adaptable business model for Finnish Hankintatukku Oy to help it be more successful in China. To achieve the objective, inductive research approach with qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in this thesis. With inductive research approach, data is collected to analyze the main elements inside a business model and marketing development trend in China. As a result, the final proposal comes out based on the marketing development trend in China ...

  16. Empirical Evaluation of the Proposed eXSCRUM Model-Results of a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Agile models promote fast development. XP and Scrum are the most widely used agile models. This paper investigates the phases of XP and Scrum models in order to identify their potentials and drawbacks. XP model has certain drawbacks, such as not suitable for maintenance projects and poor performance for medium and large-scale development projects. Scrum model has certain limitations, such as lacked in engineering practices. Since, both XP and Scrum models contain good features and strengths but still there are improvement possibilities in these models. Majority of the software development companies are reluctant to switch from traditional methodologies to agile methodologies for development of industrial projects. A fine integration, of software management of the Scrum model and engineering practices of XP model, is very much required to accumulate the strengths and remove the limitations of both models. This is achieved by proposing an eXScrum model. The proposed model is validated by conducting a controlled case study. The results of case study show that the proposed integrated eXScrum model enriches the potentials of both XP and Scrum models and eliminates their drawbacks.

  17. Modern human settlement in East Asia earlier than thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tracing through human migration history with the help of genes, Dr. SU Bing and coworkers from the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) lately revealed the evidence of a much earlier modem human settlement in East Asia than people previously thought.

  18. Proposed Model of Information Behaviour in Crisis: The Case of Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatovska, Irene; Smiley, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The paper proposes a model of information behaviour in crisis. No previous model has attempted to integrate information resources, information behaviour and needs of the storm-affected communities within the temporal stages of a natural disaster. Method: The study was designed as autoethnography. The data were collected through a…

  19. Sigma models for bundles on Calabi-Yau: a proposal for matrix string compactifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Park, J.-S.

    2001-01-01

    W e describe a class of supersymmetric gauged linear sigma-model, whose target space is the infinite dimensional space of bundles on a Calabi-Y au 3- or 2-fold. This target space can be considered the configuration space of D-branes wrapped around the Calabi-Yau. We propose that this model can be us

  20. Proposing an Educational Scaling-and-Diffusion Model for Inquiry-Based Learning Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Education cannot adopt the linear model of scaling used by the medical sciences. "Gold standards" cannot be replicated without considering process-in-learning, diversity, and student-variedness in classrooms. This article proposes a nuanced model of educational scaling-and-diffusion, describing the scaling (top-down supports) and…

  1. Proposing an Educational Scaling-and-Diffusion Model for Inquiry-Based Learning Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Lee, Shu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Education cannot adopt the linear model of scaling used by the medical sciences. "Gold standards" cannot be replicated without considering process-in-learning, diversity, and student-variedness in classrooms. This article proposes a nuanced model of educational scaling-and-diffusion, describing the scaling (top-down supports) and…

  2. Crack Closure Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rates: Application of a Proposed Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. O. Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.

  3. Earlier development of analytical than holistic object recognition in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elley Wakui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that object recognition may develop well into late childhood and adolescence. The present study extends that research and reveals novel differences in holistic and analytic recognition performance in 7-12 year olds compared to that seen in adults. We interpret our data within a hybrid model of object recognition that proposes two parallel routes for recognition (analytic vs. holistic modulated by attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a repetition-priming paradigm, we found in Experiment 1 that children showed no holistic priming, but only analytic priming. Given that holistic priming might be thought to be more 'primitive', we confirmed in Experiment 2 that our surprising finding was not because children's analytic recognition was merely a result of name repetition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest a developmental primacy of analytic object recognition. By contrast, holistic object recognition skills appear to emerge with a much more protracted trajectory extending into late adolescence.

  4. BLAM (Benthic Light Availability Model): A Proposed Model of Hydrogeomorphic Controls on Light in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.

    2006-12-01

    Light is vital to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. It drives photosynthesis and photochemical reactions, affects thermal structure, and influences behavior of aquatic biota. Despite the fundamental role of light to riverine ecosystems, light studies in rivers have been mostly neglected because i) boundary conditions (e.g., banks, riparian vegetation) make ambient light measurements difficult, and ii) the optical water quality of rivers is highly variable and difficult to characterize. We propose a benthic light availability model (BLAM) that predicts the percent of incoming photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available at the river bed. BLAM was developed by quantifying light attenuation of the five hydrogeomorphic controls that dictate riverine light availability: topography, riparian vegetation, channel geometry, optical water quality, and water depth. BLAM was calibrated using hydrogeomorphic data and light measurements from two rivers: Deep River - a 5th-order, turbid river in central North Carolina, and Big Spring Creek - a 2nd-order, optically clear stream in central Wisconsin. We used a series of four PAR sensors to measure i) above-canopy PAR, ii) PAR above water surface, iii) PAR below water surface, and iv) PAR on stream bed. These measurements were used to develop empirical light attenuation coefficients, which were then used in combination with optical water quality measurements, shading analyses, channel surveys, and flow records to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in riverine light availability. Finally, we apply BLAM to the Baraboo River - a 6th-order, 120-mile, unimpounded river in central Wisconsin - in order to characterize light availability along the river continuum (from headwaters to mouth).

  5. Proposed reporting model update creates dialogue between FASB and not-for-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosrie, Norman C

    2016-04-01

    Seeing a need to refresh the current guidelines, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) proposed an update to the financial accounting and reporting model for not-for-profit entities. In a response to solicited feedback, the board is now revisiting its proposed update and has set forth a plan to finalize its new guidelines. The FASB continues to solicit and respond to feedback as the process progresses.

  6. The Motivational Knowledge Management Model: proposal to apply it in the library sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López-Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In professional environments, attention paid to aspects such as supervisory styles, interpersonal relationships and workers eagerness can have a positive impact on employee motivation and, consequently, on their performance and well-being. To achieve this, knowledge management models such as those presented here can be applied. This model generates diagnoses of motivation and recommendations for improvement, both systematically and scientifically. Consequently, it is especially useful for managers and human resource departments. The proposed model can be adapted to different kinds of professional groups, including those in library and documentation services. The suitability, reliability and usefulness of the proposed model have been empirically checked through case studies with 92 students and 166 professionals. The positive results allow us to conclude that the model is effective and useful for assessing and improving motivation.

  7. Proposed SPAR Modeling Method for Quantifying Time Dependent Station Blackout Cut Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Schroeder

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (USNRC’s) Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models and industry risk models take similar approaches to analyzing the risk associated with loss of offsite power and station blackout (LOOP/SBO) events at nuclear reactor plants. In both SPAR models and industry models, core damage risk resulting from a LOOP/SBO event is analyzed using a combination of event trees and fault trees that produce cut sets that are, in turn, quantified to obtain a numerical estimate of the resulting core damage risk. A proposed SPAR method for quantifying the time-dependent cut sets is sometimes referred to as a convolution method. The SPAR method reflects assumptions about the timing of emergency diesel failures, the timing of subsequent attempts at emergency diesel repair, and the timing of core damage that may be different than those often used in industry models. This paper describes the proposed SPAR method.

  8. Proposing a two-level stochastic model for epileptic seizure genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegh, F; Sadri, S; Amirfattahi, R; Ansari-Asl, K

    2014-02-01

    By assuming the brain as a multi-stable system, different scenarios have been introduced for transition from normal to epileptic state. But, the path through which this transition occurs is under debate. In this paper a stochastic model for seizure genesis is presented that is consistent with all scenarios: a two-level spontaneous seizure generation model is proposed in which, in its first level the behavior of physiological parameters is modeled with a stochastic process. The focus is on some physiological parameters that are essential in simulating different activities of ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG), i.e., excitatory and inhibitory synaptic gains of neuronal populations. There are many depth-EEG models in which excitatory and inhibitory synaptic gains are the adjustable parameters. Using one of these models at the second level, our proposed seizure generator is complete. The suggested stochastic model of first level is a hidden Markov process whose transition matrices are obtained through analyzing the real parameter sequences of a seizure onset area. These real parameter sequences are estimated from real depth-EEG signals via applying a parameter identification algorithm. In this paper both short-term and long-term validations of the proposed model are done. The long-term synthetic depth-EEG signals simulated by this model can be taken as a suitable tool for comparing different seizure prediction algorithms.

  9. A PROPOSAL OF A PROCESS MODEL FOR POSTAL ELECTRONIC SERVICE IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bystrík Nemček

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to one of the main business processes–implementation of the postal electronic service. Theoretical point of view is focused on Business Process Management (BPM describing it as a field in systems engineering that focuses on activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed or improved. The main aim of the practical point of view was to design a model of postal electronic service implementation. A proposal of model is designed in Business Process Model Notation (BPMN, which is a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a business process model

  10. Applying the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Model to Explore Reviewer Ratings of Conference Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kelly D; Peabody, Michael R; Mensah, Richard K

    For academic conferences, when proposals are submit they are often judged using a rating scale on identified criterion by reviewers who have a shared interest and expertise in the area under consideration. Given the multiple and varied reviewers, an analysis of psychometric properties like rater severity and consistency are important. However, many of the problems that plague the conference proposal selection process are the same issues that plague survey research: rater bias/severity, misuse of rating scale, and the use of raw scores as measures. We propose the use of the many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM) to combat these shortcomings and improve the quality of the conference proposal selection process. A set of American Educational Research Association (AERA) Special Interest Group (SIG) proposals is used as an example. The results identify proposals that were accepted based on calculating the mean of summed raw scores, but when MFRM is applied to adjust for judge severity the rank order of the proposals is substantially altered.

  11. Evaluation of a proposed optimization method for discrete-event simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira de Pinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods combined with computer-based simulation have been utilized in a wide range of manufacturing applications. However, in terms of current technology, these methods exhibit low performance levels which are only able to manipulate a single decision variable at a time. Thus, the objective of this article is to evaluate a proposed optimization method for discrete-event simulation models based on genetic algorithms which exhibits more efficiency in relation to computational time when compared to software packages on the market. It should be emphasized that the variable's response quality will not be altered; that is, the proposed method will maintain the solutions' effectiveness. Thus, the study draws a comparison between the proposed method and that of a simulation instrument already available on the market and has been examined in academic literature. Conclusions are presented, confirming the proposed optimization method's efficiency.

  12. Proposal of a Model for effective Management and Development of virtual Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Skyrik

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present a pilot proposal of a model of “Virtual Development Management System” (ViDeMaS which will facilitate more effective management and development of virtual teams. Management and development of virtual teams is not a simple concept. It comprises a body of knowledge from a number of fields and scientific disciplines. The complexity of the concept may not be simplified as it is absolutely essential for full understanding of its nature. In order to gain better orientation in the concept, different perspectives will be used in the description of the model, which will enable us to achieve the goal of the work and to present the main results of the work (creation of a model for Virtual Development Management System. The present paper thus describes from different perspectives the proposal of a sufficiently detailed and complex model that may be utilized both on theoretical and application level.

  13. A Fractional-Flow Based Compressible Multiphase Flow Model with Newly Proposed Constitutive Retentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.

  14. DEVELOPING AND PROPOSING A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE FLOW EXPERIENCE DURING ONLINE INFORMATION SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazoc Alina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Information search is an essential part of the consumer`s decision making process. The online medium offers new opportunities and challenges for information search activities (in and outside the marketing context. We are interested in the way human information experiences and behaviors are affected by this. Very often online games and social web activities are perceived as challenging, engaging and enjoyable, while online information search is far below this evaluation. Our research proposal implies that using the online medium for information search may provoke enjoyable experiences through the flow state, which may in turn positively influence an individual`s exploratory information behavior and encourage his/her pro-active market behavior. The present study sets out to improve the understanding of the online medium`s impact on human`s exploratory behavior. We hypothesize that the inclusion of the online flow experience in our research model will better explain exploratory information search behaviors. A 11-component conceptual framework is proposed to explain the manifestations of flow, its personal and technological determinants and its behavioral consequence in the context of online information search. Our research has the primary purpose to present an integrated online flow model. Its secondary objective is to stimulate extended research in the area of informational behaviors in the digital age. The paper is organized in three sections. In the first section we briefly report the analysis results of the most relevant online flow theory literature and, drawing on it, we are trying to identify variables and relationships among these. In the second part we propose a research model and use prior flow models to specify a range of testable hypothesis. Drawing on the conceptual model developed, the last section of our study presents the final conclusions and proposes further steps in evaluating the model`s validity. Future research directions

  15. Consumer’s trust in Internet shopping: a modelling proposal based on the standard learning hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    MARIO PÉREZ RONCHEL; Francisco J. Martínez López; MANUEL ORTIGUEIRA SÁNCHEZ

    2006-01-01

    This paper is placed on the framework of studies focused on analyzing the consumers’ buying behaviour on the Internet. We have based on adapting the hierarchy-of-effects model (standard learning hierarchy), in order to theoretically propose a conceptual model explaining how consumers’ beliefs —i.e. design, interaction speed, social benefits, and privacy— and attitudes toward the Internet as a communication medium can be plausible determinants of trusting in Internet shopping. Furthermore, our...

  16. The New Digital Media Value Network: Proposing an Interactive Model of Digital Media Value Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Chan-Olmsted

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study models the dynamic nature of today’s media markets using the framework of value-adding activities in the provision and consumption of media products. The proposed user-centric approach introduces the notion that the actions of external users, social media, and interfaces affect the internal value activities of media firms via a feedback loop, and therefore should themselves be considered value activities. The model also suggests a more comprehensive list of indicators for value assessment.

  17. Dopamine Surface Modification of Trititanate Nanotubes: Proposed In-Situ Structure Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruochen; Fu, Xuejian; Wang, Congyi; Dawson, Graham

    2016-04-18

    Two models for self-assembled dopamine on the surface of trititanate nanotubes are proposed: individual monomer units linked by π-π stacking of the aromatic regions and mono-attached units interacting through hydrogen bonds. This was investigated with solid state NMR spectroscopy studies and powder X-ray diffraction.

  18. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  19. Glycemic management in ESRD and earlier stages of CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark E; Garg, Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    The management of hyperglycemia in patients with kidney failure is complex, and the goals and methods regarding glycemic control in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not clearly defined. Although aggressive glycemic control seems to be advantageous in early diabetic nephropathy, outcome data supporting tight glycemic control in patients with advanced CKD (including end-stage renal disease [ESRD]) are lacking. Challenges in the management of such patients include therapeutic inertia, monitoring difficulties, and the complexity of available treatments. In this article, we review the alterations in glucose homeostasis that occur in kidney failure, current views on the value of glycemic control and issues with its determination, and more recent approaches to monitor or measure glycemic control. Hypoglycemia and treatment options for patients with diabetes and ESRD or earlier stages of CKD also are addressed, discussing the insulin and noninsulin agents that currently are available, along with their indications and contraindications. The article provides information to help clinicians in decision making in order to provide individualized glycemic goals and appropriate therapy for patients with ESRD or earlier stages of CKD.

  20. Comparison of two analytical models of blanking and proposal of a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingenberg, W; Singh, UP

    With the development of accurate Finite Element models of the punching/blanking process by the present authors and other researchers, important possibilities emerged to model and analyse the process in a research environment. However, Finite Element models are less well suited for use in a

  1. Comparison of two analytical models of blanking and proposal of a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingenberg, W; Singh, UP

    2005-01-01

    With the development of accurate Finite Element models of the punching/blanking process by the present authors and other researchers, important possibilities emerged to model and analyse the process in a research environment. However, Finite Element models are less well suited for use in a productio

  2. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  3. PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: assessing the newly proposed Dysphoric Arousal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Elklit, Ask

    2013-03-30

    The underlying latent structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is widely researched. However, despite a plethora of factor analytic studies, no single model has consistently been shown as superior to alternative models. The two most often supported models are the Emotional Numbing and the Dysphoria models. However, a recently proposed five-factor Dysphoric Arousal model has been gathering support over and above existing models. Data for the current study were gathered from Malaysian Tsunami survivors (N=250). Three competing models (Emotional Numbing/Dysphoria/Dysphoric Arousal) were specified and estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The Dysphoria model provided superior fit to the data compared to the Emotional Numbing model. However, using chi-square difference tests, the Dysphoric Arousal model showed a superior fit compared to both the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the Dysphoric Arousal model better represents PTSD's latent structure and that items measuring sleeping difficulties, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties form a separate, unique PTSD factor. These results are discussed in relation to the role of Hyperarousal in PTSD's on-going symptom maintenance and in relation to the DSM-5.

  4. Consumer’s trust in Internet shopping: a modelling proposal based on the standard learning hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO PÉREZ RONCHEL

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed on the framework of studies focused on analyzing the consumers’ buying behaviour on the Internet. We have based on adapting the hierarchy-of-effects model (standard learning hierarchy, in order to theoretically propose a conceptual model explaining how consumers’ beliefs —i.e. design, interaction speed, social benefits, and privacy— and attitudes toward the Internet as a communication medium can be plausible determinants of trusting in Internet shopping. Furthermore, our model poses that consumers’ overall opinions regarding with in-home shopping might also exert an influence on their evaluations about the Internet as a communication medium and, specially, as a shopping medium. The proposed conceptual model is supported by a deep and specific literature review. The relationships contained in the model have been estimated by means of structural equation modelling. Results confirm that this approach based on the cognitive information processing is valid to model consumers’ shopping behaviour on the Internet.Finally, several academic reflections, as well as a set of managerial implications based on the questions analyzed, are put forward..

  5. Proposal for initial collection efficiency models for direct granular upflow filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Botari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the filtration process are based on the mass balance in the filter bed. Models of the filtration phenomenon describe the mass balance in bed filtration in terms of particle removal mechanisms, and allow for the determination of global particle removal efficiencies. This phenomenon is defined in terms of the geometry and the characteristic elements of granule collectors, particles and fluid, and the composition of the balance of forces that act in the particle collector system. This type of resolution is well known as the trajectory analysis theory. Particle trajectory analysis by mathematical correlation of the dimensionless numbers that represent fluid and particle characteristics is considered the main approach for mathematically modeling the initial collection efficiency of particle removal in water filtration. The existing initial collection efficiency models are designed for downflow filtration. This study analyzes initial collection efficiency models, and proposes an adaptation of these models to direct upflow filtration in a granular bed of coarse sand and gravel, taking into account the contribution of the gravitational factor of the settling removal efficiency in the proposal of initial collection efficiency models.

  6. A proposed Fast algorithm to construct the system matrices for a reduced-order groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2017-04-01

    Past research has demonstrated that a reduced-order model (ROM) can be two-to-three orders of magnitude smaller than the original model and run considerably faster with acceptable error. A standard method to construct the system matrices for a ROM is Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), which projects the system matrices from the full model space onto a subspace whose range spans the full model space but has a much smaller dimension than the full model space. This projection can be prohibitively expensive to compute if it must be done repeatedly, as with a Monte Carlo simulation. We propose a Fast Algorithm to reduce the computational burden of constructing the system matrices for a parameterized, reduced-order groundwater model (i.e. one whose parameters are represented by zones or interpolation functions). The proposed algorithm decomposes the expensive system matrix projection into a set of simple scalar-matrix multiplications. This allows the algorithm to efficiently construct the system matrices of a POD reduced-order model at a significantly reduced computational cost compared with the standard projection-based method. The developed algorithm is applied to three test cases for demonstration purposes. The first test case is a small, two-dimensional, zoned-parameter, finite-difference model; the second test case is a small, two-dimensional, interpolated-parameter, finite-difference model; and the third test case is a realistically-scaled, two-dimensional, zoned-parameter, finite-element model. In each case, the algorithm is able to accurately and efficiently construct the system matrices of the reduced-order model.

  7. Marketing information systems in units of business information: a proposed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It proposes a theoretical model of marketing information system, which provides qualitiy attributes informations, such as: accuracy, economy, flexibility, reliability, relevance, simplicity and verifiability to the decision-makers of business organizations, based on the systemic vision and marketing theories. Objective: Present a model of marketing information system for business units, identifying the requirements, skills and abilities that the market demands of the librarian and his or hers integration. Methodology: Literature review that enabled the theoretic knowledge to propose the model. Results: The proposed model consists of five stages and constituent of subsystems that were not identified in existing marketing information systems, where it is confirmed that the organization of information is necessary for the development of the organization. Conclusions: It was identified that the librarian is an active agent, a mediator of information in marketing information systems in business units, must be present at all levels of the process and provide the administrators a greater credibility in the decisions taken.

  8. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  9. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  10. Measuring the Quality of Travel Agencies E - Service Application: Proposed A Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Turan Bayram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has been handled to a two dimensional e-service quality measurements, based on e-service quality measurement models in the literatüre, according to changing consumer demands. E-service quality models has been composed from two factors and seven sub-factors belong to these two factors, in mind to be associated with perceived quality on pre-puchase and post-purchase process. The aim of this study has been identified as developing a two dimensional model for travel agencies by putting out e- service quality dimensions. With the context of study questionnaire form was experimentedto 163 people and factor analysis was made with the aim of identifying sub-dimensions and in this factors. At the result of study, a model has been proposed a model for measuring the quality of travel agencies’ e-service application

  11. THE PROPOSED MODEL OF COLLABORATIVE VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR INTRODUCTORY PROGRAMMING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfudzah OTHMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the proposed model of the collaborative virtual learning system for the introductory computer programming course which uses one of the collaborative learning techniques known as the “Think-Pair-Share”. The main objective of this study is to design a model for an online learning system that facilitates the collaborative learning activities in a virtual environment such as online communications and pair or small group discussions. In order to model the virtual learning environment, the RUP methodology has been used where it involves the data collection phase and the analysis and design phase. Fifty respondents have been randomly selected to participate in the data collection phase to investigate the students’ interest and learning styles as well as their learning preferences. The results have shown the needs for the development of online small group discussions that can be used as an alternative learning style for programming courses. The proposed design of the virtual learning system named as the Online Collaborative Learning System or OCLS is being depicted using the object-oriented models which are the use-case model and class diagram in order to show the concise processes of virtual “Think-Pair-Share” collaborative activities. The “Think-Pair-Share” collaborative learning technique that is being used in this model has been chosen because of its simplicity and relatively low-risk. This paper also presents the proposed model of the system’s architecture that will become the guidelines for the physical development of OCLS using the web-based applications.

  12. A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David J; Adler, Ashley L; Côté, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Exemplary scientific methods describe concepts and provide theories for further testing. For the field of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport, the scientific method appears to be limited to description. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model to explain RAEs in sport, which researchers can use to test the effects, as well as to generate new hypotheses and recommendations. Herein, we argue that social agents have the largest influence on RAEs. Specifically, we propose that parents influence RAEs through Matthew effects, coaches influence RAEs through Pygmalion effects and athletes influence RAEs through Galatea effects. Integrating these three theories, we propose a model that explains RAEs through these various social agents. This paper provides a theoretical foundation from which researchers can further understand, explain and eventually use to create policies aimed at limiting the negative effect of relative age in sport.

  13. The Model Proposal Which Aims to build up a Balanced Scorecard in Thermal Tourism Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇAY, İ. Cemal

    2014-01-01

    According to the Balanced Scorecard named as “corporate performance scorecard”, corporate performance, finance, customer, internal processes, learning and development must be evaluated with dimensions. Balanced Scorecard proposes that businesses are supposed to be managed with a strategic management system mainly based on measurement and evaluation. This study aims to present the model objectives, criteria and the process that guides about how to build up the corporate performance (Bala...

  14. Sustainable Agroforestry Models for Proposed Food Production in Post-Mined Land Sites of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Hermawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reclamation areas of the opencast coal mining in South Sumatera are predominantly compact and nutrient-poor, marginal sites, but have a high potential for cultivation of fast-growing trees and agricultural crops.  This paper aims to promote several models of agroforestry in the post-mined land in South Sumatera as a new strategy in reclaiming degraded soil properties for both enviroment and economic purposes.  About 5,000 ha of coal mining areas were observed to characterize the landscape and soil properties in the area, then overlaid with the landuse maps of post-mining plans issued by the company.  Results showed that about 1,730 ha of the reclamation areas was suitable for agroforestry while the rest was for utilities, camping ground, water pond and grassland.  Three models were proposed for the agroforestry areas, including (i agrisilviculture model (1,190 ha, (ii silvihorticulture model (203 ha, and (iii local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture (337 ha.  Prior to the agroforestry establishment, all reclamation sites were subjected to the revegetation with fast-growing trees and other rejuvenation treatments in order to restore favour soil and microclimate conditions.  The proposed components for each model were as follows: for agrisilviculture model were cultivation on the alley cropping system of trees and food crops, for silvihorticulture model were the plantation of fruit trees in the bench of water pond, and for local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture were the cultivation of local forest and food crop species.

  15. Enhancing Information Systems Security in Educational Organizations in KSA through proposing security model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain A.H. Awad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that technology utilization is not restricted for one sector than the other anymore, Educational organizations share many parts of their information systems with commercial organizations. In this paper we will try to identify the main characteristics of information systems in educational organizations, then we will propose a model of two parts to enhance the information systems security, the first part of the model will handle the policy and laws of the information system, the second part will provide a technical approach on how to audit and subsequently maintain the security of information system.

  16. Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy: A Proposed Theoretical Integration Model for Pastoral Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James A

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental Christianity and psychology are frequently viewed as incompatible pursuits. However, proponents of the integrationist movement posit that pastoral counselors can utilize principles from psychology if they adopt the premise that all truth is God's truth. Assuming this perspective, Cognitive-Existential Family Therapy (CEFT) - a theoretical integration model compatible with Christian fundamentalism - is proposed. The philosophical assumptions and models of personality, health, and abnormality are explored. Additionally, the article provides an overview of the therapeutic process. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. The proposal and realization on more exact modeling of COIL performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouxian; Li; Xiaojian; Shu; Yanyi; Du; Hua; Su; Yan; Li; Zhen; Yu

    2013-01-01

    The chemical oxygen–iodine laser(COIL)is the shortest-wavelength high-power chemical laser that has been demonstrated.The characteristics,such as good atmospheric propagation,short wavelength and excellent transmission through optical fibers,make the COIL a good candidate for high-power laser application.To model the complete COIL lasing interaction,a three-dimensional formulation of the fluid dynamics,species continuity and radiation transport equations is necessary.The computational effort to calculate the flow field over the entire nozzle bank with a grid fine enough to resolve the injection holes is so large as to preclude doing the calculation.The approach to modeling chemical lasers then has been to reduce the complexity of the model to correspond to the available computational capability,adding details as computing power increased.The modeling of lasing in the COIL medium is proposed,which is coupling with the effects induced by transverse injection of secondary gases,non-equilibrium chemical reactions,nozzle tail flow and boundary layer.The coupled steady solutions of the fluid dynamics and optics in a COIL complex three-dimensional cavity flow field are obtained following the proposal.The modeling results show that these effects have some influence on the lasing properties.A feasible methodology and a theoretical tool are offered to predict the beam quality for large-scale COIL devices.

  18. Energetic models: a proposal of integrated planning; Modelos energeticos: uma proposta de planejamento integrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Araujo, Mauro Almeida [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mails: amaro.pereira@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br; mauro.almeida@epe.gov.br; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Estrategico]. E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Costa, Ricardo Cunha da [Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rcco@bndes.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    Top-down, bottom-up and hybrid models for representing energy system are often used in energy planning. However, in developing countries some of their assumptions do not apply: markets are not developed and not competitive; informal economies are representative; there are huge social inequalities; regulatory changes are not completed; there exist constraints to capital flow; etc. All theses problems need to be well represented in order to have energy analysis more consistent. In this work, it is proposed a multi-sector dynamic recursive model that incorporates consumer behaviors, energy policies, technical progress and factors of production substitution. The static result feeds detailed energy models that provide updated values for the next step equilibrium. This approach takes advantages not only in terms of computation but also in terms of the consistence between economy and energy modeling. (author)

  19. Earlier speech exposure does not accelerate speech acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Marcela; Werker, Janet F; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-08-15

    Critical periods in language acquisition have been discussed primarily with reference to studies of people who are deaf or bilingual. Here, we provide evidence on the opening of sensitivity to the linguistic environment by studying the response to a change of phoneme at a native and nonnative phonetic boundary in full-term and preterm human infants using event-related potentials. Full-term infants show a decline in their discrimination of nonnative phonetic contrasts between 9 and 12 months of age. Because the womb is a high-frequency filter, many phonemes are strongly degraded in utero. Preterm infants thus benefit from earlier and richer exposure to broadcast speech. We find that preterms do not take advantage of this enriched linguistic environment: the decrease in amplitude of the mismatch response to a nonnative change of phoneme at the end of the first year of life was dependent on maturational age and not on the duration of exposure to broadcast speech. The shaping of phonological representations by the environment is thus strongly constrained by brain maturation factors.

  20. Building ambidextrous organizations through intellectual capital: a proposal for a multilevel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernández-Pérez de la Lastra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper proposes an alternative theoretical model to describe, from a multilevel perspective, the way in which ambidexterity is built across different organizational levels, through specific combinations of the facets of intellectual capital—human, social and organizational capital. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, main arguments from intellectual capital, strategic human resource management (SHRM and multilevel literature are integrated. The intellectual capital literature provides our model with the input (human capital, mechanisms (social capital and the infrastructure (organizational capital required to create ambidextrous capabilities; the multilevel perspective reveals the context in which ambidexterity is reached, and the strategic human resource management literature provides the model with the specific mechanisms (policies and practices and conditions required by ambidexterity (HRM flexibility and horizontal fit. Findings: Although the literature widely recognizes ambidexterity as a potential source of sustainable competitive advantage, the processes by which organizations complement exploration and exploitation activities still remain unclear. This study sheds some light on the analysis of these complex dynamics, explaining how ambidextrous capabilities can arise from different alternative combinations of human, social and organizational capital. Originality/value: The paper expands the extant literature in the field, describing different paths to achieving organizational ambidexterity. The configurational approach adopted adds value to the proposed model, as it helps to explaining alternative synergistic mixes of ambidextrous intellectual capital at different organizational levels.

  1. Conceptual model of iCAL4LA: Proposing the components using comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Zulaiha; Mutalib, Ariffin Abdul

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses an on-going study that initiates an initial process in determining the common components for a conceptual model of interactive computer-assisted learning that is specifically designed for low achieving children. This group of children needs a specific learning support that can be used as an alternative learning material in their learning environment. In order to develop the conceptual model, this study extracts the common components from 15 strongly justified computer assisted learning studies. A comparative analysis has been conducted to determine the most appropriate components by using a set of specific indication classification to prioritize the applicability. The results of the extraction process reveal 17 common components for consideration. Later, based on scientific justifications, 16 of them were selected as the proposed components for the model.

  2. Optimizing full scope of practice for nurse practitioners in primary care: A proposed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Boyd, Donald R; Clarke, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs), if utilized to their optimal potential, could play a key role in meeting the growing demand for primary care. The purpose of this study was to propose a comprehensive model for maximizing NP contributions to primary care which includes the factors affecting NP care and patient outcomes and explains their interrelated impact. We synthesized the results of the published literature to develop a model, which emphasizes NP scope of practice regulations, institutional policies, NP practice environment, and NP workforce outcomes as determinants of NP care and patient outcomes. Our model provides a framework to help explain how variations in scope of practice regulations at the state-level and institutional policies within organizations directly and indirectly influence the practice environment of NPs, NP workforce outcomes, and patient care and outcomes. Aligning policy change, organizational innovations, and future research are critical to NP optimal utilization and patient care and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Earnings sharing in Social Security: projected impacts of alternative proposals using the MINT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    Changes in American family and work patterns over the past decades have prompted various policy proposals for changing the structure of Social Security benefits. In this article, we use the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model to project how Social Security benefit amounts would change in response to incorporating earnings sharing into benefit calculations for the population aged 62 or older in 2030 under three hypothetical policy scenarios. The earnings sharing scenarios modeled in the article would reduce benefits for the majority of individuals, although there are important differences among married, divorced, and widowed individuals. Some groups of men and women would experience increases in Social Security benefits, while some would receive reduced benefits in comparison to current law, particularly widowed individuals. Allowing widows to inherit the earnings records of their deceased husbands would improve their outcomes.

  4. The Proposed Blended-MDA for Software Modeling in Architecture Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Sultana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Model Driven Architecture is the modeling approach that ensures the re-usability, portability and inter-operability of the software. For the structuring of the system it provides basic guidelines to be modeled. Separating the architecture from the design is one of the main aim of MDA. Functional requirements of the system are being analyzed by the detailed design of the system (for instance, use cases and for non-functional requirements, the infrastructure is provided by the architecture of the software ensuring performance, reliability, scalability etc. In this research paper, some case studies are extensively analyzed in the domain of web applications. Functional and non-functional aspects are analyzed in the comparative analysis table. Finally, the Blended-MDA Framework is proposed for the case study entitled as Online Event Manager.

  5. A Proposed Analytical Model for Integrated Pick-and-Sort Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep KIZILASLAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present an analytical approach for integration of order picking and sortation operations which are the most important, labour intensive and costly activity for warehouses. Main aim is to investigate order picking and sorting efficiencies under different design issues as a function of order wave size. Integrated analytical model is proposed to estimate the optimum order picking and order sortation efficiency. The model, which has been tested by simulations with different illustrative examples, calculates the optimum wave size that solves the trade-off between picking and sorting operations and makes the order picking and sortations efficiency maximum. Our model also allow system designer to predict the order picking and sorting capacity for different system configurations. This study presents an innovative approach for integrated warehouse operations.

  6. Organizational intellectual capital and the role of the nurse manager: A proposed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jason H; Von Ah, Diane; Broome, Marion E

    2017-04-19

    Nurse managers must leverage both the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead in order to produce quality outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between human capital and social capital and how these concepts may work together to produce organizational outcomes through leadership of nurses. The purpose of this article was to explore the concepts of human capital and social capital as they relate to nursing leadership in health care organizations. Specific aims included (a) to synthesize the literature related to human capital and social capital in leadership, (b) to refine the conceptual definitions of human capital and social capital with associated conceptual antecedents and consequences, and (c) to propose a synthesized conceptual model guiding further empirical research of social capital and human capital in nursing leadership. A systematic integrative review of leadership literature using criteria informed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005) was completed. CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, Health Business FullTEXT, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases were searched for the years 1995 to 2016 using terms "human capital," "social capital," and "management." Analysis of conceptual definitions, theoretical and conceptual models, antecedents and consequences, propositions or hypotheses, and empirical support for 37 articles fitting review criteria resulted in the synthesis of the proposed Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital. The Gilbert Conceptual Model of Organizational Intellectual Capital advances the propositions of human capital theory and social capital theory and is the first model to conceptualize the direct and moderating effects that nurse leaders have on the human capital and social capital of the teams they lead. This model provides a framework for further empirical study and may have implications for practice, organizational policy, and education related to nursing

  7. THE PROPOSED QUADRUPLE SYSTEM SZ HERCULIS: REVISED LITE MODEL AND ORBITAL STABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Chung-Uk [Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gozdziewski, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun Centre for Astronomy, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, 96822 HI (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In a recent study, Lee et al. presented new photometric follow-up timing observations of the semidetached binary system SZ Herculis and proposed the existence of two hierarchical cirumbinary companions. Based on the light-travel time effect, the two low-mass M-dwarf companions are found to orbit the binary pair on moderate to high eccentric orbits. The derived periods of these two companions are close to a 2:1 mean-motion orbital resonance. We have studied the stability of the system using the osculating orbital elements as presented by Lee et al. Results indicate an orbit-crossing architecture exhibiting short-term dynamical instabilities leading to the escape of one of the proposed companions. We have examined the system's underlying model parameter space by following a Monte Carlo approach and found an improved fit to the timing data. A study of the stability of our best-fitting orbits also indicates that the proposed system is generally unstable. If the observed anomalous timing variations of the binary period is due to additional circumbinary companions, then the resulting system should exhibit a long-term stable orbital configuration much different from the orbits suggested by Lee et al. We, therefore, suggest that based on Newtonian-dynamical considerations, the proposed quadruple system cannot exist. To uncover the true nature of the observed period variations of this system, we recommend future photometric follow-up observations that could further constrain eclipse-timing variations and/or refine light-travel time models.

  8. Multiscale modeling to evaluate proposed space-based Doppler lidar sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmitt, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A proposal has been made to place a pulsed Doppler lidar on a space platform (Huffaker, et al., 1980; Emmitt, 1982) in a low earth orbit (200 to 800 km) to measure the atmospheric winds with a spatial resolution commensurate with the current continental rawinsonde network density - i.e., 300 to 500 km resolution. In the case of the space-based doppler lidar, the full range of space scales applies. Single shot pulses with dimensions of 10 x 1000 meters are used to sample areas 100,000 x 100,000 meters to resolved mass flow structure with wavelength of 1 million meters. Simulation studies, therefore, require an equally broad range of atmospheric models. A general circulation model is appropriate to answer questions regarding the impact of a global wind measuring system upon synoptic forecasts. Since the nominal resolution of the spacebased system is expected to be a few 100's of kilometers, then a numerical model with mesoscale dynamics is required. The meaning of an average Doppler shift within a laser pulse volume must be evaluated with models of turbulent/convective scale motions and aerosol gradients. Examples of how models on all these scales have been applied in an ongoing simulation study are presented. In particular, the uncertainties in a mesoscale wind estimate are separated into those arising from pulse scale variances and those due to sample distribution within a prescribed resolution volume. Trade-offs between accuracy and representativeness are discussed in terms of the model results.

  9. Proposed Schematics and Modeling Results for a Lunar Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the CSSE PLSS to provide a basis for current and future CSSE PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. Additionally, PLSS functions are presented for multiple operational scenarios as follows: 1) Nominal Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Mode; 2) Umbilical Modes; a) No Recharge, b) With Recharge; 3) Decompression Sickness (DCS) Treatment Mode; 4) Buddy Mode; 5) Secondary O2 Modes; a) Helmet Purge; b) Suit Purge; c) Operational; and 5) PLSS Removed Umbilical Mode. A performance modeling effort is being performed to provide a preliminary confirmation of this layout and the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the PLSS is presented. The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. Modeling approaches and assumptions are discussed as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are included that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  10. Mobile Education-proposing a Mobile Learning Model for Designing an Institutional Mobile Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouiame Filali Marzouki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the theory of activity, the context model and previous researches, this paper proposes a model bringing together the key concepts of a mobile learning environment based on the concept of contextualization, major advantage of mobile learning. It details the learning mobile environment, its main components, its characteristics and the different interactions between them. The proposed model meets the constraint of mobile learning complementarity, allowing flexibility in its integration with classroom learning such as e-learning or blended learning. It mainly improves upon conventional learning methods and advocates others such as situated, interactive and connectivist learning. Indeed, research several that mobile learning enhances the educational program and reinstates it into the daily lives of learners through their own mobile technologies. Properly implemented, Mobile Learning can make learning activities as fun, as beneficial and certainly more motivating for learners and educators especially in the mobile era where traditional learning methods don’t meet all learners’ needs. Mobiles, connected and in constant social interaction, learners require learning systems more adapted to their communicative and interactive nature. This paper is an early implementation of this concept in learning systems. It aims to help educators to integrate mobile technologies into their learning activities without alternating their educational goals.

  11. Alternative models of disorders of traumatic stress based on the new ICD-11 proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hyland, P; Karatzias, T; Fyvie, C; Roberts, N; Bisson, J I; Brewin, C R; Cloitre, M

    2017-05-01

    Although there is emerging evidence for the factorial validity of the distinction between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) proposed in ICD-11, such evidence has been predominantly based on using selected items from individual scales that describe these factors. We have attempted to address this gap in the literature by testing a range of alternative models of disorders of traumatic stress using a broader range of symptoms and standardized measures. Participants in this cross-sectional study were a sample of individuals who were referred for psychological therapy to a National Health Service (NHS) trauma centre in Scotland (N = 195). Participants were recruited over a period of 18 months and completed measures of stressful life events, DSM-5 PTSD, emotion dysregulation, self-esteem and interpersonal difficulties. Overall, results indicate that a structural model incorporating six first-order factors (re-experiencing, avoidance of traumatic reminders, sense of threat, affective dysregulation, negative self-concept and disturbances in relationships) and two second-order factors (PTSD and disturbances in self-organization [DSO]) was the best fitting. The model presented with good concurrent validity. Childhood trauma was found to be more strongly associated with DSO than with PTSD. Our results are in support of the ICD-11 proposals for PTSD and CPTSD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Proposed Core Competencies and Empirical Validation Procedure in Competency Modeling: Confirmation and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyńska, Anna K; Rowiński, Tomasz; Cybis, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Competency models provide insight into key skills which are common to many positions in an organization. Moreover, there is a range of competencies that is used by many companies. Researchers have developed core competency terminology to underline their cross-organizational value. The article presents a theoretical model of core competencies consisting of two main higher-order competencies called performance and entrepreneurship. Each of them consists of three elements: the performance competency includes cooperation, organization of work and goal orientation, while entrepreneurship includes innovativeness, calculated risk-taking and pro-activeness. However, there is lack of empirical validation of competency concepts in organizations and this would seem crucial for obtaining reliable results from organizational research. We propose a two-step empirical validation procedure: (1) confirmation factor analysis, and (2) classification of employees. The sample consisted of 636 respondents (M = 44.5; SD = 15.1). Participants were administered a questionnaire developed for the study purpose. The reliability, measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.60 to 0.83 for six scales. Next, we tested the model using a confirmatory factor analysis. The two separate, single models of performance and entrepreneurial orientations fit quite well to the data, while a complex model based on the two single concepts needs further research. In the classification of employees based on the two higher order competencies we obtained four main groups of employees. Their profiles relate to those found in the literature, including so-called niche finders and top performers. Some proposal for organizations is discussed.

  13. Proposed realization of the Dicke-model quantum phase transition in an optical cavity QED system

    CERN Document Server

    Dimer, F; Estienne, B; Parkins, A S

    2006-01-01

    The Dicke model consisting of an ensemble of two-state atoms interacting with a single quantized mode of the electromagnetic field exhibits a zero-temperature phase transition at a critical value of the dipole coupling strength. We propose a scheme based on multilevel atoms and cavity-mediated Raman transitions to realise an effective Dicke system operating in the phase transition regime. Output light from the cavity carries signatures of the critical behavior which is analyzed for the thermodynamic limit where the number of atoms is very large.

  14. Maximizing Return on Investment (ROI of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP for Nonprofit Organizations: Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain A.H. Awad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ERP are the core business application for many companies; and it’s very apparent that organization spending on those systems is in a continuous rise, on the other hand this also raised the issue of how can ERP systems pay those spending; and when that investment can reach ROI point. In this study the researcher will attempt to propose a model that contains guide line phases for nonprofit organizations in order to speed up the stage in which ERP system can reach ROI, the researcher opted for universities since they are one of the main nonprofit organizations that employ ERP in their processes.

  15. Proposal for a Model of Co-Management for the Small Community Water Supplies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual evolution of Community Based Monitoring (CBM from different approaches : social capital, common pool resources and co-management or collaborative management, and presents the main co-management strategies applied to water supply at small scale: local and community driven development (LCDD and sustainable services at scale (SSS. Supported by this theoretical background, and in order to improve access to drinking water in rural communities in Colombia, the authors propose a co-management model for small and community water supplies.

  16. The Proposed Quadruple System SZ Herculis: Revised LITE Model and Orbital Stability Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hinse, T C; Lee, J W; Haghighipour, N; Lee, C -U

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Lee et al. presented new photometric follow-up timing observations of the semi-detached binary system SZ Herculis and proposed the existence of two hierarchical cirumbinary companions. Based on the light-travel time effect, the two low-mass M-dwarf companions are found to orbit the binary pair on moderate to high eccentric orbits. The derived periods of these two companions are close to a 2:1 mean-motion orbital resonance. We have studied the stability of the system using the osculating orbital elements as presented by Lee et al. Results indicate an orbit-crossing architecture exhibiting short-term dynamical instabilities leading to the escape of one of the proposed companions. We have examined the system's underlying model parameter-space by following a Monte Carlo approach and found an improved fit to the timing data. A study of the stability of our best-fitting orbits also indicates that the proposed system is generally unstable. If the observed anomalous timing variations of the binary ...

  17. From representing to modelling knowledge: Proposing a two-step training for excellence in concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana G. Aguiar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Training users in the concept mapping technique is critical for ensuring a high-quality concept map in terms of graphical structure and content accuracy. However, assessing excellence in concept mapping through structural and content features is a complex task. This paper proposes a two-step sequential training in concept mapping. The first step requires the fulfilment of low-order cognitive objectives (remember, understand and apply to facilitate novices’ development into good Cmappers by honing their knowledge representation skills. The second step requires the fulfilment of high-order cognitive objectives (analyse, evaluate and create to grow good Cmappers into excellent ones through the development of knowledge modelling skills. Based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy and cognitive load theory, this paper presents theoretical accounts to (1 identify the criteria distinguishing good and excellent concept maps, (2 inform instructional tasks for concept map elaboration and (3 propose a prototype for training users on concept mapping combining online and face-to-face activities. The proposed training application and the institutional certification are the next steps for the mature use of concept maps for educational as well as business purposes.

  18. Common-Cause Failure Treatment in Event Assessment: Basis for a Proposed New Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana Kelly; Song-Hua Shen; Gary DeMoss; Kevin Coyne; Don Marksberry

    2010-06-01

    Event assessment is an application of probabilistic risk assessment in which observed equipment failures and outages are mapped into the risk model to obtain a numerical estimate of the event’s risk significance. In this paper, we focus on retrospective assessments to estimate the risk significance of degraded conditions such as equipment failure accompanied by a deficiency in a process such as maintenance practices. In modeling such events, the basic events in the risk model that are associated with observed failures and other off-normal situations are typically configured to be failed, while those associated with observed successes and unchallenged components are assumed capable of failing, typically with their baseline probabilities. This is referred to as the failure memory approach to event assessment. The conditioning of common-cause failure probabilities for the common cause component group associated with the observed component failure is particularly important, as it is insufficient to simply leave these probabilities at their baseline values, and doing so may result in a significant underestimate of risk significance for the event. Past work in this area has focused on the mathematics of the adjustment. In this paper, we review the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, which underlies most current risk modelling, discuss the limitations of this model with respect to event assessment, and introduce a proposed new framework for common-cause failure, which uses a Bayesian network to model underlying causes of failure, and which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the Basic Parameter Model with respect to event assessment.

  19. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  20. Statistical model and error analysis of a proposed audio fingerprinting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, E. P.; Balado, F.; Silvestre, G. C. M.; Hurley, N. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of a particular audio fingerprinting method proposed by Haitsma et al.1 Due to the excellent robustness and synchronisation properties of this particular fingerprinting method, we would like to examine its performance for varying values of the parameters involved in the computation and ascertain its capabilities. For this reason, we pursue a statistical model of the fingerprint (also known as a hash, message digest or label). Initially we follow the work of a previous attempt made by Doets and Lagendijk 2-4 to obtain such a statistical model. By reformulating the representation of the fingerprint as a quadratic form, we present a model in which the parameters derived by Doets and Lagendijk may be obtained more easily. Furthermore, our model allows further insight into certain aspects of the behaviour of the fingerprinting algorithm not previously examined. Using our model, we then analyse the probability of error (P e) of the hash. We identify two particular error scenarios and obtain an expression for the probability of error in each case. We present three methods of varying accuracy to approximate P e following Gaussian noise addition to the signal of interest. We then analyse the probability of error following desynchronisation of the signal at the input of the hashing system and provide an approximation to P e for different parameters of the algorithm under varying degrees of desynchronisation.

  1. A Proposed Digital Forensics Business Model to Support Cybercrime Investigation in Indonesia

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    Yudi Prayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital forensics will always include at least human as the one who performs activities, digital evidence as the main object, and process as a reference for the activities followed. The existing framework has not provided a description of the interaction between human, interaction between human and digital evidence, as well as interaction between human and the process itself. A business model approach can be done to provide the idea regarding the interaction in question. In this case, what has been generated by the author in the previous study through a business model of the digital chain of custody becomes the first step in constructing a business model of a digital forensics. In principle, the proposed business model already accommodates major components of digital forensics (human, digital evidence, process and also considers the interactions among the components. The business model suggested has contained several basic principles as described in The Regulation of Chief of Indonesian National Police (Perkap No 10/2010. This will give support to law enforcement to deal with cybercrime cases that are more frequent and more sophisticated, and can be a reference for each institution and organization to implement digital forensics activities.

  2. A Proposed Model for Measuring Performance of the University-Industry Collaboration in Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Draghici

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present a scientific approach to the creation, testing and validation of a model for performance measurement for university-industry collaboration (UIC. The main idea of the design process is to capitalize on existing success factors, facilitators and opportunities (motivation factors, knowledge transfer channels and identified benefits and to diminish or avoid potential threats and barriers that might interfere with such collaborations. The main purpose of the applied methodology is to identify solutions and measures to overcome the disadvantages, conflicts or risk issues and to facilitate the open innovation of industrial companies and universities. The methodology adopted was differentiated by two perspectives: (1 a business model reflecting the university perspective along with an inventory of key performance indicators (KPIs; (2 a performance measurement model (including performance criteria and indicators and an associated methodology (assimilated to an audit that could help companies increase collaboration with universities in the context of open innovation. In addition, in order to operationalize the proposed model (facilitating practical implementation, an Excel tool has been created to help identifying potential sources of innovation. The main contributions of the research concern the expansion of UICs knowledge to enhance open innovation and to define an effective performance measurement model and instrument (tested and validated by a case study for companies.

  3. Proposal for the Quantum Simulation of the CP(2) Model on Optical Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Laflamme, Catherine; Dalmonte, Marcello; Gerber, Urs; Mejía-Díaz, Héctor; Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Wiese, Uwe-Jens; Zoller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The 2d CP(N-1) models share a number of features with QCD, like asymptotic freedom, a dynamically generated mass gap and topological sectors. They have been formulated and analysed successfully in the framework of the so-called D-theory, which provides a smooth access to the continuum limit. In that framework, we propose an experimental set-up for the quantum simulation of the CP(2) model. It is based on ultra-cold Alkaline-Earth Atoms (AEAs) located on the sites of an optical lattice, where the nuclear spins represent the relevant degrees of freedom. We present numerical results for the correlation length and for the real time decay of a false vacuum, to be compared with such a future experiment. The latter could also enable the exploration of theta-vacua and of the phase diagram at finite chemical potentials, since it does not suffer from any sign problem.

  4. T helper 17 cells may drive neuroprogression in major depressive disorder: Proposal of an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyepchenko, Anastasiya; Maes, Michael; Köhler, Cristiano A; Anderson, George; Quevedo, João; Alves, Gilberto S; Berk, Michael; Fernandes, Brisa S; Carvalho, André F

    2016-05-01

    The exact pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains elusive. The monoamine theory, which hypothesizes that MDD emerges as a result of dysfunctional serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways, has guided the therapy of this illness for several decades. More recently, the involvement of activated immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and of decreased levels of neurotrophic factors has provided emerging insights regarding the pathophysiology of MDD, leading to integrated theories emphasizing the complex interplay of these mechanisms that could lead to neuroprogression. In this review, we propose an integrative model suggesting that T helper 17 (Th17) cells play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of MDD through (i) microglial activation, (ii) interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, (iii) increases of autoantibody production and the propensity for autoimmunity, (iv) disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and (v) dysregulation of the gut mucosa and microbiota. The clinical and research implications of this model are discussed.

  5. Proposed Model for Integrating RAMS Method in the Design Process in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Jibouri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend in the Netherlands for outsourcing public construction activities to the private sector through the use of integrated contracts. There is also an increasing emphasis from public clients on the use of RAMS and life cycle costing (LCC in the design process of infrastructural projects to improve the performance of designed systems and optimize the project cost. RAMS is an acronym for `reliability, availability, maintainability and safety' and represents a collection of techniques to provide predictions of the performance targets of the required system. Increasingly, RAMS targets are being specified in invitation to tender or contract documents and the parties responsible for the design are required to provide evidence of its application in their design. Recent evidence from practice, complemented with a literature study, has shown that the knowledge and application of RAMS in infrastructural designs are in their infancy compared with other industrial sectors and many designers in construction do not have the necessary knowledge and experience to apply it. This paper describes a proposed model for the integration of RAMS and LCC into the design process in construction. A variation of the model for the application of RAMS in `design, build, finance and maintain' (DBFM contracts that include maintenance requirements is also proposed. The two models involve providing guidelines to simplify the application of RAMs by the designers. The model has been validated for its practicality and usefulness during a workshop by experienced designers. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0100 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Number 4, 2009 , pp. 179-192(14

  6. Proposal of a function for modelling the hourly frequency distributions of photosynthetically active radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Pescador, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Batlles, J.; López, G.; Muñoz-Vicente, D.

    2004-10-01

    Solar irradiance is a key factor in the physiological processes of living beings. To obtain simple correlations for the estimation of the performance of biological systems, which transform the solar energy by photosynthesis, and to generate synthetic data, it is necessary to know the frequency distributions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this work we carried out an analysis of the properties of hourly values of PAR data, using 9 years of data collected in southern Spain. In particularly, its dependence on the optical mass, for all type of skies including cloudy skies, is studied. Results shows that, for a given value of the optical mass, the PAR density distributions are not symmetrical and have a certain degree of bimodality. The increment in the optical mass value has two effects on the PAR distributions, the first one is a shift toward lower values of the maximum and the second one is a decrease in the range of PAR values. Finally, a model of the frequency distribution of PAR values, based on a new kind of functions related to the Boltzmann’s statistic, is proposed. The parameters of these functions depend just on the optical mass. Results show a very good agreement between the data and the model proposed.

  7. Developing a primary care research agenda through collaborative efforts - a proposed "6E" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Rosemary, Mitchell; Wahid, Khan; Goh, Lee Gan

    2014-01-01

    Primary care research is at a crossroad in South Pacific. A steering committee comprising a member of WONCA Asia Pacific Regional (APR) council and the President of Fiji College of General Practitioners garnered sponsorship from Fiji Ministry of Health, WONCA APR and pharmaceutical agencies to organize the event in October 2013. This paper describes the processes needed to set up a national primary research agenda through the collaborative efforts of local stakeholders and external facilitators using a test case in South Pacific. The setting was a 2-day primary care research workshop in Fiji. The steering committee invited a team of three external facilitators from the Asia-Pacific region to organize and operationalize the workshop. The eventual participants were 3 external facilitators, 6 local facilitators, and 29 local primary care physicians, academics, and local medical leaders from Fiji and South Pacific Islands. Pre-workshop and main workshop programs were drawn up by the external facilitators, using participants' input of research topics relating to their local clinical issues of interest. Course notes were prepared and distributed before the workshop. In the workshop, proposed research topics were shortlisted by group discussion and consensus. Study designs were proposed, scrutinized, and adopted for further research development. The facilitators reviewed the processes in setting the research agenda after the workshop and conceived the proposed 6E model. These processes can be grouped for easy reference, comprising the pre-workshop stages of "entreat", "enlist", "engage", and the workshop stages of "educe", "empower", and "encapsulate". The 6E model to establish a research agenda is conceptually logical. Its feasibility can be further tested in its application in other situation where research agenda setting is the critical step to improve the quality of primary care.

  8. A proposed-standard format to represent and distribute tomographic models and other earth spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postpischl, L.; Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Formats used to represent (and distribute) tomographic earth models differ considerably and are rarely self-consistent. In fact, each earth scientist, or research group, uses specific conventions to encode the various parameterizations used to describe, e.g., seismic wave speed or density in three dimensions, and complete information is often found in related documents or publications (if available at all) only. As a consequence, use of various tomographic models from different authors requires considerable effort, is more cumbersome than it should be and prevents widespread exchange and circulation within the community. We propose a format, based on modern web standards, able to represent different (grid-based) model parameterizations within the same simple text-based environment, easy to write, to parse, and to visualise. The aim is the creation of self-describing data-structures, both human and machine readable, that are automatically recognised by general-purpose software agents, and easily imported in the scientific programming environment. We think that the adoption of such a representation as a standard for the exchange and distribution of earth models can greatly ease their usage and enhance their circulation, both among fellow seismologists and among a broader non-specialist community. The proposed solution uses semantic web technologies, fully fitting the current trends in data accessibility. It is based on Json (JavaScript Object Notation), a plain-text, human-readable lightweight computer data interchange format, which adopts a hierarchical name-value model for representing simple data structures and associative arrays (called objects). Our implementation allows integration of large datasets with metadata (authors, affiliations, bibliographic references, units of measure etc.) into a single resource. It is equally suited to represent other geo-referenced volumetric quantities — beyond tomographic models — as well as (structured and unstructured

  9. Performance Modeling of Proposed GUISET Middleware for Mobile Healthcare Services in E-Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Olu Akingbesote

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GUISET is a proposed middleware engine currently under study in South Africa. The goal is to provide utility services for small, medium, and macroenterprises in the context of mobile e-services. Three things are important to make this engine effective and efficient: the implementation, performance, and the pricing strategy. The literature has delved richly into implementation issue of similar projects. Both the performance and the pricing strategy issues have not been fully discussed especially in the context of mobile healthcare services. Some literature has addressed the performance issue using the exogenous nonpriority and the preemptive model. However, with providers offering different services using that approach may prove to be difficult to implement. This work extends existing and widely adopted theories to non-preemptive model by using the queuing theory and the simulation model in the context of mobile healthcare services. Our evaluation is based on non-preemptive priority and nonpriority discipline. Our results reveal that the unconditional average waiting time remains the same with reduction in waiting time over the non-preemptive priority model in four out of the five classes observed. This is envisaged to be beneficial in mobile healthcare services where events are prioritized and urgent attention is needed to be given to urgent events.

  10. A mathematical modeling proposal for a Multiple Tasks Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Gonçalves dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The countless accidents and incidents occurred at dams at the last years, propelled the development of politics related with dams safety. One of the strategies is related to the plan for instrumentation and monitoring of dams. The monitoring demands from the technical team the reading of the auscultation data, in order to periodically monitor the dam. The monitoring plan of the dam can be modeled as a problem of mathematical program of the periodical capacitated arcs routing program (PCARP. The PCARP is considered as a generalization of the classic problem of routing in capacitated arcs (CARP due to two characteristics: 1 Planning period larger than a time unity, as that vehicle make several travels and; 2 frequency of associated visits to the arcs to be serviced over the planning horizon. For the dam's monitoring problem studied in this work, the frequent visits, along the time horizon, it is not associated to the arc, but to the instrument with which is intended to collect the data. Shows a new problem of Multiple tasks Periodic Capacitated Arc Routing Problem and its elaboration as an exact mathematical model. The new main characteristics presented are: multiple tasks to be performed on each edge or edges; different frequencies to accomplish each of the tasks; heterogeneous fleet; and flexibility for more than one vehicle passing through the same edge at the same day. The mathematical model was implemented and examples were generated randomly for the proposed model's validation.

  11. The earlier the better: a theory of timed actor interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilen, M.C.W.; Tripakis, S.; Wiggers, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Programming embedded and cyber-physical systems requires attention not only to functional behavior and correctness, but also to non-functional aspects and specifically timing and performance. A structured, compositional, model-based approach based on stepwise refinement and abstraction techniques ca

  12. Enamel remineralization by fluoride-releasing materials: proposal of a pH-cycling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Pedrini, Denise; Cavassan, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a pH-cycling model for verifying the dose-response relationship in fluoride-releasing materials on remineralization in vitro. Sixty bovine enamel blocks were selected for the surface microhardness test (SMH1). Artificial caries lesions were induced and surface microhardness test (SMH2) was performed. Forty-eight specimens were prepared with Z 100, Fluroshield, Vitremer and Vitremer ¼ diluted - powder/liquid, and subjected to a pH-cycling model to promote remineralization. After pH-cycling, final surface microhardness (SMH3) was assessed to calculate percent recovery of surface microhardness (%SMHR). Fluoride present in enamel (μg F/mm3) and in the pH-cycling solutions (μg F) was measured. Cross-sectional microhardness was used to calculate mineral content (∆Z). There was no significant difference between Z 100 and control groups on analysis performed on - %SMHR, ∆Z, μg F and mg F/mm3 (p>0.05). Results showed a positive correlation between %SMHR and μg F/mm3 (r=0.9770; p=0.004), %SMHR and μg F (r=0.9939; p=0.0000001), ∆ and μg F/mm3 (r=0.9853; p=0.0002), ∆ and μg F (r=0.9975; p=0.0000001) and between μg F/mm3 and μg F (r=0.9819; p=0.001). The pH-cycling model proposed was able to verify in vitro dose-response relationship of fluoride-releasing materials on remineralization.

  13. Modeling evaluation of integrated strategies to meet proposed dissolved oxygen standards for the Chicago waterway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, Charles S; Ao, Yaping; Alp, Emre

    2013-02-15

    The Chicago Waterway System (CWS) is a 113.8 km branching network of navigable waterways controlled by hydraulic structures in which the majority of flow is treated sewage effluent and there are periods of substantial combined sewer overflow. The Illinois Pollution Control Board (IPCB) designated the majority of the CWS as Secondary Contact and Indigenous Aquatic Life Use waters in the 1970s and made small alterations to these designations in 1988. Between 1988 and 2002 substantial improvements in the pollution control and water-quality management facilities were made in the Chicago area. The results of a Use Attainability Analysis led the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) to propose the division of the CWS into two new aquatic life use classes with appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) standards. To aid the IPCB in their deliberations regarding the appropriate water use classifications and DO standards for the CWS, the DUFLOW model that is capable of simulating hydraulics and water-quality processes under unsteady-flow conditions was used to evaluate integrated strategies of water-quality improvement facilities that could meet the proposed DO standards during representative wet (2001) and dry (2003) years. A total of 28 new supplementary aeration stations with a maximum DO load of 80 or 100 g/s and aerated flow transfers at three locations in the CWS would be needed to achieve the IEPA proposed DO standards 100% of the time for both years. A much simpler and less costly (≈one tenth of the cost) system of facilities would be needed to meet the IEPA proposed DO standards 90% of the time. In theory, the combinations of flow augmentation and new supplemental aeration stations can achieve 100% compliance with the IEPA proposed DO standards, however, 100% compliance will be hard to achieve in practice because of-(1) difficulties in determining when to turn on the aeration stations and (2) localized heavy loads of pollutants during storms that may yield

  14. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2017-08-28

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. This is a cohort study within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Participants included in this study were followed from 1991/1992 until 2010. Participant characteristics for the current analysis were obtained from obstetric records and from annual follow-up questionnaires. When not available, age at natural menopause was estimated by age at filling in the questionnaire minus 1 year. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios of menopause for in-utero exposed and nonexposed women. There were 695/2,852 postmenopausal women, of whom 466 had natural menopause, 117 had hormonal therapy, and 112 had surgical menopause. Age at natural menopause was 50.6 ± 3.7 years. Of all participants, 20.2% (577/2,852) were exposed to smoke in-utero. Participants who were in-utero exposed but were not smokers did not have higher hazards of menopause (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.72-1.18), whereas participants who were ever smokers (current or previous) and were in-utero exposed (adjusted HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) or were ever smokers but not exposed (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.53) did have higher hazards of earlier menopause. In-utero smoke exposure was not associated with earlier menopause, but the effect of in-utero smoke exposure was modified by the smoking habits of the participants themselves increasing the risk for smokers who were in-utero exposed.

  15. Socio-economic vulnerability to natural hazards - proposal for an indicator-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, U.; McLean, A.; Vangelsten, B. V.; Kalsnes, B.; Ciurean, R. L.; Argyroudis, S.; Winter, M.; Corominas, J.; Mavrouli, O. C.; Fotopoulou, S.; Pitilakis, K.; Baills, A.; Malet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment, with respect to natural hazards, is a complex process that must consider multiple dimensions of vulnerability, including both physical and social factors. Physical vulnerability refers to conditions of physical assets, and may be modeled by the intensity and magnitude of the hazard, the degree of physical protection provided by the natural and built environment, and the physical robustness of the exposed elements. Social vulnerability refers to the underlying factors leading to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand impacts from the natural hazards. Social vulnerability models can be used in combination with physical vulnerability models to estimate both direct losses, i.e. losses that occur during and immediately after the impact, as well as indirect losses, i.e. long-term effects of the event. Direct impact of a landslide typically includes casualties and damages to buildings and infrastructure while indirect losses may e.g. include business closures or limitations in public services. The direct losses are often assessed using physical vulnerability indicators (e.g. construction material, height of buildings), while indirect losses are mainly assessed using social indicators (e.g. economical resources, demographic conditions). Within the EC-FP7 SafeLand research project, an indicator-based method was proposed to assess relative socio-economic vulnerability to landslides. The indicators represent the underlying factors which influence a community's ability to prepare for, deal with, and recover from the damage associated with landslides. The proposed model includes indicators representing demographic, economic and social characteristics as well as indicators representing the degree of preparedness and recovery capacity. Although the model focuses primarily on the indirect losses, it could easily be extended to include more physical indicators which account for the direct losses. Each indicator is individually

  16. Proposal of a model for the analysis of a text as a communicative event Proposal of a model for the analysis of a text as a communicative event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaños Cuéllar Sergio

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    An attempt has been made to present a model for the analysis of a text as a communicative event. The presupposition underlying this task is that it is actually possible - and to some extent desirable - to construct a 'model' as a descriptive device, powerful enough to account for the text as the linguistic unit of the communicative interaction. The different components of the model (Sender, Receiver, Text, Text Levels, Competences, Socio-Psychological characterization of participants, and Context are described, as well as their functioning and interaction. Then the model is applied for the analysis of a text ('a sticky problem', and some conclusions are drawn on the model as a whole, its advantages and shortcomings.

    An attempt has been made to present a model for the analysis of a text as a communicative evento The presupposition underlying this task is that it is actually possible and to some extent desirable - to construct a 'model'as a descriptive device, powerful enough to account for the text as the linguistic unit of the communicative interaction. The different components of the model (Sender, Receiver, Text, Text Levels, Competences, Socio-Psychological characterization of participants, and Context are described, as well as their functioning and interaction. Then the model is applied for the analysis of a text ('A Sticky Problem', and some conclusions are drawn on the model as a whole, its advantages and shortcomings.

  17. A proposed centralised distribution model for the South African automotive component industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline J. Naude

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article explores the possibility of developing a distribution model, similar to the model developed and implemented by the South African pharmaceutical industry, which could be implemented by automotive component manufacturers for supply to independent retailers. Problem Investigated: The South African automotive components distribution chain is extensive with a number of players of varying sizes, from the larger spares distribution groups to a number of independent retailers. Distributing to the smaller independent retailers is costly for the automotive component manufacturers. Methodology: This study is based on a preliminary study of an explorative nature. Interviews were conducted with a senior staff member from a leading automotive component manufacturer in KwaZulu Natal and nine participants at a senior management level at five of their main customers (aftermarket retailers. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that the aftermarket component industry is mature with the role players well established. The distribution chain to the independent retailer is expensive in terms of transaction and distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer. A proposed centralised distribution model for supply to independent retailers has been developed which should reduce distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer in terms of (1 the lowest possible freight rate; (2 timely and controlled delivery; and (3 reduced congestion at the customer's receiving dock. Originality: This research is original in that it explores the possibility of implementing a centralised distribution model for independent retailers in the automotive component industry. Furthermore, there is a dearth of published research on the South African automotive component industry particularly addressing distribution issues. Conclusion: The distribution model as suggested is a practical one and should deliver added value to automotive

  18. A Proposed Model for Assessing Organisational Culture Towards Achieving Business Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Salleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traditional business performances measures are based on productivity and process criteria, which mainly focus on method of investment appraisal such as payback method, return on investment (ROI, cost-benefits analysis (CBA, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR. However, the measurement scales of business performance are not limited to those measures. One element that has strong correlation to the business performances is ‘organisational culture’. Many studies proved that one of the significant criteria for achieving desired business objectives is the right organisational culture within workplace. Basically, the measurement of organisational culture is reflecting on two distinct elements: organisational culture and business objectives. In broader perspective, an organisation is considered effective if it meets its business objectives. This paper aims to present and discuss the preliminary culture model to indicate the culture performance within organisational. The model has been developed through literature review, expert opinion and experience which is anticipated of being able to potentially measure the culture capability of organisations across industries to “successfully achieve business objectives”. The model is composed of six progressive stages of maturity that an organisation can achieve its culture performance. For each maturity stage, the model describes a set of characteristics that must be in place for the company to achieve each stage. The validity of the proposed model will be tested by a few case studies. The idea is to provide managers with a qualitative measurement tools to enable them to identify where culture improvements are required within their organisations and to indicate their readiness for achieving business objectives.

  19. Global model of zenith tropospheric delay proposed based on EOF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Langlang; Chen, Peng; Wei, Erhu; Li, Qinzheng

    2017-07-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the main error budgets in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Many empirical correction models have been developed to compensate this delay, and models which do not require meteorological parameters have received the most attention. This study established a global troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) model, called Global Empirical Orthogonal Function Troposphere (GEOFT), based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF, also known as geographically weighted PCAs) analysis method and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere data from 2012 to 2015. The results showed that ZTD variation could be well represented by the characteristics of the EOF base function Ek and associated coefficients Pk. Here, E1 mainly signifies the equatorial anomaly; E2 represents north-south asymmetry, and E3 and E4 reflects regional variation. Moreover, P1 mainly reflects annual and semiannual variation components; P2 and P3 mainly contains annual variation components, and P4 displays semiannual variation components. We validated the proposed GEOFT model using tropospheric delay data of GGOS ZTD grid data and the tropospheric product of the International GNSS Service (IGS) over the year 2016. The results showed that GEOFT model has high accuracy with bias and RMS of -0.3 and 3.9 cm, respectively, with respect to the GGOS ZTD data, and of -0.8 and 4.1 cm, respectively, with respect to the global IGS tropospheric product. The accuracy of GEOFT demonstrating that the use of the EOF analysis method to characterize ZTD variation is reasonable.

  20. MODEL REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TO PROVIDE ENERGY AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES FROM AN OFFSHORE WIND POWER PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    This document provides a model RFP for new generation. The 'base' RFP is for a single-source offshore wind RFP. Required modifications are noted should a state or utility seek multi-source bids (e.g., all renewables or all sources). The model is premised on proposals meeting threshold requirements (e.g., a MW range of generating capacity and a range in terms of years), RFP issuer preferences (e.g., likelihood of commercial operation by a date certain, price certainty, and reduction in congestion), and evaluation criteria, along with a series of plans (e.g., site, environmental effects, construction, community outreach, interconnection, etc.). The Model RFP places the most weight on project risk (45%), followed by project economics (35%), and environmental and social considerations (20%). However, if a multi-source RFP is put forward, the sponsor would need to either add per-MWh technology-specific, life-cycle climate (CO2), environmental and health impact costs to bid prices under the 'Project Economics' category or it should increase the weight given to the 'Environmental and Social Considerations' category.

  1. A proposed model for assessing service quality in small machining and industrial maintenance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvam dos Santos Netto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining and industrial maintenance services include repair (corrective maintenance of equipments, activities involving the assembly-disassembly of equipments, fault diagnosis, machining operations, forming operations, welding processes, assembly and test of equipments. This article proposes a model for assessing the quality of services provided by small machining and industrial maintenance companies, since there is a gap in the literature regarding this issue and because the importance of small service companies in socio-economic development of the country. The model is an adaptation of the SERVQUAL instrument and the criteria determining the quality of services are designed according to the service cycle of a typical small machining and industrial maintenance company. In this sense, the Moments of Truth have been considered in the preparation of two separate questionnaires. The first questionnaire contains 24 statements that reflect the expectations of customers, and the second one contains 24 statements that measure perceptions of service performance. An additional item was included in each questionnaire to assess, respectively, the overall expectation about the services and the overall company performance. Therefore, it is a model that considers the interfaces of the client/supplier relationship, the peculiarities of the machining and industrial maintenance service sector and the company size.

  2. MODEL REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TO PROVIDE ENERGY AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES FROM AN OFFSHORE WIND POWER PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    This document provides a model RFP for new generation. The 'base' RFP is for a single-source offshore wind RFP. Required modifications are noted should a state or utility seek multi-source bids (e.g., all renewables or all sources). The model is premised on proposals meeting threshold requirements (e.g., a MW range of generating capacity and a range in terms of years), RFP issuer preferences (e.g., likelihood of commercial operation by a date certain, price certainty, and reduction in congestion), and evaluation criteria, along with a series of plans (e.g., site, environmental effects, construction, community outreach, interconnection, etc.). The Model RFP places the most weight on project risk (45%), followed by project economics (35%), and environmental and social considerations (20%). However, if a multi-source RFP is put forward, the sponsor would need to either add per-MWh technology-specific, life-cycle climate (CO2), environmental and health impact costs to bid prices under the 'Project Economics' category or it should increase the weight given to the 'Environmental and Social Considerations' category.

  3. A question of balance: a proposal for new mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Crystal L; Gulden, Forrest; Herrup, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a major mental health problem with estimates of prevalence ranging from 1/500 to 1/2000. While generally recognized as developmental in origin, little to nothing is certain about its etiology. Currently, diagnosis is made on the basis of a variety of early developmental delays and/or regressions in behavior. There are no universally agreed upon changes in brain structure or cell composition. No biomarkers of any type are available to aid or confirm the clinical diagnosis. In addition, while estimates of the heritability of the condition range from 60 to 90%, as of this writing no disease gene has been unequivocally identified. The prevalence of autism is three- to four-fold higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unknown. In light of all of these ambiguities, a proposal to discuss potential animal models may seem the heart of madness. However, parsing autism into its individual genetic, behavioral, and neurobiological components has already facilitated a 'conversation' between the human disease and the neuropathology and biochemistry underlying the disorder. Building on these results, it should be possible to not just replicate one aspect of autism but to connect the developmental abnormalities underlying the ultimate behavioral phenotype. A reciprocal conversation such as this, wherein the human disease informs on how to make a better animal model and the animal model teaches of the biology causal to autism, would be highly beneficial.

  4. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawdekar, Ashwin Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children's health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing) pragmatically. PMID:24288533

  5. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Muralidhar Jawdekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children’s health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing pragmatically.

  6. Proposed Reference Model for Guiding Teachers to Perform Ward Round Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Corona Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ward round teaching is an essential professional medical activity as an organizational form of teaching in undergraduate medical education. Its great importance for shaping a professional "personality" is well recognized by the faculty; as well as its extremely complex implementation and development of the necessary skills. The problem to be solved in this paper is related to the need to help younger clinical teachers in undergraduate medical education to develop the skills to conduct ward round teaching; which would be achieved through appropriate guidance on how to perform this activity. Based on this, the teaching staff in the Department of Clinical Sciences of the Dr. Raúl Dorticós Torrado Faculty of Medical Sciences in Cienfuegos has designed a model or representation of ward round teaching to be used as a guide. The main results include the development of a model with two variants, according to the care provided to a recently admitted patient or an already known patient; and the definition of conditions, both in practical and educational areas, which should be considered for the proper implementation of the activity. The model is not a complete representation of the ward round teaching, thus the proposal is open to review and improvement; and its use is based on its adaptation to the particularities of the different disciplines and learning scenarios.

  7. Predictability and possible earlier awareness of extreme precipitation across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, David; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrological events can cause large socioeconomic damages in Europe. In winter, a large proportion of these flood episodes are associated with atmospheric rivers, a region of intense water vapour transport within the warm sector of extratropical cyclones. When preparing for such extreme events, forecasts of precipitation from numerical weather prediction models or river discharge forecasts from hydrological models are generally used. Given the strong link between water vapour transport (integrated vapour transport IVT) and heavy precipitation, it is possible that IVT could be used to warn of extreme events. Furthermore, as IVT is located in extratropical cyclones, it is hypothesized to be a more predictable variable due to its link with synoptic-scale atmospheric dynamics. In this research, we firstly provide an overview of the predictability of IVT and precipitation forecasts, and secondly introduce and evaluate the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT. The EFI is a tool that has been developed to evaluate how ensemble forecasts differ from the model climate, thus revealing the extremeness of the forecast. The ability of the IVT EFI to capture extreme precipitation across Europe during winter 2013/14, 2014/15, and 2015/16 is presented. The results show that the IVT EFI is more capable than the precipitation EFI of identifying extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase. However, the precipitation EFI is superior during the negative NAO phase and at shorter lead times. An IVT EFI example is shown for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlighting its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes.

  8. The role of tourism public-private partnerships in regional development: a conceptual model proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Franco

    Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion, and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. In this context, public-private partnerships play an important role in regional development. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical context that combines different concepts and elements to explain and understand the public-private partnership phenomenon in tourism. A conceptual model of the role of public-private partnerships will be proposed in order to contribute to successful regional development.

  9. A proposed simulation optimization model framework for emergency department problems in public hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ireen Munira; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Ahmad, Norazura; Najmuddin, Ahmad Farid

    2015-12-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is a very complex system with limited resources to support increase in demand. ED services are considered as good quality if they can meet the patient's expectation. Long waiting times and length of stay is always the main problem faced by the management. The management of ED should give greater emphasis on their capacity of resources in order to increase the quality of services, which conforms to patient satisfaction. This paper is a review of work in progress of a study being conducted in a government hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. This paper proposed a simulation optimization model framework which is used to study ED operations and problems as well as to find an optimal solution to the problems. The integration of simulation and optimization is hoped can assist management in decision making process regarding their resource capacity planning in order to improve current and future ED operations.

  10. Computational Approaches to Modeling Artificial Emotion -– An overview of the Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzislaw eKOWALCZUK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cybernetic approach to modeling artificial emotion through the use of different theories of psychology is considered in this paper, presenting a review of twelve proposed solutions: ActAffAct, FLAME, EMA, ParleE, FearNot!, FAtiMA, WASABI, Cathexis, KARO, MAMID, FCM, and xEmotion. The main motivation for this study is founded on the hypothesis that emotions can play a definite utility role of scheduling variables in the construction of intelligent autonomous systems, agents and mobile robots. In this review we also include an innovative and panoptical, comprehensive system, referred to as the Intelligent System of Decision-making (ISD, which has been employed in practical applications of various autonomous units, and which applies as its part the xEmotion, taking into consideration the personal aspects of emotions, affects (short term emotions and mood (principally, long term emotions.

  11. An integrated ethical approach to bioethical decision-making: A proposed model for ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena C. de Lange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community.‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die  beoefening  van  bioetiek  binne  ‘n  Gereformeerde  konteks.  Die  voorgestelde  model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie

  12. Simulation modeling of the impact of proposed new simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaojen; Gallon, Lorenzo; Shetty, Kirti; Chang, Yuchia; Jay, Colleen; Levitsky, Josh; Ho, Bing; Baker, Talia; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John; Abecassis, Michael; Hazen, Gordon; Skaro, Anton I

    2015-02-01

    Increasing use of kidney grafts for simultaneous liver and kidney (SLK) transplants is causing concern about the most effective utilization of scarce kidney graft resources. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the proposed United Network for Organ Sharing SLK transplant policy on outcomes for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients awaiting transplant. A Markov model was constructed to simulate a hypothetical cohort of ESLD patients over a 30-year time horizon starting from age 50. The model applies the different criteria being considered in the United Network for Organ Sharing policy and tallies outcomes, including numbers of procedures and life years after liver transplant alone (LTA) or SLK transplant. When 1-week pretransplant dialysis duration is required, the numbers of SLK transplants and LTAs would be 648 and 9,065, respectively. If the pretransplant dialysis duration is extended to 12 weeks, there would be 240 SLK transplants and 9,426 LTAs. This change results in a decrease of 6,483 life years among SLK transplant recipients and an increase of 4,971 life years among LTA recipients. However, by increasing the dialysis duration to 12 weeks from 1 week, 408 kidney grafts would be released to the kidney waitlist because of the decline in SLK transplants; this yields 796 additional life years gained among ESRD patients. Implementation of the proposed SLK transplant policy could restore access to kidney transplants for patients with ESRD albeit at the detriment of patients with ESLD and renal impairment.

  13. Automating Construction of Machine Learning Models With Clinical Big Data: Proposal Rationale and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B; Mooney, Sean D; Sheng, Xiaoming; Haug, Peter J; Nkoy, Flory L

    2017-01-01

    Background To improve health outcomes and cut health care costs, we often need to conduct prediction/classification using large clinical datasets (aka, clinical big data), for example, to identify high-risk patients for preventive interventions. Machine learning has been proposed as a key technology for doing this. Machine learning has won most data science competitions and could support many clinical activities, yet only 15% of hospitals use it for even limited purposes. Despite familiarity with data, health care researchers often lack machine learning expertise to directly use clinical big data, creating a hurdle in realizing value from their data. Health care researchers can work with data scientists with deep machine learning knowledge, but it takes time and effort for both parties to communicate effectively. Facing a shortage in the United States of data scientists and hiring competition from companies with deep pockets, health care systems have difficulty recruiting data scientists. Building and generalizing a machine learning model often requires hundreds to thousands of manual iterations by data scientists to select the following: (1) hyper-parameter values and complex algorithms that greatly affect model accuracy and (2) operators and periods for temporally aggregating clinical attributes (eg, whether a patient’s weight kept rising in the past year). This process becomes infeasible with limited budgets. Objective This study’s goal is to enable health care researchers to directly use clinical big data, make machine learning feasible with limited budgets and data scientist resources, and realize value from data. Methods This study will allow us to achieve the following: (1) finish developing the new software, Automated Machine Learning (Auto-ML), to automate model selection for machine learning with clinical big data and validate Auto-ML on seven benchmark modeling problems of clinical importance; (2) apply Auto-ML and novel methodology to two new

  14. Automating Construction of Machine Learning Models With Clinical Big Data: Proposal Rationale and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B; Mooney, Sean D; Sheng, Xiaoming; Haug, Peter J; Nkoy, Flory L

    2017-08-29

    To improve health outcomes and cut health care costs, we often need to conduct prediction/classification using large clinical datasets (aka, clinical big data), for example, to identify high-risk patients for preventive interventions. Machine learning has been proposed as a key technology for doing this. Machine learning has won most data science competitions and could support many clinical activities, yet only 15% of hospitals use it for even limited purposes. Despite familiarity with data, health care researchers often lack machine learning expertise to directly use clinical big data, creating a hurdle in realizing value from their data. Health care researchers can work with data scientists with deep machine learning knowledge, but it takes time and effort for both parties to communicate effectively. Facing a shortage in the United States of data scientists and hiring competition from companies with deep pockets, health care systems have difficulty recruiting data scientists. Building and generalizing a machine learning model often requires hundreds to thousands of manual iterations by data scientists to select the following: (1) hyper-parameter values and complex algorithms that greatly affect model accuracy and (2) operators and periods for temporally aggregating clinical attributes (eg, whether a patient's weight kept rising in the past year). This process becomes infeasible with limited budgets. This study's goal is to enable health care researchers to directly use clinical big data, make machine learning feasible with limited budgets and data scientist resources, and realize value from data. This study will allow us to achieve the following: (1) finish developing the new software, Automated Machine Learning (Auto-ML), to automate model selection for machine learning with clinical big data and validate Auto-ML on seven benchmark modeling problems of clinical importance; (2) apply Auto-ML and novel methodology to two new modeling problems crucial for care

  15. Group Offending in Mass Atrocities: Proposing a Group Violence Strategies Model for International Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elisabeth Rauxloh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most research in mass atrocities, especially genocide, is conducted at the macro level exploring how mass violence is instigated, planned and orchestrated at the level of the state. This paper on the other hand suggests that more research of the individual perpetrator is needed to complement the understanding of mass atrocities. The author develops therefore a new model, the group violence strategies model. This model combines various traditional criminological models of group offending and proposes a three stage analysis, looking at the individual aggressor, the actions within the offender group and the actions between offender group and victim group to understand better the phenomenon that ordinary people commit unspeakable crimes. La mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre atrocidades en masa, especialmente genocidio, se desarrollan a nivel macro, analizando cómo se instiga, planea y orquestra la violencia de masas a nivel de estado. Este artículo, sin embargo, sugiere que es necesaria una mayor investigación del criminal individual, para complementar la comprensión de las atrocidades en masa. Así, se desarrolla un nuevo modelo, el modelo de estrategias de violencia en grupo. Este modelo combina diversos modelos criminológicos tradicionales de violencia en grupo y propone tres etapas de análisis, mirando al agresor individual, las acciones dentro del grupo criminal y las acciones entre el grupo criminal y el grupo de víctimas, para entender mejor este fenómeno por el que personas corrientes cometen crímenes atroces. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875712

  16. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  17. Competency-Based University Undergraduate Teaching Management: Proposal for a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Schmal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The human resources societies and their organizations can count on are more and more relevant. In that sense, a major challenge faced by universities is to give students the appropriate background to be professionals with the profile the current scenario requires. This article focuses the management of university careers. Historically, many careers have emphasized knowledge, especially abstract knowledge. Today, the trend is to address aspects that reach beyond cognition, and focus the attention in effective competencies that include procedures and attitudes. Such approach allows the opportunity of defining a holistic management of careers, reaching beyond the sheer teaching of disciplines. Concurrently, the availability of information methods and tools will contribute for the definition and implementation of a design process that can work with explicit criteria and transformations. The article proposes a conceptual model to represent the objects, and their attributes and associations that are considered of interest for the management of university teaching under a competency focus. A second stage should implement such model through the construction of an information system that supports the management of corresponding careers.

  18. ACCREDITATION OF DEN TAL CARE SERVICES – A PROPOSAL FOR A LOG ICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Simonelli Gavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Accreditation Organization has published the Brazilian Manual of Accreditation forHealthcareServiceProvidersin 2010and thismanual provides the guidelines for the developmentof an accreditation process for healthcare providers; however, it does not provide standards for adental accreditation process. The aim of this study was to conceptualize the accreditation of dentalcare services and present a logical model that can anchor the development of a tool for accreditationof dental care services in Brazil. The Brazilian Manual of Accreditationsupported by thehealthcare services of the National Accreditation Organization (ONA provides guidelines for thedevelopment of the accreditation process in health care institutions; however, it does not providestandards for the dental accreditation process. The model proposed has three foci of analysis, sixdescribed sections and thirteen described subsections, all considering relevant aspects concerninghigh quality providers of dental care services.It waspossible to conceptualizethe accreditationandpresent a logicalmodel thatwas designed for the accreditation of UnitsProvidingDental CareServices (UPDCS-(UPSAO in Portuguese and ComplexesProvidingDental Care Services(CPDCS-(CPSAO in Portuguese

  19. A Proposal of Ecologic Taxes Based on Thermo-Economic Performance of Heat Engine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angulo-Brown

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Finite-Time Thermodynamics (FTT a simplified thermal power plant model (the so-called Novikov engine is analyzed under economical criteria by means of the concepts of profit function and the costs involved in the performance of the power plant. In this study, two different heat transfer laws are used, the so called Newton’s law of cooling and the Dulong-Petit’s law of cooling. Two FTT optimization criteria for the performance analysis are used: the maximum power regime (MP and the so-called ecological criterion. This last criterion leads the engine model towards a mode of performance that appreciably diminishes the engine’s wasted energy. In this work, it is shown that the energy-unit price produced under maximum power conditions is cheaper than that produced under maximum ecological (ME conditions. This was accomplished by using a typical definition of profits function stemming from economics. The MP-regime produces considerably more wasted energy toward the environment, thus the MP energy-unit price is subsidized by nature. Due to this fact, an ecological tax is proposed, which could be a certain function of the price difference between the MP and ME modes of power production.

  20. A proposal of ecologic taxes based on thermo-economic performance of heat engine models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco-Jimenez, M. A. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Escuela Superior de Computo del IPN, Av. Miguel Bernal Esq. Juan de Dios Batiz U.P. Zacatenco CP 07738, D.F. (Mexico); Ramos-Gayosso, I. [Unidad de Administracion de Riesgos, Banco de Mexico, 5 de Mayo, Centro, D.F. (Mexico); Rosales, M. A. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de las Americas, Puebla Exhacienda Sta. Catarina Martir, Cholula 72820, Puebla (Mexico); Angulo-Brown, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edif. 9 U.P. Zacatenco CP 07738, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Within the context of Finite-Time Thermodynamics (FTT) a simplified thermal power plant model (the so-called Novikov engine) is analyzed under economical criteria by means of the concepts of profit function and the costs involved in the performance of the power plant. In this study, two different heat transfer laws are used, the so called Newton's law of cooling and the Dulong-Petit's law of cooling. Two FTT optimization criteria for the performance analysis are used: the maximum power regime (MP) and the so-called ecological criterion. This last criterion leads the engine model towards a mode of performance that appreciably diminishes the engine's wasted energy. In this work, it is shown that the energy-unit price produced under maximum power conditions is cheaper than that produced under maximum ecological (ME) conditions. This was accomplished by using a typical definition of profits function stemming from economics. The MP-regime produces considerably more wasted energy toward the environment, thus the MP energy-unit price is subsidized by nature. Due to this fact, an ecological tax is proposed, which could be a certain function of the price difference between the MP and ME modes of power production. (author)

  1. A proposed monitoring and evaluation curriculum based on a model that institutionalises monitoring and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambidima Wotela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: African politicians, bureaucrats and technocrats have thrown their weight in support of monitoring and evaluation (M&E. This weight has compelled training institutions to add M&E to their offerings. Most often at the end of these training programmes, attendees know what they have learnt but seem not to internalise it and, worse, they hardly ever put their newly acquired knowledge into practice. This allegation has led to what we term ‘monitoring and evaluation training hopping’ where participants move from one training to another hoping that they will eventually fully comprehend the skill and apply it to their work. This rarely happens and as such participants often blame themselves and yet the problem is with the training institutions that are teaching the middle-third tier (how to monitor and evaluate as well as the bottom-third tier (data and information management. However, the top-third tier that links M&E to ‘the what’ and ‘the how’ as well as ‘the why’ in the development intervention and public policy landscape is missing.Objectives: To propose a M&E curriculum that institutionalises M&E within implementation and management of development interventions.Method: We use systems thinking to derive the key themes of our discussion and then apply summative thematic content analysis to interrogate M&E and related literature. Firstly, we present and describe a model that situates M&E within development and public policy. This model ‘idealises or realises’ an institutionalised M&E by systematically linking the contextual as well as key terms prominent in established descriptions of M&E. Secondly, we briefly describe M&E from a systems thinking approach by pointing out its components, processes, established facts, as well as issues and debates. Lastly, we use this model and the systems thinking description of M&E to propose an institutionalised M&E curriculum.Results: Our results show that for an explicit

  2. A Proposed Model for Assessing Defendant Competence to Self-Represent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mitzi M S; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing number of criminal defendants who are choosing to self-represent poses special challenges for legal systems with regard to the types of limits that should be placed on a defendant's basic human right to defend himself without the assistance of counsel. While courts strive to respect the dignity and autonomy of the defendant that are encompassed in this right, they also want to ensure that justice is delivered and the dignity of the courtroom is maintained. The Supreme Court of the United States, in its opinion in Indiana v. Edwards (2008), held that while the right to self-represent recognized in Faretta v. California (1975) remains, states and trial judges can place limits on a defendant's right to self-representation when a defendant lacks the mental capacities needed to prepare and conduct an adequate defense. Following the court's lead, we first examine the types and range of tasks that a defendant who chooses to self-represent must perform. Based on this analysis, we propose a five-part model that forensic practitioners can use as a conceptual framework for assessing whether a defendant has deficits that would affect his competence to perform critical self-representation tasks. The five areas that the model recommends practitioners assess are whether a defendant can engage in goal-directed behaviors, has sufficient communication skills, can engage in constructive social intercourse, can control his emotions in an adversarial arena, and has the cognitive abilities needed to argue his case adequately. It is recommended that practitioners use the model in their testimony to provide the trier of fact with a comprehensive report of the areas in which a defendant has deficits that will prevent him from protecting his interests in receiving a fair and equitable trial. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. Proposed best modeling practices for assessing the effects of ecosystem restoration on fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A; Sable, Shaye; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon; Trexler, Joel C.; Graf, William L.; Reed, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration is increasing and is often controversial because of the economic costs involved, with the focus of the controversies gravitating to the modeling of fish responses. We present a scheme for best practices in selecting, implementing, interpreting, and reporting of fish modeling designed to assess the effects of restoration actions on fish populations and aquatic food webs. Previous best practice schemes that tended to be more general are summarized, and they form the foundation for our scheme that is specifically tailored for fish and restoration. We then present a 31-step scheme, with supporting text and narrative for each step, which goes from understanding how the results will be used through post-auditing to ensure the approach is used effectively in subsequent applications. We also describe 13 concepts that need to be considered in parallel to these best practice steps. Examples of these concepts include: life cycles and strategies; variability and uncertainty; nonequilibrium theory; biological, temporal, and spatial scaling; explicit versus implicit representation of processes; and model validation. These concepts are often not considered or not explicitly stated and casual treatment of them leads to mis-communication and mis-understandings, which in turn, often underlie the resulting controversies. We illustrate a subset of these steps, and their associated concepts, using the three case studies of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, the wetlands of coastal Louisiana, and the Everglades. Use of our proposed scheme will require investment of additional time and effort (and dollars) to be done effectively. We argue that such an investment is well worth it and will more than pay back in the long run in effective and efficient restoration actions and likely avoided controversies and legal proceedings.

  4. Incorporating the user perspective into a proposed model for assessing success of SHS implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Holtorf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern energy can contribute to development in multiple ways while approximately 20% of world's populations do not yet have access to electricity. Solar Home Systems (SHSs consists of a PV module, a charge controller and a battery supply in the range of 100 Wh/d in Sunbelt countries. The question addressed in this paper is how SHS users approach success of their systems and how these user's views can be integrated in to an existing model of success. Information was obtained on the user's approach to their SHSs by participatory observation, interviews with users and by self-observation undertaken by the lead author while residing under SHS electricity supply conditions. It was found that success of SHSs from the users' point of view is related to the ability of these systems to reduce the burdens of supplying energy services to homesteads. SHSs can alleviate some energy supply burdens, and they can improve living conditions by enabling communication on multiple levels and by addressing convenience and safety concerns. However, SHSs do not contribute to the energy services which are indispensable for survival, nor to the thermal energy services required and desired in dwellings of Sunbelt countries. The elements of three of the four components of our previously proposed model of success have been verified and found to be appropriate, namely the user's self-set goals, their importance and SHSs' success factors. The locally appropriate, and scientifically satisfactory, measurement of the level of achievement of self-set goals, the fourth component of our model of success, remains an interesting area for future research.

  5. Creep stability of the proposed AIDA mission target 65803 Didymos: I. Discrete cohesionless granular physics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Richardson, Derek C.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Maurel, Clara; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Li, Junfeng

    2017-09-01

    As the target of the proposed Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos represents a special class of binary asteroids, those whose primaries are at risk of rotational disruption. To gain a better understanding of these binary systems and to support the AIDA mission, this paper investigates the creep stability of the Didymos primary by representing it as a cohesionless self-gravitating granular aggregate subject to rotational acceleration. To achieve this goal, a soft-sphere discrete element model (SSDEM) capable of simulating granular systems in quasi-static states is implemented and a quasi-static spin-up procedure is carried out. We devise three critical spin limits for the simulated aggregates to indicate their critical states triggered by reshaping and surface shedding, internal structural deformation, and shear failure, respectively. The failure condition and mode, and shear strength of an aggregate can all be inferred from the three critical spin limits. The effects of arrangement and size distribution of constituent particles, bulk density, spin-up path, and interparticle friction are numerically explored. The results show that the shear strength of a spinning self-gravitating aggregate depends strongly on both its internal configuration and material parameters, while its failure mode and mechanism are mainly affected by its internal configuration. Additionally, this study provides some constraints on the possible physical properties of the Didymos primary based on observational data and proposes a plausible formation mechanism for this binary system. With a bulk density consistent with observational uncertainty and close to the maximum density allowed for the asteroid, the Didymos primary in certain configurations can remain geo-statically stable without requiring cohesion.

  6. A System Thinking Model Proposal for Enterprise Application Integration (EAI Evaluation Completeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Nakiyimba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has identified a number of approaches for evaluating Enterprise Application Integration (EAI. The majority of these approaches focus primarily on the technical functional and non-functional capabil¬ities of an EAI solution. Although, where the technical dimensions have received considerable attention from researchers, other dimensions needed for EAI evaluation, such as stakeholder feedback, have not re¬ceived explicit consideration. As a result, attaining a consummate EAI solution is still a major challenge for many enterprises. The current EAI evaluation models simply provide piecemeal insights towards the evaluation criteria variables from limited stakeholder perceptions and do not help to understand EAI evaluation as a dynamic, feedback, time based and non-linear problem. Different stakeholders view the outcome of an EAI project from different perspectives and therefore will more likely than not arrive at different conclusions. To achieve a consensus among stakeholder perceptions, we represent EAI evaluation as a feedback analysis problem from multi-stakeholder perceptions for proper alignment with business goals, vision and mission. This paper proposes the application of System Dynamics (SD model towards guiding policy analysis for evaluating criteria factors from multi-stakeholders perceptions for EAI adoption; this will provide for holistic evaluation where emphasis is the importance of evaluation as whole (not piece meal perceptions and the interdependence of evaluation criteria factors from the diverse stakeholder perceptions is analyzed. In this paper we present a case-study performed at a large portion of the East African banking system. A total of 800 responses to questionnaires are analyzed to formulate a systems thinking model, which in turn allows us to analyze feedback loops between different stakeholders with distinct evaluation criteria. Findings result in a structured and holistic systems thinking model which

  7. Renewal and Completion Problems in Geographical Databases in Turkey and a Proposal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Erdi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Defence, security, public works, and many other branches of government require small-scale, current geographical databases. With this aim, small-scale geographical databases in Turkey were produced in the past and are still in use today. There are, however, problems in using the available geographical databases. These problems in forming, sharing, updating, and meeting requirements necessitate the reconfiguration of the present system. Classical approaches are preferred when updating the present geographical databases. Many errors and difficulties in recording new objects have occurred in the field, in scanning and collecting data from related institutions, and in recording and controlling nonstandard completion data. Thus it is difficult to achieve the desired high quality data with the present method. In this study, we introduce and discuss updating and completing small-scale maps of geographical bases. The Geographical Information System formation studies in Turkey are summarized, and a model is proposed for the formation, updating, and completion of systems of small-scale maps of significant databases.

  8. Early maternal deprivation in rats: a proposed animal model for the study of developmental neuroimmunoendocrine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, M; Llorente, R; Baeza, I; De Castro, N M; Arranz, L; Cruces, J; Viveros, M P

    2009-02-01

    Adult animals that had been subjected to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation (MD) [24 h, postnatal day (PND) 9-10] show long-term behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. Moreover, at adolescence MD rats showed depressive-like behavior and altered motor responses. According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, certain behavioral abnormalities observed in MD animals may be related to altered neurodevelopmental processes triggered by MD-induced elevated glucocorticoids in relevant specific brain regions. We review here these neuroendocrine effects and show new data indicating that the MD procedure induces diverse detrimental effects on the immune system that are already revealed in the short term (PND 13) and persist into adulthood. These long-lasting effects might be related to altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and to social as well as nutrition-related factors. In fact, MD induces long-lasting decreases in body weight. In view of our findings we propose the present MD procedure as a potentially useful model to analyze developmental interactions between early psychophysiological stress and immunodeficient states.

  9. A qualitative model for strategic analysis of organizations. Application and alternative proposal on a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ferro Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategic analysis of organizations is based on the internal and external environments, in order to identify positive and negative variables and factors. The interrelation and timing of these strategic forces are essential to create alternative solutions that tend to achieve the organizational objectives.The normative prospective has theorical and methodological foundations to create a desired future and from it, be able to identify impelling and restraining forces that have influence on the particular problematic situation (go from the current situation to a better one in a certain time.The aim of this article is to analyze on a strategic way a real case with a normative-prospective model that considers the temporal dynamics of the factors impact and variables in time allowing to suggest alternative solutions.Semi-structured interviews were performed with all the employees of this case and structured observations and workshops with the commercial and general management.In consequence, with the results, the desired, current and improved situations were built. Additionally, forces were identified classified and appreciated and lastly solutions were suggested. With the proposed prospective method, alternative solutions could be constructed in order to settle temporary organizational objectives. No constraints were found to use the current method in other cases.Keywords: Strategic forces, Normative prospective, Problematic situations, Strategies

  10. The Brazilian Unified National Health System: Proposal of a Cost-effectiveness Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Unified National Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] is in a prominent position compared to the existing social policies. One of the new tools used by SUS is known as Performance Index of the Unified Health System (Índice de Desempenho do Sistema Único de Saúde [IDSUS], which is intended to measure the performance of each municipality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a model of cost-effectiveness to compare IDSUS performance against total revenues achieved in Homogeneous Group 2, consisting of 94 municipalities and analysed using data from IDSUS and the System Information of the Public Budget for Health Care (Sistema de Informação do Orçamento Público em Saúde [SIOPS] for the year 2011. After structuring this data, we carried out descriptive statistical and cluster analysis in order to group similar municipalities in accordance with established variables: IDSUS performance, population and total revenue in health per capita. Even with the division of municipalities into homogeneous groups and after using variables such as population and revenue to regroup them, the results showed there are municipalities with heterogeneous characteristics. Another finding is in the use and intersection of two distinct databases (IDSUS and SIOPS, which allowed for visualizing the impact of health care revenue on the municipalities performance.

  11. [Proposed difficult airway teaching methodology. Presentation of an interactive fresh frozen cadaver model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá Bauset, J C; de Andres Ibañez, J A; Valverde Navarro, A; Martinez Soriano, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a methodology based on the use of fresh-frozen cadavers for training in the management of the airway, and to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among learning physicians. About 6 fresh-frozen cadavers and 14 workstations were prepared where participants were trained in the different skills needed for airway management. The details of preparation of the cadavers are described. The level of satisfaction of the participant was determined using a Likert rating scale of 5 points, at each of the 14 stations, as well as the overall assessment and clinical usefulness of the course. The mean overall evaluation of the course and its usefulness was 4.75 and 4.9, out of 5, respectively. All parts of the course were rated above 4 out of 5. The high level of satisfaction of the course remained homogeneous in the 2 editions analysed. The overall satisfaction of the course was not finally and uniquely determined by any of its particular parts. The fresh cadaver model for training physicians in techniques of airway management is a proposal satisfactory to the participant, and with a realism that approaches the live patient. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of patient weight and sex on nurses' perceptions: a proposed model of nurse withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternelj-Taylor, C A

    1989-09-01

    This investigation challenged the premise that nurses adhere to affective neutrality in their practice of nursing, and examined the effect of patient weight and sex on evaluations, attributions and care delivery decisions formed by nurses. The phenomenon of mutual withdrawal originally identified by Tudor in psychiatric nursing was adapted to the general nursing milieu and served as the conceptual framework. Emphasis in this study was given to the phenomenon of nurse withdrawal. A volunteer sample of 100 senior female baccalaureate students was randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 X 2 factorial design with the following factors: (a) weight of the stimulus patient (normal versus obese); and (b) sex of the stimulus patient (male versus female). These independent variables were presented through descriptive vignettes and visual stimuli to participants completing a self-administered questionnaire. Dependent variables included evaluation, attribution and care delivery. Analysis of the questionnaire demonstrated that obese patients were evaluated more negatively than normal weight patients, F = 2.82, P less than 0.05, but were not held more responsible for an alleged transgression, nor did nurses indicate withdrawal. The phenomenon of social attractiveness was identified as an intervening variable lending support to the proposed model of nurse withdrawal. This finding is examined within the context of affective neutrality in the nurse-patient relationship. Implications for nursing practice, theory and research are discussed.

  13. A Proposed mHealth Model for Improving the Quality Care in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Abu-Dalbouh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As the hospitals face increasing demands to participate in a wide range of quality improvement activities, the role and influence of physicians and nurses in these efforts is also increasing. The growing population has led to increase the number of patients in hospital. Therefore, healthcare workers have to see more patients and do more with each patient than ever before. Thus, Hospitals confront challenges with regard tracking patient condition, share information about the patient and difficulty follow up all patients with the lack of the number of specialist physician at all levels. This marks mobile devices an important opportunity for the next generation healthcare delivery. This study proposed a mobile health model that could support hospitals in tracking patient’s progress and improve the quality care in hospitals. It allows physicians and nurses to track the patients’ conditions more efficiently and easily. It also able to assist in crucial clinical decisions 24/7 and available on call wherever physicians to manage their care process from start to finish and from inside and outside the hospital.

  14. Proposed Hydrodynamic Model Improves Resolution of Species-Specific Responses to Drought and Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.; Fiorella, R.; Mirfenderesgi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Plant functional types in land surface models (LSMs) are broadly defined, and often represent species with different physiologies within the same category. For example, trees of opposing hydraulic strategies and traits are commonly grouped together, as is the case of red oak and red maple. As a result, LSMs generate typical patterns of errors in predictions of transpiration and production. We studied sap flux, stem water storage, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, rooting depth, and bole growth of these species at disturbed and undisturbed field sites in Michigan. Species-specific differences significantly impact temporal patterns of stomatal conductance and overall transpiration responses to both drought and disturbance. During drought, maples relied heavily on stem-stored water, while oaks did not. After disturbance, oaks increased stomatal conductance while maple conductance declined. Isotopic analysis of xylem water revealed that oak roots can access a deep groundwater source, which maple roots cannot. This deep rooting strategy permits transpiration and growth to continue in oaks during periods of water limitation, even when maples cease transpiration. Using 16 years of bole growth data, we show that maple growth is strongly correlated with mean annual precipitation, yet oak growth is not. We propose a framework to incorporate these species-specific differences into LSMs using the Finite-Element Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) that resolves the fast dynamics and diurnal hysteresis of stomatal conductance at the tree level. FETCH2 uses atmospheric and biological forcings from the LSM, simulates water movement through trees as flow through a system of porous media conduits, and calculates realistic hydraulic restrictions to stomatal conductance. This model replaces the current, non-physical link which empirically connects soil moisture to stomatal conductance in LSMs. FETCH2 resolved transpiration is then easily scaled to the plot level

  15. A new approach for modeling the peak utility impacts from a proposed CUAC standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris; Chan, Peter; Coughlin, Katie

    2004-08-01

    This report describes a new Berkeley Lab approach for modeling the likely peak electricity load reductions from proposed energy efficiency programs in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This method is presented in the context of the commercial unitary air conditioning (CUAC) energy efficiency standards. A previous report investigating the residential central air conditioning (RCAC) load shapes in NEMS revealed that the peak reduction results were lower than expected. This effect was believed to be due in part to the presence of the squelch, a program algorithm designed to ensure changes in the system load over time are consistent with the input historic trend. The squelch applies a system load-scaling factor that scales any differences between the end-use bottom-up and system loads to maintain consistency with historic trends. To obtain more accurate peak reduction estimates, a new approach for modeling the impact of peaky end uses in NEMS-BT has been developed. The new approach decrements the system load directly, reducing the impact of the squelch on the final results. This report also discusses a number of additional factors, in particular non-coincidence between end-use loads and system loads as represented within NEMS, and their impacts on the peak reductions calculated by NEMS. Using Berkeley Lab's new double-decrement approach reduces the conservation load factor (CLF) on an input load decrement from 25% down to 19% for a SEER 13 CUAC trial standard level, as seen in NEMS-BT output. About 4 GW more in peak capacity reduction results from this new approach as compared to Berkeley Lab's traditional end-use decrement approach, which relied solely on lowering end use energy consumption. The new method has been fully implemented and tested in the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 (AEO2003) version of NEMS and will routinely be applied to future versions. This capability is now available for use in future end-use efficiency or other policy analysis

  16. A PROPOSAL FOR A SUSTAINABLE MODEL BASED UPON UNDERWATER TOURISM RESEARCH IN AYVALIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GÖKDENİZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater sports are the activities being done with the aims of witnessing the beauties, hunting, taking photos, the ecology and the archaeology of underwater analysing or finding out the human being’s boundaries by improving the physical and psychological skills of men. The initial aim of this project is to increase the underwater flora and the fauna heritage of Ayvalık and to bring them in tourism. Ayvalık is on the west coast of Turkey. It is getting more and more famous with its underwater richness. Also, to form a new underwater sports centre in order to contribute to the improvement of the region. By providing visual attractiveness, the tourists related to underwater sports will pay attention to Ayvalık and underwater tourism will contribute much to the economy of the region. The aim of this project is to improve the underwater sports which is now a hobby than a sport. In Ayvalık Underwater World study, we dealt with 247 divers and 4 underwater sports club. In this study, we analysed the expectation, satisfaction, demographic and economic level of 247 divers about the services in the region. Interview technique has been used in the study on the 4 underwater sports clubs which are hosting divers. As a conclusion, a report has been prepared in which detailed information and proposals are presented by developing a sustainable marketing model concerned with the underwater sports for those who want to possess information, shareholders of the sector and make analyse about tourism.

  17. A proposed cell model for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events: Implications for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    Multiple-occurrence regional landslide events (MORLEs) consist of hundreds to thousands of shallow landslides occurring more or less simultaneously within defined areas, ranging from tens to thousands of square kilometres. While MORLEs can be triggered by rainstorms and earthquakes, this paper is confined to those landslide events triggered by rainstorms. Globally, MORLEs occur in a range of geological settings in areas of moderate to steep slopes subject to intense rainstorms. Individual landslides in rainstorm-triggered events are dominantly small, shallow debris and earth flows, and debris and earth slides involving regolith or weathered bedrock. The model used to characterise these events assumes that energy distribution within the event area is represented on the land surface by a cell structure; with maximum energy expenditure within an identifiable core and rapid dissipation concentrically away from the centre. The version of the model presented here has been developed for rainfall-triggered landslide events. It proposes that rainfall intensity can be used to determine different critical landslide response zones within the cell (referred to as core, middle, and periphery zones). These zones are most readily distinguished by two conditions: the proportion of the slope that fails and the particular type of the slope stability factor that assumes dominance in determining specific sites of landslide occurrence. The latter condition means that the power of any slope stability factor to distinguish between stable and unstable sites varies throughout the affected area in accordance with the landslide response zones within the cell; certain factors critical for determining the location of landslide sites in one part of the event area have little influence in other parts of the event area. The implication is that landslide susceptibility maps (and subsequently derived mitigation measures) based on conventional slope stability factors may have only limited validity

  18. Advocating for School Psychologists in Response to the APA's Proposed "Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros

    2009-01-01

    On March 6, 2009, the APA Model Licensure Act Task Force released its second draft of the policy document known as the proposed "Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists". This policy document serves as guidance to state legislatures for how they should set up their psychology licensing laws. The general expectations promoted in the model…

  19. Advocating for School Psychologists in Response to the APA's Proposed "Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros

    2009-01-01

    On March 6, 2009, the APA Model Licensure Act Task Force released its second draft of the policy document known as the proposed "Model Act for State Licensure of Psychologists". This policy document serves as guidance to state legislatures for how they should set up their psychology licensing laws. The general expectations promoted in the model…

  20. Bridging the Gap between Clinical Practice Guidelines and Archetype-Based Electronic Health Records: A Novel Model Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Diego; Moro, Claudia Maria C; Cintho, Lilian Mie M

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a unique, standardized format for representing data and knowledge is one of the existing difficulties to integrating decision support into Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Propose an archetype-based model to allow the integration of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) and EHRs; design and implement this proposed model. A generic model was designed for the integration of CPG into EHRs, and an archetype-based EHR for Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention based on rules from CPGs, was made as a proof of concept of this novel integration.

  1. Carbonado: Physical and chemical properties, a critical evaluation of proposed origins, and a revised genetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Stephen E.

    2014-03-01

    Carbonado-diamond is the most controversial of all diamond types and is found only in Brazil, and the Central African Republic (Bangui). Neither an affinity to Earth's mantle, nor an origin in the crust can be unequivocally established. Carbonado-diamond is at least 3.8 Ga old, an age about 0.5 Ga older than the oldest diamonds yet reported in kimberlites and lamproites on Earth. Derived from Neo- to Mid-Proterozoic meta-conglomerates, the primary magmatic host rock has not been identified. Discovered in 1841, the material is polycrystalline, robust and coke-like, and is best described as a strongly bonded micro-diamond ceramic. It is characteristically porous, which precludes an origin at high pressures and high temperatures in Earth's deep interior, yet it is also typically patinated, with a glass-like surface that resembles melting. With exotic inclusions of highly reduced metals, carbides, and nitrides the origin of carbonado-diamond is made even more challenging. But the challenge is important because a new diamondiferous host rock may be involved, and the development of a new physical process for generating diamond is possibly assured. The combination of micro-crystals and random crystal orientation leads to extreme mechanical toughness, and a predicable super-hardness. The physical and chemical properties of carbonado are described with a view to the development of a mimetic strategy to synthesize carbonado and to duplicate its extreme toughness and super-hardness. Textural variations are described with an emphasis on melt-like surface features, not previously discussed in the literature, but having a very clear bearing on the history and genesis of carbonado. Selected physical properties are presented and the proposed origins, diverse in character and imaginatively novel, are critically reviewed. From our present knowledge of the dynamic Earth, all indications are that carbonado is unlikely to be of terrestrial origin. A revised model for the origin of

  2. Emerging identities: A proposed model for an interactive science curriculum for First Nations students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Trudy

    Mi'kmaw students face a complexity of personal, cultural, and social conditions within contemporary educational systems that affect their continued participation in the educational process offered within Atlantic Canada. Despite a variety of approaches developed by educators to address the high drop out rate and lack of interest in science, the statistics remain largely unchanged. Aboriginal educators are calling for a "new story" in education that better meets the needs of Aboriginal students. This study attempts to identify the conditions and contexts necessary to bridge the gap that currently exists for Aboriginal students in science studies. The research investigates the basic relationship between learning in general and the meaning-making processes engaged in by students of a Grade 7/8 class within a Mi'kmaw reserve school. It leads to a proposal for an alternative pedagogy, or a new narrative, for teaching science to Aboriginal students and the foundations for a culturally interactive science curriculum. For educators to understand the complexity of issues affecting Mi'kmaw student achievement in science requires a theoretical framework that allows the students' lived experience to emerge. Toward this end, the research includes both phenomenological and ethnographic approaches to understanding the lived experiences and cultural narratives based on interviews with the students, a field trip within the community, and a trial chemistry lesson. I examined how these students perceive themselves in different contexts and how their sense of identity establishes the meaningfulness of particular educational content. I also assessed how person, community/cultural and social contexts affect the students' learning. Part of creating this new narrative requires recognizing knowledge, including science, as a cultural product Taking this cultural view of scientific knowledge allows us to view learning as a process of identity formation and culture as a system of symbols

  3. Earlier spring snowmelt in northern Alaska as an indicator of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert S.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Harris, Joyce M.; Longenecker, David

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of global circulation models (GCMs) that account for increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere show that warming in the Arctic will be amplified in response to the melting of sea ice and snow cover. There is now conclusive evidence that much of the Arctic has warmed in recent decades. Northern Alaska is one region where significant warming has occurred, especially during winter and spring. We investigate how the changing climate of northern Alaska has influenced the annual cycle of snow cover there and in turn, how changes in snow cover perturb the region's surface radiation budget and temperature regime. The focus is on Barrow, Alaska, for which comprehensive data sets exist. A review of earlier studies that documented a trend toward an earlier disappearance of snow in spring is given. Detection and monitoring activities at Barrow are described, and records of snow disappearance from other sites in the Alaskan Arctic are compared. Correlated variations and trends in the date of final snowmelt (melt date) are found by examining several independent time series. Since the mid-1960s the melt date in northern Alaska has advanced by ~8 days. The advance appears to be a consequence of decreased snowfall in winter, followed by warmer spring conditions. These changes in snowfall and temperature are attributed to variations in regional circulation patterns. In recent decades, there has been a higher frequency of northerly airflow during winter that tends to diminish snowfall over northern Alaska. During spring, however, intrusions of warm moist air from the North Pacific have become more common, and these tend to accelerate the ablation of snow on the North Slope of Alaska. One result of an earlier melt date is an increase in the net surface radiation budget. At Barrow, net radiative forcing can exceed 150 W m-2 on a daily basis immediately following the last day of snowmelt, and as a result of an 8-day advance in this event

  4. The New Approach : A New Model to Develop a Plan Proposal. North Strathfield, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Klåvus, Malin; Lennartsson, Elenor

    2009-01-01

    This diploma work is carried through in Australia on a site in North Strathfield in the Sydney region. The whole work is built up around the idea to do four plan proposals that are optimized from different aspects. These aspects are chosen because we believe they are the most important issues in planning. Our four approaches are transportation, commercial, environmental and social aspects which will be joined into one final plan proposal. For each approach we have chosen what to focus on to d...

  5. Proposal for Classifying the Severity of Speech Disorder Using a Fuzzy Model in Accordance with the Implicational Model of Feature Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancalioni, Ana Rita; Magnago, Karine Faverzani; Keske-Soares, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to create a new proposal for classifying the severity of speech disorders using a fuzzy model in accordance with a linguistic model that represents the speech acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese. The fuzzy linguistic model was run in the MATLAB software fuzzy toolbox from a set of fuzzy rules, and it encompassed…

  6. Michaelis-Menten Kinetics in Transient State: Proposal for Reversible Inhibition Model and its Application on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Disaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rosa Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic processes according Michaelis-Menten kinetics have been studied from various approaches to describe the inhibition state. Proposals for inhibition were compared from a generic process, where kinetic constants have received unitary values, and the numeric value of the concentration of substrate was ten (10 times higher than the numerical value of the concentration of enzyme. For each inhibition model proposed, numerical solutions were obtained from nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations, generating results presents by graphs showing the variation of the enzyme and enzyme complexes, also the variation of substrate and product of the reaction. Also, was designed a model with performance, indicating similar behavior to that seen in the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, where complex of reaction is rapidly formed and throughout the process, tends to decay to zero. Thus, in this new proposed model, the effect of inhibition starts at zero and, throughout the process, tends to the nominal value of the initial enzyme concentration. Such responses have proved to be valid for different values of enzyme concentration and process time, showing robustness. The proposed model was applied to the hydrolysis of disaccharides, providing a setting with conservation of mass of the model at the end of the process regarding the responses of the carbohydrate concentration.

  7. A Study of Best Practices in Training Transfer and Proposed Model of Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Hutchins, Holly M.

    2008-01-01

    Data were gathered from a sample of training professionals of an American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) chapter in the southern United States regarding best practices for supporting training transfer. Content analysis techniques, based on a rigorous methodology proposed by Insch, Moore, & Murphy (1997), were used to analyze the…

  8. In Pursuit of Social Betterment: A Proposal to Evaluate the Da Vinci Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a proposal that is roughly based on a contingency-based theory of evaluation developed in his book, "Evaluation: An Integrated Framework for Understanding, Guiding, and Improving Policies and Programs" (Mark, Henry, and Julnes, 2000). He and his coauthors stated in this book that social betterment was the ultimate goal of…

  9. Absenteeism in Undergraduate Business Education: A Proposed Model and Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    One issue in undergraduate business education remaining underexamined is student absenteeism. In this article, the literature on undergraduate absenteeism is reviewed culminating in a proposed conceptual framework to guide future research, and an exploratory investigation of management students' attitudes about absenteeism is conducted.…

  10. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, C M; Bishop, S C; Marion, G

    2015-06-06

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob-Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed 'model-based proposal' (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2-8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. An analysis of a three-factor model proposed by the Danish Society of Actuaries for forecasting and risk analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Slipsager, Søren Kærgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the explicit solution to the three-factor diffusion model recently proposed by the Danish Society of Actuaries to the Danish industry of life insurance and pensions. The solution is obtained by use of the known general solution to multidimensional linear stochastic differential...... well-known risk measures under both schemes. Finally, we conduct a sensitivity analysis and find that the relative performance of the two schemes depends on the chosen model parameter estimates....

  12. Collaborative Proposal: Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald

    2013-04-15

    Despite the great interest in regional modeling for both weather and climate applications, regional modeling is not yet at the stage that it can be used routinely and effectively for climate modeling of the ocean. The overarching goal of this project is to transform how climate models are used by developing and implementing a robust, efficient, and accurate global approach to regional ocean modeling. To achieve this goal, we will use theoretical and computational means to resolve several basic modeling and algorithmic issues. The first task is to develop techniques for transitioning between parameterized and high-fidelity regional ocean models as the discretization grid transitions from coarse to fine regions. The second task is to develop estimates for the error in scientifically relevant quantities of interest that provide a systematic way to automatically determine where refinement is needed in order to obtain accurate simulations of dynamic and tracer transport in regional ocean models. The third task is to develop efficient, accurate, and robust time-stepping schemes for variable spatial resolution discretizations used in regional ocean models of dynamics and tracer transport. The fourth task is to develop frequency-dependent eddy viscosity finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their performance and effectiveness for simulation of dynamics and tracer transport in regional ocean models. These four projects share common difficulties and will be approach using a common computational and mathematical toolbox. This is a multidisciplinary project involving faculty and postdocs from Colorado State University, Florida State University, and Penn State University along with scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The completion of the tasks listed within the discussion of the four sub-projects will go a long way towards meeting our goal of developing superior regional ocean models that will transform how climate system models are used.

  13. Mathematical modelling in engineering: A proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Dorila Cárcamo; Joan Vicenç Gómez; Josep María Fortuny

    2016-01-01

    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts:  span and spanning set. This was applied to first year e...

  14. Mathematical modelling in engineering: a proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Cárcamo Bahamonde, Andrea Dorila; Gómez Urgellés, Joan Vicenç; Fortuny Aymeni, José María

    2016-01-01

    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts: span and spanning set. This was applied to first year engineeri...

  15. Mathematical modelling in engineering: a proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Cárcamo Bahamonde, Andrea; Gómez Urgellés, Joan Vicenç; Fortuny Aymemi, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts: span and spanning set. This was applied to first year engineer...

  16. Numerical Differentiation Methods for Computing Error Covariance Matrices in Item Response Theory Modeling: An Evaluation and a New Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…

  17. Proposed Model for a Streamlined, Cohesive, and Optimized K-12 STEM Curriculum with a Focus on Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a proposed model for a clear description of K-12 age-possible engineering knowledge content, in terms of the selection of analytic principles and predictive skills for various grades, based on the mastery of mathematics and science pre-requisites, as mandated by national or state performance standards; and a streamlined,…

  18. An analysis of a three-factor model proposed by the Danish Society of Actuaries for forecasting and risk analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; Slipsager, Søren Kærgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the explicit solution to the three-factor diffusion model recently proposed by the Danish Society of Actuaries to the Danish industry of life insurance and pensions. The solution is obtained by use of the known general solution to multidimensional linear stochastic differential...

  19. 78 FR 3921 - Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler TSTF... (SE) for plant- specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TS) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-426...

  20. Proposal of an agent-based analytical model to convert industrial areas in industrial eco-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Elena; Ruiz, M Carmen

    2014-01-15

    The transformation of industrial areas towards greater sustainability results from a strategic objective to address the effects of economic and environmental crisis. Such transformation, however, requires methodologies and tools that support and facilitate the process. This paper proposes an analytical model that favours the redesign of industrial areas based on sustainable strategies for eco-industrial parks. The proposed model is enhanced by the definition of building blocks of an agent-based modelling method. The methodology that was followed favours the detailed description of the objectives of the system, with individual elements and adaptation to the surrounding environment, amongst other features. The proposed model integrates a knowledge database that supports the process of identification of cooperative strategies such as material exchange networks in industrial areas. The underlying theory for the assessment of cooperative interactions is game theory, which supports the resolution of problems with strategic choices. This work covers the stage of analytical model formulation that is essential for advancement towards the inference process based on simulation models.

  1. The impact of preventive maintenance practices on manufacturing performance: A proposed model for SMEs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazim, Halim Mad; Taib, Che Azlan; Lamsali, Hendrik; Saleh, Mohamed Najib; Subramaniam, Chandrakantan

    2016-08-01

    Preventive maintenance (PM) plays important role to avoid or mitigate potential stoppages and disruptions of equipment or machinery from occurring in daily operations. PM emphasized total employee involvement and it is important for companies as well as Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). SME sectors contribution to the Malaysian economy makes up 95% of the total manufacturers, however PM remain relatively lacking. The ability, reliability and effective maintenance management is highly important in order to achieve desired manufacturing performance. Therefore, organizational capability in planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring PM activities is important. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the potential impact of PM practices towards manufacturing performance with organizational capability as a moderating effect is still limited and indecisive. Henceforth, this paper aims to explore and investigate potential relationships between PM practices and manufacturing performance moderated by organizational capability in the contact of Malaysian SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Correspondently, the study intends to propose a new research framework and hypotheses to examine the abovementioned relationships. The proposed framework includes PM team, PM strategy and planned maintenance as the determinants, while organizational capability serves as the moderating variable. Manufacturing performance will be viewed in terms of innovation and financial factors. Proposed research direction and conclusion are discussed at the end of the study.

  2. Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  4. Railway source models for integration in the new European noise prediction method proposed in Harmonoise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talotte, C.; Stap, P. van der; Ringheim, M.; Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.; Stiebel, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the Harmonoise European project is to provide an engineering model for the propagation of road and rail traffic noise which requires, for a better accuracy than existing models, the distinction between source output and propagation. In that context, the purpose of work package 1.2 of

  5. 75 FR 16840 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; Model Employer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Comment; Model Employer CHIP Notice AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of Labor... ] Administration is soliciting comments on the Model CHIP Employer Notice. A copy of the information collection...(f)(3)(B)(i)(I), and section 9801(f)(3)(B)(i)(I) of the Internal Revenue Code, as added by CHIPRA,...

  6. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  7. Railway source models for integration in the new European noise prediction method proposed in Harmonoise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talotte, C.; Stap, P. van der; Ringheim, M.; Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.; Stiebel, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the Harmonoise European project is to provide an engineering model for the propagation of road and rail traffic noise which requires, for a better accuracy than existing models, the distinction between source output and propagation. In that context, the purpose of work package 1.2 of

  8. Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Flows through the Proposed Olmsted Hinged Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    for the Lower Mississippi River, the solution scheme in FLOWSED was restructured and sediment computations also removed. That model is called BIRM ...Johnson, B. H. 1983. "User’s Guide for Branched Implicit River Model ( BIRM ) with Application to the Lower Mississippi river," Unpublished Internal

  9. Mathematical Modelling in Engineering: A Proposal to Introduce Linear Algebra Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo Bahamonde, Andrea; Gómez Urgelles, Joan; Fortuny Aymemí, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasise the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which are not exclusively calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was created based on mathematical modelling and…

  10. 78 FR 14838 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the Resource Justification Model (RJM); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... ETA's administrative funding allocation model so that state UI program administration funds are... Model (RJM); Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Labor. ACTION: Notice... addressee section below on or before May 6, 2013. ADDRESSES: Send comments to John Ake, U.S. Department...

  11. The Family FIRO Model: A Modest Proposal for Organizing Family Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Colangelo, Nicholas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a model for organizing family issues and family treatment. Schutz's Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) model is offered as a framework for organizing family issues into inclusion, control, and affection categories, constituting a logical hierarchy of core issues to be dealt with in treating multiproblem families. (JAC)

  12. The Geometrization of Matter Proposal in the Barrett-Crane Model and Resolution of Cosmological Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon

    2003-07-15

    We give an overview of the current issues in early universe cosmology and consider the potential resolution of these issues in an as yet nascent spin foam cosmology. The model is the Barrett-Crane Model for quantum gravity along with a generalization of manifold complexes to complexes including conical singularities.

  13. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (UK)); Gehr, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.)

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The Fischa-Dagnitz spring, Southern Vienna Basin: a multi tracer time series study re-assessing earlier conceptual assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Axel; Gerber, Christoph; Kralik, Martin; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Purtschert, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The gravel aquifer of the Southern Vienna Basin is a very important backup drinking water resource for the city of Vienna. A discharge location, the Fischa-Dagnitz spring in the Southern Vienna Basin, Austria, was re-investigated in 2011, five years after the gas exchange tracer test published in (Stolp et al., 2010), and sampled for stable isotopes 18O/2H, tritium, 3He, SF6 and 85Kr (Gerber et al., 2012). Additionally, new tritium time series data (Davis et al., 1967), previously not considered in Stolp et al. (2010), were included. These show a higher and earlier tritium peak of >300 TU in 1965 in the discharge of the Fischa-Dagnitz spring as compared to 221 TU in 1972 considered in Stolp et al. (2010). The new 3He, SF6 and 85Kr gas tracer data from 2011 confirm the earlier finding for 3He of Stolp et al. (2010) and indicate a more recent equilibration with the atmosphere than the water bound tracers 18O, 2H and tritium. A new modelling attempt using the Lumpy code (Suckow, 2012) confirmed the discrepancy between the tritium data and the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr. No steady-state combination of local recharge (represented by an exponential model) and Schwarza river infiltration flowing through the gravel aquifer (represented by a parallel dispersion model) can equally well explain both the tritium time series and the gas tracer results. A revised conceptual model proposes that a pinching of the aquifer at unconformities in the gravel body or a fault zone known in the gravel body forces groundwater along the flow path closer to the surface and exposes it to the atmosphere. This would tend to reset the "dating" clock for the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr, which can equilibrate quickly with the atmosphere, but not for tritium, which marks the transport behaviour of the water itself. These findings are of importance also for other multi-tracer assessments of groundwater movement in phreatic aquifer systems. References: Davis, G.H., Payne, B.R., Dincer, T

  15. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT: ANALYSIS OF ALIGNMENT MODELS AND PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Sobrosa Affeldt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT is a resource capable of supporting businesses, which provides agile operations and mobility and decision support tools. The link between IT and business strategy has been studied regarding the best fitted model to improve company performance. This paper analyzes, through bibliographic research, the strategic alignment concept and the evolution of the strategic alignment theoretical models that are considered references in this area. The paper presents a comparison between these referential models and some perspectives for future research related IT strategic alignment.

  16. Proposal of a multicompartmental model for use in the study of apolipoprotein E metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, J S; Lichtenstein, A H; Dolnikowski, G G; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1998-08-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E is a 299-amino acid glycoprotein that serves a number of functions in lipoprotein metabolism. Apo E binds to the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and chylomicrons, as they are lipolyzed, mediating their removal from plasma via lipoprotein receptors. Apo E is also found associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has been suggested to play a role in reverse cholesterol transport. Studies on the kinetic behavior of apo E from the TRL and HDL fractions provide insights into the metabolic relationships between TRL and HDL in vivo. We sought to develop a compartmental model that can be used for analysis of kinetic data in studies on the metabolism of TRL and HDL apo E. Using radioactive tracers, it has been previously observed that, in some instances, a portion of VLDL apo E that is removed from plasma subsequently reappears in VLDL. Four multicompartmental models were considered that could account for this type of behavior: model A, in which there is transfer of apo E from HDL to VLDL; model B, in which there is a bidirectional extravascular exchange; model C, in which there is removal and subsequent reintroduction of TRL apo E into plasma; and model D, in which there is secretion of TRL apo E into plasma directly and via an extravascular pathway. Models C and D provided the best fit to the experimental data. While no physiologically plausible analog to model C could be found, an extravascular delay, analogous to newly secreted apo E that enters the lymphatic system before appearing in plasma, was postulated for model D. It was this model that was used to analyze kinetic data from metabolic studies of apo E. The model was able to provide a satisfactory fit to kinetic data in studies in which subjects were given a primed-constant infusion of 2H3-leucine. It was determined that TRL apo E from the six subjects studied had a mean residence time of 0.11 +/- 0.05 days and a mean production rate of 10

  17. A Proposed Model for Traffic Signal Preemption Using Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mascarenhas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Traffic Signal Preemption system is an automated system that allows normal operation of traffic lights at automated signalized intersection s to be preempted. Preemption of signals is generally done to assist emergency vehicles, such a s ambulances, so that response times are reduced and right-of-way is provided in a smooth an d controlled manner. This paper proposes an innovative and cost-effective server-centric mod el to facilitate preemption using a simple mobile phone app which uses Global Positioning Syst em (GPS and a microcontroller which controls traffic signals.

  18. PTFE treatment by remote atmospheric Ar/O2 plasmas: a simple reaction scheme model proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, E A D; Keuning, W; van der Mullen, J J A M

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) samples were treated by a remote atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch and analyzed by water contact angle (WCA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the case of pure argon plasma a decrease of WCA is observed meanwhile an increase of hydrophobicity was observed when some oxygen was added to the discharge. The WCA results are correlated to XPS of reference samples and the change of WCA are attributed to changes in roughness of the samples. A simple kinetics scheme for the chemistry on the PTFE surface is proposed to explain the results.

  19. Tourism Cluster Competitiveness and Sustainability: Proposal for a Systemic Model to Measure the Impact of Tourism on Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.

  20. Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and modeling of defeasible information and non-monotonic reasoning services. Here we formalize a possible way of introducing non-monotonic reasoning into ORM2 schemas, enriching the language with special set of new constraints....

  1. Time-Dependent Toroidal Compactification Proposals and the Bianchi Type I Model: Classical and Quantum Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Toledo Sesma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type I model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Under this approach, we present an isotropization mechanism for the Bianchi I cosmological model through the analysis of the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the Universe which in general keeps constant or runs into zero for late times. We also find that the presence of extra dimensions in this model can accelerate the isotropization process depending on the momenta moduli values. Finally, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW equation in the context of standard quantum cosmology.

  2. A methodology proposal for collaborative business process elaboration using a model-driven approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wenxin; Bénaben, Frédérick; Pingaud, Hervé

    2015-05-01

    Business process management (BPM) principles are commonly used to improve processes within an organisation. But they can equally be applied to supporting the design of an Information System (IS). In a collaborative situation involving several partners, this type of BPM approach may be useful to support the design of a Mediation Information System (MIS), which would ensure interoperability between the partners' ISs (which are assumed to be service oriented). To achieve this objective, the first main task is to build a collaborative business process cartography. The aim of this article is to present a method for bringing together collaborative information and elaborating collaborative business processes from the information gathered (by using a collaborative situation framework, an organisational model, an informational model, a functional model and a metamodel and by using model transformation rules).

  3. Proposing a Model to Enhance Status of Halal Food in the Global Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleimani

    2014-01-01

    Value/innovation- Effective factors on Halal brand were identified in this survey from a multi-lateral viewpoint. Thus, a comprehensive model was recognized to enhance Halal brand status in the global markets.

  4. Baseline requirements of the proposed action for the Transportation Management Division routing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important to shippers, carriers, and the general public. This is particularly true for shipments of radioactive material. The shippers are primarily concerned with safety, security, efficiency, and equipment requirements. The carriers are concerned with the potential impact that radioactive shipments may have on their operations--particularly if such materials are involved in an accident. The general public has also expressed concerns regarding the safety of transporting radioactive and other hazardous materials through their communities. Because transportation routes are a central concern in hazardous material transport, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward resolution of these issues. In response to these routing needs, several models have been developed over the past fifteen years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HIGHWAY routing model is used to predict routes for truck transportation, the INTERLINE routing model is used to predict both rail and barge routes, and the AIRPORT locator model is used to determine airports with specified criteria near a specific location. As part of the ongoing improvement of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Transportation Management Division`s (EM-261) computer systems and development efforts, a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models was held at ORNL on April 27, 1994. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the existing capabilities of the models and data bases and to review enhancements of the models and data bases to expand their usefulness. The results of the Baseline Requirements Assessment Section will be discussed in this report. The discussions pertaining to the different models are contained in separate sections.

  5. A Self-Report Measure for the ICD-11 Dimensional Trait Model Proposal: The Personality Inventory for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2017-02-23

    Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model. Item selection and scale construction proceeded through 3 initial data collections assessing potential item performance. Two subsequent studies were conducted for scale validation. In Study 1, the PiCD was evaluated in a sample of 259 MTurk participants (who were or had been receiving mental health treatment) with respect to 2 measures of general personality structure: The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and the 5-Dimensional Personality Test. In Study 2, the PiCD was evaluated in an additional sample of 285 participants with respect to 2 measures of maladaptive personality traits: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and the Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorders. Study 3 provides an item-level exploratory structural equation model with the combined samples from Studies 1 and 2. The results are discussed with respect to the validity of the measure and the potential benefits for future research in having a direct, self-report measure of the ICD-11 trait proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A comparative study of the proposed models for the components of the national health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Damanabi, Shahla; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2014-04-01

    National Health Information System plays an important role in ensuring timely and reliable access to Health information, which is essential for strategic and operational decisions that improve health, quality and effectiveness of health care. In other words, using the National Health information system you can improve the quality of health data, information and knowledge used to support decision making at all levels and areas of the health sector. Since full identification of the components of this system - for better planning and management influential factors of performanceseems necessary, therefore, in this study different attitudes towards components of this system are explored comparatively. This is a descriptive and comparative kind of study. The society includes printed and electronic documents containing components of the national health information system in three parts: input, process and output. In this context, search for information using library resources and internet search were conducted, and data analysis was expressed using comparative tables and qualitative data. The findings showed that there are three different perspectives presenting the components of national health information system Lippeveld and Sauerborn and Bodart model in 2000, Health Metrics Network (HMN) model from World Health Organization in 2008, and Gattini's 2009 model. All three models outlined above in the input (resources and structure) require components of management and leadership, planning and design programs, supply of staff, software and hardware facilities and equipment. Plus, in the "process" section from three models, we pointed up the actions ensuring the quality of health information system, and in output section, except for Lippeveld Model, two other models consider information products and use and distribution of information as components of the national health information system. the results showed that all the three models have had a brief discussion about the

  7. Proposed model structures for Upper Freeport and Lewiston-Stockton vitrinites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, J.P.; Hatcher, P.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (USA). Energy Institute and the Department of Energy and GeoEnvironmental Engineering

    2001-08-01

    Molecular models of vitrinite (obtained from obvious tree remains) from the Upper Freeport and Lewiston-Stockton coal seams are presented. Utilizing pure telocollinite reduced the complexity of the model and resulted in more realistic molecular structures than from whole coal analyses. The structures presented are in agreement with experimentally determined bulk chemical parameters. These were easily achieved with current software and computational expense. However, it was more difficult to produce model structures which have calculated physical parameters (of the global minimum structure determined from molecular mechanics and dynamics) in agreement with experimentally determined parameters. For these bituminous vitrinites, the addition of physical parameters severely constrained the type of model structures that could be produced. The molecular structures presented are covalently linked aromatic and hydroaromatic structures with a distribution of cross-link densities. Despite being very close in maturation (as determined from vitrinite reflectance) the structural differences have a significant impact on behavior. The current models are not yet consistent with some behavioral aspects such as solvent swelling. It is suggested that a greater molecular scale is needed before multiple facets of coals behavior can be explained. 60 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Proposing a Compartmental Model for Leprosy and Parameterizing Using Regional Incidence in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lee Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hansen's disease (HD, or leprosy, is still considered a public health risk in much of Brazil. Understanding the dynamics of the infection at a regional level can aid in identification of targets to improve control. A compartmental continuous-time model for leprosy dynamics was designed based on understanding of the biology of the infection. The transmission coefficients for the model and the rate of detection were fit for each region using Approximate Bayesian Computation applied to paucibacillary and multibacillary incidence data over the period of 2000 to 2010, and model fit was validated on incidence data from 2011 to 2012. Regional variation was noted in detection rate, with cases in the Midwest estimated to be infectious for 10 years prior to detection compared to 5 years for most other regions. Posterior predictions for the model estimated that elimination of leprosy as a public health risk would require, on average, 44-45 years in the three regions with the highest prevalence. The model is easily adaptable to other settings, and can be studied to determine the efficacy of improved case finding on leprosy control.

  9. Proposing a Compartmental Model for Leprosy and Parameterizing Using Regional Incidence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca Lee

    2016-08-01

    Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is still considered a public health risk in much of Brazil. Understanding the dynamics of the infection at a regional level can aid in identification of targets to improve control. A compartmental continuous-time model for leprosy dynamics was designed based on understanding of the biology of the infection. The transmission coefficients for the model and the rate of detection were fit for each region using Approximate Bayesian Computation applied to paucibacillary and multibacillary incidence data over the period of 2000 to 2010, and model fit was validated on incidence data from 2011 to 2012. Regional variation was noted in detection rate, with cases in the Midwest estimated to be infectious for 10 years prior to detection compared to 5 years for most other regions. Posterior predictions for the model estimated that elimination of leprosy as a public health risk would require, on average, 44-45 years in the three regions with the highest prevalence. The model is easily adaptable to other settings, and can be studied to determine the efficacy of improved case finding on leprosy control.

  10. Groundwater modeling of the proposed new production reactor site, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Andersen, P.F.; Spalding, C.P.; Davis, D.H.

    1990-01-05

    This report addresses groundwater modeling performed to support the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that is being prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE). The EIS pertains to construction and operation of a new production reactor (NPR) that is under consideration for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Three primary issues are addressed by the modeling analysis: (1) groundwater availability, (2) changes in vertical hydraulic gradients as a result of groundwater pumpage, and (3) migration of potential contaminants from the NPR site. The modeling indicates that the maximum pumpage to be used, 1000 gpm, will induce only minor drawdown across SRS. Pumpage of this magnitude will have a limited effect on the upward gradient from the Cretaceous into the Tertiary near Upper Three Runs Creek. Potentiometric surface maps generated from modeled results indicate that horizontal flow in the water table is either towards Four Mile Creek to the north or to Pen Branch on the south. Particle tracking analysis indicates that the primary flow paths are vertical into the Lower Tertiary Zone, with very little lateral migration. Total travel times from the NPR site to the edge of the model (approximately 3 miles) is on the order of 50 years. The flow direction of water in the Lower Tertiary Zone is relatively well defined due to the regional extent of the flow system. The Pen Branch Fault does not influence contaminant migration for this particular site because it is in the opposite direction of Lower Tertiary Zone groundwater flow. 20 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The Relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial leadership, and firm performance: A proposed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a conceptual model and propositions for researchers to explore the direct and indirect relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial leadership and firm performance. Authors searched various databases including ProQuest, EBSCOhost databases, Scopus for peer reviewed Journals, books, and other relevant publications on the subject. A conceptual review provides direction for researchers to empirically examine the direct relationships between entrepreneurial orientation (EO, entrepreneurial competencies (EC, and firm performance and the mediating effect of entrepreneurial leadership (EL in the relationship between EO, EC, and firm performance. We suggest the use of entrepreneurial orientation scale (EOS, The entrecomp framework (2016, Renko et al., 2015 entrepreneurial leadership styles scale (ENTRELEAD, and Santos & Brito (2012 subjective measurement model for firm performance for measurement of the constructs of EO, EC, EL and performance. For researchers and academics, the model provides a basis for further research by testing empirically the validity of the model. Testing of this model could provide a better understanding of the EO, EC constructs that better predicts strategic and financial performance.

  12. A proposed model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Selznick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model that can inform the continued professionalisation ofstudent affairs as both a field and a practice in Africa. After providing a brief overviewof the African post-secondary educational climate and establishing student affairs as aninternationally recognised profession, I analyse three pieces authored or co-authored byMirko Noordegraaf (2003; 2007; 2011 that develop the concepts of socially constructedprofessionalism, management of practices-in-transition and hybrid professionalism. Ithen employ these concepts to create a professionalisation model that incorporates anawareness of the complex and diverse nature of African student affairs work. I next examinetwo key areas present across the modern African post-secondary environment – careereducation and distance learning – and discuss how the model can guide student affairsprofessionalisation and practice when working in these important educational spaces. Iconclude by briefly commenting on the potential for practitioners in the African contextto develop new pathways forward for the international student affairs community.

  13. A proposed study on the transplacental transport of parabens in the human placental perfusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Zuri, Giuseppina; Andersen, Maria H

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to parabens as a preservative used in personal care products is of increasing concern, as there is evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies of hormone disruption in association with exposure to parabens. Transport across the placenta could be critical for risk assessment......, but the available data are sparse. The aim is to develop a method for estimating fetal exposure, via the placenta, to the most commonly-used parabens, by using a human placental perfusion model. The use of human tissue is vital for determining human fetal exposure, because animal studies are of little relevance......, since the placenta exhibits significant interspecies variation. An HPLC model is currently being established to simultaneously quantify four different parabens, namely, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, and their main metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. With this model, we aim...

  14. Time-dependent toroidal compactification proposals and the Bianchi type II model: Classical and quantum solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; Toledo Sesma, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus without the contributions of fluxes as first approximation. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type II model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Also, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation in the context of Standard Quantum Cosmology and we claim that these quantum solution are generic in the moduli scalar field for all Bianchi Class A models. Also we give the relation to these solutions for asymptotic behavior to large argument in the corresponding quantum solution in the gravitational variables and compare with Bohm's solutions, finding that this corresponds to the lowest-order WKB approximation.

  15. Mathematical modelling in engineering: A proposal to introduce linear algebra concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dorila Cárcamo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern dynamic world requires that basic science courses for engineering, including linear algebra, emphasize the development of mathematical abilities primarily associated with modelling and interpreting, which aren´t limited only to calculus abilities. Considering this, an instructional design was elaborated based on mathematic modelling and emerging heuristic models for the construction of specific linear algebra concepts:  span and spanning set. This was applied to first year engineering students. Results suggest that this type of instructional design contributes to the construction of these mathematical concepts and can also favour first year engineering students understanding of key linear algebra concepts and potentiate the development of higher order skills.

  16. Management of information in development projects – a proposed integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bester

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The first section of the article focuses on the need for development in Africa and the specific challenges of development operations. It describes the need for a holistic and integrated information management model as part of the project management body of knowledge aimed at managing the information flow between communities and development project teams. It is argued that information, and access to information, is crucial in development projects and can therefore be seen as a critical success factor in any development project. In the second section of the article, the three information areas of the holistic and integrated information management model are described. In the section thereafter we suggest roles and actions for information managers to facilitate information processes integral to the model. These processes seek to create a developing information community that aligns itself with the development project, and supports and sustains it.

  17. Time-dependent toroidal compactification proposals and the Bianchi type II model: classical and quantum solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Socorro, J

    2015-01-01

    In this work we construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus without the contributions of fluxes as first approximation. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type II model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Also, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) equation in the context of Standard Quantum Cosmology and we claim that these quantum solution are generic in the moduli scalar field for all Bianchi Class A models. Also we gives the relation to these solutions for asymptotic behavior to large argument in the corresponding quantum solution in the gravitational variables and is compared with the Bohm's solutions, finding that this corresponds to lowest-order WKB approximation.

  18. An Enhanced Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making Model with A proposed Polygon Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Bekheet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions in real world applications are often made under the presence of conflicting, uncertain, incomplete and imprecise information. Fuzzy multi Criteria Decision making (FMCDM approach provides a powerful approach for drawing rational decisions under uncertainty given in the form of linguistic values. Linguistic values are usually represented as fuzzy numbers. Most of researchers adopt either triangle or trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Since triangle, intervals, and even singleton are special cases of Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, so, for most researchers Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are considered Generalized fuzzy numbers (GFN. In this paper, we introduce polygon fuzzy number (PFN as the actual form of GFN. The proposed form of PFN provides higher flexibility to decision makers to express their own linguistic rather than other form of fuzzy numbers. The given illustrative example ensures such ability for better handling of the FMCDM problems.

  19. Origin of the Earth: A proposal of new model called ABEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Maruyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth was born as a dry planet without atmosphere and ocean components at 4.56 Ga, with subsequent secondary accretion of bio-elements, such as carbon (C, hydrogen (H, oxygen (O, and nitrogen (N which peaked at 4.37–4.20 Ga. This two-step formation model of the Earth we refer to as the advent of bio-elements model (ABEL Model and the event of the advent of bio-elements (water component as ABEL Bombardment. It is clear that the solid Earth originated from enstatite chondrite-like dry material based on the similarity in oxygen isotopic composition and among other isotopes. On the other hand, Earth's water derives primarily from carbonaceous chondrite material based on the hydrogen isotopic ratio. We present our ABEL model to explain this enigma between solid Earth and water, as well as secondary accretion of oxidizing bio-elements, which became a precursor to initiate metabolism to emerge life on a highly reductive planet. If ABEL Bombardment had not occurred, life never would have emerged on the Earth. Therefore, ABEL Bombardment is one of the most important events for this planet to evolve into a habitable planet. The chronology of ABEL Bombardment is informed through previous researches of the late heavy bombardment and the late veneer model. ABEL Bombardment is considered to have occurred during 4.37–4.20 Ga, which is the concept to redefine the standard late heavy bombardment and the late veneer models. Also, ABEL Bombardment is the trigger of the transition from stagnant lid tectonics to plate tectonics on this planet because of the injection of volatiles into the initial dry Earth.

  20. Toward a new model of scientific publishing: Discussion and a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight eKravitz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current system of publishing in the neurosciences, is notable for its redundancy, inconsistency, sluggishness, and opacity. These problems persist, and grow worse, because of a continuing failure to fully leverage new technology. Online access has eliminated space limits within peer-reviewed journals, yet we continue to deny publication. Each submission of a rejected manuscript requires the entire machinery of peer review to creak to life. This redundancy causes delays, inconsistency, and increases the burden on authors, reviewers, and editors. Further, reviewers serve a key role in the process but their performance is not tracked; yet alone rewarded. This misalignment of incentives contributes to the inconsistency and sluggishness that pervades peer review. The current system also interferes with the primary purpose of modern journals, providing a quick way of prioritizing the literature. Reviews are written to gauge publication rather than scientific merit and there is no guarantee that the journal’s criteria agree with those of an individual researcher, making any prioritization opaque and noisy at best.The focus of this special issue is the future form of post-publication reception, and the development of a marketplace where a paper rises and falls based on its reception from the field. However, the information that accompanies a paper into the marketplace is as important as the marketplace’s mechanics. Beyond suggestions as to the mechanisms of reception, we propose an update to the system of publishing in which publication is guaranteed, but pre-publication peer review still occurs, giving the authors the opportunity to revise their work following a mini pre-reception from the field. This step also provides a consistent set of rankings and reviews to the marketplace, allowing for early prioritization and stabilizing its early dynamics. We further propose to improve the general quality of reviewing by providing tangible rewards to

  1. Emotional Belief-Desire-Intention Agent Model: Previous Work And Proposed Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela- Alexandra Puica

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in affective computing shows that agents cannot be truly intelligent, nor believable or realistic without emotions. In this paper, we present a model of emotional agents that is based on a BDI architecture. We show how we can integrate emotions, resources and personality features into an artificial intelligent agent so as to obtain a human-like behavior of this agent. We place our work in the general context of existing research in emotional agents, with emphasis on BDI emotional models.

  2. Identification of the Sex of Earlier Embryos from Generic Hybrids of Chicken-Quail by Wpkci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ai-jun; MA Wen-xia; LI Da-quan; MENG Qing-mei

    2008-01-01

    In this study,a protocol was deveolped the sex of earlier embryos of chicken(♂)-quail(♀)hybrids and successfully tested the sex proportion of each period (66-120 h). We acquired cross bred eggs by artificial insemination, hatched them in the same batch according to the standard hatching condition of chicken, and collected earlier living embryos at 66,72,78, 84,90,96,102,108,114, and 120 h randomly. We adopted RT-PCR protocol and multiple PCR, made the known sex quail as the external control, employed β-actin as the internal control, and used primers that were designed according to conservative area of gene Wpkci of quail to identify the sex of earlier hybrid embryos. The results indicated that the primer of Wpkci can be used to identify the sex of hybrid embryos accurately; there were more male than female in earlier embryos, the sex proportion of earlier embryos compared with academic numerical value was significantly different (P0.05). In the present study, we concluded that a simple, fast, credible and stable protocol to identify the sex of earlier hybrids embryos had been established by using primer of Wpkci; in earlier embryos, the death rate of female was higher than that of male and there was no fluctuant peak.

  3. 75 FR 29587 - Notice of Availability of Revised Model Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 20555-0001... Processes Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. Revised Model... with the confidence in the ability of the fission product barriers (i.e., fuel cladding,...

  4. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  5. Models Provide Specificity: Testing a Proposed Mechanism of Visual Working Memory Capacity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Patterson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that visual working memory has a limited capacity that increases during childhood. However, debate continues over the source of capacity limits and its developmental increase. Simmering (2008) adapted a computational model of spatial cognitive development, the Dynamic Field Theory, to explain not only the source…

  6. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  7. A Proposed Integrative Model for Enhanced Career Development for Young Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    Models of career development have been discussed as a matter of growth over the life span and in relation to social learning. An integrated approach using specified career development theories to assist young adults with disabilities will allow professionals to better understand the school-to-work transition and implement meaningful interventions.

  8. Proposal of Comprehensive Model of Teaching Basic Nursing Skills Under Goal-Based Scenario Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, Yuri; Muranaka, Yoko; Teraoka, Misako; Suzuki, Sayuri; Saito, Yukie; Yamato, Hiromi; Ishii, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design and develop a comprehensive model of teaching basic nursing skills on GBS theory and Four-Stage Performance Cycle. We designed a basic nursing skill program that consists of three courses: basic, application and multi-tasking. The program will be offered as blended study, utilizing e-learning.

  9. The concept of level detail in 3D city models: PhD Research Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biljecki, F.

    2013-01-01

    Level of detail (LoD) is a concept available in various disciplines from computer graphics and cartography to electrical circuit design. For GIS practitioners, the discipline where level of detail is most relevant and well known is 3D city modelling. While present LoD paradigms, such as the one foun

  10. 75 FR 34767 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the Resource Justification Model (RJM); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... functional activity and two years of projected expenditures. The actual cost data informs ETA's... Model (RJM); Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Labor. ACTION: Notice... addressee section below on or before August 17, 2010. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Lauren C. Harrel,...

  11. A Proposed Model of Optimality Theory for Jordanian Arabic Broken Plurals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf

    2013-01-01

    One of the most challenging, but rather interesting, topics in the literature of Arabic phonology and morphology is the broken plurals (BP). The most widely acceptable account of Arabic BP, as far as I know, is McCarthy (1982) within the framework of Autosegmental Phonology. This paper presents and discusses the model of McCarthy (1982) and shows…

  12. Constructivist-Based Teaching in Second Life from a Student's Perspective: A Model Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Scott; Harmeyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides qualitative student-centered research from an online Research Methodology course taught partly within the immersive, 3-D environment of Second Life with fifty-eight graduate psychology students for the purpose of suggesting a constructivist-based instruction model for immersive environments. A qualitative method approach was…

  13. Analyzing “Etka Chain Stores” Strategies and Proposing Optimal Strategies; Using SWOT Model based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To maintain and achieve optimal growth, development and to be more competitive, organizations need a comprehensive and coherent plan compatible with their objectives and goals which is called strategic planning. This research aims to analyse strategically “Etka Chain Stores” and to propose optimal strategies by using SWOT model and based on fuzzy logic. The scope of this research is limited to “Etka Chain stores in Tehran”. As instrumentation, a questioner, consisting of 138 questions, was used. The data have been extracted from interviews to managers and the expert in Etka Chain stores and from studying the available reports in the organization. Validity and reliability of research have been measured. The research consists of two main and four subsidiary questions and lacks hypothesis and regarding type of the objective, this research is an applied one and regarding the data gathering, it is experimental-descriptive and a case study. Analysing the data consists of five steps. In the first step, all the documents, interviews to organization experts and “Etka Chain stores” reports were analysed by tests and a list of environmental opportunities and threats together with strengths and weaknesses was prepared. In the second step, all the above-mentioned factors were screened and opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses were identified. In the third stage, by using key factors and SWOT model, the most suitable strategies for the company have been proposed. In the fifth step, an operational program is proposed. The findings of the research indicate that to be more competitive in key axis which includes customers, supply chain, expanses control, competitive smartness, human resources and operational productivity, the company should adopt suitable strategies. In this regard, the suitable strategies were identified, codified and proposed. In this research, planning a strategic management model, analysing value chain for spotting

  14. On the development of LWR fuel analysis code (1). Analysis of the FEMAXI code and proposal of a new model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemehov, Sergei; Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the review on the modeling features of FEMAXI code and proposal of a new theoretical equation model of clad creep on the basis of irradiation-induced microstructure change. It was pointed out that plutonium build-up in fuel matrix and non-uniform radial power profile at high burn-up affect significantly fuel behavior through the interconnected effects with such phenomena as clad irradiation-induced creep, fission gas release, fuel thermal conductivity degradation, rim porous band formation and associated fuel swelling. Therefore, these combined effects should be properly incorporated into the models of the FEMAXI code so that the code can carry out numerical analysis at the level of accuracy and elaboration that modern experimental data obtained in test reactors have. Also, the proposed new mechanistic clad creep model has a general formalism which allows the model to be flexibly applied for clad behavior analysis under normal operation conditions and power transients as well for Zr-based clad materials by the use of established out-of-pile mechanical properties. The model has been tested against experimental data, while further verification is needed with specific emphasis on power ramps and transients. (author)

  15. Proposal of a new biokinetic model for niobium; Proposta de um novo modelo biocinetico para o niobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Roges

    2006-07-01

    There are two niobium isotopes generated in nuclear power plants: 95 Nb and 94 Nb. Workers and members of the public are subjects to intake these radionuclides in accident situation. For dose calculation purpose, it is very important to develop a model that describes in a more realistic way the kinetics of niobium inside of the human body. Presently the model adopted by ICRP (ICRP, 1989) is based on animal studies and describes the behavior of niobium in human being in a simple manner. The new model proposal describes the kinetics of the niobium from the intake into the blood until the excretion, doing this in a more realistic form and considering not only data from animals but data from human beings as well. For this objective, a workers group of a niobium extraction and processing industry exposed to stable niobium (93 Nb) in oxide insoluble form with associated uranium, was monitored for uranium and niobium determination in urinary and fecal excretion, by mass spectrometry. Based in the ratios of the niobium concentration in urinary and faecal excretion of this workers and animal data study, a new biokinetic model for niobium was proposed, with the followings modifications relative to ICRP model: a new compartment that represents muscular tissue; the fractions which are deposited into the compartment are modified; a third component in the retention equation of the bone tissue; introduction of recirculation between organs and blood. The new model was applied for a case of accidental intake and described adequately the experimental data.

  16. Angiopoietin-Like-4, a Potential Target of Tacrolimus, Predicts Earlier Podocyte Injury in Minimal Change Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Si; Chen, Xiao; Peng, Lei; Wei, Shi-Yao; Zhao, Shi-Lei; Diao, Tian-Tian; He, Yi-Xin; Liu, Fang; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Podocyte injury plays central roles in proteinuria and kidney dysfunction, therefore, identifying specific biomarker to evaluate earlier podocyte injury is highly desirable. Podocyte-secreted angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) mediates proteinuria in different types of podocytopathy. In the present study, we established an experimental minimal change disease (MCD) rat model, induced by adriamycin (ADR) and resulted in definite podocyte injury, to identify the dynamic changes in Angptl4 expression. We also investigated the direct effects of tacrolimus on Angptl4 and podocyte repair. We determined that the glomerular Angptl4 expression was rapidly upregulated and reached a peak earlier than desmin, an injured podocyte marker, in the ADR rats. Furthermore, this upregulation occurred prior to heavy proteinuria and was accompanied by increased urinary Angptl4. We observed that the Angptl4 upregulation occurred only when podocyte was mainly damaged since we didn't observe little Angptl4 upregulation in MsPGN patients. In addition, we observed the glomerular Angptl4 mainly located in injured podocytes rather than normal podocytes. Moreover, we found that tacrolimus treatment significantly promoted podocyte repair and reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4 expression at an earlier stage with a significant serum Angptl4 upregulation. And similar results were confirmed in MCD patients. In conclusion, this study represents the first investigation to demonstrate that Angptl4 can predict podocyte injury at earlier stages in MCD and the identification of earlier podocyte injury biomarkers could facilitate the prompt diagnosis and treatment of patients with podocytopathy, as well as determination of the prognosis and treatment efficacy in these diseases.

  17. A proposed adaptive step size perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu

    Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.

  18. Numerical modelling of the proposed WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphs and their predicted optical performances

    CERN Document Server

    Krist, John; Mennesson, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA 2.4 m telescope will provide in the next decade the opportunity to host a coronagraph for the imaging and spectroscopy of planets and disks. The telescope, however, is not ideal, given its obscured aperture. Only recently have coronagraph designs been thoroughly investigated that can efficiently work with this configuration. Three coronagraph designs, the hybrid Lyot, the shaped pupil, and the phase-induced amplitude-apodization complex mask coronagraph (PIAA-CMC) have been selected for further development by the AFTA project. Real-world testbed demonstrations of these have just begun, so for now the most reliable means of evaluating their potential performance comes from numerical modeling incorporating diffraction propagation, realistic system models, and simulated wavefront sensing and control. Here we present the methods of performance evaluation and results for the current coronagraph designs.

  19. Proposing an Algorithm for R&Q Inventory Control Model with Stochastic Demand Influenced by Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz fattahi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the continuous - review inventory control system has been studied. A new constraint of demand dependent on the average percent of product shortage has been added to the problem. It means that the average demand has a direct relationship with shortage in a period. This constraint, which is related to the costs of credit loss of the organization due to product shortage, has been considered in the inventory model. In this paper, the mathematical model of this problem has been presented and then, two heuristic approaches based on the genetic and simulated annealing algorithms are developed. Computational results indicate that the simulated annealing algorithm can provide better results compare to the genetic algorithm.

  20. Proposal of a risk model for vehicular traffic: A Boltzmann-type kinetic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Freguglia, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a Boltzmann-type kinetic model describing the interplay between vehicle dynamics and safety aspects in vehicular traffic. Sticking to the idea that the macroscopic characteristics of traffic flow, including the distribution of the driving risk along a road, are ultimately generated by one-to-one interactions among drivers, the model links the personal (i.e., individual) risk to the changes of speeds of single vehicles and implements a probabilistic description of such microscopic interactions in a Boltzmann-type collisional operator. By means of suitable statistical moments of the kinetic distribution function, it is finally possible to recover macroscopic relationships between the average risk and the road congestion, which show an interesting and reasonable correlation with the well-known free and congested phases of the flow of vehicles.

  1. A proposed study on the transplacental transport of parabens in the human placental perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Line; Zuri, Giuseppina; Andersen, Maria H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-12-01

    Human exposure to parabens as a preservative used in personal care products is of increasing concern, as there is evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies of hormone disruption in association with exposure to parabens. Transport across the placenta could be critical for risk assessment, but the available data are sparse. The aim is to develop a method for estimating fetal exposure, via the placenta, to the most commonly-used parabens, by using a human placental perfusion model. The use of human tissue is vital for determining human fetal exposure, because animal studies are of little relevance, since the placenta exhibits significant interspecies variation. An HPLC model is currently being established to simultaneously quantify four different parabens, namely, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, and their main metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. With this model, we aim to determine the transport kinetics of these parabens across the human placenta, and to investigate placental metabolism, including differences in transport due to molecular characteristics. This will facilitate assessment of the risks associated with the use of paraben-containing products during pregnancy. 2013 FRAME.

  2. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  3. A review of the proposed role of neutrophils in rodent amebic liver abscess models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Meza, Manuel; Jarillo-Luna, Rosa Adriana; Drago-Serrano, María Elisa; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Cárdenas-Jaramillo, Luz María; Pacheco-Yepez, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Host invasion by Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic agent of amebiasis, can lead to the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA). Due to the difficulty of exploring host and amebic factors involved in the pathogenesis of ALA in humans, most studies have been conducted with animal models (e.g., mice, gerbils, and hamsters). Histopathological findings reveal that the chronic phase of ALA in humans corresponds to lytic or liquefactive necrosis, whereas in rodent models there is granulomatous inflammation. However, the use of animal models has provided important information on molecules and mechanisms of the host/parasite interaction. Hence, the present review discusses the possible role of neutrophils in the effector immune response in ALA in rodents. Properly activated neutrophils are probably successful in eliminating amebas through oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms, including neutrophil degranulation, the generation of free radicals (O2−, H2O2, HOCl) and peroxynitrite, the activation of NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzymes, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). On the other hand, if amebas are not eliminated in the early stages of infection, they trigger a prolonged and exaggerated inflammatory response that apparently causes ALAs. Genetic differences in animals and humans are likely to be key to a successful host immune response. PMID:26880421

  4. A review of the proposed role of neutrophils in rodent amebic liver abscess models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Rodríguez Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Host invasion by Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogenic agent of amebiasis, can lead to the development of amebic liver abscess (ALA. Due to the difficulty of exploring host and amebic factors involved in the pathogenesis of ALA in humans, most studies have been conducted with animal models (e.g., mice, gerbils, and hamsters. Histopathological findings reveal that the chronic phase of ALA in humans corresponds to lytic or liquefactive necrosis, whereas in rodent models there is granulomatous inflammation. However, the use of animal models has provided important information on molecules and mechanisms of the host/parasite interaction. Hence, the present review discusses the possible role of neutrophils in the effector immune response in ALA in rodents. Properly activated neutrophils are probably successful in eliminating amebas through oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms, including neutrophil degranulation, the generation of free radicals (O2−, H2O2, HOCl and peroxynitrite, the activation of NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO enzymes, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. On the other hand, if amebas are not eliminated in the early stages of infection, they trigger a prolonged and exaggerated inflammatory response that apparently causes ALAs. Genetic differences in animals and humans are likely to be key to a successful host immune response.

  5. Proposal for the modification of the conventional model for establishing performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Sandberg, Sverre

    2015-05-01

    Appropriate quality of test results is fundamental to the work of the medical laboratory. How to define the level of quality needed is a question that has been subject to much debate. Quality specifications have been defined based on criteria derived from the clinical applicability, validity of reference limits and reference change values, state-of-the-art performance, and other criteria, depending on the clinical application or technical characteristics of the measurement. Quality specifications are often expressed as the total error allowable (TEA) - the total amount of error that is medically, administratively, or legally acceptable. Following the TEA concept, bias and imprecision are combined into one number representing the "maximum allowable" error in the result. The commonly accepted method for calculation of the allowable error based on biological variation might, however, have room for improvement. In the present paper, we discuss common theories on the determination of quality specifications. A model is presented that combines the state-of-the-art with biological variation for the calculation of performance specifications. The validity of reference limits and reference change values are central to this model. The model applies to almost any test if biological variation can be defined. A pragmatic method for the design of internal quality control is presented.

  6. A first proposal for a general description model of forensic traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Ina; Schäler, Martin; Vielhauer, Claus; Saake, Gunter; Hildebrandt, Mario

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the amount of digitally captured traces at crime scenes increased rapidly. There are various kinds of such traces, like pick marks on locks, latent fingerprints on various surfaces as well as different micro traces. Those traces are different from each other not only in kind but also in which information they provide. Every kind of trace has its own properties (e.g., minutiae for fingerprints, or raking traces for locks) but there are also large amounts of metadata which all traces have in common like location, time and other additional information in relation to crime scenes. For selected types of crime scene traces, type-specific databases already exist, such as the ViCLAS for sexual offences, the IBIS for ballistic forensics or the AFIS for fingerprints. These existing forensic databases strongly differ in the trace description models. For forensic experts it would be beneficial to work with only one database capable of handling all possible forensic traces acquired at a crime scene. This is especially the case when different kinds of traces are interrelated (e.g., fingerprints and ballistic marks on a bullet casing). Unfortunately, current research on interrelated traces as well as general forensic data models and structures is not mature enough to build such an encompassing forensic database. Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of contact-less scanning make it possible to acquire different kinds of traces with the same device. Therefore the data of these traces is structured similarly what simplifies the design of a general forensic data model for different kinds of traces. In this paper we introduce a first common description model for different forensic trace types. Furthermore, we apply for selected trace types from the well established database schema development process the phases of transferring expert knowledge in the corresponding forensic fields into an extendible, database-driven, generalised forensic description model. The

  7. New Light-Travel Time Models and Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Planetary System HU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Hinse, Tobias C; Gozdziewski, Krzysztof; Haghighipour, Nader; Lee, Chung-Uk; Scullion, Eamon M

    2011-01-01

    In this work we propose a new orbital architecture for the two proposed circumbinary planets around the polar eclipsing binary HU Aquarii. We base the new two-planet, light-travel time model on the result of a Monte Carlo simulation driving a least-squares Levenberg-Marquardt minimisation algorithm on the observed eclipse egress times. Our best-fitting model with $\\chi_{r}^2=1.43$ resulted in high final eccentricities for the two companions leading to an unstable orbital configuration. From a large ensemble of initial guesses we examined the distribution of final eccentricities and semi-major axes for different $\\chi_{r}^2$ parameter intervals and encountered qualitatively a second population of best-fitting parameters. The main characteristic of this population is described by low-eccentric orbits favouring long-term orbital stability of the system. We present our best-fitting model candidate for the proposed two-planet system and demonstrate orbital stability over one million years using numerical integrati...

  8. Fuzzy Modelling applied to the Analysis of Landscape: A proposal for participatory environmental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucirene Vitória Góes França

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the use of fuzzy logic as inference tool to decision support in analyzes of the landscape. For this, was created a mathematical model in order to express more realistically the environmental condition of the landscape. Through the construction of a environmental quality fuzzy index for the landscape, with emphasis on physical, biotic and social environments, as well as weighting criteria (severity, significance and magnitude, it was possible to articulate a method to evaluation harmful human actions to the environment, which are often subjectively treated, by the presence of uncertainty and personal considerations... Keywords: Landscape; Fuzzy; Jundiai-Mirim River.

  9. Respect for the complexity of human learning: a proposal for a new model of teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R. Muskat

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available "Inclusion" is hard to implement worldwide. In the U.S.A. and Canada, one obstacle is the division between "general" and "special" education. To facilitate inclusion of exceptional students, a new model of teacher training is needed. This piece introduces the System for Understanding Individual Learning Performance (S.U.I.L.P.. Derived from neuropsychology, cross-cultural psychology, education, and sociology, the S.U.I.L.P. provides a holistic framework and common vocabulary for understanding learning performance in all learners--across development and different contexts. It also establishes avenues for collaboration and eventual merging of general and special education.

  10. Does menopause start earlier in smokers? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

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    Paula de Holanda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: cigarette smoking has been the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with earlier menopause. This preliminary study based on cross-sectional data aimed to analyze the association between smoking status and age of onset of menopause in a Brazilian population. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,222 female employees of Rio de Janeiro university campuses aged over 35 years who were at risk of natural menopause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between smoking status and age at the onset of menopause, adjusting for education, parity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: current smokers showed a 56% increase in the risk of menopause, being 1.8 years younger at menopause onset compared with women who had never smoked. However, no differences were observed between former smokers and women who had never smoked. The adjusted median age at menopause was 49.5 years for current smokers and 51.3 years for women who had never smoked (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest a deleterious but potentially reversible effect of smoking on the age of onset of menopause, which should receive greater attention in tobacco control efforts. Longitudinal analyses of this association will be carried out in the future in a follow-up study of this population.

  11. Role of internal medicine in a new model of hospital: a proposal of Tuscany’s FADOI

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    M. Alessandri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Tuscany’s FADOI society proposes the role of internal medicine in a new model of hospital care. The cornerstones of this new model are the “care intensity” and the “department”. We propose that hospital care should be organized so that the patient and his needs represent the core of this care system, in accordance with the idea of the progressive patient care. This aim can be obtained by dividing the hospital’s areas for intensity of care and, therefore, going beyond the present model of hospital care, where the patients are treated in specialty divisions. This new model of care may find its own execution within the department. For medical area, the department of medicine undoubtedly offers a strong multidisciplinary integration and favours the organization for intensity of care. The management of a large amount of patients should be left to the internist. In fact, because of his olistic formation, this clinician seems more appropriate than the other specialists to play this role. The specialists will take care of those patients who suffer from disturbances with a strong specialistic characterization, and in other cases acting as consultants. CONCLUSIONS In Tuscany we can now view various experiences which are trying to experiment this model. Results are encouraging. Starting from these results and greatly believing in them, we offer this contribute to the internists who work in hospital, persuaded to draw from them useful matters for discussion.

  12. Modeling oscillatory dynamics in brain microcircuits as a way to help uncover neurological disease mechanisms: A proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, F. K. [Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Krembil Discovery Tower, Toronto Western Hospital, 60 Leonard Street, 7th floor, 7KD411, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Sciences Building, 3rd Floor, 1 King' s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada); Ferguson, K. A. [Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Krembil Discovery Tower, Toronto Western Hospital, 60 Leonard Street, 7th floor, 7KD411, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Sciences Building, 3rd Floor, 1 King' s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    There is an undisputed need and requirement for theoretical and computational studies in Neuroscience today. Furthermore, it is clear that oscillatory dynamical output from brain networks is representative of various behavioural states, and it is becoming clear that one could consider these outputs as measures of normal and pathological brain states. Although mathematical modeling of oscillatory dynamics in the context of neurological disease exists, it is a highly challenging endeavour because of the many levels of organization in the nervous system. This challenge is coupled with the increasing knowledge of cellular specificity and network dysfunction that is associated with disease. Recently, whole hippocampus in vitro preparations from control animals have been shown to spontaneously express oscillatory activities. In addition, when using preparations derived from animal models of disease, these activities show particular alterations. These preparations present an opportunity to address challenges involved with using models to gain insight because of easier access to simultaneous cellular and network measurements, and pharmacological modulations. We propose that by developing and using models with direct links to experiment at multiple levels, which at least include cellular and microcircuit, a cycling can be set up and used to help us determine critical mechanisms underlying neurological disease. We illustrate our proposal using our previously developed inhibitory network models in the context of these whole hippocampus preparations and show the importance of having direct links at multiple levels.

  13. Business Models in the Smart Grid: Challenges, Opportunities and Proposals for Prosumer Profitability

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    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering that non-renewable energy resources are dwindling, the smart grid turns out to be one of the most promising and compelling systems for the future of energy. Not only does it combine efficient energy consumption with avant-garde technologies related to renewable energies, but it is also capable of providing several beneficial utilities, such as power monitoring and data provision. When smart grid end users turn into prosumers, they become arguably the most important value creators within the smart grid and a decisive agent of change in terms of electricity usage. There is a plethora of research and development areas related to the smart grid that can be exploited for new business opportunities, thus spawning another branch of the so-called “green economy” focused on turning smart energy usage into a profitable business. This paper deals with emerging business models for smart grid prosumers, their strengths and weaknesses and puts forward new prosumer-oriented business models, along with their value propositions.

  14. Proposal of Implicit Coordination Model for Performance Enhancement Using Sprint Zero

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    M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrum model always welcome the new requirements from customer at any stage of software development. This situation creates problem for development team to meet estimated timelines. The Scrum development team is always under heavy workload and stress because of this situation. A high level of coordination among team members is required in order to overcome this work pressure and meet quality demands within estimated time and cost. Scrum model emphasis to coordinate through communication to cope with changing requirements. Scrum development is facing new challenges to meet high quality demands with critical timeline environment. The ability of a team to act intelligently in such situation is gaining key position for the survival and success of an organization. The goal of this paper is to highlight the role of implicit coordination helping the software development team members to act intelligently in time demand environment to achieve common goals. Implicit coordination among team members during sprint zero development can show significant improvement in team performance. This will help to achieve high quality product under heavy workload within estimated time period. A survey is conducted to validate the research i.e., implicit coordination has strong impact for successful implementation of Scrum methodology.

  15. Evaluation of kinetic models for industrial acetic fermentation: proposal of a new model optimized by genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, José M; Pizarro, Consuelo; Garrido-Vidal, Diego

    2003-01-01

    The most important kinetic models developed for acetic fermentation were evaluated to study their ability to explain the behavior of the industrial process of acetification. Each model was introduced into a simulation environment capable of replicating the conditions of the industrial plant. In this paper, it is proven that these models are not suitable to predict the evolution of the industrial fermentation by the comparison of the simulation results with an average sequence calculated from the industrial data. Therefore, a new kinetic model for the industrial acetic fermentation was developed. The kinetic parameters of the model were optimized by a specifically designed genetic algorithm. Only the representative sequence of industrial concentrations of acetic acid was required. The main novelty of the algorithm is the four-composed desirability function that works properly as the response to maximize. The new model developed is capable of explaining the behavior of the industrial process. The predictive ability of the model has been compared with that of the other models studied.

  16. Proposal of a flexible structural-organizing model for the Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, G; Radrizzani, D; Rossi, C; Pezzi, A; Anghileri, A; Boffelli, S; Giardino, M; Mistraletti, G; Bertolini, G

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the capability of the Italian Group for the Evaluation of Intervention in Intensive Care Medicine (Gruppo Italiano Valutazione Interventi in Terapia Intensiva, GiViTI) Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in providing high level care (HLC) and to develop a flexible organiziational model, allowing for different levels of care in each ICU. Once the number of active beds, personnel and technology of each ICU were determined, we computed whether the available bed number and all available resources could provide HLC according to international standards. For ICUs lacking staff or equipment for safe HLC in all declared beds, we calculated the best combination between HLC and observation/monitoring beds with less need for nurses and technology (low level of care, LLC) in order to optimise the utilization of each bed. We also investigated the work organisation of physicians and nurses in these units. There are 2 070 available beds in the 293 GiViTI ICUs. To provide HLC according to international criteria, the beds would decrease to 80.9%, because 144 ICUs do not have nurses or equipment to provide HLC in each bed. In order to maximize the suitable use of available resources, these ICUs would have to reduce the HLC bed number using the regained nurse workload for LLC. Because of this, the total number of HLC beds would further decrease to 65.9% of all declared beds. During Sundays and holidays, the bed/doctor and the bed/nurse ratios increase in most ICUs. To maximize the staff and equipment resources available, the bed numbers of a general ICU providing HLC must vary, even daily, according to the level of care provided. This level is not always high for all patients present. Applying this organizing model to each ICU, we could have enough flexibility to face the different demands for assistance if the ICU is built as a large open space to achieve the best clinical model and use of resources.

  17. A Proposed Physical Model of Strain Accumulation in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F. F.; Nyst, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Strain accumulation in tectonically active regions is dependent on several factors, including background tectonic loading, steady-state dislocation processes such as creep, and transient deformation. In the San Francisco Bay (SFB) region, the most uncertain of these processes is transient deformation, which arises primarily in association with large historic earthquakes. As such it depends upon the history of faulting and the rheology of the crust and mantle, which together determine the pattern of longer-term (decade-scale) postseismic response to earthquakes. We utilize a set of 99 GPS velocity vectors in the SFB region in order to characterize the strain field and construct a physical model of its present deformation. We first perform an inversion for the continuous velocity gradient field from the discrete GPS velocity field, from which both tensor strain and rotation may be extracted. We then fit this strain field to a model of time-dependent deformation within a 135 km-wide, arcuate shear zone bounded by strong Pacific plate and Sierra Nevada block lithosphere to the SW and NE, respectively. Driving forces are purely lateral, consisting of shear zone deformation imposed by the relative motions between the thick Pacific plate and Sierra Nevada block lithospheres. Assuming depth-dependent viscoelastic structure within the shear zone, we account for the effects of steady creep on faults and viscoelastic relaxation following the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, subject to constant velocity boundary conditions on the edges of the shear zone: 38 mm/yr fault-parallel motion and variable fault-perpendicular motion. Fault creep is realized by evaluating dislocations on the creeping portions of faults in the fluid limit of the viscoelastic model. The present strain pattern is well-described as a nearly uniform shear strain oriented approximately N35° W (140 nanostrain/yr) plus a more heterogeneous N55° E uniaxial compression averaging 20

  18. Proposed Model For Industrial Waste Management Practices and Its Impact on Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Noviyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to environment protection issue, waste management becomes one of important factors in maintaining organization sustainability. In developed country, a growing number of companies began to integrate the pro environment practices, such as waste management practices, into their business strategy. In contrast, the implementation of waste management practices by business organizations in developing country, like Indonesia, is still rare. Waste generated by industries is greater than the capacity to manage this volume of waste. This poses a problem that leads to improper disposal of waste and pollution. This study aims to design a research model which investigates the relation of institutional environment including cognitive, regulatory, and normative element; manager environmental attitudes, worker environmental attitudes, environmental policy, strategic waste management practices, and financial performance.

  19. 2013 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial-Proposal to DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika; Bates, Susan

    2014-12-04

    THE SAME REQUEST WILL BE SENT TO BOTH NSF AND DOE TO EACH SUPPORT $35K. The third annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial for students and early career scientists was held from 30 July to 3 August, 2012. This event was extremely successful and, as for the tutorials in previous years, there was a greater demand than could be met. This indicates a continuing need for a tutorial of this type and we anticipate that the 2013 tutorial will be well received. The tutorial will include lectures on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running CESM, modifying components, and analyzing data. These will be targeted to the graduate student level. Attendance will be limited to a maximum of 80 students with financial support for up to 40 students. Attendees will be balanced across institutions.

  20. Proposed model for biomineralization of novel nanohydroxyapatite/vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazil, Tayra Rodrigues; Neves, Marcele Florencio das; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira, E-mail: aolobo@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UniVap), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia Biomedica; Regiani, Inacio [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, the growth mechanism of biominerals formed on plate-like nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) electrodeposited on superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} ) is presented and a model for the specific growth preference is discussed. VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films were obtained by microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition method and functionalized by oxygen plasma. nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} nanocomposites were fabricated with a direct electrodeposition of the thin nHAp films onto the VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films. The biomineralized 'scaffolds' were obtained by soaking nHAp/VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} in simulated body fluid for 7, 14 and 21 days. Results show that the carboxyl functional groups directly attached onto VAMWCNT tips after oxygen plasma treatment were essential for the acceleration of the OH- formation and the deposition of plate-like nHAp crystals (author)

  1. Proposed model for biomineralization of novel nanohydroxyapatite/vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayra Rodrigues Brazil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the growth mechanism of biominerals formed on plate-like nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp electrodeposited on superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWCNT-O2 is presented and a model for the specific growth preference is discussed. VAMWCNT-O2 films were obtained by microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition method and funcionalized by oxygen plasma. nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 nanocomposites were fabricated with a direct electrodeposition of the thin nHAp films onto the VAMWCNT-O2 films. The biomineralized "scaffolds" were obtained by soaking nHAp/VAMWCNT-O2 in simulated body fluid for 7, 14 and 21 days. Results show that the carboxyl functional groups directly attached onto VAMWCNT tips after oxygen plasma treatment were essential for the acceleration of the OH- formation and the deposition of plate-like nHAp crystals.

  2. Real-time dynamics and proposal for feasible experiments of lattice gauge-Higgs model simulated by cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Yoshihito; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Yoshiro; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2015-06-01

    Lattice gauge theory has provided a crucial non-perturbative method in studying canonical models in high-energy physics such as quantum chromodynamics. Among other models of lattice gauge theory, the lattice gauge-Higgs model is a quite important one because it describes a wide variety of phenomena/models related to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism, such as superconductivity, the standard model of particle physics, and the inflation process of the early Universe. In this paper, we first show that atomic description of the lattice gauge model allows us to explore real-time dynamics of the gauge variables by using the Gross-Pitaevskii equations. Numerical simulations of the time development of an electric flux reveal some interesting characteristics of the dynamic aspect of the model and determine its phase diagram. Next, to realize a quantum simulator of the U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model on an optical lattice filled by cold atoms, we propose two feasible methods: (i) Wannier states in the excited bands and (ii) dipolar atoms in a multilayer optical lattice. We pay attention to the constraint of Gauss's law and avoid nonlocal gauge interactions.

  3. A PROPOSAL FORECASTING MODEL FOR THE GROWTH OF THE MOBILE TELEPHONE MARKET IN BRAZIL

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    Luís Fernando Ascenção Guedes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The element that characterizes the information era is the key role of communication and connectivity, broadly speaking, in social life. Among the ways in which users can enter voice or data networks, one of the most prominent is mobile telephony.Therefore, determining the number of mobile phones in operation in Brazil over the next few years is a relevant issue for the strategic planning of firms in this sector. Thus, this article aims to define a mathematical model suitable for calculating the number of mobile phones in operation in Brazil in forthcoming years, as a function of the behavior of the following variables during the course of time: GDP per capita, population and percentage GDP growth.To this end, a quantitative study was conducted, based on secondary data taken from preceding survey; then a linear and polynomial regression was employed to correlate GDP per capita with mobile phone density. The results showed high correlation (97.5% between phone density and Brazil’s GDP growth from 2004 to 2007. This correlation is also high in Russia, India and China.Moreover, we found that the limiting value of good correlation between GDP per capita and mobile phone density is roughly US$20,000.00 and that the limit of mobile telephony penetration is approximately 120%. Thus, taking into account several economic growth rates, we estimate that the penetration of mobile telephony will take 5 to 11 years to reach its upper limit in Brazil.Key words: Mobile telephony. Prediction model. Telecommunications.

  4. A Proposed Model for Examining the Organizational Readiness Assessment of Information Systems Development: A case study of a public university

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    Mohammad Lagzian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The findings of several prior studies indicate high failure rate of Information systems implementation projects in different organizations. These studies also point to the fact that many of these failures are as a result of organizational issues as well as not paying attention to current situation of the organization in early stages of Information system development, rather than technical issues. In other words, successful implementation of an information system is directly depending on current situation of the organization. Considering high needed investment for implementing an information system project, it seems to be necessary to assess its current organizational readiness level. In this study, on the basis of a comprehensive reviewing various relevant models of readiness assessment for information systems development has been attempted to present a model about the existing realities and internal circumstances in public sector organizations and institutions emphasizing on universities and higher education institutions. Based on proposed model, to assess organizational readiness, six major dimensions (Strategic, Structural, Resources, Cultural, Managerial, and Legal were identified from the literature which was divided into 47 sub-dimensions and 142 indicators. The identified indicators can be used to assess organizational readiness in order to facilitate a purposeful and appropriate information system development and consequently to prevent the waste of organizational resources. The proposed model also was used in a public university as a case with the aim of determination of organizational readiness level, and finally several action plans were suggested based on the obtained research results.

  5. Genetics of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and proposal of an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amad, Ali; Ramoz, Nicolas; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most common mental disorders and is characterized by a pervasive pattern of emotional lability, impulsivity, interpersonal difficulties, identity disturbances, and disturbed cognition. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature concerning the genetics of BPD, including familial and twin studies, association studies, and gene-environment interaction studies. Moreover, meta-analyses were performed when at least two case-control studies testing the same polymorphism were available. For each gene variant, a pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using fixed or random effects models. Familial and twin studies largely support the potential role of a genetic vulnerability at the root of BPD, with an estimated heritability of approximately 40%. Moreover, there is evidence for both gene-environment interactions and correlations. However, association studies for BPD are sparse, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions. According to our meta-analysis, no significant associations were found for the serotonin transporter gene, the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene, or the serotonin 1B receptor gene. We hypothesize that such a discrepancy (negative association studies but high heritability of the disorder) could be understandable through a paradigm shift, in which "plasticity" genes (rather than "vulnerability" genes) would be involved. Such a framework postulates a balance between positive and negative events, which interact with plasticity genes in the genesis of BPD.

  6. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-25

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  7. A new proposal for laparoscopic left colectomy in a rat model

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    Leonardo de Castro Durães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new technique for laparoscopic segmental colectomy and primary anastomosis in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups of ten animals each. All animals underwent segmental resection of the left colon and end-to-end anastomosis. In Group I, the animals underwent laparoscopic surgery with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at a pressure of 5 mmHg. In Group II, the animals underwent pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide at a pressure of 12 mmHg. In Group III, the control group, the animals underwent open surgery. All animals were reopened on the 7th postoperative day and were evaluated for peritonitis, abscesses, anastomotic dehiscence and bowel obstruction, and the anastomosis bursting pressure was measured. RESULTS: No obstructions, peritonitis or abscesses were found in any of the animals. An animal in Group I exhibited a blocked anastomosis leakage. The average anastomosis bursting pressure in the 30 animals was 187.02 ± 68.35 mmHg. There was no significant difference in the anastomosis bursting pressure among the groups (p = 0.503 CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic experimental model was feasible and safe for segmental colectomy and anastomosis of the left colon in rats.

  8. Functional and structural changes of human erythrocyte catalase induced by cimetidine: proposed model of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Fatemeh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Jahngirvand, Mahboubeh; Almasirad, Ali; Mousavi, Zahra; Masoud, Masoudeh; Mollasalehi, Hamidreza

    2015-06-01

    In erythrocyte, catalase plays an important role to protect cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct compound which is produced during metabolic pathway of cells. Cimetidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, is used for gastrointestinal tract diseases and prevents the extra release of gastric acid. In this study, the effect of cimetidine on the activity of human erythrocyte catalase was investigated. Erythrocytes were broken by hypotonic solution. The supernatant was used for catalase assay and kinetics study. Lineweaver-Burk plot was performed to determine the type of inhibition. The kinetics data revealed that cimetidine inhibited the catalase activity by mixed inhibition. The IC50 (1.54 μM) and Ki (0.45 μM) values of cimetidine determined that the drug was bound to the enzyme with high affinity. Circular dichroism and fluorescence measurement showed that the binding of cimetidine to the enzyme affected the content of secondary structure of the enzyme as well as its conformational changes. Docking studies were carried out to detect the site in which the drug was bound to the enzyme. Molecular modeling and energy calculation of the binding showed that the cyanoguanidine group of the drug connected to Asp59 via two hydrogen bonds, while the imidazole group of the drug interacted with Phe64 in the enzyme by a hydrophobic interaction. In conclusion, cimetidine could bind to human erythrocyte catalase, and its interaction caused functional and conformational changes in the enzyme.

  9. Alpins and thibos vectorial astigmatism analyses: proposal of a linear regression model between methods

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    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine linear regression models between Alpins descriptive indices and Thibos astigmatic power vectors (APV, assessing the validity and strength of such correlations. METHODS: This case series prospectively assessed 62 eyes of 31 consecutive cataract patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism between 0.75 and 2.50 diopters in both eyes. Patients were randomly assorted among two phacoemulsification groups: one assigned to receive AcrySof®Toric intraocular lens (IOL in both eyes and another assigned to have AcrySof Natural IOL associated with limbal relaxing incisions, also in both eyes. All patients were reevaluated postoperatively at 6 months, when refractive astigmatism analysis was performed using both Alpins and Thibos methods. The ratio between Thibos postoperative APV and preoperative APV (APVratio and its linear regression to Alpins percentage of success of astigmatic surgery, percentage of astigmatism corrected and percentage of astigmatism reduction at the intended axis were assessed. RESULTS: Significant negative correlation between the ratio of post- and preoperative Thibos APVratio and Alpins percentage of success (%Success was found (Spearman's ρ=-0.93; linear regression is given by the following equation: %Success = (-APVratio + 1.00x100. CONCLUSION: The linear regression we found between APVratio and %Success permits a validated mathematical inference concerning the overall success of astigmatic surgery.

  10. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  11. Rectal Adenocarcinoma: Proposal for a Model Based on Pretreatment Prognostic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Fernando; Freire, Viviana; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Quevedo, Gerardo; Echenique, Ignacio A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Currently the choice of chemotherapy regimen in rectal cancer is made prior to surgery in contrast to colon cancer where it is made postoperatively after the pathological stage has been determined. If we could identify which are the important pretreatment prognostic factors in rectal cancer, we could then target those patients with unfavorable features to investigate potentially more effective preoperative chemotherapy regimens aimed at those with unfavorable features. The present study aims to determine pre-treatment prognostic factors that are associated with an unfavorable outcome. Methods A retrospective review of 99 rectal cancer patients operated at the Hospital Auxilio Mutuo and Hospital San Pablo was done. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and treatment data was collected. Results 54% were males. The mean ± sd age was 62.2 ± 10.4. In age-adjusted Cox model, male gender [HR (95%CI): 3.32 (1.09–10.13)], mucinous carcinoma [HR (95%CI): 3.67 (1.25–10.77)], and clinical stages II & III [HR (95%CI): 8.19 (1.08–62.08)] were predictors of poor prognosis. In multivariate age-adjusted analysis, a tendency towards a poorer prognosis was observed for male patients [HR: 2.60] CEA level ≥ 5ng/ml [HR: 2.55], mucinous carcinoma [HR:2.96], and clinical stages II & III [HR:4.96], although results were not statistically significant (p>0.05), Conclusion Although current therapeutic results are relatively favorable with preoperative 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and radiotherapy, future clinical trials should address the management of those cases with adverse pretreatment prognostic factors so that they can be treated with potentially more effective albeit more toxic chemotherapy regimens. PMID:22783696

  12. Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future

  13. A proposed experimental platform for measuring the properties of warm dense mixtures: Testing the applicability of the linear mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawreliak, James

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a proposed experimental technique for investigating the impact of chemical interactions in warm dense liquid mixtures. It uses experimental equation of state (EOS) measurements of warm dense liquid mixtures with different compositions to determine the deviation from the linear mixing model. Statistical mechanics is used to derive the EOS of a mixture with a constant pressure linear mixing term (Amagat's rule) and an interspecies interaction term. A ratio between the particle density of two different compositions of mixtures, K(P, T)i: ii, is defined. By comparing this ratio for a range of mixtures, the impact of interspecies interactions can be studied. Hydrodynamic simulations of mixtures with different carbon/hydrogen ratios are used to demonstrate the application of this proposed technique to multiple shock and ramp compression experiments. The limit of the pressure correction that can be measured due to interspecies interactions using this methodology is determined by the uncertainty in the density measurement.

  14. Locally linear manifold model for gap-filling algorithms of hyperspectral imagery: Proposed algorithms and a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Suha Ibrahim

    Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Scan Line Corrector (SLC) device, which corrects for the satellite motion, has failed since May 2003 resulting in a loss of about 22% of the data. To improve the reconstruction of Landsat 7 SLC-off images, Locally Linear Manifold (LLM) model is proposed for filling gaps in hyperspectral imagery. In this approach, each spectral band is modeled as a non-linear locally affine manifold that can be learned from the matching bands at different time instances. Moreover, each band is divided into small overlapping spatial patches. In particular, each patch is considered to be a linear combination (approximately on an affine space) of a set of corresponding patches from the same location that are adjacent in time or from the same season of the year. Fill patches are selected from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) products of the year 1984 through 2011 which have similar spatial and radiometric resolution as Landsat 7 products. Using this approach, the gap-filling process involves feasible point on the learned manifold to approximate the missing pixels. The proposed LLM framework is compared to some existing single-source (Average and Inverse Distance Weight (IDW)) and multi- source (Local Linear Histogram Matching (LLHM) and Adaptive Window Linear Histogram Matching (AWLHM)) gap-filling methodologies. We analyze the effectiveness of the proposed LLM approach through simulation examples with known ground-truth. It is shown that the LLM-model driven approach outperforms all existing recovery methods considered in this study. The superiority of LLM is illustrated by providing better reconstructed images with higher accuracy even over heterogeneous landscape. Moreover, it is relatively simple to realize algorithmically, and it needs much less computing time when compared to the state- of-the art AWLHM approach.

  15. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  16. Proposing a New Approach for Supplier Selection Based on Kraljic’s Model Using FMEA and Integer Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Arabzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, numerous methods have been proposed to deal with supplier evaluation and selection problem, but a point which has been usually neglected by researchers is the role of purchasing items. The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated approach to select suppliers and allocate orders on the basis of the nature of the purchasing items which means that this issue plays an important role in supplier selection and order allocation. Therefore, items are first categorized according to the Kraljic’s model by the use of FMEA technique. Then, suppliers are categorized and evaluated in four phases with respect to different types of purchasing items (Strategic, Bottleneck, Leverage and Routine. Finally, an integer linear programming is utilized to allocate purchasing orders to suppliers. Furthermore, an empirical example is conducted to illustrate the stage of proposed approach. Results imply that ranking of suppliers and allocation of purchasing items based on the nature of purchasing items will create more capabilities in managing purchasing items and suppliers .

  17. The Role of Interpersonal Relations in Healthcare Team Communication and Patient Safety: A Proposed Model of Interpersonal Process in Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte Tsz-Sum; Doran, Diane Marie

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety is compromised by medical errors and adverse events related to miscommunications among healthcare providers. Communication among healthcare providers is affected by human factors, such as interpersonal relations. Yet, discussions of interpersonal relations and communication are lacking in healthcare team literature. This paper proposes a theoretical framework that explains how interpersonal relations among healthcare team members affect communication and team performance, such as patient safety. We synthesized studies from health and social science disciplines to construct a theoretical framework that explicates the links among these constructs. From our synthesis, we identified two relevant theories: framework on interpersonal processes based on social relation model and the theory of relational coordination. The former involves three steps: perception, evaluation, and feedback; and the latter captures relational communicative behavior. We propose that manifestations of provider relations are embedded in the third step of the framework on interpersonal processes: feedback. Thus, varying team-member relationships lead to varying collaborative behavior, which affects patient-safety outcomes via a change in team communication. The proposed framework offers new perspectives for understanding how workplace relations affect healthcare team performance. The framework can be used by nurses, administrators, and educators to improve patient safety, team communication, or to resolve conflicts.

  18. Proposal of a Validation Framework for a New Measurement Model and its Application to the Export Performance Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carneiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive and integrated set of validation procedures to assess the satisfactoriness of measurement models of multifaceted constructs. The validation framework is then applied to a new measurement model of the economic domain of export performance, a construct for which agreement has not yet been reached in the literature concerning the appropriate representation of its complex nature. A sample of 414 large Brazilian exporters of manufactured products was collected, and five competing measurement models of the construct were proposed and comparatively assessed. Insights into the nature and structure of the construct are drawn. In the best fitting of the five tested models, export (venture performance is represented as a two-dimensional construct – past export revenues and their growth, and past export profitability, with four and two operational indicators, respectively. The set of final indicators provides a reasonable coverage of several conceptual aspects of the phenomenon, namely absolute and relative measures as well as static and dynamic orientations. There is a thorough discussion of validation steps. The validation framework advanced here is generic and comprehensive enough to be employed for modeling other multifaceted constructs in the social sciences.

  19. Evaluation of the existing triple point path models with new experimental data: proposal of an original empirical formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutillier, J.; Ehrhardt, L.; De Mezzo, S.; Deck, C.; Magnan, P.; Naz, P.; Willinger, R.

    2017-08-01

    With the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the need for better mitigation, either for building integrity or for personal security, increases in importance. Before focusing on the interaction of the shock wave with a target and the potential associated damage, knowledge must be acquired regarding the nature of the blast threat, i.e., the pressure-time history. This requirement motivates gaining further insight into the triple point (TP) path, in order to know precisely which regime the target will encounter (simple reflection or Mach reflection). Within this context, the purpose of this study is to evaluate three existing TP path empirical models, which in turn are used in other empirical models for the determination of the pressure profile. These three TP models are the empirical function of Kinney, the Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) curves, and the model of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). As discrepancies are observed between these models, new experimental data were obtained to test their reliability and a new promising formulation is proposed for scaled heights of burst ranging from 24.6-172.9 cm/kg^{1/3}.

  20. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  1. The management of asthma in the phenotype and biomarker era: The proposal of a new diagnostic-therapeutic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Bettoncelli, Germano; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Centanni, Stefano; Crimi, Nunzio; DiMaria, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Stefano; Gentili, Gilberto; Girbino, Giuseppe; Mereu, Carlo; Minghetti, Paola; Nardini, Stefano; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Papi, Alberto; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Treatment goals in asthma patients are the achievement of a good control of symptoms and the reduction of the risk of exacerbation. However, a "one-size-fits-all" therapeutic strategy is no longer appropriate to effectively pursue these goals, due to the heterogeneity of asthma. To make the treatment scenario even more complex, asthma patients often present comorbidities that may alter response to therapy. In addition, adherence to asthma treatment is poor. Given this complex and heterogeneous picture, the management of asthma is highly challenging. A clear diagnostic-therapeutic model of patients' care and the definition of the specific responsibilities of different healthcare providers appear necessary to improve clinical outcomes and better allocate healthcare resources. We present here a proposal for this model.

  2. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Model of a Proposed Six-Engine Hull-Type Seaplane Designed for Supersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, Dewey E.

    1960-01-01

    Force tests of a model of a proposed six-engine hull-type seaplane were performed in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. The results of these tests have indicated that the model had a subsonic zero-lift drag coefficient of 0.0240 with the highest zero-lift drag coefficient slightly greater than twice the subsonic drag level. Pitchup tendencies were noted for subsonic Mach numbers at relatively high lift coefficients. Wing leading-edge droop increased the maximum lift-drag ratio approximately 8 percent at a Mach number of 0.80 but this effect was negligible at a Mach number of 0.90 and above. The configuration exhibited stable lateral characteristics over the test Mach number range.

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DISTANCE MEASURES IN PROPOSED FUZZY TEXTURE MODEL FOR LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION OF REMOTELY SENSED IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jenicka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Land cover classification is a vital application area in satellite image processing domain. Texture is a useful feature in land cover classification. The classification accuracy obtained always depends on the effectiveness of the texture model, distance measure and classification algorithm used. In this work, texture features are extracted using the proposed multivariate descriptor, MFTM/MVAR that uses Multivariate Fuzzy Texture Model (MFTM supplemented with Multivariate Variance (MVAR. The K_Nearest Neighbour (KNN algorithm is used for classification due to its simplicity coupled with efficiency. The distance measures such as Log likelihood, Manhattan, Chi squared, Kullback Leibler and Bhattacharyya were used and the experiments were conducted on IRS P6 LISS-IV data. The classified images were evaluated based on error matrix, classification accuracy and Kappa statistics. From the experiments, it is found that log likelihood distance with MFTM/MVAR descriptor and KNN classifier gives 95.29% classification accuracy.

  4. Measuring Technological, Organizational and Environmental Factors Influencing the Adoption Intentions of Public Cloud Computing Using a Proposed Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minimol Anil Job

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing the intentions to adopt the public computing by the private sector firms. In this research the researcher examined the ten factors influencing the cloud computing adoption using a proposed integrated model which incorporates aspects of the Technology, Organization and Environment factors such as Complexity, Compatibility, Security Concerns, Trialability, Cost Saving, Top Management Support, Prior IT Experience, Organizational Readiness, Competitive Pressure and External Support. In order to test influencing factors a survey was conducted and one hundred and twenty two valid responses were received from IT decision makers from forty firms in different industries. The results revealed that the Compatibility, Cost Saving, Trialability and External Support are the main influential factors in the adoption intentions of public cloud computing. Future research could be built on this study by developing different model for each industry because each industry has unique characteristics that can influence the adoption of the technological innovations.

  5. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  6. Proposed Model of Predicting the Reduced Yield Axial Load of Reinforced Concrete Columns Due to Casting Deficiency Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the investigation of the effect of casting deficiencies- both experimentally and analytically on axial yield load or reinforced concrete columns. It includes 6 specimens of square section (150x150x500 mm of 24.37 MPa nominal concrete strength with 4 longitudinal steel bars of 8 mm (500 MPa nominal strength with confinement ratio ωc=0.15. Through casting procedure the necessary provisions defined by International Standards were not applied strictly in order to create construction deficiencies. These deficiencies are quantified geometrically without the use of expensive and expertise non-destructive methods and their effect on the axial load capacity of the concrete columns is calibrated trough a novel and simplified prediction model extracted by an experimental and analytical investigation that included 6 specimens. It is concluded that: a even with suitable repair, load reduction up to 22% is the outcome of the initial construction damage presence, b the lower dispersion is noted for the section damage index proposed, c extended damage alters the failure mode to brittle accompanied with longitudinal bars buckling, d the proposed model presents more than satisfying results to the load capacity prediction of repaired columns.

  7. Results of the 2016 UT modeling benchmark proposed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) obtained with models implemented in CIVA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Chatillon, Sylvain; Raillon, Raphaële; Mahaut, Steve; Lonné, Sébastien; Bannouf, Souad

    2017-02-01

    For several years, the World Federation of NDE Centers, WFNDEC, proposes benchmark studies in which simulated results (in either ultrasonic, X-rays or eddy current NDT configurations) obtained with various models are compared to experiments. This year the proposed UT benchmark proposed by CEA concerns inspection configurations with multi-skips echoes i.e. the incident beam undergoes several skips on the surface and bottom of the specimen before interacting with the defect. This technique is commonly used to inspect thin specimen and/or in case of limited access inspection. This technique relies on the use of T45° mode in order to avoid mode conversion and to facilitate the interpretation of the echoes. The inspections were carried out with two probes of different aperture working at 5MHz.

  8. Integrating theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development and psychopathology: a proposal for DSM V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2011-02-01

    Although there is growing consensus that the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) should replace the categorical view of mental disorders with a dimensional approach rooted in personality theory, no consensus has emerged about the dimensions that should be the basis of the new classification system. Moreover, recent attempts to bridge the gap between psychiatric nosology and personality theories have primarily relied on empirically-derived dimensional personality models. While this focus on empirically-derived personality theories may result in a psychometrically valid classification system, it may create a classification system that lacks theoretical and empirical comprehensiveness and has limited clinical utility. In this paper, we first argue that research findings increasingly suggest that an integration of theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development is not only possible, but also has the potential to provide a more comprehensive and clinically-relevant approach to classification and diagnosis than either approach alone. Next, we propose a comprehensive model of personality development and psychopathology based on an integration of contemporary theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality. Finally, we outline the implications of this approach for the future development of DSM, and especially its potential for developing research that addresses the interactions between psychosocial and neurobiological processes implicated in personality development and psychopathology.

  9. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilborg, T.C. van; Broekmans, F.J.; Pijpe, A.; Schrijver, L.H.; Mooij, T.M.; Oosterwijk, J.C; Verhoef, S.; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Adank, M.A.; Asperen, C.J. van; Doorn, H.C. van; Os, T.A. van; Bos, A.M.; Rookus, M.A.; Ausems, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. METHOD

  10. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H.; Mooij, Thea M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Verhoef, Senno; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Adank, Muriel A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A.; Bos, Anna M.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ausems, Margreet G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Method

  11. 75 FR 47316 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice) The... National Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: Date and Time: August 12, 2010, at 3 p.m. EDT. Subject Matter: Review and Discussion of Current Mid-Scale Research Funding Support...

  12. Use of metformin earlier in pregnancy predicts supplemental insulin therapy in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Glastras, Sarah J; Hocking, Samantha; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-06-01

    The use of metformin in gestational diabetes is safe and effective, yet some women require additional insulin therapy to achieve glycaemic targets. We found a significant association between earlier gestational age at initiation of metformin therapy and the necessity for supplemental insulin in women treated with metformin during pregnancy.

  13. The impact of newborn screening and earlier intervention on the clinical course of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F. Nicole; Fitzgerald, Dominic A.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting condition which is readily diagnosed in the vast majority of cases on newborn screening [NBS]. A diagnosis made on newborn screening translates into earlier initiation of therapies, improved growth, better lung function into the adult years and culminates in better

  14. Kinetic validation of the models for P-glycoprotein ATP hydrolysis and vanadate-induced trapping. Proposal for additional steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramón Lugo

    Full Text Available P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich dimer. Intimate knowledge of the catalytic cycle of these proteins is clearly essential for understanding their mechanism of action. P-Glycoprotein has been proposed to hydrolyse ATP by an alternating mechanism, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, including inhibition of catalytic activity by trapping of ortho-vanadate at one nucleotide-binding domain, and the observation of an asymmetric occluded state. Despite many studies of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity over the past 20 years, no comprehensive kinetic analysis has yet been carried out, and some puzzling features of its behaviour remain unexplained. In this work, we have built several progressively more complex kinetic models, and then carried out simulations and detailed analysis, to test the validity of the proposed reaction pathway employed by P-glycoprotein for ATP hydrolysis. To establish kinetic parameters for the catalytic cycle, we made use of the large amount of published data on ATP hydrolysis by hamster P-glycoprotein, both purified and in membrane vesicles. The proposed kinetic scheme(s include a high affinity priming reaction for binding of the first ATP molecule, and an independent pathway for ADP binding outside the main catalytic cycle. They can reproduce to varying degrees the observed behavior of the protein's ATPase activity and its inhibition by ortho-vanadate. The results provide new insights into the mode of action of P-glycoprotein, and some hypotheses about the

  15. DELINEATION OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPLEMENT ON THE ENHANCED PROPOSED MODEL USING DATA MINING FOR PROTEIN SEQUENCE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Basu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In post genomic era with the advent of new technologies a huge amount of complex molecular data are generated with high throughput. The management of this biological data is definitely a challenging task due to complexity and heterogeneity of data for discovering new knowledge. Issues like managing noisy and incomplete data are needed to be dealt with. Use of data mining in biological domain has made its inventory success. Discovering new knowledge from the biological data is a major challenge in data mining technique. The novelty of the proposed model is its combined use of intelligent techniques to classify the protein sequence faster and efficiently. Use of FFT, fuzzy classifier, String weighted algorithm, gram encoding method, neural network model and rough set classifier in a single model and in an appropriate place can enhance the quality of the classification system .Thus the primary challenge is to identify and classify the large protein sequences in a very fast and easy but intellectual way to decrease the time complexity and space complexity

  16. Proposal of a model of system of identification for domestic animals: a comparison between brazilian and international laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Cardoso Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humans and pets, especially dogs and cats is taking gigantic proportions, this can be seen by the data recently published by IBGE, where it was verified that the number of pets grows more than the number of child birth (IBGE, 2015. As so foreseen, the purpose of this study is to acknowledge which is the federal juridical basis related to the registration of Domestic Animals in Brazil, comparing them with the international legal standards that can be of reference, such as Canada, United States of America, Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom. This increase in pet population shows problems of many dimensions that relate to several causes in urban centers, especially when referring to zoonosis and conflicts that come from irresponsible ownership, bringing up a public health issue. The intension was to verify the possibility to adequate them to the reality encountered in Brazil, creating a model of identification for the Domestic Animals in urban areas in this country. As for that, the article addresses themes related to responsible ownership, animal welfare and models of registration already accomplished in the mentioned countries. At the end the article presents the proposal of a model for a system of identification of the Domestic Animals.

  17. Modeling and Remodeling Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    In Section 1 of this article, the author discusses the succession of models of adult writing that he and his colleagues have proposed from 1980 to the present. He notes the most important changes that differentiate earlier and later models and discusses reasons for the changes. In Section 2, he describes his recent efforts to model young…

  18. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are critically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structure of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attempts to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  19. A Model Proposal on the Use of Creative Tourism Experiences in Congress Tourism and the Congress Marketing Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen Kırant Yozcu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Congress tourism has a great importance for the extension of the tourism season, enhancement of employment opportunities and tourism revenues, promotion and efficient use of the facilities in the area. Creative Tourism provides an authentic feel for a local culture through informal, hands-on workshops and creative experiences. Ensuring that the attendants of congress tourism take part in creative tourism activities may be an example of the synergy to be achieved by including creative tourism in thecongress marketing mix. In this study the tourism marketing mix, programming, packaging, partnership, people, product, price, promotion, place, are adapted for congress tourism and a model which illustrates how to use the creative tourism experiences and activities within the marketing mix is proposed.

  20. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structue of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attemps to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  1. Clinical and genetic aspects of bicuspid aortic valve: a proposed model for family screening based on a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Baars

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac defect causing serious morbidity including valvular dysfunction and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA in around 30% of BAV patients. Cardiological screening of first-degree relatives is advised in recent guidelines given the observed familial clustering of BAV. However, guidelines regarding screening of family members and DNA testing are not unequivocal. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature on echocardiographic screening in first-degree relatives of BAV patients and to propose a model for family screening. In addition, we provide a flowchart for DNA testing. We performed a PubMed search and included studies providing data on echocardiographic screening in asymptomatic relatives of BAV patients. Nine studies were included. In 5.8-47.4% of the families BAV was shown to be familial. Of the screened first-degree relatives 1.8-11% was found to be affected with BAV. Results regarding a potential risk of TAA in first-degree relatives with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV were conflicting. The reported familial clustering of BAV underlines the importance of cardiological screening in relatives. After reviewing the available family history, patient characteristics and the results of cardiological screening in relatives, follow-up in relatives with a TAV and/or DNA testing may be advised in a subset of families. In this study we propose a model for the clinical and genetic work-up in BAV families, based on the most extensive literature review on family screening performed until now.

  2. Earlier detection can help avoid many serious complications of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, James D

    2013-11-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) has a remarkable potential for recovery. It may be within our capability to help almost all women with PPCM not only to survive, but also to completely recover heart function. Time-of-diagnosis left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥0.35 is associated with better survival rates and higher full recovery rates. Increased mortality, chronic cardiomyopathy, thromboembolic complications and serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias are associated with diagnostic LVEF <0.30. Delays in diagnosis may result in lower LVEF at diagnosis and subsequent lower recovery rates. Greater awareness of the possibility of heart failure developing in previously healthy young women, with no history of heart disease, will contribute to earlier diagnosis, with potentially better preserved heart function. Women of African descent may be at higher risk for poorer outcomes. Recent investigations suggest newer biomarkers may help with earlier detection of PPCM.

  3. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  4. Optimal HIV testing and earlier care: the way forward in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenen, T; Lundgren, J; Lazarus, Jeff;

    2008-01-01

    representing advocacy, clinical and policy areas of the HIV field, was convened in an effort to gain a common understanding on the role of HIV testing and counselling in optimizing diagnosis and the need for earlier care. Key topics discussed at the conference and described in the following articles include......The articles in this supplement were developed from a recent pan-European conference entitled 'HIV in Europe 2007: Working together for optimal testing and earlier care', which took place on 26-27 November in Brussels, Belgium. The conference, organized by a multidisciplinary group of experts......: current barriers to HIV testing across Europe, trends in the epidemiology of HIV in the region, problems associated with undiagnosed infection and the psychosocial barriers impacting on testing. The supplement also provides a summary of the World Health Organization's recommendations for HIV testing...

  5. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: C...

  7. A review of quality of life after predictive testing for and earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Panegyres, Peter K; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K

    2013-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these "patient reported outcomes" for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance toward predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health-related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care.

  8. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  9. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students.

  10. Modeling Feasibility of a Proposed Renewable Energy System with Wind and Solar Resources and Hydro Storage in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Koracin, D.; Hamilton, R.; Hagen, D.; King, K. C.

    2012-04-01

    High temporal and spatial variability in wind and solar power brings difficulties in integrating these resources into an electricity grid. These difficulties are even more emphasized in areas with complex topography due to complicated flow patterns and cloudiness evolution. This study investigates the feasibility and efficiency of a proposed renewable energy system with wind and solar resources and hydro storages in western Nevada, U.S.A. The state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used for the prediction of wind fields and incoming solar radiation at the ground surface. Forecast winds and solar radiation were evaluated with observational data from four wind masts and four meteorological towers in two months, July 2007 and January 2010. Based on a hypothetical wind farm and an assumed neighboring solar power plant both located near the hydro storage facility, as well as considering local power demand, the efficiency of the renewable energy system is projected. One of the main questions was how to optimize a schedule of activating pump storages according to the characteristics of several available hydro pumps, and wind and/or solar power predictions. The results show that segmentation of the pump-storage channel provides improved efficiency of the entire system. This modeled renewable energy system shows promise for possible applications and grid integration.

  11. Proposal of a Novel Approach to Developing Material Models for Micro-scale Composites Based on Testing and Modeling of Macro-scale Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siranosian, Antranik Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schembri, Philip Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapon Systems Engineering division's Advanced Engineering Analysis group employs material constitutive models of composites for use in simulations of components and assemblies of interest. Experimental characterization, modeling and prediction of the macro-scale (i.e. continuum) behaviors of these composite materials is generally difficult because they exhibit nonlinear behaviors on the meso- (e.g. micro-) and macro-scales. Furthermore, it can be difficult to measure and model the mechanical responses of the individual constituents and constituent interactions in the composites of interest. Current efforts to model such composite materials rely on semi-empirical models in which meso-scale properties are inferred from continuum level testing and modeling. The proposed approach involves removing the difficulties of interrogating and characterizing micro-scale behaviors by scaling-up the problem to work with macro-scale composites, with the intention of developing testing and modeling capabilities that will be applicable to the mesoscale. This approach assumes that the physical mechanisms governing the responses of the composites on the meso-scale are reproducible on the macro-scale. Working on the macro-scale simplifies the quantification of composite constituents and constituent interactions so that efforts can be focused on developing material models and the testing techniques needed for calibration and validation. Other benefits to working with macro-scale composites include the ability to engineer and manufacture—potentially using additive manufacturing techniques—composites that will support the application of advanced measurement techniques such as digital volume correlation and three-dimensional computed tomography imaging, which would aid in observing and quantifying complex behaviors that are exhibited in the macro-scale composites of interest. Ultimately, the goal of this new approach is to develop a meso

  12. Can theory be embedded in visual interventions to promote self-management? A proposed model and worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; McGhee, J

    2012-12-01

    Nurses are increasingly involved in a range of strategies to encourage patient behaviours that improve self-management. If nurses are to be involved in, or indeed lead, the development of such interventions then processes that enhance the likelihood that they will lead to evidence that is both robust and usable in practice are required. Although behavioural interventions have been predominantly based on written text or the spoken word increasing numbers are now drawing on visual media to communicate their message, despite only a growing evidence base to support it. The use of such media in health interventions is likely to increase due to technological advances enabling easier and cheaper production, and an increasing social preference for visual forms of communication. However, the development of such media is often highly pragmatic and developed intuitively rather than with theory and evidence informing their content and form. Such a process may be at best inefficient and at worst potentially harmful. This paper performs two functions. Firstly, it discusses and argues why visual based interventions may be a powerful media for behaviour change; and secondly, it proposes a model, developed from the MRC Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions, to guide the creation of theory informed visual interventions. It employs a case study of the development of an intervention to motivate involvement in a lifestyle intervention among people with increased cardiovascular risk. In doing this we argue for a step-wise model which includes: (1) the identification of a theoretical basis and associated concepts; (2) the development of visual narrative to establish structure; (3) the visual rendering of narrative and concepts; and (4) the assessment of interpretation and impact among the intended patient group. We go on to discuss the theoretical and methodological limitations of the model.

  13. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  14. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.

  15. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  16. The anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture and their relevance to allergic rhinitis: a narrative review and proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, John L; Cripps, Allan W; Smith, Peter K; Smith, Caroline A; Xue, Charlie C; Golianu, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported to mediate the antioedema effects of acupuncture, but not antihyperalgesic actions during inflammation. Other reported anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture include an antihistamine action and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, and IL-10), proinflammatory neuropeptides (such as SP, CGRP, and VIP), and neurotrophins (such as NGF and BDNF) which can enhance and prolong inflammatory response. Acupuncture has been reported to suppress the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS during experimentally induced inflammation. Downregulation of the expression and sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) after acupuncture has been reported. In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions. Many of these generic anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are of direct relevance to allergic rhinitis; however, more research is needed to elucidate specifically how immune mechanisms might be modulated by acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, and to this end a proposed model is offered to guide further research.

  17. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis has been reported to mediate the antioedema effects of acupuncture, but not antihyperalgesic actions during inflammation. Other reported anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture include an antihistamine action and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, proinflammatory neuropeptides (such as SP, CGRP, and VIP, and neurotrophins (such as NGF and BDNF which can enhance and prolong inflammatory response. Acupuncture has been reported to suppress the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS during experimentally induced inflammation. Downregulation of the expression and sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1 after acupuncture has been reported. In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions. Many of these generic anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are of direct relevance to allergic rhinitis; however, more research is needed to elucidate specifically how immune mechanisms might be modulated by acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, and to this end a proposed model is offered to guide further research.

  18. Novel information security model using proposed e-cipher method with combining the features of cryptic-steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R. Venkateswaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available prevent detection of hidden messages. Secure data transmission method, which tries to alter the originality of the data files in to some encrypted form by using different methods and techniques. Encryption of data plays a vital role in the real time environment to keep the data out of reach of unauthorized people. After encryption, the files can be transferred securely by using multiple cytological methods. In this Paper embed and de-embed processes of information hiding in various file format and carried out analysis in different approach and procedures are implemented in developing novel information security system in multimedia files like image and video, video file and other methods. Varieties of techniques for embedding information in digital audio /video have been established. In this paper we will attend the general principles and different methodology adopted based on e -cipher model for hiding secret information using cryptographic technology, and an overview of functions and techniques, the goal of this paper is to know the different areas of information hiding and tools for providing secure data transmission with proposed e-cipher algorithms.

  19. Interventional patient hygiene: discussion of the issues and a proposed model for implementation of the nursing care basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Kathleen M

    2013-10-01

    More than 140 years ago, Florence Nightingale wrote "It may seem a strange principal to enunciate as the very first requirement in a Hospital that it should do the sick no harm." Data suggests that 63% of all preventable errors are related to clinical problems that are within nursing's independent scope of practice. Many of these fall in the category of "interventional hygiene" activities and include prevention of skin injury, post-operative respiratory complications and failure to rescue. As nurses we are called upon to assure higher levels of safety and quality for our patients by our governments, professional organisations and hospital administrations. It is essential that we implement evidence based nursing care strategies to reduce avoidable errors in care so that clinical outcomes improve. The author of this paper, who coined the team "interventional patient hygiene", discusses the science related to many of these care issues and proposes an Interventional Care Model for use by nurses in redesigning how we approach nurse sensitive care practices in the future. Additionally, a change framework called "Sustaining Nursing Clinical Practice" is described to ensure reintroduction and valuing of evidence basic nursing care in conjunction with the right resources and systems to sustain the new practice.

  20. Technological Innovation Projects: Proposal For an Integrative Model Between Project Management and Knowledge Management in a Customer-Supplier Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edval da Silva Tavares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In face of strong competition, companies in Brazil have increased their financial investments in automation, offering new products and services and reducing operating costs. These companies are focusing their efforts on core competencies and, therefore, they often lack the internal expertise to implement new projects, especially those that bring technological innovation. For this reason, we use the processes of outsourcing or subcontracting to help implement such projects. The unit of analysis in this study is the project and the object of the study to analyze the process of knowledge transfer from a provider to a customer during the duration of the project, which involves new technologies. The main motivation of this work is to address the acquisition and retention of new knowledge related to projects designed for business customers. We have developed a study of three cases of multiple financial firms that buy new technologies and two suppliers of information technology. As a practical result, a management model of knowledge transfer and retention of knowledge in client companies is proposed and incorporated into project management.

  1. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease ......, and had more severe AF-related symptoms. No differences were found between the 2 groups in the risk of AF progression (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.14), stroke, non-central nervous system embolism, or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.67-1.34), all...

  2. A Numerical Analysis Research on Earlier Behavior of Molten Droplet Covered with Vapor Film at the Stage of Triggering and Propagation in Steam Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.

  3. Audio-Visual Perception of Gender by Infants Emerges Earlier for Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Quinn, Paul C.; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Berger, Carole; Loevenbruck, Hélène; Lewkowicz, David J.; Lee, Kang; Dole, Marjorie; Caldara, Roberto; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Early multisensory perceptual experiences shape the abilities of infants to perform socially-relevant visual categorization, such as the extraction of gender, age, and emotion from faces. Here, we investigated whether multisensory perception of gender is influenced by infant-directed (IDS) or adult-directed (ADS) speech. Six-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants saw side-by-side silent video-clips of talking faces (a male and a female) and heard either a soundtrack of a female or a male voice telling a story in IDS or ADS. Infants participated in only one condition, either IDS or ADS. Consistent with earlier work, infants displayed advantages in matching female relative to male faces and voices. Moreover, the new finding that emerged in the current study was that extraction of gender from face and voice was stronger at 6 months with ADS than with IDS, whereas at 9 and 12 months, matching did not differ for IDS versus ADS. The results indicate that the ability to perceive gender in audiovisual speech is influenced by speech manner. Our data suggest that infants may extract multisensory gender information developmentally earlier when looking at adults engaged in conversation with other adults (i.e., ADS) than when adults are directly talking to them (i.e., IDS). Overall, our findings imply that the circumstances of social interaction may shape early multisensory abilities to perceive gender. PMID:28060872

  4. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world.

  5. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  6. Higher Sensitivity and Earlier Identification of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity by a Nonradioactive Assay for Transglutaminase Autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher sensitive transglutaminase autoantibody (TGA assay will detect the onset of celiac disease (CD autoimmunity earlier. In developing a nonradioactive assay for TGA, we utilized electrochemiluminescence (ECL technology and compared it to a high-performance radioimmunoassay (RIA currently being used to screen patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and genetically at-risk individuals for CD. We selected 183 T1D patients with 60 patients having received biopsy and analyzed 396 sequential samples from 73 young children longitudinally followed up with TGA seroconversion, with 27 undergoing biopsy. In addition, 112 age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. With the 99th percentile of specificity, the ECL assay detected significantly more TGA positivity among patients with T1D (133/183 than RIA (114/183 and more of the sequential samples (34% from 73 children than RIA (18%. The TGA assay performed by ECL was positive in all 59 subjects with villous atrophy. Among 73 longitudinally followed up children, ECL assay had earlier detection of TGA on 34 children by a mean of 2.5 years. In conclusion, the new TGA assay by ECL has a higher sensitivity than the current RIA assay and may better predict the onset of CD.

  7. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients' demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME.

  8. Warmer waters in the Northern Territory--herald an earlier onset to the annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacups, Susan P

    2010-08-01

    The discovery that Chironex fleckeri occurs annually in northern Australia occurred long ago, possibly before written records were available by local indigenous people, however, to date the precision of this yearly phenomenon is still not fully understood. Sea surface temperature (SST) appears to be a determining factor signaling the "arrival" of C. fleckeri each year. Anthropogenic climate change modeling predicts global rises in SST. Rises in SST may result in an earlier "arrival" of C. fleckeri during the dry season, possibly necessitating extension of the official Northern Territory stinger season to commence in September (currently October through to June). This short report presents data to support this hypothesis, facilitating policy makers with an environmental cue upon which changes to current stinger season can be based--prior to painful and potentially life-threatening presentations.

  9. Thesis Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Strukturen i Thesis proposal er følgende: Først præsenteres mine konkrete empiriske forskningsprojekter som skal munde ud i afhandlingens artikler. Jeg præsenterer herefter de teoretiske overvejelser omkring oplevelsesbegrebet og forbrugerkulturteori som danner baggrund for at jeg er nået frem til...

  10. Knowledge Management Implementation at the Women’s Branch of the Institute of Public Administration in Saudi Arabia: A Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiman Saud Abokhodiar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce a proposed model of knowledge management implementation at the Women’s Branch of the Institute of Public Administration (WIPA. The model was built after a review and analysis of literature related to knowledge management implementation in higher education institutions. The research includes three sections. The first section deals with a theoretical framework of knowledge management, including a knowledge management definition, components of knowledge management systems, an academic knowledge framework, an organizational knowledge framework, and processes of knowledge management. The second section reviews and discusses the proposed model of knowledge management implementation at WIPA. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of the success factors and expected barriers to the proposed model.

  11. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also......HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  12. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  13. Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Review with Special Emphasis on Earlier Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Allison; Manian, Farrin A

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is an uncommon but serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of SEA is highly dependent on the timeliness of its diagnosis before neurological deficits develop. Unfortunately, often due to its nonspecific presentation, such as back pain, the diagnosis of SEA may be delayed in up to 75% of cases. Although many risk factors for SEA can be found in the published literature, their utility is limited by their frequent lack of objective evidence, numerousness, and absence in a significant proportion of cases. In this review, we call for a more discriminate evidence-based use of the term "risk factor" when discussing SEA and explore several approaches to its earlier diagnosis, including a simple algorithm based on its pathophysiology and serum C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  14. Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Review with Special Emphasis on Earlier Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is an uncommon but serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of SEA is highly dependent on the timeliness of its diagnosis before neurological deficits develop. Unfortunately, often due to its nonspecific presentation, such as back pain, the diagnosis of SEA may be delayed in up to 75% of cases. Although many risk factors for SEA can be found in the published literature, their utility is limited by their frequent lack of objective evidence, numerousness, and absence in a significant proportion of cases. In this review, we call for a more discriminate evidence-based use of the term “risk factor” when discussing SEA and explore several approaches to its earlier diagnosis, including a simple algorithm based on its pathophysiology and serum C-reactive protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  15. Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Earlier Lactating Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Manji; SHAN Anshan

    2008-01-01

    A total of 12 mature healthy Holstein dairy cows of the nearly body weight (580±30) kg, milk yield (22.5±2.8) kg in the early stages of lactation were selected in this experiment. The cows were randomly divided into 2 groups, every group had 6 cows, every group had 6 repeats, and every repeat had I cow. Added 20 g protected methionine in earlier lactating cow food every day. The results showed that protected methionine increased milk yield by 10.83%, testing group milk yield was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);protected methionine increased milk fat by 5.98%, testing group milk fat was significantly different than that of control (P<0.05);Milk protein increased by 2.15%, but had insignificantly different (P>0.05);dry matter of milk had the tendency of decrease, but had insignificant difference (P>0.05).

  16. Decreasing the required lumbar extensor moment induces earlier onset of flexion relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwambag, Derek P; De Carvalho, Diana E; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-10-01

    Flexion relaxation (FR) is characterized by the lumbar erector spinae (LES) becoming myoelectrically silent near full trunk flexion. This study was designed to: (1) determine if decreasing the lumbar moment during flexion would induce FR to occur earlier; (2) characterize thoracic and abdominal muscle activity during FR. Ten male participants performed four trunk flexion/extension movement conditions; lumbar moment was altered by attaching 0, 5, 10, or 15lb counterweights to the torso. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight trunk muscles. Lumbar moment, lumbar flexion and trunk inclination angles were calculated at the critical point of LES inactivation (CPLES). Results demonstrated that counterweights decreased the lumbar moment and lumbar flexion angle at CPLES (pactive throughout flexion. Abdominal muscles activated at the same instant as CPLES, except in the 15lb condition where abdominal muscles activated before CPLES resulting in a period of increased co-contraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Cayan, D.R.; Swetnam, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on the effects of 19th- and 20th-century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and compared it with hydroclimatic and land-surface data. Here, we show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and markedly in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons. The greatest increases occurred in mid-elevation, Northern Rockies forests, where land-use histories have relatively little effect on fire risks and are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.

  18. Earlier age of smoking initiation may not predict heavier cigarette consumption in later adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E R; Song, Anna V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that earlier cigarette smoking initiation in adolescence predicts greater cigarette consumption later in adolescence or adulthood. Results from these studies have been used to inform interventions for adolescent smoking. However, previous studies suffer from several important methodological limitations. The objective of the present study was to address these limitations by longitudinally and prospectively examining whether and how age of initiation of smoking among adolescents predicts cigarette consumption by age 16 or 17. Participants completed an in-class survey every 6 months for 2-3 school years. Participants included 395 adolescents (Mean age=14 years at baseline; 53.2% female) from two public high schools in Northern California (Schools A and B) who completed self-report measures of smoking initiation, number of friends who smoke, and number of whole cigarettes smoked by the final survey time point. Adolescents who were older when they first smoked one whole cigarette were 5.3 to 14.6 times more likely in School A and 2.9 to 4.3 times more likely in School B to have smoked a greater number of cigarettes by age 16 or 17. Results suggested that earlier smoking initiation may not lead to heavier cigarette consumption later in time, as has been previously shown. There may be a period of heightened vulnerability in mid- or late adolescence where smoking experimentation is more likely to lead to greater cigarette consumption. Targeting prevention efforts to adolescents aged 14 to 17 years may further reduce smoking initiation among youth, thus limiting subsequent smoking-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood.

  19. Earlier migration timing, decreasing phenotypic variation, and biocomplexity in multiple salmonid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Kovach

    Full Text Available Climate-induced phenological shifts can influence population, evolutionary, and ecological dynamics, but our understanding of these phenomena is hampered by a lack of long-term demographic data. We use a multi-decade census of 5 salmonid species representing 14 life histories in a warming Alaskan stream to address the following key questions about climate change and phenology: How consistent are temporal patterns and drivers of phenology for similar species and alternative life histories? Are shifts in phenology associated with changes in phenotypic variation? How do phenological changes influence the availability of resource subsidies? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influences migration timing--migration events are occurring earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade over the 3-5 decades, and the number of days over which migration events occur is decreasing (mean = 1.5 days per decade. Temporal trends in migration timing were not correlated with changes in intra-annual phenotypic variation, suggesting that these components of the phenotypic distribution have responded to environmental change independently. Despite commonalities across species and life histories, there was important biocomplexity in the form of disparate shifts in migration timing and variation in the environmental factors influencing migration timing for alternative life history strategies in the same population. Overall, adult populations have been stable during these phenotypic and environmental changes (λ ≈ 1.0, but the temporal availability of salmon as a resource in freshwater has decreased by nearly 30 days since 1971 due to changes in the median date of migration timing and decreases in intra-annual variation in migration timing. These novel observations advance our understanding of phenological change in response to climate warming, and indicate that climate change has influenced the ecology of

  20. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahls, Terry L; Peleg, Ika

    2009-01-01

    Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years), or colonoscopy (within 10 years); delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI), who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW). Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91); 99 (66%) were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46%) had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total) had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10%) had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65%) of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38%) had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management, focusing on following

  1. Patient- and system-related barriers for the earlier diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahls Terry L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC patients represents an opportunity to study missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Primary objective: To study the epidemiology of diagnostic delays and failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Secondary objective: To identify system- and patient-related factors that may contribute to diagnostic delays or failures to offer/complete CRC screening. Methods Setting: Rural Veterans Administration (VA Healthcare system. Participants: CRC cases diagnosed within the VA between 1/1/2000 and 3/1/2007. Data sources: progress notes, orders, and pathology, laboratory, and imaging results obtained between 1/1/1995 and 12/31/2007. Completed CRC screening was defined as a fecal occult blood test or flexible sigmoidoscopy (both within five years, or colonoscopy (within 10 years; delayed diagnosis was defined as a gap of more than six months between an abnormal test result and evidence of clinician response. A summary abstract of the antecedent clinical care for each patient was created by a certified gastroenterologist (GI, who jointly reviewed and coded the abstracts with a general internist (TW. Results The study population consisted of 150 CRC cases that met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 69.04 (range 35-91; 99 (66% were diagnosed due to symptoms; 61 cases (46% had delays associated with system factors; of them, 57 (38% of the total had delayed responses to abnormal findings. Fifteen of the cases (10% had prompt symptom evaluations but received no CRC screening; no patient factors were identified as potentially contributing to the failure to screen/offer to screen. In total, 97 (65% of the cases had missed opportunities for early diagnosis and 57 (38% had patient factors that likely contributed to the diagnostic delay or apparent failure to screen/offer to screen. Conclusion Missed opportunities for earlier CRC diagnosis were frequent. Additional studies of clinical data management

  2. GPR Investigation of an Earlier Romanesque Foundation Beneath the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, Villeveyrac, South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Paul, V. L.; Warden, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used in archeology as it is a very high resolution and nondestructive geophysical method. Information obtained from GPR provides detailed images of near-surface buried objects. GPR or other nondestructive imaging techniques are essential to permit minimal excavation of a historically sensitive building for which archeological investigation is planned. A 3-D GPR survey with 500- and 800-MHz antennas was performed on the fine gravel floor of the Gothic Abbey Church of Valmagne, near Montpellier, south of France. The whole floor area of the abbey including aisle, choir, transept, and nave was surveyed. Processed 2-D GPR profiles and time slice images of both 500- and 800-MHz data on a known buried limestone pier of earlier Romanesque construction within the survey area show distinct anomalies corresponding to the location of the object. The Romanesque pier abuts a present-day Gothic pillar inside the transept of the abbey. Several other GPR anomalies were also found. For example, n intriguing row of periodically-spaced buried objects can be seen down the center of nave which may be related to an earlier Romanesque wall. Imaging the foundations is very challenging due to low dielectric constant between foundations and host soil. Therefore the next stage is to attempt to apply 3-D seismic coherency techniques to the 3-D GPR data to better image the near subsurface structures inside the abbey. Our results shall be used to guide archeological ground-truthing and provide constraints on architectural historical models of Cistercian abbey construction.

  3. Reducing Truck Emissions at Container Terminals in a Low Carbon Economy: Proposal of a Queueing-based Bi-Objective Model for Optimizing Truck Arrival Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  4. Instructional Activities to Develop Student Concept Learning and Problem-Solving Skills in Art Education: A Proposed Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Robert J.; Webster, Nancy Comstock

    The purposes of the paper are to discuss use of a concept formation model in art education and to suggest ways in which teachers might plan and develop art instructional activities consistent with the model. Based upon a social studies model designed along the lines of Robert Gagne's learning theory, the art education model utilizes rule, concept,…

  5. Analogy, an Alternative Model.
 Critics to the standard model of analogical problems solving and proposals for an alternative one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Minervino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors made an extension of Hofstadter‘s criticisms against the standard approach in analogical thinking represented by the structure-mapping theory of Gentner and the multiconstraint theory of Holyoak and Thagard. Based on this extension, they proposed a non-serial model of analogical problem solving. Against the standard approach, the model postulates that: (a people detect and evaluate differences between mapped elements before the subprocess of inference generation and consider them in order to control it, and (b properties of an element that explain why the element could fill a certain role in the base problem resolution (PERs play a crucial role in these detection and evaluation operations, and also in post-inferences subprocesses. An experiment showed that: (a people detect and evaluate the relevance of differences between mapped elements before inference generation, (b that they inhibit the generation of literal inferences when they face relevant differences, and (c that they stop the subprocess when they recognize insuperable ones. The results also showed that base PERs are reactivated at different moments of analogical transfer. The data obtained are incompatible with the standard theories of analogical thinking, which treat inference generation as a syntactic mechanism and exclude contextual semantic analysis from the study of analogy. 

  6. The Proposal Concept of Development and Implementation in Strategy of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility in the Context of the HCS Model 3E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakál, Peter; Hrdinová, Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    This article is the result of a conceptual design methodology for the development of a sustainable strategy of sustainable corporate social responsibility (SCSR) in the context of the HCS model 3E formed, as a co-author within the stated grants and dissertation. On the basis of the use of propositional logic, the SCSR procedure is proposed for incorporation into the corporate strategy of sustainable development and the integrated management system (IMS) of the industrial enterprise. The aim of this article is the proposal of the concept of development and implementation strategy of SCSR in the context of the HCS model 3E.

  7. The Proposal Concept of Development and Implementation in Strategy of Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility in the Context of the HCS Model 3E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakál Peter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a conceptual design methodology for the development of a sustainable strategy of sustainable corporate social responsibility (SCSR in the context of the HCS model 3E formed, as a co-author within the stated grants and dissertation. On the basis of the use of propositional logic, the SCSR procedure is proposed for incorporation into the corporate strategy of sustainable development and the integrated management system (IMS of the industrial enterprise. The aim of this article is the proposal of the concept of development and implementation strategy of SCSR in the context of the HCS model 3E.

  8. Microarray profiles on age-related genes in the earlier postnatal rat visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liu; NIE Yu-hong; ZHOU Li-hua; LIN Shao-chun; WU Kai-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that both innate and adaptive mechanisms are responsible for the postnatal development of the mammalian visual cortex. Most of the studies, including gene expression analysis, were performed on the visual cortex during the critical period; few efforts were made to elucidate the molecular changes in the visual cortex during much earlier postnatal stages. The current study aimed to gain a general insight into the molecular mechanisms in the developmental process of the rat visual cortex using microarray to display the gene expression profiles of the visual cortex on postnatal days.Methods All age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats in various groups including postnatal day 0 (PO, n=20), day 10 (P10,n=15), day 20 (P20, n=15) and day 45 (P45, n=10) were sacrificed respectively. Fresh visual cortex from the binocular area (Area 17) was dissected for extraction of total RNA for microarray analyses. Taking advantage of annotation information from the gene ontology and pathway database, the gene expression profiles were systematically and globally analyzed.Results Of the 31 042 gene sequences represented on the rat expression microarray, more than 4000 of the transcripts significantly altered at days 45,20 or 10 compared to day 0. The most obvious alteration of gene expression occurred in the first ten days of the postnatal period and the genomic activities of the visual cortex maintained a high level from birth to day 45. Compared to the gene expression at birth, there were 2630 changed transcripts that shared in three postnatal periods.The up-regulated genes in most signaling pathways were more than those of the down-regulated genes.Conclusions Analyzing gene expression patterns, we provide a detailed insight into the molecular organization of the developing visual cortex in the earlier postnatal rat. The most obvious alteration of gene expression in visual cortex occurred in the first ten days. Our data were a basis to identify new

  9. Immodest Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers theoretical support for research through design (RtD) by arguing that to legitimize and make use of research through design as research, HCI researchers need to explore and clarify how RtD objects contribute to knowledge. One way to pursue this goal is to leverage knowledge...... fiction Menstruation Machine by Sputniko!, the paper explores how design objects coproduce knowledge, by working through complex design problem spaces in non-reductive ways, proposing new connections and distinctions, and embodying design ideas and processes across time and minds.......-producing tactics of the arts and humanities traditions of aesthetics, key among which is a communitywide and ongoing critical analysis of aesthetic objects. Along these lines, we argue that while the intentions of the object’s designer are important and annotations are a good mechanism to articulate them...

  10. Modelling magma-drift interaction at the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, Andrew W.; Sparks, Steve; Bokhove, Onno; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Connor, Charles B.; Hill, Britain E.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the possible ascent of alkali basalt magma containing 2 wt percent water through a dike and into a horizontal subsurface drift as part of a risk assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. On intersection of the dike with the

  11. An ontology-based well-founded proposal for modeling resources and capabilities in ArchiMate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, Carlos L.B.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Andrade Almeida, João; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Guizzardi, G.; Gasevic, D; Hatala, M.; Motahari Nezhad, H.R.; Reichert, M.U.

    The importance of capabilities and resources for portfolio management and business strategy has been recognized in the management literature and on a recent proposal to extend ArchiMate, which includes these concepts in order to improve ArchiMate’s coverage of portfolio management. This paper

  12. Arctic lakes show strong decadal trend in earlier spring ice-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Tereza; Edwards, Mary E.; Dash, Jadunandan

    2016-12-01

    The timing of the seasonal freeze-thaw cycle of arctic lakes affects ecological processes and land-atmosphere energy fluxes. We carried out detailed ice-phenology mapping of arctic lakes, based on daily surface-reflectance time series for 2000-2013 from MODIS at 250 m spatial resolution. We used over 13,300 lakes, area >1 km2, in five study areas distributed evenly across the circumpolar Arctic — the first such phenological dataset. All areas showed significant trends towards an earlier break-up, stronger than previously reported. The mean shift in break-up start ranged from -0.10 days/year (Northern Europe) to -1.05 days/year (central Siberia); the shift in break-up end was between -0.14 and -0.72 days/year. Finally, we explored the effect of temperature on break-up timing and compared results among study areas. The 0 °C isotherm shows the strongest relationship (r = 0.56-0.81) in all study areas. If the trend in early break-up continues, rapidly changing ice phenology will likely generate significant, arctic-wide impacts.

  13. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Jao, Chii-Wen; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Wang, Po-Shan; Wu, Yu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and electroencephalography (EEG), are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD) method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  14. Change in the cortical complexity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 appears earlier than clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yun Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3 have exhibited cerebral cortical involvement and various mental deficits in previous studies. Clinically, conventional measurements, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and electroencephalography (EEG, are insensitive to cerebral cortical involvement and mental deficits associated with SCA3, particularly at the early stage of the disease. We applied a three-dimensional fractal dimension (3D-FD method, which can be used to quantify the shape complexity of cortical folding, in assessing cortical degeneration. We evaluated 48 genetically confirmed SCA3 patients by employing clinical scales and magnetic resonance imaging and using 50 healthy participants as a control group. According to the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, the SCA3 patients were diagnosed with cortical dysfunction in the cerebellar cortex; however, no significant difference in the cerebral cortex was observed according to the patients' MMSE ratings. Using the 3D-FD method, we determined that cortical involvement was more extensive than involvement of traditional olivopontocerebellar regions and the corticocerebellar system. Moreover, the significant correlation between decreased 3D-FD values and disease duration may indicate atrophy of the cerebellar cortex and cerebral cortex in SCA3 patients. The change of the cerebral complexity in the SCA3 patients can be detected throughout the disease duration, especially it becomes substantial at the late stage of the disease. Furthermore, we determined that atrophy of the cerebral cortex may occur earlier than changes in MMSE scores and EEG signals.

  15. Falling through the cracks? Missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in a New York City Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Jolene H; Wiener, Dan E; Newman, David H; Sharp, Victoria L; Egan, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Summary Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients have frequent health care encounters prior to diagnosis representing missed opportunities for diagnosis. This study determines the proportion of patients with new HIV diagnoses with encounters in the 3 years prior to diagnosis. We describe the characteristics of newly diagnosed patients and of "late testers" (CD4 diagnosis). We identified all newly diagnosed with HIV in emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient settings between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009. Data abstractors searched hospital records to identify all emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient visits for the 3 years prior to diagnosis. In all, 23,271 HIV tests were performed and 253 persons were newly diagnosed (1.1%); 152 new positives (60.1%) made at least one prior visit. Of patients with CD4 counts available, 104/175 (59.4%) had CD4 HIV-positive patients had multiple encounters prior to diagnosis. Many of these patients presented with CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm(3), indicating true missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis.

  16. Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Band, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates associations between adult attachment style, relationships with significant others during childhood, traumatic life-events and schizotypy. Relationships between attachment and hypothesized correlates were investigated in a cross-sectional design using an analogue sample. The reliability of the attachment and trauma measures was investigated using a test-retest design. Three hundred and four students completed the self-report version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), maternal and paternal versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment History Questionnaire, a measure of trauma and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences scale through an internet website. As predicted, there were statistically significant associations between insecure attachment in adult relationships and experiences of negative interpersonal events. Both earlier interpersonal experiences and adult attachment style predicted schizotypy, and adult attachment style emerged as an independent predictor of positive schizotypal characteristics. The findings support associations between adult attachment style and previous interpersonal experiences and between adult attachment and schizotypy. The PAM is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to explore attachment styles in analogue samples and associations between attachment styles and psychotic symptoms in clinical samples.

  17. Earlier Age of Breast Cancer Onset in Israeli BRCA Carriers-Is it a Real Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranat, Sivan; Baris, Hagit; Kedar, Inbal; Shochat, Mordechai; Rizel, Shulamith; Perry, Shlomit; Margel, David; Sulkes, Aaron; Yerushalmi, Rinat

    2016-11-01

    Data on genetic anticipation in breast cancer are sparse. We sought to evaluate age at diagnosis of breast cancer in daughters with a BRCA mutation and their mothers. A review of all carriers of the BRCA mutation diagnosed with breast cancer at the Genetics Institute of a tertiary medical center in 2000-2013 yielded 80 women who could be paired with a mother with breast cancer who was either a carrier of the BRCA mutation or an obligate carrier according to pedigree analysis. Age at diagnosis, type of mutation (BRCA1, BRCA2), year of birth, and ethnicity were recorded. Paired t-test was used to analyze differences in age at cancer diagnosis between groups and subgroups. Mean age at diagnosis of breast cancer was 50.74 years (range 22-88) in the mothers and 43.85 years (range 24-75) in the daughters. The difference was statistically significant (p BRCA mutation, ethnicity, or mother's year of birth. However, on separate analysis of pairs in which the mother was diagnosed before the age of 50 years, there was no significant difference in mean age at diagnosis between mothers and daughters (~42 years for both). Daughters who carry a BRCA mutation are diagnosed with breast cancer at an earlier age than their carrier mothers, with the exception of pairs in which the mother was diagnosed before the age of 50 years. Future breast-screening guidelines may need to target specific subpopulations of BRCA mutation carriers.

  18. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  19. Real external predictivity of QSAR models: how to evaluate it? Comparison of different validation criteria and proposal of using the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Nicola; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-09-26

    The main utility of QSAR models is their ability to predict activities/properties for new chemicals, and this external prediction ability is evaluated by means of various validation criteria. As a measure for such evaluation the OECD guidelines have proposed the predictive squared correlation coefficient Q(2)(F1) (Shi et al.). However, other validation criteria have been proposed by other authors: the Golbraikh-Tropsha method, r(2)(m) (Roy), Q(2)(F2) (Schüürmann et al.), Q(2)(F3) (Consonni et al.). In QSAR studies these measures are usually in accordance, though this is not always the case, thus doubts can arise when contradictory results are obtained. It is likely that none of the aforementioned criteria is the best in every situation, so a comparative study using simulated data sets is proposed here, using threshold values suggested by the proponents or those widely used in QSAR modeling. In addition, a different and simple external validation measure, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), is proposed and compared with other criteria. Huge data sets were used to study the general behavior of validation measures, and the concordance correlation coefficient was shown to be the most restrictive. On using simulated data sets of a more realistic size, it was found that CCC was broadly in agreement, about 96% of the time, with other validation measures in accepting models as predictive, and in almost all the examples it was the most precautionary. The proposed concordance correlation coefficient also works well on real data sets, where it seems to be more stable, and helps in making decisions when the validation measures are in conflict. Since it is conceptually simple, and given its stability and restrictiveness, we propose the concordance correlation coefficient as a complementary, or alternative, more prudent measure of a QSAR model to be externally predictive.

  20. Wake Oscillator Model Proposed for the Stream-Wise Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Circular Cylinder in the Second Excitation Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万海; 杜杰; 余建星; 李敬成

    2011-01-01

    A wake oscillator model is presented for the stream-wise vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder in the second excitation region. The near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of alternate vortex shedding is modeled based on the classical van der Pol equation. An appropriate approach used in cross-Sow VIV is developed to estimate the model empirical parameters. The comparison between our calculations and experiments is carried out to validate the proposed model. It is found that the present model results agree fairly well with the experimental data.%A wake oscillator model is presented for the stream-wise vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder in the second excitation region.The near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of alternate vortex shedding is modeled based on the classical van der Pol equation.An appropriate approach used in cross-flow VIV is developed to estimate the nodel empirical parameters.The comparison between our calculations and experiments is carried out to validate the proposed model.It is found that the present model results agree fairly well with the experimental data.

  1. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Jang, Beom Seon; Kim, Yong Tai; Chun, Kwang San

    2013-09-01

    The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  2. Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Vigouroux

    Full Text Available Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation.

  3. Analysis of radioactive corrosion test specimens by means of ICP-MS. Comparison with earlier methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Roy [Forsyth Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-07-01

    In June 1992, an ICP-MS instrument (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) was commissioned for use with radioactive sample solutions at Studsvik Nuclear`s Hot Cell Laboratory. For conventional environmental samples the instrument permits the simultaneous analysis of many trace elements, but the software used in evaluation of the mass spectra is based on a library of isotopic compositions relevant only for elements in the lithosphere. Fission products and actinides, however, have isotopic compositions which are significantly different from the natural elements, and which also vary with the burnup of the nuclear fuel specimen. Consequently, a spread-sheet had to be developed which could evaluate the mass spectra with these isotopic compositions. Following these preparations, a large number of samples (about 200) from SKB`s experimental programme for the study of spent fuel corrosion have been analyzed by the ICP-MS technique. Many of these samples were archive solutions of samples which had been taken earlier in the programme. This report presents a comparison of the analytical results for uranium, plutonium, cesium, strontium and technetium by both the ICP-MS technique, and the previously used analytical methods. For three products, a satisfactory agreement between the results from the various methods was obtained, but for uranium and plutonium the ICP-MS method gave results which were 10-20% higher than the conventional methods. The comparison programme has also shown, not unexpectedly, that significant losses of plutonium from solution had occurred, by precipitation and/or absorption, in the archive solutions during storage. It can be expected that such losses also occur for the other actinides, and consequently, all the analytical results for actinides in older archive solutions must be treated with great caution. 9 refs.

  4. Liposomal pegylated doxorubicin and oxaliplatin as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Guerriero, Gabriele; Piazze, Juan; Desideri, Giovambattista; Necozione, Stefano; Rea, Silvio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and oxaliplatin (LOHP) as salvage chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) who had earlier been treated with docetaxel, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin. Treatment consisted of PLD (40 mg/m(2)) and LOHP (120 mg/m(2)) administered over 2 days, every 3 weeks. Response to therapy was assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors; toxicity was evaluated by the National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria (version 2.0). Thirty-six patients with pretreated MGC and a mean age of 66 years were recruited for the study. After a median follow-up of 11 months and 202 courses of chemotherapy administered (median, five courses per patient), the overall response rate in the 36 evaluable patients was estimated to be 28%. Grades 3 and 4 hematological toxicities were neutropenia in 44% of patients, grade 2-3 diarrhea in 14% of patients, and grade 2 neuropathy in 12 patients. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.8 and 9.2 months, respectively, with 1-year survival rate of 36%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 21-54%]. Median survival time from the diagnosis of metastatic disease was 31.5 months. Seventy-two percent of patients (n=26) (95% CI: 58-88%) obtained a clinical benefit from this chemotherapy regimen. PLD and LOHP is an active regimen, able to give palliation in a substantial percentage of MCG patients who have been pretreated with taxanes.

  5. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-06-27

    Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes.

  6. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug-related adverse events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Mei Sheng; Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To compare the patient characteristics and the inter-temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor(®) ) and sibutramine (Meridia(®) ) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less-serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. NPH Log: Validation of a New Assessment Tool Leading to Earlier Diagnosis of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer; Robison, Jamie; Hoffberger, Jamie B; Hulbert, Alicia; Sanyal, Abanti; Wemmer, Jan; Elder, Benjamin D; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) yields better postoperative outcomes. Our current tests often fail to detect significant changes at early stages. We developed a new scoring system (LP log score) to determine if this tool is more sensitive in detecting clinical differences than current tests. Material and Methods: Sixty-two consecutive new patients with suspected idiopathic NPH were studied. Secondary, previously treated and obstructive cases were not included. We collected age, pre- and post-lumbar puncture (LP) Tinetti, Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test, European NPH scale, and LP log scores. The LP log score is recorded at baseline and for seven consecutive days after removing 40 cc of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via LP. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for surgical indication. Results: The post-LP log showed improvement in 90% of people with good baseline gait tests and in 93% of people who did not show any pre-LP and post-LP change in gait tests. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to detect intention to treat when positive post-LP improvements were 4%, 100%, and 24%, respectively, for TUG, 21%, 86%, and 34%, respectively, for the Tinetti Mobility Test, 66%, 29%, and 58%, respectively, for Medical College of Virginia (MCV) grade, and 98%, 33%, and 85%, respectively, for LP log score. Pre-LP and post-LP TUG improvement and pre-LP and post-LP Tinetti improvement were not associated with a surgical indication (p > 0.05). LP log improvement was associated with surgical indication odds ratio (OR): 24.5 95% CI (2.4-248.12) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: LP log showed better sensitivity, diagnostic accuracy, and association with surgical indication than the current diagnostic approach. An LP log may be useful detecting NPH patients at earlier stages and, therefore, yield better surgical outcomes. PMID:27489752

  8. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  9. Model outputs for each hotspot site to identify the likely environmental, economic and social effects of proposed remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleskens, Luuk; Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Portuguese sites) a fire severity index under current conditions and under different technologies. The DESMICE model is informed by WB3 WOCAT database records, economic WB4 experimental results, additionally requested data on spatial variability of costs and benefits, and secondary data. It applies spatially......This report presents the PESERA-DESMICE model results for the study sites where it has been applied. Modelling has been the key strategy adopted in the DESIRE project to scale up results from the field to the regional level. The PESERA model, extended with several process descriptions to account...... for a variety of degradation types and to enable taking into account the effects of land degradation remediation options, has been calibrated to local study site conditions with local input data and verification results from WB4 trials and secondary sources. It is used to model erosion, biomass, and (for...

  10. Model outputs for each hotspot site to identify the likely environmental, economic and social effects of proposed remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleskens, Luuk; Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Portuguese sites) a fire severity index under current conditions and under different technologies. The DESMICE model is informed by WB3 WOCAT database records, economic WB4 experimental results, additionally requested data on spatial variability of costs and benefits, and secondary data. It applies spatially...... multiple stakeholders in very different contexts into the modelling process, in order to enhance both the realism and relevance of outputs for policy and practice; b) site-selection modelling is being applied to land degradation mitigation to enable landscape-scale assessments of the most economically...

  11. Bacteroides sartorii is an earlier heterotypic synonym of Bacteroides chinchillae and has priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2012-06-01

    Strains of the recently proposed species Bacteroides chinchillae share more than 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Bacteroides sartorii although these two species do not appear to be similar from their published descriptions. The aim of this study was to perform phenotypic and genetic analyses of both species to clarify their taxonomic position. B. chinchillae JCM 16497(T) exhibited high hsp60 gene sequence similarity with B. sartorii JCM 17136(T) (100 %) as well as B. chinchillae JCM 16498 (100 %). The hsp60 gene sequence analysis and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness observed demonstrated B. sartorii JCM 17136(T), B. chinchillae JCM 16497(T), and B. chinchillae JCM 16498 are members of a single species. Based on these data, we propose Bacteroides chinchillae as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacteroides sartorii. An emended description of B. sartorii is provided.

  12. Human olfactory mesenchymal stromal cell transplants promote remyelination and earlier improvement in gait co‐ordination after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Susan L.; Toft, Andrew; Griffin, Jacob; M. M. Emraja, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Autologous cell transplantation is a promising strategy for repair of the injured spinal cord. Here we have studied the repair potential of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from the human olfactory mucosa after transplantation into a rodent model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Investigation of peripheral type remyelination at the injury site using immunocytochemistry for P0, showed a more extensive distribution in transplanted compared with control animals. In addition to the typical distribution in the dorsal columns (common to all animals), in transplanted animals only, P0 immunolabelling was consistently detected in white matter lateral and ventral to the injury site. Transplanted animals also showed reduced cavitation. Several functional outcome measures including end‐point electrophysiological testing of dorsal column conduction and weekly behavioural testing of BBB, weight bearing and pain, showed no difference between transplanted and control animals. However, gait analysis revealed an earlier recovery of co‐ordination between forelimb and hindlimb stepping in transplanted animals. This improvement in gait may be associated with the enhanced myelination in ventral and lateral white matter, where fibre tracts important for locomotion reside. Autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells from the olfactory mucosa may therefore be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of spinal cord injury. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:639–656 PMID:28144983

  13. MODFLOW-2000 model scenarios simulating proposed groundwater pumpage near Monocks Corner, South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An existing three-dimensional model (MODFLOW-2000) by Petkewich and Campbell was modified to simulate potential changes in groundwater-level conditions caused by...

  14. Avoiding another Green Elephant - A Proposal for the Next Generation HLA based on the Model Driven Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Tolk, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    When looking through the proceedings of the recent Simulation Interoperability Workshops, a lot of papers - some of them even awarded by the committee - are dealing with alternative concepts outside or beyond the High Level Architecture (HLA): Web Services, the extensible Markup Language (XML), Java Beans, Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), etc. Similarly, requirements driven by interoperability issues have resulted in the need to use meta modeling, adaptive models, and common repositories. The use of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) as a model description language is also rapidly becoming a standard. All these concepts have relations to the HLA, but they are not part of it. There seems to be the danger that HLA is overrun by respective developments of the free market and will become irrelevant finally. ... This paper introduces the MDA concept and shows, how the HLA can be integrated to become a standard stub for simulation applications of legacy systems, systems under development, and systems of the f...

  15. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation Myocardial infarction by use of helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudsen Lars

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. Material and methods A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. Results The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26–50 km., 51–75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport

  16. Preliminary proposal of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole model for the low {beta} insertions of the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G.; Ametrano, F.; Bellomo, G.; Broggi, F.; Rossi, L.; Volpini, G. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy). Laboratorio Acceleratori e Superconduttivita` Applicata

    1995-09-01

    In recent years Nb{sub 3}Sn based conductors have shown wide applicability for superconducting magnets in many research areas like high field solenoids for laboratory experiment, for NMR spectroscopy and high field magnets for fusion. Nb{sub 3}Sn technology is progressing fast, increasing both technical reliability and availability. The Nb{sub 3}Sn technology, which has a higher critical field than NbTi, seems attractive for IR (Insertion Region) quadrupoles of large colliders . In this paper it is proposed the construction of a superconducting quadrupole wound with Nb{sub 3}Sn cable for a second generation IR inner triplet low {beta} quadrupoles, for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The low {beta} quadrupoles, control the beam focusing at collision points, therefore a gain in term of focus strength and/or coil aperture can increase significantly machine performance. Two are the main steps for the whole project: (1) design and construction of a 1 metre long quadrupole to demonstrate the actual feasibility, which is the subject of this proposal; (2) study for integration of the quadrupole in the machine and final design of 5 m long quadrupoles finalized to the LHC.

  17. Reconstruction of middle-west Pangaea in and around Mediterranean Sea : A proposal of Pangaea model A3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O.-hyeok; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the formation process of Pangaea during the period from mid-Paleozoic to early Mesozoic (300myr-200myr), and reconstructed the Pangaea from a new point of view. The reconstruction of Pangaea on the globe was performed in more elaborate way using the software G-plate than the related, previous study, by trying to put the landmass pieces together with accuracy in and around the Mediterranean Sea: We shall refer to this as Pangaea A3 model. Following the A3 model, the Pangaea seems to have been formed by the collision of Laurasia and the Gondwana. At that time the Pangaea existed as a huge landmass exclusive of the Siberia without any inland sea. However, the Laurasia broke out of the Gondwana soon after the formation. During the separation process it made an anticlockwise rotation with respect to the Gondwana. At this time, the South America also separated from the Africa, which made anticlockwise rotation, too. Until now, the Pangaea has been known to be represented as so-called C-shape. In this model the gap between the Gondwana and Laurasia becomes broader toward the east and the Tethys sea existed between them. While being in good agreement with the C-shape model, the present Pangaea model explains its formation process. One distinction between the two models is that the Tethys sea in the present model is narrower than that in the C-shape model, and it consists of a long waterway and large circular inland-sea (marine crust). The Pangaea did not undergo significant change between 300 myr and 200 myr except that the Cimmeria blocks, which were originally located in the northern edge of the continent, broke away and finally collided to the Laurasia in the course of northward drifting. New findings in the present study are believed to have improved the understanding of the Pangaea over the previous studies. The results may be summarized as follows. Firstly, the Pangaea A3 model exhibits almost complete fit of continents and landmasses

  18. Childhood Hair Product Use and Earlier Age at Menarche in a Racially Diverse Study Population: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. Methods We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18 and 77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used prior to age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (=12), adjusting for potential confounders. Results African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Conclusions Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. PMID:21421329

  19. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  20. A Proposal for a Structural Model of the Feline Calicivirus Protease Bound to the Substrate Peptide under Physiological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yokoyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feline calicivirus (FCV protease functions to cleave viral precursor proteins during productive infection. Previous studies have mapped a protease-coding region and six cleavage sites in viral precursor proteins. However, how the FCV protease interacts with its substrates remains unknown. To gain insights into the interactions, we constructed a molecular model of the FCV protease bound with the octapeptide containing a cleavage site of the capsid precursor protein by homology modeling and docking simulation. The complex model was used to screen for the substrate mimic from a chemical library by pharmacophore-based in silico screening. With this structure-based approach, we identified a compound that has physicochemical features and arrangement of the P3 and P4 sites of the substrate in the protease, is predicted to bind to FCV proteases in a mode similar to that of the authentic substrate, and has the ability to inhibit viral protease activity in vitro and in the cells, and to suppress viral replication in FCV-infected cells. The complex model was further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to refine the enzyme-substrate interactions in solution. The simulation along with a variation study predicted that the authentic substrate and anti-FCV compound share a highly conserved binding site. These results suggest the validity of our in silico model for elucidating protease-substrate interactions during FCV replication and for developing antivirals.

  1. A Proposal for a Structural Model of the Feline Calicivirus Protease Bound to the Substrate Peptide under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Masaru; Oka, Tomoichiro; Takagi, Hirotaka; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sato, Hironori

    2017-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) protease functions to cleave viral precursor proteins during productive infection. Previous studies have mapped a protease-coding region and six cleavage sites in viral precursor proteins. However, how the FCV protease interacts with its substrates remains unknown. To gain insights into the interactions, we constructed a molecular model of the FCV protease bound with the octapeptide containing a cleavage site of the capsid precursor protein by homology modeling and docking simulation. The complex model was used to screen for the substrate mimic from a chemical library by pharmacophore-based in silico screening. With this structure-based approach, we identified a compound that has physicochemical features and arrangement of the P3 and P4 sites of the substrate in the protease, is predicted to bind to FCV proteases in a mode similar to that of the authentic substrate, and has the ability to inhibit viral protease activity in vitro and in the cells, and to suppress viral replication in FCV-infected cells. The complex model was further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to refine the enzyme-substrate interactions in solution. The simulation along with a variation study predicted that the authentic substrate and anti-FCV compound share a highly conserved binding site. These results suggest the validity of our in silico model for elucidating protease-substrate interactions during FCV replication and for developing antivirals.

  2. A Proposed Theoretical Model for Exploring the Ecological Ideologies Re-vealed in the Online Chinese Resort Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑟

    2013-01-01

      Responding to the increasingly heated discussion of environmental issues and the mounting concern about ecological degradation, the present thesis is to try formulating a comprehensive and specific theoretical model for exploring the ecological ideologies revealed in the online Chinese resort profiles. In this model, Fairclough’s three-dimensional model draws upon the Subsystem of Appraisal Theory—Attitude as the specific analytical framework and the ecological philosophy in the scope of ecocriticism as the specific explanatory tool for the exploration of ecological ideologies in these texts. Thus, the present thesis finds a point where CDA, Appraisal Theory and Ecocriticism work together to conduct a discourse analysis, which not only broadens the theoretical scope of each, but makes these theories better serve the practical course of environment protection.

  3. In vitro evaluation of Zn-norfloxacin complex as a potent cytotoxic and antibacterial agent, proposed model for DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, F; Saberkari, M; Abiri, R; Motlagh, H Mohammadi; Saberkari, H

    2013-06-01

    A tetrahedral Zn(II) complex with the second generation fluoroquinolone, norfloxacin, was prepared and characterized (NOR-Zn complex, NZC). The antibacterial efficiency of the NZC was tested on two Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria by minimum inhibitory concentration method. The cytotoxic potential of NZC on MDA (human breast adenocarcinoma), Caco-2 (human colon adenocarcinoma), and Hela (human cervix carcinoma) cell lines was studied. The DNA interaction property of the NZC has been investigated using UV-vis, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared, as well as cyclic voltammetry methods. Intrinsic binding constant (K(b)), thermodynamic, and other spectroscopic and voltammetric data indicate that the NZC has more affinity for DNA than for norfloxacin and interacted with DNA via two modes: electrostatic and outside hydrogen binding. The proposed DNA binding mode supports the large enhancement in the cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of NZC.

  4. Life cycle inventory modelling of land use induced by crop consumption - Part 1: Conceptual analysis and methodological proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Nielsen, Per H.

    2008-01-01

    to reflect long-term changes, and possibly establishment of a link between crop demand and technological development. Through this approach, life cycle inventories for crops reflecting the actual land use consequences of consumption can be established.Recommendations and Perspectives. Further work (based......Background, Aims and Scope. The actual land use consequences of crop consumption are not very well reflected in existing life cycle inventories. The state of the art is that such inventories typically include data from crop production in the country in which the crop is produced, and consequently...... the inventories do not necessarily consider the land ultimately affected in the systems being studied. The aims of this study are to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and to propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within...

  5. Proposed mechanistic description of dose-dependent BDE-47 urinary elimination in mice using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, Claude, E-mail: claude.emond@umontreal.ca [BioSimulation Consulting Inc., Newark, DE (United States); Departments of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medicine Faculty, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sanders, J. Michael, E-mail: sander10@mail.nih.gov [National Cancer Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wikoff, Daniele, E-mail: dwikoff@toxstrategies.com [ToxStrategies, Austin, TX (United States); Birnbaum, Linda S., E-mail: birnbaumls@niehs.nih.gov [National Cancer Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a wide variety of consumer applications as additive flame retardants. In North America, scientists have noted continuing increases in the levels of PBDE congeners measured in human serum. Some recent studies have found that PBDEs are associated with adverse health effects in humans, in experimental animals, and wildlife. This laboratory previously demonstrated that urinary elimination of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is saturable at high doses in mice; however, this dose-dependent urinary elimination has not been observed in adult rats or immature mice. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to examine the mechanism of urinary elimination of BDE-47 in adult mice using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. To support this objective, additional laboratory data were collected to evaluate the predictions of the PBPK model using novel information from adult multi-drug resistance 1a/b knockout mice. Using the PBPK model, the roles of mouse major urinary protein (a blood protein carrier) and P-glycoprotein (an apical membrane transporter in proximal tubule cells in the kidneys, brain, intestines, and liver) were investigated in BDE-47 elimination. The resulting model and new data supported the major role of m-MUP in excretion of BDE-47 in the urine of adult mice, and a lesser role of P-gp as a transporter of BDE-47 in mice. This work expands the knowledge of BDE-47 kinetics between species and provides information for determining the relevancy of these data for human risk assessment purposes. - Highlights: • We report the first study on PBPK model on flame retardant in mice for BDE-47. • We examine mechanism of urinary elimination of BDE-47 in mice using a PBPK model. • We investigated roles of m-MUP and P-gp as transporters in urinary elimination.

  6. A radioactive seed implant on a rabbit's liver following a voxel model representation for dosimetric proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Andrade, Joao Paulo Lopes de; Costa, Igor Temponi; Teixeira, Cleuza H. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg

    2005-07-01

    Animal models have been used in experimentation with ionizing radiation. The evaluation of the energy absorbed per unit tissue mass in vivo transported by nuclear particles is a task to be performed before experimentation. Stochastic or deterministic methodology can be applied, however the dosimetric protocols applied in radiotherapy center cannot be applied directly due to the inherent small geometry and chemical composition of the animal distinct from human. The present article addresses a method in development that will predict the dose distribution into the rabbit thorax based on the solution of the transport phenomena in a voxel model. The model will be applied to simulate a seed implant experiment on a rabbit. Herein, the construction of the three-dimensional voxel model anthropomorphic -anthropometrics to the rabbit is presented. The model is assembling from a set of computer tomography of the rabbit. The computational phantom of the thorax starts at the digitalisation of the CT images, tissue definition, and color image representation of each tissue and organ. The chemical composition and mass density of each tissue is evaluated as similar date presented by ICRU-44. To treat the images, a code namely SISCODES, developed in house, was used. The in vivo experiment that will be simulated is also described. That is a implant of five seeds of 1.6x2 mm performed in a rabbit's liver. The perspective of this work is the application of the model in dosimetric studies predicting the dose distribution around the seed's implanted in vivo experiments. (author)

  7. [Proposal for a new microsurgical model for the study of induced endometriosis in Wistar rats. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ramos, P; Royo Manero, P; Pastor Oliver, C; Calleja Aguayo, E; De Martino, A; Godino, J; Bejarano Lasunción, P; Manero, F J; Pecondón, A; Vicente, B; Gracia Romero, J; Ortega, J; García Manero, M; Alcázar Zambrano, J L; González de Agüero, R; Fabre González, E; López García, G

    2009-01-01

    The current knowledge status on the patogenesis of endometriosis as well as devastating consequences of disease evolution in women's reproductive health, have promoted researchers advances in a great manner during last years. The immunologic and neangiogenesis systems implication have opened new ways of knowledge over classic theories from the beginning of the xx century. The experimental resesearch, using animal induction models. Below we explain the first steps a new induction model ("PGR1-HotDog"), based on Wistar rats using a new disease autogeneration system, created for te study of the early stages of the endometriosis.

  8. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  9. Perceived Ideological Bias in the College Classroom and the Role of Student Reflective Thinking: A Proposed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linvill, Darren L.; Mazer, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This study tests a model of students' reflective thinking, perceived ideological bias among university faculty, and reactions to ideological bias in the college classroom. Participants were 187 undergraduates who completed the Reasoning About Current Issues Questionnaire and the Political Bias in the Classroom Survey. Structural equation modeling…

  10. Proposing a Continuous Professional Development Model to Support and Enhance Professional Learning of Teachers in Special Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, M.; Steyn, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative continuous professional (CPD) model was implemented and evaluated in six special schools in Gauteng, South Africa in order to support teachers in their professional capacity. The study which reports on a two year study aimed to establish the value of the CPD programme on teachers' learning, students' outcomes and whole school…

  11. Modeling Unobserved Consideration Sets for Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new method to model consumers' consideration and choice processes. We develop a parsimonious probit type model for consideration and a multinomial probit model for choice, given consideration. Unlike earlier models of consideration ours is not prone to the curse of

  12. Modeling Unobserved Consideration Sets for Household Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; R. Paap (Richard); B. Bronnenberg; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new method to model consumers' consideration and choice processes. We develop a parsimonious probit type model for consideration and a multinomial probit model for choice, given consideration. Unlike earlier models of consideration ours is not prone to the curse of dimension

  13. A sustainable business model for Open-Access journal publishing a proposed plan for High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vigen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The High Energy Physics community over the last 15 years has achieved so-called full green Open Access through the wide dissemination of preprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green Open Access does not alleviate the economic difficulties of libraries as they are still expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold Open Access by converting a set of the existing core journals to Open Access. A Working Party has been established to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). This consortium will engage with publishers to build a sustainable model for Open Access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced by contracts with publishers of Open Access journals, where the SCOAP3 conso...

  14. Study on the noncoincidence effect phenomenon using matrix isolated Raman spectra and the proposed structural organization model of acetone in condense phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenwen; Wu, Fengqi; Zhao, Yanying; Zhou, Ran; Wang, Huigang; Zheng, Xuming; Ni, Bukuo

    2017-03-01

    The isotropic and anisotropic Raman spectra of acetone and deuterated acetone isolated in an argon matrix have been recorded for the understanding of noncoincidence effect (NCE) phenomenon. According to the matrix isolated Raman spectra and DFT calculations, we proposed aggregated model for the explanations of the acetone C=O vibration NCE phenomenon and its concentration effect. The experimental data were in consistence with the DFT calculations performed at the B3LYP-D3/6-311 G (d,p) levels based on the proposed model. The experimental identification of the monomer, dimer and trimer are reported here, and the dynamic of the transformation from monomer to aggregated structure can be easily controlled by tuning annealing temperature.

  15. The development of a friction model predicting the sliding behavior of materials pairs, especially at low temperatures: Progress report and renewal proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu; Rabinowicz, E.

    1987-03-09

    Principal objective of this renewal proposal is to develop a friction model which predicts whether a sliding system will give steady or unsteady sliding behavior at low speeds and to advance the basic understanding of the friction process. The proposed program consists of experimental and analytical studies. Experimental work will include collecting data on the material properties of the two contacting materials, namely the bulk creep behavior in tension and interfacial creep data in shear. These data will be collected both at room temperature, and at cryogenic temperatures. Interfacial creep takes place when one material is pressed against the other by a constant force and a shear force insufficient to cause gross sliding is applied. The extent to which the bulk creep properties affect the interfacial creep behavior will be determined, and this knowledge will lead to better models of the friction process.

  16. Integrated depression management: a proposed trial of a new model of care in a low vision rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gwyneth; Mellor, David; Holloway, Edith E; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Hegel, Mark T; Casten, Robin; Xie, Jing; Finkelstein, Eric; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Keeffe, Jill E

    2013-10-01

    Depression is a common problem among people with visual impairment and contributes to functional decline. This article presents a study protocol to evaluate a new model of care for those patients with depressive symptoms in which psychological treatment is integrated into low vision rehabilitation services. Low vision staff will be trained to deliver "problem solving therapy for primary care" (PST-PC), an effective psychological treatment developed specifically for delivery by non-mental health care staff. PST-PC is delivered in 8 weekly telephone sessions of 30-45 minutes duration and 4 monthly maintenance sessions. We predict this new integrated model of care will significantly reduce depressive symptoms and improve the quality of life for people with visual impairment. A randomized controlled trial of PST-PC will be implemented nationally across low vision rehabilitation services provided by Vision Australia. Clients who screen positive for depressive symptoms and meet study criteria will be randomized to receive PST-PC or usual care, consisting of a referral to their general practitioner for more detailed assessment and treatment. Outcome measures include depressive symptoms and behaviors, quality of life, coping and psychological adjustment to visual impairment. Masked assessments will take place pre- and post-intervention as well as at 6- and 12-month follow-up. We anticipate that this innovative service delivery model will lead to sustained improvements in clients' quality of life in a cost effective manner and provide an innovative service delivery model suitable for other health care areas in which depression is co-morbid.

  17. Business process modeling applied to oil pipeline and terminal processes: a proposal for TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ/GPI), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Felippe, Adriana Vieira de Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Business process modeling (BPM) using event driven process chain diagrams (EPCs) to lay out business process work flows is now widely adopted around the world. The EPC method was developed within the framework of the ARIS Toolset developed by Prof. Wilhelm-August Scheer at the Institut fur Wirtschaftsinformatik at the Universitat des Saarlandes, in the early 1990s. It is used by many companies to model, analyze and redesign business processes. As such it forms the core technique for modeling in ARIS, which serves to link the different aspects of the so-called control view, which is discussed in the section on ARIS business process modeling. This paper describes a proposal made to TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which will be jointly developed by specialists and managers from TRANSPETRO and from COPPETEC, the collaborative research arm of Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ). The proposal is based on ARIS business process modeling and is presented here according to its seven phases, as follows: information survey and definition of the project structure; mapping and analysis of Campos Eliseos Terminal (TECAM) processes; validation of TECAM process maps; mapping and analysis of the remaining organizational units' processes; validation of the remaining organizational units' process maps; proposal of a business process model for all organizational units of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais; critical analysis of the process itself and the results and potential benefits of BPM. (author)

  18. Proposal of a social alliance success model from a relationship marketing perspective: A meta-analytical study of the theoretical foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Barroso-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships between businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGOs have become widely adopted mechanisms for collaboration in addressing complex social issues, the aim being to take advantage of the two types of organizational rationale to generate mutual value. Many such alliances have proved to be unsuccessful, however. To assist managers improve the likelihood of success of their collaborative relationships, the authors propose a success model of business-NGO partnering processes based on Relationship Marketing Theory. They also analyse the theoretical bases of the model's hypotheses through a meta-analytical study of the existing literature.

  19. Qualidade total: proposta de um modelo para implantação Total quality: proposal of a model for implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Torelli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A implantação efetiva de Programas de Qualidade Total tem apresentado diversas dificuldades nas organizações em geral. As peculiaridades que envolvem cada empresa - sua estrutura de operações, seu mercado específico, sua cultura organizacional, entre outras - faz com que seja virtualmente impossível a elaboração de um único modelo detalhado de implantação. Dessa forma, é necessária a adoção de um modelo mais geral, que deve ser adaptado a cada caso particular. Neste texto, é apresentado um modelo elaborado para a implantação de um Programa de Qualidade Total em uma organização militar, prestadora de serviços na área de manutenção de aeronaves. O enfoque sistêmico utilizado na elaboração do modelo faz com que sua estrutura básica, apresentada aqui, possa ser utilizada de forma bastante geral em processos de implantação de Programas de Qualidade Total. São apresentadas diversas fases do processo de implantação, as quais deverão ser detalhadas e dispostas cronologicamente de acordo com cada situação específica.The effective implantation of Total Quality Management Programs has been presenting several dificulties. The particular features related to each organization - due to its operational structure, its specific market, its organizational culture, among others - make it virtually impossible to elaborate a uniquely deployed implantation model. Thus, it becomes necessary to adopt a general model, to be adapted to each particular case. Within this text, a model developed to implement a Total Quality Management Program in a military aircraft depot is presented. The system approach, used to develop the model, allows its basic structure to be used in a broad sense. The implantation process is partially deployed in phases, which must be scheduled and completely detailed according to each specific situation.

  20. A sustainable business model for Open-Access journal publishing: a proposed plan for High-Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vigen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Physics community over the last 15 years has achieved so-called full green Open Access through the wide dissemination of preprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green Open Access does not alleviate the economic difficulties of libraries as they are still expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold Open Access by converting a set of the existing core journals to Open Access. A Working Party has been established to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics. This consortium will engage with publishers to build a sustainable model for Open Access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced by contracts with publishers of Open Access journals, where the SCOAP3 consortium is a single financial partner.

  1. The “unknown” Greek Paleoenvironment: Curriculum Proposals through an Infusion Model for Elementary School, Using Ammonite Fossils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiliani FRAGOULI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we introduce an infusion model to “inject” ammonites and ammonite fossils in current subjects of Greek primary curriculum. Paleontology and mainly fossils attract more and more elementary students and teachers, yet in Greece this trend is solely about dinosaurs, despite the fact that the most common Greek fossils are not dinosaurs, but ammonites. Ammonites can be found in large population and diversity inside Greek rocks, as these rocks were part of Tethys΄ seafloor at their geological time. Apart from the informal sources of education, these science topics are excluded from elementary national curriculum, and leave the regional paleoenvironment and geological history practically “unknown” to students. Data collected through a pre-test study, in 558 students of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade confirmed the above belief. A post-test at the original sample, using an open ended questionnaire and students’ drawings, evaluated positively the infusion teaching model, whose core were the ammonite fossils.

  2. Mapping care processes within a hospital: a web-based proposal merging enterprise modelling and ISO normative principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, Pascal; Joubert, Michel; Quaranta, Jean-François; Fieschi, Marius

    2003-01-01

    Today, the economic and regulatory environment are pressuring hospitals and healthcare professionals to account for their results and methods of care delivery. The evaluation of the quality and the safety of care, the traceability of the acts performed and the evaluation of practices are some of the reasons underpinning current interest in clinical and hospital information systems. The structured collection of users' needs and system requirements is fundamental when installing such systems. This stage takes time and is generally misconstrued by caregivers and is of limited efficacy to analysis. We used a modelling technique designed for manufacturing processes (SADT: Structured Analysis and Design Technique). We enhanced the initial model of activity of this method and programmed a web-based tool in an object-oriented environment. This tool makes it possible to extract the data dictionary from the description of a given process and to locate documents (procedures, recommendations, instructions). Aimed at structuring needs and storing information provided by teams directly involved regarding the workings of an institution (or at least part of it), the process mapping approach has an important contribution to make in the analysis of clinical information systems.

  3. The proposal for the development of a nonformal education activities model for teachers in foundations for disadvantaged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinanarong Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic increase in the numbers of disadvantaged children (or under privileged children in the past few years has become a considerable concern for Thailand. Educators are worried about the quality of these children’s education. The demand for quality educators has increased for these children. This paper describes a newly developed model for teacher’s education. It targets the teachers who teach disadvantaged children in the foundations. The objective of the research step is to expose the children to aesthetic experience by using experiential learning and brain based learning. The target group is pre-school children who are under the care of foundations in Bangkok metropolitan areas.

  4. Testing Proposed Neuronal Models of Effective Connectivity Within the Cortico-basal Ganglia-thalamo-cortical Loop During Loss of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Lutkenhoff, Evan Scott; Bio, Branden Joseph; Laureys, Steven; Monti, Martin Max

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, a number of brain regions and connectivity patterns have been proposed to be crucial for loss and recovery of consciousness but have not been compared in detail. In a 3 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, we test the plausibility of these different neuronal models derived from theoretical and empirical knowledge. Specifically, we assess the fit of each model to the dynamic change in effective connectivity between specific cortical and subcortical regions at different consecutive levels of propofol-induced sedation by employing spectral dynamic causal modeling. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that proposed models of impaired consciousness do not fit the observed patterns of effective connectivity. Rather, the data show that loss of consciousness, at least in the context of propofol-induced sedation, is marked by a breakdown of corticopetal projections from the globus pallidus. Effective connectivity between the globus pallidus and the ventral posterior cingulate cortex, present during wakefulness, fades in the transition from lightly sedated to full loss of consciousness and returns gradually as consciousness recovers, thereby, demonstrating the dynamic shift in brain architecture of the posterior cingulate "hub" during changing states of consciousness. These findings highlight the functional role of a previously underappreciated direct pallido-cortical connectivity in supporting consciousness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Type A-B scores and insomnia among college students: a replication and extension of earlier studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, C A; Hicks, R A

    1993-12-01

    In an attempt to rationalize conflicting sets of data from earlier studies, groups of Type A- and Type B-classified university students were asked to respond to a sleep habits questionnaire that included the items of the Coren Insomnia Scale. As was the case in two earlier studies, we found significant but weak evidence from the Coren scale only that Type A-scoring students experience more sleep problems than Type B scorers. We also found, as in a recent study, a sharp increase in sleep problems among all the students sampled from the frequencies reported by similar groups in 1982.

  6. Analysis of effectiveness of three forest interventionist techniques and proposal of a new and integrated model of forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Karen Regina; Barreto, Mariana Gregorio; Francesconi, Wendy; Dalla Valle, Leandro; Mondelli, Giulliana; Abilio, Fernanda Maria; da Silva, Alexandre Marco

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of three different forest intervention techniques, in terms of phytosociological and edaphic responses, that were implemented in 2007. In a farm where trees are planted and managed for cellulose production as well as set aside for environmental conservation, four stands were analysed: three of them were considered degraded and were managed using different intervention techniques (transposition, perch, and abandonment), and a fourth stand comprising pristine vegetation was considered a control (reference). Floristic and phytosociology data were collected in three 10 × 10 m plots established in each stand. Also, a total of 48 soil samples were collected to analyse physical and chemical attributes of the topsoil for the different stands. In terms of biodiversity, all the treatments showed significantly lower values when compared to the reference area. However, the soils in all the treatment and reference stands are similar in terms of physical and chemical attributes. Taking into account the specificities of each restoration technique, we verified that the integrated use of a set of management practices, constituted by the (1) abandonment of the area and (2) following a selective killing of the eucalyptus, is the most suitable and promising model to provide fast and effective restoration in terms of environmental indicators.

  7. Proposal for a Conceptual Model for Evaluating Lean Product Development Performance: A Study of LPD Enablers in Manufacturing Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    The instability in today's market and the emerging demands for mass customized products by customers, are driving companies to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their production system and this have led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. Among such developmental architecture adopted, is the integration of lean thinking in the product development process. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance and its measurements, many companies are unable to implement and fully integrate the lean principle into their product development process and without a proper performance measurement, the performance level of the organizational value stream will be unknown and the specific area of improvement as it relates to the LPD program cannot be tracked. Hence, it will result in poor decision making in the LPD implementation. This paper therefore seeks to present a conceptual model for evaluation of LPD performances by identifying and analysing the core existing LPD enabler (Chief Engineer, Cross-functional teams, Set-based engineering, Poka-yoke (mistakeproofing), Knowledge-based environment, Value-focused planning and development, Top management support, Technology, Supplier integration, Workforce commitment and Continuous improvement culture) for assessing the LPD performance.

  8. Recent slowing of Atlantic overturning circulation as a recovery from earlier strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura C.; Peterson, K. Andrew; Roberts, Chris D.; Wood, Richard A.

    2016-07-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has weakened substantially over the past decade. Some weakening may already have occurred over the past century, and global climate models project further weakening in response to anthropogenic climate change. Such a weakening could have significant impacts on the surface climate. However, ocean model simulations based on historical conditions have often found an increase in overturning up to the mid-1990s, followed by a decrease. It is therefore not clear whether the observed weakening over the past decade is part of decadal variability or a persistent weakening. Here we examine a state-of-the-art global-ocean reanalysis product, GloSea5, which covers the years 1989 to 2015 and closely matches observations of the AMOC at 26.5° N, capturing the interannual variability and decadal trend with unprecedented accuracy. The reanalysis data place the ten years of observations--April 2004 to February 2014--into a longer-term context and suggest that the observed decrease in the overturning circulation is consistent with a recovery following a previous increase. We find that density anomalies that propagate southwards from the Labrador Sea are the most likely cause of these variations. We conclude that decadal variability probably played a key role in the decline of the AMOC observed over the past decade.

  9. Proposed model to study the economic impact of bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis: Case study of Pirassununga, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Stacchini Ferreira Homem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent implementation of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT, and the lack of economic research on animal health in Brazil, we created a model to estimate the economic impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on livestock production, using the municipality of Pirassununga/SP as a case study. The first part of our study consisted of a literature review of the estimates of losses caused by the two diseases. The impact on production was converted into economic losses, also represented by monetary values, using secondary references from 2003. The losses were calculated for the entire municipality and took into account the actual prevalence of disease in the animals, and the type of disease in each of the affected properties. The results revealed the annual losses in Pirassununga, which, at the time of the study, were as high as R$ 132,676.23 for brucellosis (updated value by the IGP-M: R$273,407.43, and between R$192,500.00 and R$ 430,252.00 for tuberculosis (values updated by the IGP-M: R$ 396,686.97 and R$ 886,825.25. These results suggest that these diseases had a significant impact on livestock production in the municipality of Pirassununga. The impacts they have on agriculture, and the economy, should be rapidly be communicated throughout Brazil because this information will significantly improve the management of veterinary sanitary processes.

  10. Proposed improvements to a model for characterizing the electrical and thermal energy performance of stirling engine micro-cogeneration devices based upon experimental observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, K. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Ugursal, V.I. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Beausoleil-Morrison, I. [Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Stirling engines (SE) are a market-ready technology suitable for residential cogeneration of heat and electricity to alleviate the increasing demand on central power grids. Advantages of this external combustion engine include high cogeneration efficiency, fuel flexibility, low noise and vibration, and low emissions. To explore and assess the feasibility of using SE based cogeneration systems in the residential sector, there is a need for an accurate and practical simulation model that can be used to conduct sensitivity and what-if analyses. A simulation model for SE based residential scale micro-cogeneration systems was recently developed; however the model is impractical due to its functional form and data requirements. Furthermore, the available experimental data lack adequate diversity to assess the model's suitability. In this paper, first the existing model is briefly presented, followed by a review of the design and implementation of a series of experiments conducted to study the performance and behaviour of the SE system and to develop extensive, and hitherto unavailable, operational data. The empirical observations are contrasted with the functional form of the existing simulation model, and improvements to the structure of the model are proposed based upon these observations. (author)

  11. Telomere shortening leads to earlier age of onset in ALS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkus, Birgit; Wiesner, Diana; MeΔner, Martina; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Scheffold, Annika; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Thal, Dietmar R.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Danzer, Karin M.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence suggests that reduced telomerase expression results in shorter telomeres in leukocytes from sporadic patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared with healthy controls. Here, we have characterized telomere length in microglia, astroglia and neurons in human post mortem brain tissue from ALS patients and healthy controls. Moreover, we studied the consequences of telomerase deletion in a genetic mouse model for ALS. We found a trend towards longer telomeres in microglia in the brains of ALS patients compared to non-neurologic controls. Knockout of telomerase leading to telomere shortening accelerated the ALS phenotype in SOD1G93A–transgenic mice. Our results suggest that telomerase dysfunction might contribute to the age-related risk for ALS. PMID:26978042

  12. Digital curation: a proposal of a semi-automatic digital object selection-based model for digital curation in Big Data environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Lima Dutra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work presents a new approach for Digital Curations from a Big Data perspective. Objective: The objective is to propose techniques to digital curations for selecting and evaluating digital objects that take into account volume, velocity, variety, reality, and the value of the data collected from multiple knowledge domains. Methodology: This is an exploratory research of applied nature, which addresses the research problem in a qualitative way. Heuristics allow this semi-automatic process to be done either by human curators or by software agents. Results: As a result, it was proposed a model for searching, processing, evaluating and selecting digital objects to be processed by digital curations. Conclusions: It is possible to use Big Data environments as a source of information resources for Digital Curation; besides, Big Data techniques and tools can support the search and selection process of information resources by Digital Curations.

  13. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of advertising messages has been based on "creative independence", sometimes catalysed by inductively generated empirical data. Due to the recent intensified focus on advertising effectiveness, this state of affairs is beginning to change. The purpose of the study....... The comparison involved the efficiency of the managerial communication taking place in the message development process as well as target group communication effects. The managerial communication was studied by interviews with the involved advertising agency (Midtmarketing, Ikast, Denmark) and client staff...... described in this article is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the sommon aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age). One of the proposals is the result of an inductive-creative process, while the other is base on the MECCAS...

  14. Neonatal cellular and gene therapies for mucopolysaccharidoses: the earlier the better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Azario, Isabella; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Pievani, Alice Silvia; Biondi, Andrea; Serafini, Marta

    2016-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). The increasing interest in newborn screening procedures for LSDs underlines the need for alternative cellular and gene therapy approaches to be developed during the perinatal period, supporting the treatment of MPS patients before the onset of clinical signs and symptoms. The rationale for considering these early therapies results from the clinical experience in the treatment of MPSs and other genetic disorders. The normal or gene-corrected hematopoiesis transplanted in patients can produce the missing protein at levels sufficient to improve and/or halt the disease-related abnormalities. However, these current therapies are only partially successful, probably due to the limited efficacy of the protein provided through the hematopoiesis. An alternative explanation is that the time at which the cellular or gene therapy procedures are performed could be too late to prevent pre-existing or progressive organ damage. Considering these aspects, in the last several years, novel cellular and gene therapy approaches have been tested in different animal models at birth, a highly early stage, showing that precocious treatment is critical to prevent long-term pathological consequences. This review provides insights into the state-of-art accomplishments made with neonatal cellular and gene-based therapies and the major barriers that need to be overcome before they can be implemented in the medical community.

  15. Black Hole on a Chip: Proposal for a Physical Realization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in a Solid-State System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.

    2017-07-01

    A system of Majorana zero modes with random infinite-range interactions—the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model—is thought to exhibit an intriguing relation to the horizons of extremal black holes in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. This connection provides a rare example of holographic duality between a solvable quantum-mechanical model and dilaton gravity. Here, we propose a physical realization of the SYK model in a solid-state system. The proposed setup employs the Fu-Kane superconductor realized at the interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator and an ordinary superconductor. The requisite N Majorana zero modes are bound to a nanoscale hole fabricated in the superconductor that is threaded by N quanta of magnetic flux. We show that when the system is tuned to the surface neutrality point (i.e., chemical potential coincident with the Dirac point of the topological insulator surface state) and the hole has sufficiently irregular shape, the Majorana zero modes are described by the SYK Hamiltonian. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the system indeed exhibits physical properties expected of the SYK model, including thermodynamic quantities and two-point as well as four-point correlators, and discuss ways in which these can be observed experimentally.

  16. Black Hole on a Chip: Proposal for a Physical Realization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in a Solid-State System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Pikulin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A system of Majorana zero modes with random infinite-range interactions—the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK model—is thought to exhibit an intriguing relation to the horizons of extremal black holes in two-dimensional anti–de Sitter space. This connection provides a rare example of holographic duality between a solvable quantum-mechanical model and dilaton gravity. Here, we propose a physical realization of the SYK model in a solid-state system. The proposed setup employs the Fu-Kane superconductor realized at the interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator and an ordinary superconductor. The requisite N Majorana zero modes are bound to a nanoscale hole fabricated in the superconductor that is threaded by N quanta of magnetic flux. We show that when the system is tuned to the surface neutrality point (i.e., chemical potential coincident with the Dirac point of the topological insulator surface state and the hole has sufficiently irregular shape, the Majorana zero modes are described by the SYK Hamiltonian. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the system indeed exhibits physical properties expected of the SYK model, including thermodynamic quantities and two-point as well as four-point correlators, and discuss ways in which these can be observed experimentally.

  17. African Americans should be screened at an earlier age for colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Ian M.; Ying, Jun; Shah, Shimul A.; Abbott, Daniel E.; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2017-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have been shown to exhibit a higher incidence of colorectal cancer and experience lower survival compared with whites. There is disagreement regarding the age at which to initiate screening in AAs. Objectives To calculate the age-specific incidence in AAs compared with whites while controlling for differences in socioeconomic status (SES) and to calculate the joinpoint at which the incidence begins to increase in each race. Design Retrospective database review. Setting Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Patients All patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum from 2000 through 2011 in the SEER 18 database. Interventions We calculated the joinpoint of the upward trend of the age-adjusted incidence rate to determine the age at which the slope of the incidence curve began to increase in each race, while controlling for differences in SES by using a composite socioeconomic index. Main Outcome Measurements Age-adjusted incidence of colon and rectal cancer. Results The age-specific incidence of colorectal cancer (cases per 100,000 population) was 0.3 versus 0.4 in whites compared with AAs at 20 years of age. At 50 years of age, the incidence was 44.2 compared with 62.6 in whites compared with AAs. The model indicated a joinpoint at 47 years of age for whites (95% confidence interval, 45–49) and 43 for AAs (95% confidence interval, 42–45) (P cancer in AAs compared with whites beginning at 45 years of age. These differences persist across socioeconomic strata. PMID:25952088

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  19. Making sense of resilience: a review from the field of paediatric psycho-oncology and a proposal of a model for its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina Castellano-Tejedor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to review the concept of resilience from the scope of paediatric psycho-oncology. The origin, its different definitions and its suitability of application in the field of serious physical illness - such as cancer - will be analyzed. Furthermore, the differences between resilience and other concepts commonly associated or confused with it, such as post-traumatic growth or benefit finding, will be discussed. Finally, a proposal for a comprehensive model of resilience in paediatric cancer will be put forward.

  20. Implementation of a Proposed Model of a Constructivist Teaching-Learning Process – A Step Towards an Outcome Based Education in Chemistry Laboratory Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Paz B. Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study implemented the proposed model of a constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the extent by which the students manifested the institutional learning outcomes which include competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration. It also investigated if there was an improvement in the learning outcomes after the implementation of the constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the students’ acceptance of the constructivist teaching-learning process. Towards the end a plan of action was proposed to enhance the students’ manifestation of the institutional learning outcomes. It made use of the qualitative- quantitative method particularly the descriptive design. The results of the study revealed that the students manifest competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration as they accept positively the constructivist teaching-learning process in their chemistry laboratory subject. It can be deduced from the findings that the constructivist teaching-learning process improved the learning outcomes of the students. The use of the proposed plan of action is recommended for an effective chemistry laboratory instruction.

  1. An Application of the Thermal Network Method to the Thermal Analysis of Multichip Packages (Proposal of a Simple Thermal Analysis Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshitaka; Ishizuka, Masaru

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, electronic circuits have been required to be smaller and lighter and to have greater complexity, more multifunctions and higher reliability. High-density multichip packaging technology has been used in order to meet these requirements. The higher the density scale, the larger the power dissipation per unit area will become. Therefore, thermal analysis becomes one of the most important design factors. However, the multichip package heat transport mode is very complex and its treatment is tedious and time consuming. This paper describes an application of the thermal network method and proposes a simple thermal analysis model for the thermal analysis of multichip packages as a preliminary thermal design tool. As a result, the validity of the thermal network method and the simple thermal analysis model can be confirmed.

  2. A monograph proposing the use of canine mammary tumours as a model for the study of hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Katie; Merner, Nancy D

    2017-05-01

    Canines are excellent models for cancer studies due to their similar physiology and genomic sequence to humans, companion status and limited intra-breed heterogeneity. Due to their affliction to mammary cancers, canines can serve as powerful genetic models of hereditary breast cancers. Variants within known human breast cancer susceptibility genes only explain a fraction of familial cases. Thus, further discovery is necessary but such efforts have been thwarted by genetic heterogeneity. Reducing heterogeneity is key, and studying isolated human populations have helped in the endeavour. An alternative is to study dog pedigrees, since artificial selection has resulted in extreme homogeneity. Identifying the genetic predisposition to canine mammary tumours can translate to human discoveries - a strategy currently underutilized. To explore this potential, we reviewed published canine mammary tumour genetic studies and proposed benefits of next generation sequencing canine cohorts to facilitate moving beyond incremental advances.

  3. Proposal of a New Model on Behavior of GHz Phonon Fluxes Amplified from Thermal Phonons in Piezoelectric Semiconducting n-CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yoshiaki; Kugo, Yukio

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a new model wherein the piezoelectric semiconducting n-CdS is recognized as a kind of complex system based on the interaction among an electron, an amplified flux and a thermal background noise in a piezoelectric field. In this model, the system metamorphoses drastically from the thermal equilibrium state in an isolated system into a “far-from-equilibrium state of turbulent chaos” in an open system when an external high voltage is applied to the CdS@. The dynamics of the amplified flux is simulated by a time-evolutional differential equation (similar to a logistic equation) composed of the White theory, the Akhieser damping theory, and the Ozaki-Mikoshiba theory. The simulation result agrees qualitatively with experimental evidence on the flux distribution in the case of a slow-rise-time pulse application.

  4. An Appraisal on the Earlier Euro Adoption by the New Member States in the Frame of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Iordache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathway of the new member states towards the euro area was stopped, but not modified by the current world economic crisis. Their inflation declined but the fiscal status suffered. On the verge of thefinancial crisis, the European Central Bank overruled the Central and Eastern European member states’ intentions for an earlier adoption of the euro, requiring compliance with the Maastricht criteria. The objective of this paper is to analyze the main proposed solutions and to draw attention on the most suitable ones in keeping with the particular features of these countries. Our conclusion is that fast results on the euro adoption will definitely depend on the fiscal consolidation, the soundness of global economic rehabilitation, the capital availability, and the domestic policies. The nature of the approached problems and the authors’ experience recommend this study, both for researchers and practitioners.

  5. Early Inflammatory Responses Following Cell Grafting in the CNS Trigger Activation of the Subventricular Zone: A Proposed Model of Sequential Cellular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jelle; Santermans, Eva; Daans, Jasmijn; Le Blon, Debbie; Hoornaert, Chloé; Goossens, Herman; Hens, Niel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    While multiple rodent preclinical studies, and to a lesser extent human clinical trials, claim the feasibility, safety, and potential clinical benefit of cell grafting in the central nervous system (CNS), currently only little convincing knowledge exists regarding the actual fate of the grafted cells and their effect on the surrounding environment (or vice versa). Our preceding studies already indicated that only a minor fraction of the initially grafted cell population survives the grafting process, while the surviving cell population becomes invaded by highly activated microglia/macrophages and surrounded by reactive astrogliosis. In the current study, we further elaborate on early cellular and inflammatory events following syngeneic grafting of eGFP(+) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) in the CNS of immunocompetent mice. Based on obtained quantitative histological data, we here propose a detailed mathematically derived working model that sequentially comprises hypoxia-induced apoptosis of grafted mEFs, neutrophil invasion, neoangiogenesis, microglia/macrophage recruitment, astrogliosis, and eventually survival of a limited number of grafted mEFs. Simultaneously, we observed that the cellular events following mEF grafting activates the subventricular zone neural stem and progenitor cell compartment. This proposed model therefore further contributes to our understanding of cell graft-induced cellular responses and will eventually allow for successful manipulation of this intervention.

  6. Proposed heat transfer model for the gas-liquid heat transfer effects observed in the Stanford Research Institute scaled tests. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M; Sonin, A A; Todreas, N

    1976-12-01

    In 1971-72, the Stanford Research Institute conducted a series of scaled experiments which simulated a sodium-vapor expansion in a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) for the Fast Flux Test Facility. A non-condensible explosive source was used to model the pressure-volume expansion characteristics of sodium vapor as predicted by computer code calculations. Rigid piston-cylinder experiments (/sup 1///sub 10/ and /sup 1///sub 30/ scale) were undertaken to determine these expansion characteristics. The results showed that the pressure-volume characteristics depend significantly on the presence of water in the cylinder reducing the work output by about 50 percent when a sufficient water depth was present. The study presented proposes that the mechanism of heat transfer between the water and high temperature gas was due to area enhancement by Taylor instabilities at the gas-liquid interface. A simple heat transfer model is proposed which describes this energy transport process and agrees well with the experimental data from both scaled experiments. The consequences of this analysis suggest that an estimate of the heat transfer to the cold slug during a full-scale HCDA due to sodium vapor expansion and the accompanying reduction in mechanical work energy warrants further investigation. The implication of this analysis is that for either sodium or fuel vapor expansion in an HCDA, there is an inherent heat transfer mechanism which significantly reduces the work output of the expanding bubble.

  7. Countries' climate mitigation commitments under the 'South-North Dialogue' Proposal. A quantitative analysis using the FAIR 2.1 world model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2005-07-01

    The 'South-North Dialogue Proposal', developed by researchers from both developing and industrialised countries, outlines an approach for an 'equitable' differentiation of future climate mitigation commitments among developed and developing countries. This approach is based on the criteria of responsibility, capability and potential to mitigate. The report provides a quantitative analysis of the implications of the proposal in terms of countries' commitments and costs. The analysis focuses on a 'political willingness' scenario and on four scenarios leading to the stabilisation of CO2-equivalent concentrations at 400, 450, 500 and 550 ppm, respectively. Use is made of the new FAIR 2.1 world model, i.e. the FAIR 2.1 model at the level of countries, using as input data for population, GDP and emissions from emission scenarios at the national level. The analysis shows that for the stringent stabilisation targets many developing countries will have to take on quantitative mitigation obligations by 2030, even when the Annex I countries adopt ambitious mitigation commitments far beyond the Kyoto obligations. The political willingness scenario will probably not suffice to limit warming of the earth's atmosphere to a level under 20C.

  8. Model-based development and testing of advertising messages: A comparative study of two campaign proposals based on the MECCAS model and a conventional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    1. Traditionally the development of advertising messages has been based on "creative independence", sometimes catalysed by inductively generated empirical data. Due to the recent intensified focus on advertising effectiveness, this state of affair is now beginning to change. 2. Implementing...... theoretically valid and comprehensible guidelines for message development potentially enhances the effects of advertising messages and improves the possibility of measuring such effects. Moreover, such guidelines also have potential implications for the managerial communication processes (client......-agency and intra-agency) involved in the development of advertising messages. 3. The purpose of the study described in this paper is to compare the development and effects of two campaign proposals, with the common aim of increasing the consumption of apples among young Danes (18 to 35 years of age). One...

  9. Radiometric dating of the Earlier Stone Age sequence in excavation I at Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, Michael; Ron, Hagai; Matmon, Ari; Porat, Naomi; Goldberg, Paul; Yates, Royden; Avery, Margaret; Sumner, Alexandra; Horwitz, Liora Kolska

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of 44 paleomagnetic measurements, and single cosmogenic burial and optically stimulated luminescence ages for the Earlier Stone Age deposits from Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape, South Africa. The resulting paleomagnetic sequence: N>R>N>R>N constrains the Earlier Stone Age strata in this part of the site to between approximately 0.78-1.96 Ma. A single cosmogenic date of approximately 2.0 Ma from the base of the section offers some corroboration for the paleomagnetic sequence. Preliminary results indicate that the small lithic assemblage from the basal stratum may contain an Oldowan facies. This is overlain by several strata containing Acheulean industries. The preliminary radiometric dates reported here place the onset of the Acheulean at this site to approximately 1.6 Ma, which is roughly contemporaneous with that of East Africa.

  10. A re-examination of neural basis of language processing: proposal of a dynamic hodotopical model from data provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Mandonnet, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    From recent findings provided by brain stimulation mapping during picture naming, we re-examine the neural basis of language. We studied structural-functional relationships by correlating the types of language disturbances generated by stimulation in awake patients, mimicking a transient virtual lesion both at cortical and subcortical levels (white matter and deep grey nuclei), with the anatomical location of the stimulation probe. We propose a hodotopical (delocalized) and dynamic model of language processing, which challenges the traditional modular and serial view. According to this model, following the visual input, the language network is organized in parallel, segregated (even if interconnected) large-scale cortico-subcortical sub-networks underlying semantic, phonological and syntactic processing. Our model offers several advantages (i) it explains double dissociations during stimulation (comprehension versus naming disorders, semantic versus phonemic paraphasias, syntactic versus naming disturbances, plurimodal judgment versus naming disorders); (ii) it takes into account the cortical and subcortical anatomic constraints; (iii) it explains the possible recovery of aphasia following a lesion within the "classical" language areas; (iv) it establishes links with a model executive functions.

  11. Groundwater flow modeling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions for the safety assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Follin, Sven; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Näslund, Jens-Ove

    2014-09-01

    The impact of periglacial and glacial climate conditions on groundwater flow in fractured crystalline rock is studied by means of groundwater flow modeling of the Forsmark site, which was recently proposed as a repository site for the disposal of spent high-level nuclear fuel in Sweden. The employed model uses a thermal-hydraulically coupled approach for permafrost modeling and discusses changes in groundwater flow implied by the climate conditions found over northern Europe at different times during the last glacial cycle (Weichselian glaciation). It is concluded that discharge of particles released at repository depth occurs very close to the ice-sheet margin in the absence of permafrost. If permafrost is included, the greater part discharges into taliks in the periglacial area. During a glacial cycle, hydraulic gradients at repository depth reach their maximum values when the ice-sheet margin passes over the site; at this time, also, the interface between fresh and saline waters is distorted the most. The combined effect of advances and retreats during several glaciations has not been studied in the present work; however, the results indicate that hydrochemical conditions at depth in the groundwater flow model are almost restored after a single event of ice-sheet advance and retreat.

  12. 547 An Earlier, More Severe Presentation of G6pc3 Deficiency in a Male Infant From Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe congenital neutropenia is a bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by severe neutropenia present from birth. We present a case of G6PC3 deficiency presenting at an earlier age, with a more severe clinical picture than previously reported. Case report A 3-month-old boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents was delivered by C-section at 35 weeks gestation. He was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit for prematurity and poor respiratory effort requiring mechanical ventilat...

  13. Northern ragweed ecotypes flower earlier and longer in response to elevated CO2: what are you sneezing at?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Kristina A; Albertine, Jennifer M; Hancock, Laura M S; Seidler, Tristram G; Rogers, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    Significant changes in plant phenology and flower production are predicted over the next century, but we know relatively little about geographic patterns of this response in many species, even those that potentially impact human wellbeing. We tested for variation in flowering responses of the allergenic plant, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed). We grew plants originating from three latitudes in the Northeastern USA at experimental levels of CO2 (400, 600, and 800 µL L(-1)). We hypothesized that northern ecotypes adapted to shorter growing seasons would flower earlier than their southern counterparts, and thus disproportionately allocate carbon gains from CO2 to reproduction. As predicted, latitude of origin and carbon dioxide level significantly influenced the timing and magnitude of flowering. Reproductive onset occurred earlier with increasing latitude, with concurrent increases in the number of flowers produced. Elevated carbon dioxide resulted in earlier reproductive onset in all ecotypes, which was significantly more pronounced in the northern populations. We interpret our findings as evidence for ecotypic variation in ragweed flowering time, as well in responses to CO2. Thus, the ecological and human health implications of common ragweed's response to global change are likely to depend on latitude. We conclude that increased flower production, duration, and possibly pollen output, can be expected in Northeastern United States with rising levels of CO2. The effects are likely, however, to be most significant in northern parts of the region.

  14. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  15. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  16. Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Hou; Hewu Wang; Minggao Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal b...

  17. Proposal of a numerical modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers of turbojet engines; Proposition d`une modelisation numerique des ecoulements reactifs dans les foyers de turboreacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravet, F. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)]|[SNECMA, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France); Baudoin, Ch.; Schultz, J.L. [SNECMA, 77 - Moissy-Cramayel (France)

    1996-12-31

    Simplifying hypotheses are required when combustion and aerodynamic phenomena are considered simultaneously. In this paper, a turbulent combustion model is proposed, in which the combustion chemistry is reduced to a single reaction. In this way, only two variables are needed to describe the problem and combustion can be characterized by the consumption of one of the two reactive species. In a first step, the instantaneous consumption rate is obtained using the Lagrangian form of the mass fraction equation of the species under consideration, and by considering the equilibrium state only. This state is determined in order to preserve the consistency with results that should be obtained using a complete kinetics scheme. In a second step, the average rate is determined using the instantaneous consumption term and a probabilistic density function. This model was tested on various configurations and in particular on an experimental main chamber and on a reheating chamber. Results indicate that this model could be used to predict temperature levels inside these combustion chambers. Other applications, like the prediction of pollutant species emission can be considered. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  18. Mapping care processes within a hospital: from theory to a web-based proposal merging enterprise modelling and ISO normative principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, Pascal; Joubert, Michel; Quaranta, Jean-François; Fieschi, Marius

    2005-03-01

    Today, the economic and regulatory environment, involving activity-based and prospective payment systems, healthcare quality and risk analysis, traceability of the acts performed and evaluation of care practices, accounts for the current interest in clinical and hospital information systems. The structured gathering of information relative to users' needs and system requirements is fundamental when installing such systems. This stage takes time and is generally misconstrued by caregivers and is of limited efficacy to analysts. We used a modelling technique designed for manufacturing processes (IDEF0/SADT). We enhanced the basic model of an activity with descriptors extracted from the Ishikawa cause-and-effect diagram (methods, men, materials, machines, and environment). We proposed an object data model of a process and its components, and programmed a web-based tool in an object-oriented environment. This tool makes it possible to extract the data dictionary of a given process from the description of its elements and to locate documents (procedures, recommendations, instructions) according to each activity or role. Aimed at structuring needs and storing information provided by directly involved teams regarding the workings of an institution (or at least part of it), the process-mapping approach has an important contribution to make in the analysis of clinical information systems.

  19. Numerical model for evaluation of the effects of carbon deposition on the performance of 1 kW SOFC stack – a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motylinski Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells are high-temperature electrochemical energy conversion devices which operate at elevated temperature (600- 900°C. As a result it possible to internally reform the incoming fuel, thus except hydrogen and carbon monoxide, SOFCs can be fuelled with various hydrocarbonaceous gases. The presence of carbon-containing compounds in the fuel might result in the formation and of carbon in a form of a thin layer on the SOFC anode. The carbon deposition process depends on the thermodynamic conditions, such as temperature and steam to carbon ratio. The higher the temperature, the longer period of time is required for the solid carbon particles to deposit on the porous surface. The correlation used for this study is based on creating the ternary diagrams or Gibb’s diagrams. The presented results cover a first stage of the analysis of the carbon deposition processes in SOFCs, focusing mainly on the numerical study of the changes of the fuel cell performance due to degradation of anode performance. A dedicated model of SOFC was proposed. It accounts for the diminution of the active area and/or deactivation by the increase of the resistance of the anode. The article presents the proposed methodology and the numerical approach.

  20. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.